Спутник связи. 2001 Mars Odyssey. [Редактировать]

«2001 Марс Одиссей» — орбитальный аппарат НАСА, исследующий Марс. Главная задача, стоящая перед аппаратом, заключается в изучении геологического строения планеты и поиске минералов. Аппарат был запущен 7 апреля 2001 года ракетой-носителем «Дельта-2». 24 октября «Одиссей» прибыл на околомарсианскую орбиту. Аппарату удалось получить данные, свидетельствующие о крупных запасах воды на Марсе. По-видимому, в некоторых областях на глубине порядка 45 см залегает порода, состоящая из замёрзшей воды на 70 % по объёму. Изучение марсианского водяного льда продолжил аппарат «Феникс», который сел на поверхность планеты 25 мая 2008 года. «Одиссей» использовался в качестве ретранслятора для передачи информации с марсохода Спирит, используется по настоящее время для обеспечения связи с марсоходом Оппортьюнити. В июле 2012 года орбита Одиссея была скорректирована для передачи информации от нового марсохода Кьюриосити.

Решаемые научные задачи:

  • Глобальное картирование элементного состава поверхности Марса;
  • Определение количества водорода (лед,вода) в тонком поверхностном слое;
  • Исследование минералогии поверхности с высоким пространственным и спектральным разрешением;
  • Изучение морфологии поверхности Марса и геологических процессов, которые ее сформировали;
  • Получение данных для планирования мест посадки следующих АМС;
  • Описание радиационной обстановки вблизи Марса для оценки риска пилотируемой экспедиции.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1Mars Surveyor 2001 OrbiterНайтиНайти
2Mars Odyssey 2001НайтиНайти
326734НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Страна производитель - США
3Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
4Все спутники связи

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12003-10-23. Марсианский радиационный эксперимент (MARIE) перестал проходить должным образомТэги: 2001 Mars Odyssey
22015-02-25. НАСА планирует в 2022 году запуск нового спутника ретрансляции.
NASA планирует запустить новый телекоммуникационный спутник на орбиту Марса с 2022 году для обеспечения работы марсохода Mars 2020. Этот аппарат будет использовать ряд инновационных разработок, а именно: высокопроизводительные ЭРДУ которые будут работать от солнечных батарей и/или оптическую коммуникационную полезную нагрузку которая должна позволить передавать данные с повышенной скоростью.
Необходимость пуска нового аппарата обусловлена тем, что, используемый в настоящее время в качестве ретранслятора аппарат Mars Odyssey находится на орбите уже более 13 лет и срок его активного существования подходит к концу. В случае, если до запуска нового космического аппарата,на ретрансляторе произойдет отказ, то НАСА планирует задействовать для передачи данных космический аппарат MAVEN. Вероятность данного события достаточно высока поскольку в 2012 году на связном аппарате уже отказывал маховик.
Отличительной особенностью нового спутника будет являться установка на него сенсоров дистанционного зондирования.Тэги: Космическое агентство СШАMars 2020 Rover Mission2001 Mars OdysseyMAVEN
32016-10-21. ЕКА сообщило, что модуль «Скиапарелли» разбился при посадке на Марс.
По результатам анализа снимков поверхности Марса с орбитальных аппаратов (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter и Mars Odyssey 2001), Европейское космическое агентство определило, что модуль Schiaparelli разбился при посадке на Марс. Согласно сообщению агентства скорее всего космический аппарат упал с высоты от двух до четырех км (скорость перед столкновением составила более 300 км в час). Тэги: Exo-Mars. Демонстрационный десантный модуль СкиапареллиMars Reconnaissance Orbiter2001 Mars OdysseyЕвропейское космическое агентство

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг376
2Мощность, Вт750

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС (достигнутый), год13

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2001-014A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
2Производитель Lockheed Martin

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2001-04-07 at 15:02:22 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1x2001 Mars Odyssey
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2 7425

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «2001 Mars Odyssey». [Перейти к поиску]


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... ....................................................................................................................................................... 1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................................................... 1 MARS EXPLORATION OBJECTIVES ......................................................................................................... 3 MARS EXPLORATION POLICIES ............................................................................................................... 3 Past Mars Exploration Policies ................................................................................................................. 4 Current Mars Exploration Policies ........................................................................................................... 4 Interagency Mars Plans ............................................................................................................................. 4 REVIEW OF MARS EXPLORATION ........................................................................................................... 6 Past Mars Missions .................................................................................................................................. 6 Current Mars Missions ............................................................................................................................. 7 Future Mars Missions ............................................................................................................................... 8 Other Mars Mission... Mars Piloted Orbital Station Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment Mars Ascent Vehicle Mars...-Making Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group Mars Exploration Rovers Mars Global Surveyor Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Microgravity Science Glovebox Mars Science Laboratory Mars Sample Return Mars... instruments such as the Mars Orbiter Camera (Albee, 2001). One of the most important observations taken by the Mars Orbital... Mars Missions Mars Odyssey Launched in 2001 and currently operational in Mars orbit, NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft... of the mission, Odyssey determined radiation in low-Mars orbit, a very important.... Odyssey has also provided crucial support to the current exploration of Mars... JPL, 2011d). 2.3.4 Other Mars Mission Scenarios Mars Direct Direct Mars Direct is a program..., R. E., PALLUCONI, F. AND THORPE, T. 2001. Overview of the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Journal..., E. A. AND ROCK, S. M. 2001. A local-area GPS pseudolite-based Mars Navigation System [online... August 2011]. NASA JPL, 2003. 2001 Mars Odyssey [online]. NASA Facts, Jet Propulsion... (LeMaster and Rock, 2001). During the stay on Mars, the astronauts can...



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... AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 2001 Mars Odyssey Launch Press Kit April 2001 Contacts Don Savage... Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 2001 Mars Odyssey Mission 818/354-5011 Mary... Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 2001 Mars Odyssey Mission 818/354-0344 George...: 2001 MARS ODYSSEY SET TO FIND OUT WHAT MARS IS MADE OF When NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey... launch of 2001 Mars Odyssey represents a milestone in our exploration of Mars -- the first..., D.C. "Mars continues to surprise us at every turn. We expect Odyssey to... Station, Fla., Odyssey is NASA's first mission to Mars since the loss... mission risk," said George Pace, 2001 Mars Odyssey Project Manager at NASA's Jet... of the mission." Odyssey is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long... restructured Mars Exploration Program begins a new era of reconnaissance with the Mars Odyssey orbiter," said Dr. Jim Garvin, Lead Scientist for NASA's Mars Exploration Program. "Odyssey will help identify and ultimately target those places on Mars where... from Mars Global Surveyor. Like a virtual shovel digging into the surface, Odyssey... activity," said Dr. Steve Saunders, 2001 Mars Odyssey Project Scientist at JPL. "Despite... its primary science mission, the Odyssey orbiter will provide a communications relay... Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of... for television transmissions for the 2001 Mars Odyssey launch will be available from... Credentialing Requests to cover the 2001 Mars Odyssey launch must be faxed in... Information Extensive information on the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission, including an electronic copy...: April 7 to April 27, 2001 Earth-Mars distance at launch: 125 million... Mars: 460 million kilometers (286 million miles) Mars arrival date: October 24, 2001 Earth-Mars distance at arrival... Cost: $297 million total for 2001 Mars Odyssey, comprised of the following: $165... mission to the red planet, 2001 Mars Odyssey, will provide another vital piece... our own home planet. The 2001 Mars Odyssey mission continues us on the... and scientists working on the 2001 Mars Odyssey project began looking at ways...-day lifetime. q Mars Global Surveyor (November 1996 - January 2001 primary mapping mission... the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters, as well as other missions. q Mars...) or more. 15 Mission Overview 2001 Mars Odyssey is an orbiter carrying three...:49 7:16:43 7:10:01 Mars Odyssey spacecraft Payload attach fitting Fairing... velocity required to place Odyssey on a trajectory to Mars. This upper stage... Odyssey is launched during the secondary period, science data return at Mars... Earth at arrival Mars arrival 24 Oct TCM-5 2001 Arrival -24 hours... days Launch: 7 Apr 2001 TCM-1 Launch + 8 days Mars at launch TCM-3 Arrival... upper stage and the attached 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft must be despun so... near Canberra, Australia will acquire Odyssey's signal. Interplanetary Cruise The interplanetary... to determine and correct Odyssey's flight path to Mars. There are science... as spacecraft limitations allow. Odyssey's flight path to Mars is called a Type... Aerobraking orbits During interplanetary cruise, Odyssey is scheduled to fire its... operators can more precisely adjust Odyssey’s flight path. Delta DOR measurements... mission. Mars Orbit Insertion Odyssey will arrive at Mars on October 24, 2001. As... the science orbit where Odyssey will circle Mars at a uniform altitude. It.... 26 Spacecraft The shape of 2001 Mars Odyssey is anything but uniform, but... 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) wide. At launch Odyssey weighs 725.0 kilograms (1598.4 pounds... conserving mass while retaining strength. Odyssey's metal structure is similar to... power subsystem. The interface to Odyssey's telecommunications subsystems exists through another... 11.1 kilograms (24.5 pounds). Telecommunications Odyssey's telecommunications subsystem is composed of... used for communications between Odyssey and future Mars landers. The telecommunication subsystem... spacecraft's orientation. Like most spacecraft, Odyssey's orientation is held fixed in... emission imaging system Neutron spectrometer 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft Propulsion The propulsion subsystem... thrusters are used to perform Odyssey's attitude control and trajectory correction....2 kilograms (53.4 pounds). Flight Software Odyssey receives its commands via radio... the chief scientific goals that 2001 Mars Odyssey will focus on is mapping... extended after Odyssey has entered the mapping orbit at Mars. This is... collect data during Odyssey's cruise from Earth to Mars. It can stores.... 35 Program/Project Management The 2001 Mars Odyssey mission is managed by the... for the Mars Exploration Program, Mark Dahl is the 2001 Mars Odyssey Program Executive, and Dr. Michael Meyer is the 2001 Mars Odyssey Program... McCleese is Mars Program Scientist, George Pace is the 2001 Mars Odyssey Project Manager and Dr. R. Stephen Saunders is the 2001 Mars Odyssey Project...



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... (Charnley et al. 2001; Dickens et al. 2001; Kuan et al. 2003b..., J.E., Bergman, P., Hjalmarson, A W.M., ApJ, 560, 792 (2001) Kuan, Y-J., Charnley, S.B., Huang, H-C., Tseng, W-L., Kisiel... operational in the next decade. 4 Mars Mars has a very thin atmosphere (about... Spots on Mars. J. Geoph. Res. 108, 5026–5036. Wong, M.H. (2001). Hydrocarbons and... al. 1996, 2001; Strazzulla 1998; Hudson and Moore 2001, Moore et al... al. 1996, 2001; Salama, 1998; Hudson and Moore 2001] and radiolysis [Johnson... Moore 2001; Bahr et al. 2001; Schou and Pedrys 2001; Satorre et al. 2001; Gerakines et al. 2001] on... from Owen et al. 2001, figure 13, ©2001, with permission from Elsevier... et al. 1996, 2001; Ehrenfreund et al. 1997, 2001]. Photochemical models (e.g. Krasnopolsky.... [2001], Astron. J., 121, 1163, figure 6, ©2001 Am. Astron. Soc. Dumas et al. [2001... et al. 2001, 2002). In 2000, Jewitt and Luu (2001) recorded at... history of water on Mars. In Water on Mars, pages 25-44... (2001), Pinti et al., 2001; Westall et al., (2001), Shen et al. (2001), Ueno et al. (2001a-c), Kakegawa (2001). The...; Pinti and Hashizumi, 2001; Pinti et al., 2001; Ueno et al., 2001c... from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions to Mars were presented that... on Mars in the past.) The next planned Mars Lander missions, NASA’s Mars... the surface of Mars. One candidate instrument is the Mars Organic Detector... Potentially on Mars. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, San Diego, 2001. Glavin..., C., Palamara, A.T., Danti, M.C., Corelli, F., and Botta, M.: 2001, Synthesis, biological evaluation, and pharmacophore... exist on either Mars or Europa. The suggestion that Mars, Europa and... ” 250,000,000 years 0 2. 2.1 MARS Astrobiology on Mars: Mysteries of the Red... Mariner 9 (NASA) Mars' first artificial satellite—successfully achieved Mars orbit in November... 1996 Mars Global Surveyor (NASA) Mars orbiter. Reached Mars and successfully entered Mars orbit... relay. 1996 Mars Pathfinder (NASA) Soft-landed on Mars on July 4, 1997.... 2001 Mars Odyssey (NASA) Mars orbiter. After interplanetary cruise, the spacecraft arrived at Mars and was successfully inserted into Mars orbit on October 24, 2001. This mission is studying Mars from... investigations of Mars seek to answer the questions, “Was Mars ever warm... did originate on Mars—or was imported to Mars from Earth or... Mars, Europa and Beyond 425 Table 17-3. Characteristics of Mars and Europa Mars... be abundant—as suggested by Mars Odyssey data [35-37]). This ice... obtained by the Mars Orbiter Camera system aboard the Mars Global Surveyor... of volcanism on Mars. Another way that ice on Mars may be... Mars Odyssey mission have been the discovery of abundant subsurface hydrogen on Mars, interpreted as ice, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS... and climatic insights about Mars. The twin Mars exploration rovers, Spirit and... the orbital data from Mars Global Surveyor and Odyssey— seeking to understand the history of water on Mars through..., 2010: Odyssey II, 1982 Contemplating the potential lessons of Mars and Europa.... Part 1: From Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars. Icarus, 145, 391..., 2001. 27. Kerridge, J. F. (Chair), et al. An Exobiological Strategy for Mars Exploration... Orbital and Spin Dynamics of Mars, in Mars, (H.H. Kieffer, B.M. Jakosky, C.W. Snyder, and... distribution of neutrons from Mars: results from Mars Odyssey,” Science 297, 7578, 2002... the High Energy Neutron Detector, Mars Odyssey, Science 297, 78-81, 2002... of life on Mars during a water-rich past,” in Mars, (H.H. Kieffer, B.M. Jakosky...-scale hydrology on Mars,” Science 291, 2587-2591, 2001. 51. Acuña, M. H., Connerney.... “Possible Ancient oceans on Mars: evidence from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data... 154, 4079, 2001. 442 Chapter 17 56. Jakosky, B. M., Phillips, R. J. Mars’ volatile and climate history, Nature 412, 237-244, 2001. 57... of a human Mars mission, ranging from launch, transfer to Mars, atmospheric entry... radio science experiment on board Mars Express MaRS will use the radio... to contact Beagle 2 from Mars Express, Mars Odyssey and from the Jodrell Bank... 2015 2020 2030 Mars Water 1996-MGS (mapping 1999) 2001-Odyssey 2003-MEX...-Darwin Habitability Water (Mars orbit) 1996-MGS, 2001-Odyssey 2003-MEX,MER 2005..., G. W., Kimmich, N., Belisle, W., Sarinana, J., Brabham, K., Garrel L.: 2001, Carbonaceous meteorites as a source of... development of a Mars orbiter, a descent module and a Mars rover. The Mars orbiter will have to be capable of reaching Mars.... The Galileo spacecraft's 14-year odyssey came to an end on... the atmosphere of Mars, the weather and climate of Mars, the composition... magnetic field. http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/ MRO: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2006... of Mars to support life. http://centauri.larc.nasa.gov/msl/ ODYSSEY: Mars Odyssey's maps chemical elements and minerals on the surface of Mars, looks...



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... Terre . . . b. Observations orbitales . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. Atterrisseurs Viking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. Mars Pathfinder : station et rover... 61 63 63 v e. f. Mars Exploration Rover : Spirit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Mars Exploration Rover : Opportunity....3.1 La cam´era HRSC de Mars Express . . . . . a. Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. Les capteurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. Principe... FROM THE ORBIT BY HRSC/MARS-EXPRESS III.4.1 Introduction : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III.4.2 HRSC... pr´evues (MarsExpress, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Surface Laboratory 2009... missions Viking, Mars Pathfinder. Actuellement en activit´e sur Mars depuis 2004... de r´ esultat Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) [Albee et al., 2001] MOC [Malin...., 1992] [Acu˜ na et al., 2001] Mars Odyssey (MO) [Saunders et al., 2004... et al., 2004] MaRS [P¨ atzold et al., 2004] Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO... de la plan`ete Mars. L’orbite de Mars ´etant excentrique, les distances...-1980 MGS (orbiter) Since 1997 Mars Odyssey Mex Since 2004 MRO Since... la m´et´eorologie sur Mars Si Mars poss`ede un cycle des... observ´e entre (a) le 5 mars et (b) le 12 mars 2005. 100m/pix Cette... ; Warell and Limaye, 2001, Pinet and Rosemberg, 2001, Clark et al., 2002... been obtained by Mars Express in 2 years orbiting around Mars (cf. Tab... 2001. Regional Photometry and Spectral Albedo of the Eastern Hemisphere of Mars...-authors and the Mars-Express & MER Science teams 2006. Mars Express /HRSC..., Oct. 2001. A. L. Albee, R. E. Arvidson, F. Palluconi, and T. Thorpe. Overview of the Mars Global... Orbital Multispectral Imaging of Mars from the Mars Odyssey THEMIS-VIS Instrument. In... and Valles Marineris regions of Mars : Mars Orbiter Camera Observations. Icarus, 165..., Universite : Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble I, 2001. B. Bornstein, A. Fukunaga, A. Castano, J. Biesiadecki, R. Castano..., M. L. Litvak, and A. K. Ton’chev. The Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Instrument Suite.... B. A. Cantor. MOC observations of the 2001 Mars planet-encircling dust storm. Icarus..., 106 :23571–23594, Oct. 2001. A. F. Chicarro. Mars Express ? Scientific Overview After Three... Imaging System (THEMIS) for the Mars 2001 Odyssey Mission. Space Science Reviews, 110..., M. J. Wolff, B. A. Whitney, B. A. Cantor, and M. D. Smith. Mars equatorial mesospheric clouds : Global occurrence... properties from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer and Mars Orbiter Camera... acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters. Mars, 1 :5–58, Nov. 2005. K. S. Edgett and M. C. Malin. New views of Mars... : Three vignettes from the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera. Journal of... Change on Mars from Erosion Rates at the Mars Exploration Rover Landing... insight from the Mars Express Orbiter and the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit... in Gusev crater, Mars : Observations from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. Journal... Mars static and seasonal gravity, Mars orientation, Phobos and Deimos masses, and Mars... Impact Craters on Mars. Icarus, 153 :61–70, Sept. 2001. J. H. Lambert. Photometria... M. A. Caplinger. The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) on the Mars Climate Orbiter. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106 :17651–17672, Aug. 2001. M. C. Malin, G. E. Danielson, A. P. Ingersoll, H. Masursky, J. Veverka, M. A. Ravine, and T. A. Soulanille. Mars Observer... 1992. M. C. Malin and K. S. Edgett. Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera : Interplanetary cruise... in-flight performance of the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System visible..., M. T. Mellon, S. W. Squyres, N. Thomas, and C. M. Weitz. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter’s High Resolution Imaging... Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Journal... the Geological Evolution of Mars Through the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo..., K.-I. Oyama, P. Janle, G. Kirchengast, and V. Dehant. MaRS : Mars Express Orbiter Radio Science, pages...ficial properties in Gale Crater, Mars, from Mars Odyssey THEMIS data. Icarus, 167.... 2001. R. Pischel, H. Hoffmann, T. Roatsch, V. Companys, M. Lauer, T. Zegers, and M. Ricketts. Mars Express..., W. P. Sidney, D. A. Spencer, T. W. Thompson, and C. J. Zeitlin. 2001 Mars Odyssey Mission Summary. Space Science Reviews... dust redistribution on Mars as observed by the Mars Global Surveyor and..., D. E. Smith, A. S. Konopliv, S. E. Smrekar, and S. W. Asmar. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Radio Science Gravity... Mars Color Imager MARSIS Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding MaRS Mars Radio Science Experiment MAWD Mars Atmosphere Water Detector MCS Mars Climate Sounder MOC Mars Orbiter...-B Opportunity MER Mars Exploration Rover MPL Mars Polar Lander Pth Mars Pathfinder Vl1-2 Viking lander 1-2 Orbiteur 57 MEx Mars Express MGS Mars Global Surveyor MO Mars Odyssey 2001 MRO MarsReconnaissance Orbiter...



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...) .............................................................................................. 26 3.4 Mars Surveyor (2001) .................................................................................... 27 3.5 Genesis (2001)............................................................................................... 30 3.6 MUSES-C (2002)........................................................................................... 31 3.7 Mars Ascent Vehicle... Table 1: Missions to Mars. ............................................................................................. 4 Table 2: Mars Physical Parameters. .............................................................................. 5 Table 3: Mars Orbital Parameters. ................................................................................ 6 Table... further demonstrated on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. The nominal trajectory... it.” – Steven Siceloff, Florida Today (2001) Mars has intrigued man since before... 7 Mars 1969A Mars 1969B Mariner 8 Cosmos 419 Mars 2 Mars 3 Mariner 9 Mars 4 Mars 5 Mars 6 Mars 7 Viking 1 Viking 2 Phobos 1 Phobos 2 Mars Observer Mars Global Surveyor Mars 96 Mars Pathfinder Nozomi (Planet-B) Mars Climate Orbiter Mars Polar Lander Deep Space 2 (DS2) 2001 Mars Odyssey...) Mars Flyby Mars Flyby (Contact Lost) Lunar Flyby, Mars Test Vehicle Mars Flyby Mars Flyby...) Orbiter (Arrival 24 Oct. 2001) Since the Mars Pathfinder mission, NASA has... the Mars Polar Lander, this pace slowed and the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 lander was cancelled. The 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter is...: METEOR, Pathfinder, Stardust, Mars Surveyor 2001, Genesis, MUSES-C, and Mars Ascent Vehicle. The... methodology. Chapter 10 presents the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander example. This chapter... proposed flight project, the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. The objectives of... world” example was the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. The nominal trajectory...: METEOR, Mars Pathfinder, Stardust, Mars Surveyor Program 2001, Genesis, MUSES-C, and Mars Ascent Vehicle... of appropriate uncertainties. [25] 3.4 Mars Surveyor (2001) NASA’s Mars Surveyor Program (MSP) is... Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) missions. Both missions failed. The Mars Surveyor 2001 Project consisted initially of two missions, the Mars Surveyor 2001 Orbiter and the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander. The Orbiter was to nominally orbit Mars for... cancelled. The orbiter, now called 2001 Mars Odyssey, is currently en route to..., 37] 3.4.1 2001 Mars Odyssey Launched April 7, 2001, Mars Odyssey will arrive at Mars in October 2001. Once there... the apoapsis above the planet. Odyssey’s primary science mission is to... to Mars. Odyssey is also expected to support future missions in the Mars... 2001 Lander was designed to deliver a small, advanced technology rover to Mars... between the many different Mars mission scenarios. Mars Surveyor 2001 would have been... was used in the Mars Surveyor Program (MSP) 2001 example. This executable... the example was the Mars Surveyor Program (MSP) 2001 Lander. An Atmospheric....1 MSP 2001 Lander Had the program not been cancelled, Mars Surveyor 2001 would... the surface of Mars. 133 Figure 43: MSP 2001 Lander. 10.2 Monte... uncertainties used in the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 lander problem. Normal, uniform... summary, this chapter presented the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander example, describing the....2.2 MSP ’01 Example 1) The Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander example demonstrated that the....com/65/ma/Mars-god.html, 2001. 4. Sheehan, W., The Planet Mars: a history of... Mars Probe," Houston Chronicle, April 3, 2001. 7. Walter, M., The Search for Life on Mars..., 1999. 9. NASA, "Mars Exploration," http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/, 2001. 10. Siceloff, S., "NASA Set to Fly Mars Odyssey This Week," Florida Today, April 4, 2001. 11. NASA, "2001 Mars Odyssey - Overview," http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/odyssey/overview/index.html, 2001... Algorithm Testbed for the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Orbiter and Lander," AIAA... Guidance Algorithms for the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Missions," AIAA 98-4574.../mission/, 2001. 32. Pastor, P., Bishop, R., and Striepe, S., "Evaluation of Mars Entry Reconstructed... Landing Guidance Algorithms for the Mars 2001 Missions," AIAA-98-4573, AIAA..., F., Spencer, D., and Mase, R., "The Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander: A First Step Towards Precision... Institute (Calspace), "Mars Exploration: Summary of Mars Missions: Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander," http://calspace...



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... Analysis PS- 35 MARS EXPLORATION ………………………………………… PS- 39 2013 Mars Atmosphere and Volatile... on Mars, characterize the climate of Mars, characterize the geology of Mars, and prepare for human exploration. The Mars... the Mars Exploration program include the current operating missions 2001 Mars Odyssey, 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Mars Express with the European Space Agency, 2005 Mars PS-39 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE MARS EXPLORATION Reconnaissance Orbiter.... The Mars Exploration program also includes Mars Program Management, Mars Technology, Mars Operating and Extended Missions, and Mars Research... program management responsibility for the Mars Exploration program, providing overall mission... the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA). A future Mars mission planned within the Mars Next Decade project is being defined. Mars...-41 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN... provide a comprehensive picture of the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, solar energetic...-42 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-43 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-44 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-45 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-46 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-47 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN....5 13.5 17.6 18.1 18.5 13.4 2001 M ars Odyssey 10.1 12.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2003 M ars... a rigorous, incremental, discoverydriven exploration of Mars to determine the planet’s physical... operating missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, 2003 Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and the 2011 Mars... included: Mars Research and Analysis, Mars Technology, Mars Mission Operations, Mars Extended Operations, Mars Next Decade, and Mars Program Management. PS-49 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS... Operations Non-Operating Missions MARS RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS Mars Research and Analysis... and temperature patterns, Mars will become host to Mars Science Laboratory (MSL... about whether life existed on Mars. • • Mars Fundamental Research program, which funds... about Mars; Mars Data Analysis, which analyzes archived data collected on Mars missions... science community peer review. MARS TECHNOLOGY Mars Technology focuses on technology investments...-orbit communications improvements (e.g. Electra). MARS MISSION OPERATIONS Mars Mission Operations provides management... development and execution of Mars multi-mission operations. Mars Mission Operations supports... ANALYSIS Formulation Development Operations MARS EXTENDED OPERATIONS Mars Extended Operations provides funding... based on scientific merit. MARS NEXT DECADE Mars Next Decade provides funds... in an integrated strategy. MARS PROGRAM MANAGEMENT Mars Program Management provides for... implementation and management of the Mars Exploration program’s selected flight missions..., and telecommunications integration. Operating Missions 2001 MARS ODYSSEY 2001 Mars Odyssey, currently in its third extended..., climate, and mineralogy. Measurements by Odyssey have enabled scientists to create... spectacular views of Martian topography. Odyssey helped support the landing site... in the mission, Odyssey determined that radiation in low-Mars orbit, an... orbit. Odyssey has provided vital support to ongoing exploration of Mars by...’s UHF system. 2003 MARS EXPLORATION ROVER 2003 Mars Exploration Rover, the rover... the geological processes that shaped Mars, particularly those involving water. Opportunity..., and low light levels. MARS EXPRESS Mars Express, currently in its second... Formulation Development Operations 2005 MARS RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO... MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY (MSL) 2011 Mars Science Laboratory, currently on cruise to Mars, takes a major step forward in Mars exploration, both... zones on Mars. Recent Achievements 2011 MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY 2011 Mars Science Laboratory... surface operations. 2003 MARS EXPLORATION ROVER 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity’s study... indicate conditions hospitable for life. 2001 MARS ODYSSEY 2001 Mars Odyssey has become the longest-lived... history (more than 10 years). Odyssey’s longevity enables continued science, including... ever made of the planet. Odyssey also continues to serve as...



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... annual histories I have written since 2001. The study provides the reader... Comet Encounters………………………………………………. 46 Missions to Mars and Mercury………………………………………………………… 51 Kepler Spacecraft... technology mission was launched in 2001. It featured the Geosynchronous Lightweight... the launch vehicle on 9 May 2001. Technicians installed the payload fairing... and comet encounters, 4) missions to Mars and Mercury, and 5) the Kepler... Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” 21 Mar 2001. 6 Goddard Space Flight Center, “EUVE.... Operations continued until 10 December 2001 when the satellite went into... was reconfigured to support the MARS EXPLORATION ROVER-B (MER-B) mission in... the Discovery series included the MARS PATHFINDER, LUNAR PROSPECTOR, STARDUST, GENESIS... results. Nevertheless, the Mars Climate Orbiter and the Mars Polar Lander mission... DELTA IIs supported missions to Mars on eight separate occasions between... hour. The spacecraft began its Mars elliptical capture orbit insertion burn... relay data from various NASA Mars landers and spacecraft, and officials... battery failure). The spacecraft studied Mars nearly four times longer than... Space Wing Missileer, 9 Aug 96; “Mars explorers arrive,” 45th Space Wing... Sheet, Goddard Space Flight Center, “Mars Global Surveyor,” undated; Fact Sheet... National Space Science Data Center, “Mars Global Surveyor,” ca 2000. 83... of Mars. Apart form a few communication „glitches,‟ NASA considered the MARS PATHFINDER mission a complete success.88 The MARS CLIMATE ORBITER and MARS... Martian year (i.e., 687 days). The MARS POLAR LANDER‟s operations were expected... focus on weather conditions near Mars‟ South Pole. Since the spacecraft... software interface documentation. The spacecraft‟s Mars insertion trajectory was approximately 87... Sheet, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, “Mars Pathfinder Overview,” undated; Fact Sheet... Sheet, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, “Mars Pathfinder Overview,” undated. 89 45... MARS POLAR LANDER after that spacecraft landed on Mars.93 Since the MARS... launched the MARS ODYSSEY mission from Pad 17A in April 2001, and it... 30 April 2001.96 Following lift-off on 7 April 2001, first stage... The mission marked a „return to Mars‟ opportunity for NASA‟s Langley Research....5-hour capture orbit near Mars on 24 October 2001. The spacecraft used... science orbit.99 The MARS ODYSSEY spacecraft 92 Mars Climate Orbiter Mishap Investigation... opportunity on 7 April 2001. 97 45 SW History, CY 2001, Vol I, pp... the MARS ODYSSEY mission after the loss of the MARS CLIMATE ORBITER and MARS... of $20 million in the MARS ODYSSEY mission in 2000. The spacecraft..., the spacecraft gathered data on Mars‟ geology and near-space environment... 3) the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment. Together with its earlier MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR... missions to the planet.100 MARS ODYSSEY completed its primary mission by... as a communications relay for the Mars Exploration Rovers that landed on... following month. 100 “Odyssey Set To Orbit Mars For Surface Study,” Aviation Week & Space Technology, 15 Oct 2001; “U.S. Poised For Return to Mars,” Aviation Week & Space Technology, 2 Apr 2001; “Mars probe launched from Cape,” 45th Space Wing Missileer, 13 Apr 2001; “Odyssey... 2001; “NASA Begins Odyssey Around The Red Planet,” Space News, 29 Oct 2001. 101 Fact Sheet, NASA/JPL, “2001 Mars Odyssey Mission Summary,” updated... respectively. Following separate landings on Mars on 4 January and 25 January... very slow-moving landers107 assessed Mars‟ geological features, searched for evidence... operations of benefit to future Mars explorers. Both rovers completed their... from the MARS SURVEYOR project, which officials cancelled in 2001 following the loss of the MARS POLAR LANDER... on a Type II trajectory toward Mars. Engineers and technicians raised the... rocket for Mars,” 45th Space Wing Missileer, 6 Jun 2003; “Mars rovers‟ plutonium... Today, 6 Jun 2000; NASA Facts, “Mars Exploration Rover,” pp 1, 2, 3, 4, Oct 2004..., “Mission to Mars, Phoenix Spacecraft,” undated; Fact Sheet, NASA, “Mars Phoenix Lander... Release, NASA, “Phoenix Heads for Mars, Spacecraft Healthy,” undated. 112 45..., “Mission to Mars, Phoenix Spacecraft,” undated; Fact Sheet, NASA, “Mars Phoenix Lander... left: 1) MARS EXPLORATION ROVER-A launch from Pad 17A; 2) PHOENIX Mars Probe, 2007... EXPLORER in White Room, 1997; 5) MARS PATHFINDER payload fairing installation at... out of service in late 2001.8 Hughes Space and Communications International... 1999 – 10 Jun 2001 Colonel Cameron S. Bowser 11 Jun 2001 – 6 Mar 2003... – 12 Apr 2001 Lt. Colonel Kevin P. Karol 13 Apr 2001 – 15 Dec... L. Thompson 29 Mar 1999 – 1 Apr 2001 2 Apr 2001 – 9 Jan 2003 Lt. Colonel... 17A MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR 4 December 1996 DELTA II Pad 17B MARS PATHFINDER... IIR-7 7 April 2001 DELTA II Pad 17A MARS ODYSSEY 18 May 2001 DELTA II... June 2001 DELTA II Pad 17B MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE 8 August 2001 DELTA... 17A MARS EXPLORATION ROVER-A 8 July 2003 DELTA II Pad 17B MARS EXPLORATION...



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... 11:45 Science Results from Mars Odyssey (invited) ...................................................................................47 Plaut, J. 12:00... Martian Surface derived by the Mars ................................................48 Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Br... HEND instrument on NASA ..............................52 Mars Odyssey (invited) Mitrofanov, I. 14:15 Additional... in Mars' Atmosphere as Measured by the GRS on .......................................98 Mars Odyssey: Aid... Mars Thermospheric Circulation : Recent Constraints from MGS and ...................................107 Odyssey Aerobraking and Mars... (1975), Mars Pathfinder (1996), Mars Global Surveyor (1996), Mars Odyssey (2001), Mars Express (2003), and Mars Exploration... data from Viking, Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions under an Italian... data from MGS, Mars Odyssey and more recently from Mars Express. The different... a previous spectrophotometric model of Mars (Erard, 2001), which in turn will permit... conference). 47 Science Results from Mars Odyssey J. J. Plaut Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800... The Mars Odyssey mission has collected science data for over one Mars year.... The Odyssey mission has added significantly to our understanding of Mars. Gamma... the Mars Exploration Rovers. Coordinated observations between the rovers and Odyssey provide ground truthing of the orbital data. The Odyssey prime... Martian Surface derived by the Mars Odyssey Gamma -Ray Spectrometer Brückner... -Ray Spectrometer (GRS) of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft is providing data on... by HEND instrument on NASA Mars Odyssey Mitrofanov, I. Observational data are presented... Neutron Detector (HEND) onboard NASA Odyssey orbiter, which characterize the composition... by fusing data from Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey and Mars Express instruments. 55... enrichment observed by HEND on Mars Odyssey. Water vapour abundances retrieved simultaneously... Argon in Mars' Atmosphere as Measured by the GRS on Mars Odyssey: Aid..., R. C.; Metzger, A. E. Measurements made by the 2001 Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) of... The Mars Thermospheric Circulation : Recent Constraints from MGS and Odyssey Aerobraking and Mars... aerobraking and Mars Express measurements. Mars Global Surveyer (1997-1999) and Mars Odyssey (2001-2002..., Polar warming in the Mars lower thermosphere: Odyssey Accelerometer data interpretation using... the MGS and Mars Odyssey 2001 Accelerometer Experiments, International Workshop: Mars Atmosphere Modelling and... the ongoing missions (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express and Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity...áry E. (2001) Probable evidences of recent biological activity on Mars: appearance and... site will be located where Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data.... Observation of Mars neutron albedo by HEND onboard 2001 Mars Odyssey is used for... Spectrometer (TES), as well as Mars Odyssey’s Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS... and HEND) on board of Mars Odyssey this view had to be... and MOLA data sets, and Mars Odyssey/THEMIS data sets. The preliminary... the Gamma Ray Spectrometer onboard Mars Odyssey spacecraft suggest significant amount of... areas in which GRS on Mars Odyssey reports an increased water content... Martian Seasonal Caps from HEND/Mars................................183 Odyssey and MOLA/MGS Data... Polar Caps Based on HEND/Mars Odyssey Data ......................................185 Sanin, A.; Mitrofanov, I. Litvak... Team Studies of HEND/Odyssey Neutron Data From Mars in Correspondence with... -Ray sensor Head (GSH) onboard Mars Odyssey has been measuring the high... Boynton, W.V., et al. (2004) "The Mars Odyssey Gamma-ray Spectrometer Instrument Suite... Martian Seasonal Caps from HEND/Mars Odyssey and MOLA/MGS Data Litvak... Mars Odyssey Mission and direct measurements of CO2 snow depth obtained by Mars... Polar Caps Based on HEND/Mars Odyssey Data Sanin, A.; Mitrofanov, I. Litvak, M.; Kozyrev... we have used advantages of Mars Odyssey near polar orbit to get... Energy Neutron Detector installed onboard Mars Odyssey spacecraft. We performed comparison between... was seen by Mars Global Surveyor (outside the 2001 great dust storm... 209 Studies of HEND/Odyssey Neutron Data From Mars in Correspondence with... Energy Neutron Detector onboard NASA Mars Odyssey. The HEND data for epithermal..., L. Joint Mars Science Opportunities using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), ................249 Mars Express (MEX) and the Mars..., we compared MOC-NA and 2001 Mars Odyssey (MO) THEMIS (Thermal Infrared Imaging... Nirgal Vallis, by comparing Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey images. Geophys. Res.... 249 Joint Mars Science Opportunities using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), Mars Express (MEX) and the Mars Exploration... three operating orbiting spacecrafts (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express) and two rovers...



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... ................................................... 64 Financial Statement .................................................................................. 66 1 FY 2001 Annual Report A Message from the Center Director In fiscal year 2001, Kennedy Space Center joined forces...) facilitated this training and, in 2001, KSC was awarded the prestigious... of multimillion-degree gas. 4 FY 2001 Annual Report Vision and Mission... through continued space exploration. 5 FY 2001 Annual Report At dawn on... Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-H). FY 2001 Annual Report KSC: A Historical Timeline... the president was assassinated. 7 FY 2001 Annual Report KSC: A Historical Timeline... Vandenberg Air Force Base. 8 FY 2001 Annual Report KSC: A Historical Timeline... the Hubble Space Telescope. 9 FY 2001 Annual Report KSC: A Historical Timeline... Spaceport Master Plan. 10 FY 2001 Annual Report Astronaut John H. Glenn... Kennedy Space Center. 12 FY 2001 Annual Report Significant Events During... Vandenberg Air Force Base. 1/4/01 – Mars Odyssey spacecraft arrives at KSC from... International Space Station. 13 FY 2001 Annual Report Significant Events During Fiscal Year 2001 4/2/01 – KSC takes part in... a savings bond. 4/7/01 – Launch of Mars Odyssey spacecraft from CCAFS aboard a Delta... be installed on the Mars Odyssey Orbiter. FY 2001 Annual Report The second... preparation for launch in July 2001. FY 2001 Annual Report Expendable Launch.... NASA’s 2001 Mars Odyssey probe was launched aboard a Delta in April 2001. The Odyssey probe... change processes, and understand how Mars evolved and the resources it... signal replay capability. 17 FY 2001 Annual Report Expendable Launch Vehicle... sunward aboard a Delta in August 2001. Genesis’ purpose is to collect... was officially dedicated in May 2001. The new facility’s three individual... launch of the Mars Odyssey in April 2001. 18 FY 2001 Annual Report Inside... from Center facilities. 21 FY 2001 Annual Report A KSC midbody technician... STS-104. FY 2001 Annual Report FY 2001 Annual Report Inside the... Donatello, Raffaello and Leonardo. FY 2001 Annual Report International Space Station... Station Processing Facility. 24 FY 2001 Annual Report 25 A research chemist... perform various functions. 37 FY 2001 Annual Report The Smart Umbilical... leak detection technologies. 32 FY 2001 Annual Report Future Vehicles With... Space Center spent fiscal year 2001 operating under a new organization, accomplishing...), response and treatment. 42 FY 2001 Annual Report KSC employees participate... the Banana River. 48 FY 2001 Annual Report Environmental Stewardship Implementing... at the Cryogenics Testbed. FY 2001 Annual Report Partnerships Partnerships allow... park. 47 FY 2001 Annual Report Partnerships In February 2001, a very successful... in other industries. 48 FY 2001 Annual Report Partnerships Spaceport Planning..., complex, cryogenic systems. 49 FY 2001 Annual Report Partnerships KSC also... moon or Mars will require stricter preventive measures. In 2001, KSC’s Electromagnetic... to during flight. 50 FY 2001 Annual Report A groundbreaking ceremony begins... Processing Laboratory (SERPL). 43 FY 2001 Annual Report The Kennedy Space... through its doors in FY 2001. FY 2001 Annual Report Outreach to... stage show, “Mad Mission to Mars 2025,” debuted, augmenting the Visitor... such as artificial winds, the Mars-focused show transforms the audience... contractor Space Gateway Support. “The Odyssey Continues” was this year’s theme... 2001 Annual Report The entrance to the new “Mad Mission to Mars... recently received upgrades. 53 FY 2001 Annual Report Student teams prepare... Southeastern Regional event. 54 FY 2001 Annual Report Education Kennedy Space... NASA’s fundamental biology research. KSC’s 2001 Undergraduate Student Research Program (USRP... Administrator Dan Goldin, in April 2001. The program was planned with... Education officials. During calendar year 2001, more than 200 students and... involvement. 58 FY 2001 Annual Report The 2001 Summer Student Program orientation... following table and chart. During 2001 NASA’s direct impact (final demand.... Brevard County 2001 2000 Central Florida 2001 2000 Millions of 2001 dollars Procurement... Officer The Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 financial statements (unaudited) have been...’s total operation expenses for FY 2001 by appropriation were: Appropriation Amount... Position As of September 30, 2001 (In Thousands) Assets: Intragovernmental Assets... Year Ended September 30, 2001 (In Thousands) 2001 2000 Revenues and Financing... the Year Ended September 30, 2001 1. Summary of Accounting Policies and... above, KSC expenditures in FY 2001 included $161 million of reimbursable..., Plant and Equipment: (In Thousands) 2001 2000 Change Government-owned/Government... Thousands) Contractor-held Materials Total $ 2001 113,140 $ 2000 117,560... Thousands) Unexpended Appropriations: Undelivered Unobligated: 2001 Appropriated Funds $ 127,483 $ 2000... and Financing Resources: (In Thousands) 2001 General Fund Proprietary Receipts Total... stands ready to launch the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. STS-105 crew captured...



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... regions of Mars through radio occultations (ROs) on board Mars Express [Hinson... and Atmosphere for Mars and the Earth Parameter Mars Earth Total solar... Turbulent Parameters on Mars and on Eartha Parameter Mars Earth Obukhov length... 1284 sols, almost 2 Mars years). See also Figure 4. 4.1.2. Mars Pathfinder Meteorological Instrumentation... the Viking landers and the Mars Pathfinder, Mars Exploration Rovers’ Mini‐TES...) on board a Mars orbiter, (2) ultrastable oscillator on board a Mars orbiter, and (3) ground... Viking orbiters, MGS, MEx, and Mars Odyssey 2001 (MOd)). These include the surface... [James and Cantor, 2001; Kieffer and Titus, 2001; Langevin et al., 2005... Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars and Mars Color Imager [Wolff et... cloud streets [Malin and Edgett, 2001], superadiabatic daytime and ultrastable nighttime...‐ dimensional mesoscale models for Mars [Rafkin et al., 2001; Tyler et al... design of upcoming missions to Mars (e.g., Mars Science Laboratory, ExoMars). [138] To... consolidate their respective Mars exploration programs into a framework called Mars Exploration Joint Initiative (ESA‐ NASA joint Mars program: http... rate. By comparison the original Mars Atmospheric Constellation Observatory concept [Kursinski... Mars Climate Sounder (MRO) Mars Exploration Rover M Meteorological package (PHX) Meteorological Network: Mars... Institute Mars Express Mars Global Surveyor Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MER) Mars Network lander; see also MetNet Mars Observer Camera (MGS) Mars Odyssey 2001 Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MGS) Mars Pathfinder Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars..., R. Haberle, J. Hollingsworth, and R. T. Clancy (1999), Mars Global Surveyor aerobraking: Atmospheric trends.... Boynton, W. V., et al. (2004), The Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer instrument suite..., M. Caplinger, and M. J. Wolff (2001), Martian dust storms: 1999 Mars Orbiter Camera observations..., B., M. Malin, and K. S. Edgett (2002), Multiyear Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) observations of.... Canuto, V., A. Howard, Y. Cheng, and M. Dubovikov (2001), Ocean turbulence. Part I: One‐point... J. E. Tillman (1976), Atmospheric measurements on Mars: The Viking meteorology experiment, Bull...)2, 120 pp. Christensen, P. R., et al. (2001), Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer.... Clancy, R. T., M. J. Wolff, and P. R. Christensen (2003), Mars aerosol studies with the MGS..., W. C. Maguire, S. Dason, and M. S. Kaelberer (2000), Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer... Polar region of Mars: A study of the 2007 Phoenix Mars lander sites... of surface pressure on Mars with the Mars Express/OMEGA spectrometer: 1. Retrieval.... Formisano, V., D. Grassi, N. I. Ignatiev, and L. Zasova (2001), IRIS mariner 9 data revisited: Water..., J. R. Murphy, J. Schaeffer, and H. Lee (1993b), Mars atmospheric dynamics as simulated by... R. J. Wilson (2001), Radio occultation measurements of forced atmospheric waves on Mars, J. Geophys..., A. B., and D. O. Muhleman (2001), Cloud reflection observations: Results from the Mars Orbiter Laser..., W. C. Feldman, W. V. Boynton, and R. M. Haberle (2005), Mars low‐latitude neutron distribution: Possible..., P. B., and B. A. Cantor (2001), Martian north polar cap recession: 2000 Mars Orbiter Camera.... Kieffer, H. H., and T. N. Titus (2001), TES mapping of Mars’ north seasonal cap, Icarus.... Kursinski, E. R., et al. (2004), The Mars Atmospheric Constellation Observatory (MACO) concept... observing system for Mars: The dual satellite Mars Astrobiology and Climate Observatory... Martian regolith: Results from the Mars Odyssey high‐energy neutron detector (HEND... polar cap of Mars as observed by OMEGA/Mars Express, Science, 307...–516. Malin, M. C., and K. S. Edgett (2001), Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera: Interplanetary cruise... Martian surface from the Mars Orbiter Camera of Mars Global Surveyor, Science... candidate 2007 Phoenix Mars lander sites using the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling... HEND instrument onboard the US 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, Sol. Syst. Res., 37.../2004JE002354. Murphy, J. R., and S. Nelli (2002), Mars Pathfinder convective vortices: Frequency of.... Rafkin, S. C. R., R. M. Haberle, and T. I. Michaels (2001), The Mars regional atmospheric modeling system: Model... J. C. Zarnecki (2003), Convective vortices on Mars: A reanalysis of Viking Lander 2 meteorological... atmospheric boundary layer in the Mars Pathfinder lander conditions, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc..., A. Seiff, and G. Wilson (1997), The Mars Pathfinder Atmospheric Structure Investigation/ Meteorology..., 1599–1619. Smith, D. E., et al. (2001), Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter: Experiment summary... (2001a), Thermal Emission Spectrometer results: Mars atmospheric thermal structure and aerosol... of surface pressure on Mars with the Mars Express/OMEGA spectrometer: 2. Meteorological... M. I. Richardson (2003), Meteorology of proposed Mars Exploration Rover landing sites, J. Geophys...