Спутник ДЗЗ. ACRIMSat. [Редактировать]

Спутник ACRIMSAT (Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor satellite), выведенный в космос 21 декабря 1999 года, оснащен комплексом аппаратуры Acrim III. Это третье поколение аппаратуры NASA для измерения солнечной радиации, создаваемой в течении 25 лет в Лаборатории Реактивного движения NASA. Полученные данные помогут ученым изучить влияние солнечной энергии на нагрев земной поверхности, перемещение воздушных потоков и океанских течений. На основе этого исследователи будут создавать глобальные модели климата, и изучать физику Солнца. В ходе экспериментов было обнаружено значительное снижение уровня солнечного излучения в момент прохода Венеры между Землей и Солнцем в июне 2004. Уменьшение было эквивалентно всей энергии, используемой людьми в 2003 год.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor SatelliteНайтиНайти
2Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (AcrimSat)НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Тип орбиты - НОО
4Страна производитель - США
5Все спутники ДЗЗ

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса (сухая), кг.115
2Масса, кг.288
3Полезная нагрузка 1xACRIM-III
4Мощность, Вт80.0

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град97.8
2Апогей, км715.0
3Перигей, км673.5
4Период, минут98.5
5САС, год7
6Длинный диаметр эллипса, км7065

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (аппарат), млн. долл.30
2Производитель Orbital ATK
3Операторы Космическое агентство США
4Оператор NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
5Оператор Goddard Space Flight Center

Найдено 197 документов по запросу «ACRIMSat». [Перейти к поиску]


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NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AcrimSat Launch Press Kit December 1999... Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA AcrimSat Mission 818/354-5011 Diane... Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA AcrimSat Mission 818/354-0850 Contents...'s Energy? ..........…………..............................................………...…….… 7 Mission Overview ..............…………………………………….................………...……...… 10 The AcrimSat Instrument …………….…………………………..................……..…….…… 17 Program/Project Management... Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (AcrimSat) on December 20 will continue... will release the second payload, AcrimSat, which will circle Earth from... than today's temperatures. Data from AcrimSat will help scientists gather information... the Taurus launch vehicle and AcrimSat satellite. NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise... Services Information NASA Television The AcrimSat launch will not be broadcast.... Status Reports Status reports on AcrimSat will be issued by the... Base, CA. Internet Information on AcrimSat, including an electronic copy of...://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ . The AcrimSat project maintains a public home page....nasa.gov/ntv . 5 Quick Facts AcrimSat Spacecraft Dimensions: Main structure octagon... 6 Why Study the Sun’s Energy? AcrimSat is designed to monitor the... to global warming. 9 Mission Overview AcrimSat is planned to circle Earth..., is stacked on top of AcrimSat within a nose cone or fairing... Earth-orbiting satellites such as AcrimSat do not need to be... the proper orbit around Earth. AcrimSat will assume what is called... KompSat separation Time = 821.6 seconds AcrimSat separation Time = 968.8 seconds Stage... nose cone impact KompSat separation AcrimSat separation Stage 3 impact Early flight... Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite and AcrimSat will open like a clam shell... miles (1,080 kilometers) above Earth. AcrimSat will deploy its solar panels... the Sun before releasing the AcrimSat at about 15-1/2 minutes into...). Once it has been deployed, AcrimSat will begin a nine-minute coast... Station in Antarctica will receive AcrimSat's first signal. The first two... deployed. Fine-tuning the Orbit AcrimSat will be released from the... of the spinup and pointing AcrimSat Launch Events Event Description Time... 4 ignition Stage 4 burnout KompSat separation AcrimSat separation 0.0 80.9 166.1 168.3 173... Earth's magnetic force lines. The AcrimSat operations team will monitor spacecraft... storage space. Each day the AcrimSat ground station will contact the... a NASA closed network to the AcrimSat Mission Control Center at JPL.... 16 The AcrimSat Instrument The objective of the AcrimSat instrument is to... climatology and solar physics. The AcrimSat instrument and spacecraft represent a unique... a small, dedicated spacecraft like the AcrimSat. The satellite/radiometer combination is... radiometers were developed by the AcrimSat principal investigator at JPL during... irradiance incident on the radiometer. AcrimSat Science Team Dr. Richard C. Willson... instrument S-band antenna Solar panels AcrimSat spacecraft The "active" electronic maintenance... measurement. Electrical connections to the AcrimSat are made through a remote interface... mission operations activities of the AcrimSat mission are managed for NASA... the AcrimSat project manager. Roger Helizon of JPL is the AcrimSat instrument...., McLean, VA, is the company’s AcrimSat program manager. 12-17-99...



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The Astrophysical Journal, 641:565–571, 2006 April 10 # 2006. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. THE EFFECT OF THE TRANSIT OF VENUS ON ACRIM’S TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE MEASUREMENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR TRANSIT STUDIES OF EXTRASOLAR PLANETS G. Schneider Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721; gschneider@as.arizona.edu J. M. Pasachoff Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267; jay.m.pasachoff@williams.edu and Richard C. Willson Columbia University, New York, NY 10027; rwillson@acrim.com Received 2005 November 15; accepted 2005 December 8 ABSTRACT We have used the 2004 June 8 transit of Venus (ToV ) as a surrogate to test observing methods, strategies, and techniques that are being contemplated for future space missions to detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial planets (ETPs) as they transit their host stars, notably NASA’s Kepler mission, planned for 2008. As an analog to ‘‘Kepler-like’’ photometric transit observations, we obtained (spatially unresolved ) radiometric observations with the ACRIM 3 instrument on ACRIMSAT at a sampling cadence of 131 s to follow the effect of the ToV on the total solar irradiance ( TSI ). Contemporaneous high-resolution broadband imagery with NASA’s TRACE spacecraft provided, directly, measures of the stellar (solar) astrophysical noise that can intrinsically limit such transit observations. During the Venus transit, which lasted $5.5 hr, the planet’s angular diameter was approximately 1/32 the solar diameter, thus covering $0.1% of the stellar surface. With our ACRIM 3 data, we measure temporal changes in TSI with a 1 per sample (unbinned ) uncertainty of approximately 100 mW mÀ2 (0.007%). A diminution in TSI of $1.4 W mÀ2 ($0.1%, closely corresponding to the geometrically occulted area of the photosphere) was measured at mid-transit compared with a mean pre-/post-transit TSI of $1365.9 W mÀ2. The radiometric light curve is complex because of the parallactic motion of Venus induced by ACRIMSAT’s near-polar orbit, but exhibits the characteristic signature of photospheric limb darkening. These observations serve as a surrogate for future photometric observations of ETPs, such as Kepler will deliver. Detailed analysis of the ToV, a rare event within our own solar system, with time-resolved radiometry augmented with high-resolution imagery, provides a useful analog for investigating the detectability and characterization of ETPs from observations that are anticipated in the near future. Subject headingg s: planets and satellites: individual ( Venus) — techniques: photometric 1. INTRODUCTION 1998) missions are under way and development and, one hopes, will rise to this challenge. Indirect detection of Jovian-mass extrasolar planets has been demonstrated by the transit method (e.g., HD 209458b, Charbonneau et al. 2000; TrES-1, Alonso et al. 2004). Fledgling steps have been taken toward exoplanet atmospheric identification and characterization by transit spectroscopy as well (e.g., HD 209458b with the detection of atmospheric sodium; Charbonneau et al. 2002) and conceptually may be extended, with a much higher degree of observational complexity, to ETPs yet to be found. The recent predicted transit of a known terrestrial planet in the habitable zone of a very nearby solar‘‘like’’ star, i.e., the transit of Venus across the Sun on 2004 June 8 ( Pasachoff et al. 2005), provided a unique and timely opportunity to validate the concepts, instrumentation, observational processes, and procedures that will be developed over the next decade to extend our vision of terrestrial planets to other solar systems. Seizing on that rare opportunity, we obtained spacebased solar irradiance (total irradiance power) measurements with the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor 2 (ACRIM ) 3 instrument on ACRIMSAT to evaluate the radiometric (closely Since the seminal detection and identification of the companion to 51 Peg as a giant planet orbiting very close to its host star (Mayor & Queloz 1995), the past decade has seen an explosion of detections of extrasolar ‘‘hot Jupiter’’–type planets around solar-like stars.1 Direct detection of young (



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The Astrophysical Journal, 641:000–000, 2006 April 10 # 2006. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. THE EFFECT OF THE TRANSIT OF VENUS ON ACRIM’S TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE MEASUREMENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR TRANSIT STUDIES OF EXTRASOLAR PLANETS G. Schneider Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721; gschneider@as.arizona.edu J. M. Pasachoff Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267; jay.m.pasachoff@williams.edu and Richard C. Willson Columbia University, New York, NY 10027; rwillson@acrim.com Received 2005 November 15; accepted 2005 December 8 Q1 ABSTRACT We have used the 2004 June 8 transit of Venus (ToV ) as a surrogate to test observing methods, strategies, and techniques that are being contemplated for future space missions to detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial planets (ETPs) as they transit their host stars, notably NASA’s Kepler mission, planned for 2008. As an analog to ‘‘Kepler-like’’ photometric transit observations, we obtained (spatially unresolved ) radiometric observations with the ACRIM 3 instrument on board ACRIMSAT at a sampling cadence of 131 s to follow the effect of the ToV on the total solar irradiance ( TSI ). Contemporaneous high-resolution broadband imagery with NASA’s TRACE spacecraft provided, directly, measures of the stellar (solar) astrophysical noise that can intrinsically limit such transit observations. During the Venus transit, which lasted $5.5 hr, the planet’s angular diameter was approximately 1/32 the solar diameter, thus covering $0.1% of the stellar surface. With our ACRIM 3 data, we measure temporal changes in TSI with a 1 per sample (unbinned ) uncertainty of approximately 100 mW mÀ2 (0.007%). A diminution in TSI of $1.4 W mÀ2 ($0.1%, closely corresponding to the geometrically occulted area of the photosphere) was measured at mid-transit compared with a mean pre-/post-transit TSI of $1365.9 W mÀ2. The radiometric light curve is complex because of the parallactic motion of Venus induced by ACRIMSAT’s near-polar orbit, but exhibits the characteristic signature of photospheric limb darkening. These observations serve as a surrogate for future photometric observations of ETPs, such as Kepler will deliver. Detailed analysis of the ToV, a rare event within our own solar system, with time-resolved radiometry augmented with high-resolution imagery, provides a useful analog for investigating the detectability and characterization of ETPs from observations that are anticipated in the near future. Subject headingg s: planets and satellites: individual ( Venus) — techniques: photometric 1. INTRODUCTION 1998) missions are under way and development and, one hopes, will rise to this challenge. Indirect detection of Jovian-mass extrasolar planets has been demonstrated by the transit method (e.g., HD 209458b, Charbonneau et al. 2000; TrES-1, Alonso et al. 2004). Fledgling steps have been taken toward exoplanet atmospheric identification and characterization by transit spectroscopy as well (e.g., HD 209458b with the detection of atmospheric sodium; Charbonneau et al. 2002) and conceptually may be extended, with a much higher degree of observational complexity, to ETPs yet to be found. The recent predicted transit of a known terrestrial planet in the habitable zone of a very nearby solar‘‘like’’ star, i.e., the transit of Venus across the Sun on 2004 June 8 ( Pasachoff et al. 2005), provided a unique and timely opportunity to validate the concepts, instrumentation, observational processes, and procedures that will be developed over the next decade to extend our vision of terrestrial planets to other solar systems. Seizing on that rare opportunity, we obtained spacebased solar irradiance (total irradiance power) measurements with the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor 2 (ACRIM ) 3 instrument on board ACRIMSAT to evaluate the radiometric Since the seminal detection and identification of the companion to 51 Peg as a giant planet orbiting very close to its host star (Mayor & Queloz 1995), the past decade has seen an explosion of detections of extrasolar ‘‘hot Jupiter’’–type planets around solar-like stars.1 Direct detection of young (



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... with the NASA operational satellite ACRIMSAT were detected, the first one...-1A conjuction risks with ACRIMSAT confirmed by JSpOC. ACRIMSAT 1-sigma uncertainty: radial... the relative position vector of ACRIMSAT with respect to Sentinel-1A... h, after getting confirmation from the ACRIMSAT operators that no manoeuvering was... with ACRIMSAT flying above Sentinel-1A in all close approaches. The ACRIMSAT... direction, given the fact that ACRIMSAT was flying above Sentinel-1A... brought Sentinel-1A closer to ACRIMSAT. The Mission Control Team joint...



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... Radiometer (ACRIM) 3 instrument on NASA’s ACRIMSAT to evaluate the radiometric (broad... of Venus Expedition) THE ACRIMSAT ORBIT & DATA SAMPLING ACRIMSAT is in a Sun... cannot observe the Sun continuously. ACRIMSAT’s line-of-sight to the... transit circumstances, as seen by ACRIMSAT, were determined for time intervals... observations made with ACRIM 3 on ACRIMSAT on 8 June 2004 at a cadence... the Sun was visible to ACRIMSAT is overplotted on the ACRIM..., “solar constant”) From ACRIM 3 on ACRIMSAT Daily average of 660 samples... solar disk as viewed by ACRIMSAT, occults approximately 0.1% of the total... IV) was not visible from ACRIMSAT. The TSI observations from SORCE... of) Venus, as seen from ACRIMSAT, is depicted in the figure...) resulted from the near-polar ACRIMSAT orbit. As Venus is of... as the Earth, and as ACRIMSAT is in a low Earth orbit... intervals. This resulted from the ACRIMSAT orbit plane not being in... was visible to ACRIMSAT. The Sun, as seen from ACRIMSAT, was occulted... intervals. VENUS TRANSIT TIMES FROM ACRIMSAT (LIGHT-CURVE SOLUTION) Contact Contact... the Sun was visible to ACRIMSAT (overlaid in blue on the... transit light curve obtained by ACRIMSAT (and a similar one obtained by....arizona.edu:8000/ECLIPSE_WEB/TRANSIT_04/ACRIMSAT/ACRIMSAT_TOV.html for links to...



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... for ACRIMSAT - Earth distance 4.2.4.3 Determination of ACRIMSAT - Sun distance 4.2.4.4 Relativistic effect of ACRIMSAT.../ACRIM Solar Irradiance Monitoring Satellite (ACRIMSAT) small satellite will be the... will be deployed on the ACRIMSAT, a dedicated small satellite. A ground station... Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) will control ACRIMSAT and downlink the data. Level... III Level 2 Daily Means Data ACRIMSat Ephemeris Data Daily Transfer (MBytes... health. These, along with the ACRIMSAT time tags, geocentric coordinates and... by the ACRIM instrument on ACRIMSAT. The basic time resolution will.... The ephemerides for both the ACRIMSAT and Earth orbits will be... earth-sun distance variation (~ +/- 3 %), the ACRIMSAT orbital contribution to the sun... configuring and checking out the ACRIMSAT satellite. During this period JPL... the control and operation of ACRIMSAT. During the initial 45-day... be available by June 2000. ACRIMSAT/ACRIM III Post-Launch Schedule... days On-orbit configuration Learn ACRIMSAT operations Data processing validation Data... 2/5/00– 3/15/00 Advisory function ACRIMSAT operations Initial ACRIM III calibrations.../005/15/00 Advisory function ACRIMSAT operations ACRIM III Calibrations Generation... LaRC DAAC 6/1/00 Advisory function ACRIMSAT operations Routine transfer of calibrated... LaRC DAAC 6/1/00 à Advisory function ACRIMSAT operations Routine degradation calibrations Routine... reference. The ephemerides for the ACRIMSAT orbit around the Earth and... distance variation (+/- 3.4 % per yr.), the ACRIMSAT orbital contribution to the sun... Unit. 4.2.4.2 Correction for ACRIMSAT - Earth distance The ACRIMSAT orbital ephemerides will be... 4.2.4.3 Determination of ACRIMSAT - Sun distance The component of the ACRIMSAT - Earth distance... is computed to yield the ACRIMSAT - Sun distance at the time...: Eq. 4.1 H0 = Hi Rss2 The ACRIMSAT-sun distance has two components... and the geocentric position of ACRIMSAT in its orbit. The Earth.... The orbital motion of ACRIMSAT modulates the ACRIMSAT-sun distance computed from... ephemerides. The coordinates for the ACRIMSAT ephemerides are based on a geocentric... rotation. The orbital ephemerides for ACRIMSAT will be used to derive... transformation of the ACRIMSAT ephemerides to the ACRIMSAT-Earth distance is accomplished... ACRIMSAT-Earth orbital position or velocity ephemerides day of year geocentric ACRIMSAT... 26’ 22” 4.2.4.4 Relativistic effect of ACRIMSAT-Sun relative velocity Page 66... we assume the x axis of ACRIMSAT ‘s coordinate system is aligned with... (1 - β ) Eq. 4.5 Where: β v c = = = v/c relative velocity of ACRIMSAT and sun speed of light... ACRIMSAT-sun relative velocity. The first is the orbital motion of ACRIMSAT... such parametric analysis. When the ACRIMSAT design and orbit are defined... well at the time of ACRIMSAT/ACRIM III launch. There should... configuring and checking out the ACRIMSAT satellite. During this period JPL... the control and operation of ACRIMSAT. During the initial 45-day... by June 2000. Page 76 ACRIMSAT/ACRIM III Post-Launch Schedule... days On-orbit configuration Learn ACRIMSAT operations Data processing validation Data... 2/5/00–3/15/00 Advisory function ACRIMSAT operations Initial ACRIM III calibrations.../00-5/15/00 Advisory function ACRIMSAT operations ACRIM III Calibrations Generation... LaRC DAAC 6/1/00 Advisory function ACRIMSAT operations Routine transfer of calibrated... LaRC DAAC 6/1/00 à Advisory function ACRIMSAT operations Routine degradation calibrations Routine...



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... Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite (ACRIMSAT) and proceeding alphabetically through the... Coordination NASA’s Earth Observing Missions ACRIMSAT ADEOS II Aqua Aquarius Aura... Missions Section Alan Ward (SSAI) ACRIMSAT Richard Willson (Col U) ADEOS II... Terra, Aqua, and TRMM. 1999 ACRIMSAT Monitor total solar irradiance. 2000... Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite (ACRIMSAT). March 31, 2004—Selection of... 1999 1999 Landsat 7 QuikSCAT Terra ACRIMSAT ETM+ SeaWinds ASTER (J), CERES (2), MISR... 18. CALIPSO 0.003 Mbps 19. ACRIMSAT 0.001 Mbps 20. EP/TOMS... Reference Handbook ACRIMSAT Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite Key ACRIMSAT Facts... Downlink: Table Mountain Observatory (JPL) ACRIMSAT URLs Science Team: www.acrim...: 5-year minimum lifetime Partners Summary ACRIMSAT was launched on December 20... the solar-pointing software on ACRIMSAT. The purpose of ACRIM3 is... Research Satellite (UARS) in 1991. ACRIMSAT/ACRIM3 completed its five-year..., data archiving Orbital Sciences Corporation: ACRIMSAT satellite, Taurus launch vehicle Langley... NASA’s Earth Science Program section) • ACRIMSAT Principal Investigator: Richard Willson, Columbia... Related Applications • ACRIMSAT Program Scientist: Don Anderson, NASA Headquarters • ACRIMSAT Program Executive... Management • Public Health [ Missions: ACRIMSAT ] 65 ACRIMSAT Science Goals • Extend the TSI... of the SORCE/TIM experiment. ACRIMSAT Mission Background Sustained changes in... and most urgent activity. The ACRIMSAT/ACRIM3 experiment is designed to... System (EOS) program. 66 [ Missions: ACRIMSAT ] There is a contiguous satellite TSI...), SMM/ACRIM1, UARS/ACRIM2, and ACRIMSAT/ACRIM3 experiments to a common scale... and indications from analyses of ACRIMSAT/ACRIM3 satellite, instrument, and orbit... 1980 and 1991, respectively. The ACRIMSAT spacecraft was launched on December... Earth Science Reference Handbook [ Missions: ACRIMSAT ] 67 began April 5, 2000, and.... Res. Letters, 30, 1199–1202. ACRIMSAT References Willson, R. C., S. Gulkis, M Janssen, H. S. Hudson..., 1963–1965. Willson, R. C., 2001: The ACRIMSAT/ACRIM3 experiment—extending the precision... Earth Observer, 13, 14–17. ACRIMSAT Data Products For more information... 5, 2000 Radiometric Products ACRIMSAT Data Products 68 [ Missions: ACRIMSAT ] Earth Science Reference...: EOS Data Products Handbook, Volume 2: ACRIMSAT, Aqua, Jason1, Landsat 7, Meteor-3M...: 301-614-6049 Richard Willson ACRIMSAT Columbia University E-mail: acrim@acrim... Physics Laboratory (Johns Hopkins University) ACRIMSAT Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor...



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... Articles SOLSTICE Watching the Sun ACRIMSAT Sunspots and the Solar Max... Articles SOLSTICE Watching the Sun ACRIMSAT Sunspots and the Solar Max... Articles SOLSTICE Watching the Sun ACRIMSAT Sunspots and the Solar Max... sources. Page 10 of 23 ACRIMSAT Sunspots and the Solar Max... Articles SOLSTICE Watching the Sun ACRIMSAT Sunspots and the Solar Max... Articles SOLSTICE Watching the Sun ACRIMSAT Sunspots and the Solar Max... the current ACRIM III on ACRIMSAT. SORCE’s TIM is expected to... Articles SOLSTICE Watching the Sun ACRIMSAT Sunspots and the Solar Max... 23 SOLSTICE Watching the Sun ACRIMSAT Sunspots and the Solar Max... Articles SOLSTICE Watching the Sun ACRIMSAT Sunspots and the Solar Max... Articles SOLSTICE Watching the Sun ACRIMSAT Sunspots and the Solar Max...



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... participation in this program. The ACRIMSAT/ACRIM3 Experiment — Extending the Precision... 13 THE EARTH OBSERVER The ACRIMSAT/ACRIM III Experiment — Extending the... a combination of the two. The ACRIMSAT/ACRIM III experiment is the.../ACRIM II, SOHO/VIRGO and ACRIMSAT/ACRIM III. Past and present... database from these devices. The ACRIMSAT/ACRIM III Experiment NASA accepted... for the EOS CHEM platform. ACRIMSAT/ACRIM III was launched from... pointing by the spin-stabilized ACRIMSAT satellite, while less accurate than.... The primary objectives of the ACRIMSAT/ACRIM III experiment are: 1. The... to stabilize and fine-tune ACRIMSAT’s solar pointing, the science mission... SMM/ACRIM I UARS/ACRIM II ACRIMSAT/ACRIM III 1978–1993 1980...



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... (ACRIMSat) - ACRIMSat monitors total solar irradiance. The science focus areas served by ACRIMSat... water and energy cycles. Because ACRIMSAT has continued to operate beyond... Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite (ACRIMSat) Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) ES-32..., and ICESat-2. JPL manages OSTM, ACRIMSat, SMAP, QuikSCAT, DESDynI, CLARREO, and... launch vehicle (an H-II F6). ACRIMSat JPL JPL None. QuikSCAT JPL...