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1Наклонение, град1.6
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4Период, минут1436.1
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... “Outer Space Silk Road”: China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System in the...’s Galileo, Russian GLONASS and Chinese Beidou), and “multi-centers” (Indian regional... quasi zenith navigation satellite system). Beidou is of great significance to... Beidou’s “going global” strategy in the long run. The implementation of Beidou... “Outer Space Silk Road”: China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System in the... be made to implement China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite system in the... Beidou Cooperation Forum and finally issued a joint declaration. The implementation of Beidou... the Beidou System to Take Roots in the Arab World China’s Beidou... great momentum. The promotion of Beidou Navigation Satellite system in the... the consistent expansion of the Beidou system’s overseas markets, China’s image... power, aerospace technology and the Beidou system, among others. China is... “Outer Space Silk Road”: China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System in the... have more demands for the Beidou system in hydrology, meteorology, agriculture..., Guoteng electronics, Hwa Create and Beidou Tianhui have launched positioning which... the Beidou system. After June 2014, when President Xi proposed the Beidou... “Beidou Arab Digital Building an “Outer Space Silk Road”: China’s Beidou Navigation... another important opportunity for China’s Beidou system to enter the Arab... increasingly prominent; the promotion of Beidou System in the Arab world... the pilot countries for the Beidou Navigation Satellite system to land...-space technology. Promotion of China’s Beidou system in the Arab world... “Outer Space Silk Road”: China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System in the... 2016, China’s first New-Generation Beidou Navigation satellite was successfully launched...-3C rocket, indicating that China’s Beidou Navigation System began to expand... constitute a political advantage for the Beidou system to enter the Arab... “Outer Space Silk Road”: China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System in the... Middle East markets for the Beidou system. Fifth, the aerospace bureau... potential, laying a foundation for China’s Beidou system to use remote sensing... the Beidou System in the Arab World Promotion of the Beidou system... “Outer Space Silk Road”: China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System in the... of the Beidou system and the establishment of the Beidou overseas station... on their territory. If the Beidou system causes misunderstanding among the... countries, affecting overseas expansion of Beidou system in other countries. Therefore... target countries, promotion of China’s Beidou system should make use of... from distillation of national security Beidou system’s government background and security... in the promotion process of Beidou system, stressing its corporate and... “Outer Space Silk Road”: China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System in the... “Outer Space Silk Road”: China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System in the... restraining the investment of the Beidou system. For example, the Yemeni...”: China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System in the Arab World Beidou system. The..., judicial and cultural risks concerning Beidou system’s promotion in the Arab... Cultural for Risks Beidou System System to Land the Beidou the Country... “Outer Space Silk Road”: China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System in the... and regulations related to China’s Beidou navigation system landing in the... the Promotion and Application of Beidou Navigation Satellite System” was released... of the Beidou system is still lacking. The promotion of Beidou System... of Beidou system in the Arab world, China should incorporate the Beidou..., and emergency search and rescue, Beidou system can play a positive role... Beidou system is a case in point. After the development of China’s Beidou... undoubtedly provide a development opportunity for Beidou system, so China needs to... “Outer Space Silk Road”: China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System in the... agencies of the Beidou system to jointly promote the Beidou system’s landing..., training and demonstration center for Beidou system in the framework of... international organizations related to the Beidou system, and obtain more international... the Beidou system navigation—it passed the Navigation Security Letter for Beidou... approved, following GPS and GLONASS. Beidou system standards obtained international certification... first time, indicating that the Beidou system has officially become a component... the Beidou 46 Building an “Outer Space Silk Road”: China’s Beidou Navigation... conditions for the promotion of Beidou system. Again, these countries have... Beidou Navigation System to the World, China Science Daily. Ren, P. (2011). Beidou... “Outer Space Silk Road”: China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System in the... accelerate the development of the Beidou Navigation Satellite system industry, China... the promotion and application of Beidou Navigation Satellite system (2014: March...-Generation Beidou Navigation Satellite, Retrieved May 1, 2015 from http://www.beidou.gov... exploration of standardization work of Beidou Sytem in the international maritime... accelerate the construction of China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite system based on...



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... C4ISR ............................................................................................................... 13 BeiDou Navigation Satellite System ..................................................................................... 16 Figure 1.2: China’s BeiDou Satellite Launches... of modern launch vehicles, the BeiDou satellite navigation program comparable to... systems including C4ISR and SATNAV (BeiDou) capabilities. China is relying on... peaceful space developments like the BeiDou SATNAV system, manned space missions... 20 15 10 5 0 Zhongxing Beidou-2(M) Biedou-2 (G) Beidou-2(IGSO) Yaogan Weixing Zhangguo Ziyuan... more by 2020. BeiDou Navigation Satellite System The BeiDou satellite positioning, navigation... employs space assets.”42 The BeiDou system is an example of... sensing satellites. China launched 13 Beidou navigation satellites between 2010 and... the “regional phase” of its Beidou-2 satellite navigation project and reportedly... BeiDou is being implemented in a three-part process and Figure 1.2 depicts BeiDou satellite launches:45 Beidou is China’s satellite navigation..., and earth remote sensing programs, Beidou is one of China’s 16... is spending significant sums on Beidou and plans to spend between... the development of Beidou technologies to 2020. Like GPS, Beidou is fundamentally a military-run program with civilian applications. Beidou’s architecture... performance. Like other programs, China’s Beidou navigation satellite program has followed... regional system, Beidou-1, in 2000 that became operational in 2003. Beidou-1 uses... this data to the receiver. Beidou-1 could achieve accuracies of up... 2, development of the more advanced Beidou-2 system was initiated in 2007... on a regional basis in 2012. Beidou currently provides regional coverage with... same active system used by Beidou-1. This system uses an open... with the optimized positioning of Beidou satellites over China and the... thousands of differential ground stations, Beidou’s accuracy will be boosted to... the introduction of a recently developed Beidou receiver chip, other users can... accuracies of 2.5 meters. In Step 3, Beidou-2 will expand to provide a global..., Beidou-2 also provides a short message service that allows communication between Beidou receivers... BeiDou and the PLA’s early utilization of the system:46 Although Beidou.... Prior to the deployment of Beidou, most PLA units used GPS... matter how huge the cost. Beidou is a must for us. We... 2000s began to gradually incorporate Beidou into its ground, air, and... information about China’s incorporation of Beidou into its weapons systems is... and Beidou. If this is true, PLA operators could switch to Beidou... concerns. Additionally, the availability of Beidou would allow China to attack... military power notes more recent BeiDou launches and ongoing work before... completion in 2020:47 China’s Beidou SATNAV constellation began the next... with the launch of the Beidou I1-S, an inclined geosynchronous orbit... project plans to extend the Beidou network beyond its current regional... 9/19/2016 19 Figure 1.2: China’s BeiDou Satellite Launches Source: Kevin Pollpeter...: Figure 1.X does not include the Beidou satellite launches that occurred in...



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... be profitable. Satellite Navigation China’s Beidou satellite navigation system is planned... differential Beidou, accuracy will be improved to one meter. Unlike GPS, Beidou... sent to other Beidou receivers. Similar to GPS, Beidou is first and..., including the mandatory installation of Beidou receivers on certain vehicles, to... their respective satellite navigation systems, Beidou and the Global Navigation Satellite... over China’s intentions with its Beidou satellite navigation system, the strategic... involving earth remote sensing and Beidou satellite navigation programs, and one... be limited.” Funding for the Beidou satellite navigation systems, however, appears..., 2001. 227 Zhang Ke, “’北斗’今起照耀亚太区 中国版 GPS 年创产值超千亿” [‘Beidou’ Begins to Cover Asia China...) in a Beidou industrial park.229 These funding figures suggest Beidou is one... the development of Beidou technologies to 2020. Like GPS, Beidou is fundamentally a military-run program with civilian applications. Beidou’s architecture... 8. Beidou launches Spacecraft Beidou-1A Beidou-1B Beidou-1C Beidou-1D Beidou-2 Compass-M1 Beidou-2 Compass-G2 Beidou-2 Compass-G1 Beidou-2 Compass-G3 Beidou-2 Compass-IGSO1 Beidou-2 Compass-G4 Beidou-2 Compass-IGSO2 Beidou-2 Compass-IGSO3 Beidou-2 Compass-IGSO4 Beidou-2 Compass-IGSO5 Beidou-2 Compass-G5 Beidou-2 Compass-M3 Beidou-2 Compass-M4 Beidou-2 Compass-M5 Beidou-2 Compass-M6 Beidou... GEO Like other programs, China’s Beidou navigation satellite program has followed... regional system, Beidou-1, in 2000 that became operational in 2003. Beidou-1 uses..., Beidou-2 also provides a short message service that allows communication between Beidou receivers. Military Use As Beidou’s capabilities improve, the... the GPS and Beidou signals. 411 Tu Yun, “BeiDou Has Better Accuracy... Liu Yanping, “探秘中国北斗导航卫星: 最高机密到民用历时 20 年” [Exploring China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System: Top Secret...-06/20/c_121557752.htm. 413 “北斗副总师:没先进定位手段曾是心中说不出的痛” [Beidou Deputy Chief Designer: Not Having... Main Station Devoting Itself to Beidou], 新华 [Xinhua], Nov. 9, 2013. 415 “南京军区”使命行动 2013....htm. 417 “长剑-10 导弹配合北斗系统可毁万吨巡洋舰” [Missile Incorporates Beidou System and Can Destroy a 10... adoption of Beidou technologies. These include requiring the installation of Beidou receivers... semitrucks to have factory-installed Beidou receivers.418 Communication Satellites China... 423 “天链一号星和第四颗北斗导航试验卫星交付使用” [Tianlian-1 and the Fourth Beidou Navigation Satellite Handed Over for... on the Development of the BeiDou Satellite Navigation System (Version 2.2),” December... market.603 定位精确度达到 2.5 米” [The Fourth Generation Beidou High-performance Chip Positioning Accuracy... example, the designation of China’s Beidou satellite navigation system as “national... G-1 (Beidou G1) 1/16/10 Chinese Defense Ministry GEO 8 Compass G-10 (Beidou ISGO-5) 12/1/11 Chinese Defense Ministry GEO 8 Compass G-11 (Beidou G5) 2/24/12 Chinese Defense Ministry GEO 8 Compass G-3 (Beidou G3) 6/2/10 Chinese Defense Ministry GEO 8 Compass G-4 (Beidou G4) 10/31/10 Chinese Defense Ministry GEO 8 Compass G-5 (Beidou IGSO-1) 7/31/10 Chinese Defense Ministry GEO 8 Compass G-6 (Beidou 2-16) 10/25/12 Chinese Defense Ministry GEO 8 Compass G-7 (Beidou IGSO-2) 12/17/10 Chinese Defense Ministry GEO 8 Compass G-8 (Beidou IGSO-3) 4/9/11 Chinese Defense Ministry GEO 8 Compass G-9 (Beidou ISGO-4) 7/26/11 Chinese Defense Ministry GEO 8 Compass M1 (Beidou M1... M3 (Beidou 2-12) 4/28/12 Chinese Defense Ministry Compass M4 (Beidou 2-13) 4/28/12 Chinese Defense Ministry Compass M5 (Beidou 2-14) 9/18/12 Chinese Defense Ministry Compass M6 (Beidou 2-15...



Дата загрузки: 2017-03-31
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... exploring inertial confinement fusion, the Beidou satellite navigation system, and a hypersonic... as receivers for China’s Beidou constellation. The Beidou system could further stimulate... support and work with the [Beidou] system.’’ 48 Commercial Launch Services... provider, Beijing could use the Beidou system as leverage to obtain... their respective satellite navigation systems, Beidou and the Global Navigation Satellite... China’s plans for its own Beidou satellite navigation system.† The project... needed for the development of Beidou.85 Beidou satellites even use frequencies... Timing In December 2012, China’s Beidou regional satellite navigation system * became... and a network of ground stations, Beidou provides subscribers, including the PLA...) services. Unlike other PNT systems, Beidou offers a short message service that... 120 Chinese characters per transmission. Beidou reportedly provides positioning accuracies of... Beidou’s positional accuracies within China.137 Beijing plans to expand the Beidou... launched its 18th and 19th Beidou satellites in July 2015.138...’s Satellite Navigation Office has emphasized Beidou’s importance to the PLA and... and benefit[s] mankind.’’ 139 Although Beidou has a wide and growing range... 2000s began to gradually incorporate Beidou into its ground, air, and... * The regional Beidou system, which China refers to as Beidou-2, grew out of an earlier satellite constellation, known as Beidou-1. Beidou... a developmental platform for future projects. † Beidou and GPS provide higher positional... DSKHT7XVN1PROD with USCC was using Beidou for positioning and maneuvering, friendly... information about China’s incorporation of Beidou into its weapons systems is... and Beidou. If this is true, PLA operators could switch to Beidou... concerns. Additionally, the availability of Beidou would allow China to attack... is attempting to make the Beidou system more prevalent in its... force its citizens to adopt Beidou, including the requirement that, in... provinces must be equipped with Beidou. Already more than 50,000... taken several steps to promote Beidou to countries throughout Asia, where... released the technical specifications of Beidou’s open signal to allow for... ground receivers and offers free Beidou service for civilian and commercial..., Pakistan, and Thailand to provide Beidou for government and military customers... will be used to increase Beidou’s range and signal strength.144... development of Beidou stations in Thailand, ‘‘with these stations, Beidou could better... pursuing various cooperative arrangements involving Beidou with other countries, including Israel..., Russia, Singapore, and Sweden.146 * Beidou provides automatic position reporting back... PLA units as well as Beidou-equipped Chinese fishing boats. U.S. Office... interview with the spokesperson for Beidou, ‘‘the Beidou satellite navigation system will... systems.’’ 147 • In November 2014, Beidou won approval from a United Nations... could help to further promote Beidou’s use around the world by... brand awareness and signaling that Beidou can achieve its stated accuracy... 3C vehicles primarily to insert Beidou satellites into medium Earth orbit...-1 was used to successfully deploy Beidou satellites. As it can reportedly... Second, China’s designation of the Beidou satellite navigation system—planned to... revenues to the United States, Beidou is also intended to foster.... Bree Feng, ‘‘A Step Forward for Beidou, China’s Satellite Navigation System,’’ New...; People’s Daily Online (English edition), ‘‘Beidou System Aims for ‘Centimeters’ Accuracy... 2, 2015), 71–73; Geoff Wade, ‘‘Beidou, China’s New Satellite Navigation System... 26, 2015; and Ordnance Knowledge, ‘‘ ‘Beidou,’ China’s Pride,’’ August 1, 2012. OSC... Launch Three or Four More Beidou Satellites This Year,’’ April 1, 2015... Satellite Navigation Capabilities with Expanded Beidou-2/Compass Constellation,’’ IHS Jane’s Defense..., Report on the Development of Beidou Navigation Satellite System, December 26... McCauley, ‘‘Putting Precision in Operations: Beidou Satellite Navigation System,’’ China Brief.... Bree Feng, ‘‘A Step Forward for Beidou, China’s Satellite Navigation System,’’ New..., December 4, 2014; Xinhua, ‘‘China Promotes Beidou Tech VerDate Sep 11 2014..., 11; Beidou Navigation Satellite System, ‘‘The Anniversary of Beidou ASEAN Tour, Beidou Appeared on ASEAN Expo Again,’’ 2014; Cang Wei, ‘‘Beidou... 24, 2014; and Gao Bao, ‘‘Beidou Navigation System Gives Boost to..., September 5, 2014. 144. Geoff Wade, ‘‘Beidou, China’s New Satellite Navigation System... Become Fifth Asian Nation Employing Beidou Satellite Navigation System,’’ May 22...; and Stephen Chen, ‘‘Thailand Is Beidou Navigation Network’s First Overseas Client..., Zhou Lihua, and Liu Kun, ‘‘Beidou Reaches New Heights,’’ China Daily... 19, 2014. 146. Geoff Wade, ‘‘Beidou, China’s New Satellite Navigation System.... People’s Daily Online (English edition), ‘‘Beidou System Aims for ‘Centimeters’ Accuracy.... Bree Feng, ‘‘A Step Forward for Beidou, China’s Satellite Navigation System,’’ New...



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... of the development of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and... of aviation receivers. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has... service is available. 2. PROGRESS OF BEIDOU SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT 2.1 On December 27th... Office (CNSO) officially released the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Signal In... Signal (ICD Version 2.0) and the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Open Service... in various applications. 3. PROGRESS OF BEIDOU SARPs DEVELOPMENT 3.1 An initial draft... the Development of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (Version 2.2) Attachment 2: BeiDou Navigation Satellite... Open Service Signal (Version 2.0) Attachment 3: BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Open Service... Report on the Development of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (Version 2.2) China... people used the Big Dipper (Beidou) for identifying directions dating back... of world civilization. Nowadays, the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) will... China’s conditions. In 2000, the BeiDou Navigation Satellite Demonstration System was.... The user segment encompasses various BeiDou user terminals, including those compatible..., with details as follows: Step I: BeiDou Navigation Satellite Demonstration System. In... of BeiDou Navigation Satellite Demonstration System. In 2000, the first 2 BeiDou navigation... system. In 2003, the third BeiDou navigation experiment satellite was launched... enhanced the system performance. The BeiDou Navigation Satellite Demonstration System consists... and performance specifications of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite Demonstration System are..., China initiated the construction of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System. By the... the worldwide scope. Approximately 40 BeiDou navigation satellites in total will... By October 25th, 2012, 16 BeiDou navigation satellites have been launched... Satellite Navigation Office published the “BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Signal-In... December 27th, 2012, and the “BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Open Service... (version 1.0)” as well as the “BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Signal-In... available on BeiDou official website (www.beidou.gov.cn). The “BeiDou Navigation Satellite... characteristics and specifications, etc. The “BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Signal-In... of weather forecasting, a series of BeiDou terminal equipments have been developed... Service for OS (iGMAS) and BeiDou/GNSS Application Demonstration & Experience Campaign... “BeiDou Asia-Pacific Tour” in Pakistan, Korea and other countries. The “BeiDou... 1st BeiDou navigation experiment satellite. l December 21, 2000, launch of 2nd BeiDou navigation experiment satellite. l May 25, 2003, launch of the 3rd BeiDou navigation experiment satellite. l February 3, 2007, launch of the 4th BeiDou navigation experiment satellite. l April 14, 2007, launch of the 1st BeiDou navigation satellite. l April 15, 2009, launch of the 2nd Beidou navigation satellite. l January 17, 2010, launch of the 3rd BeiDou navigation satellite. l June 2, 2010, launch of the 4th BeiDou navigation satellite. l August 1, 2010, launch of the 5th BeiDou navigation satellite. 17 l November 1, 2010, launch of the 6th BeiDou navigation satellite. l December 18, 2010, launch of the 7th BeiDou navigation satellite. l April 10, 2011, launch of the 8th BeiDou navigation satellite. l July 27, 2011, launch of the 9th BeiDou navigation satellite. l December 2, 2011, launch of the 10th BeiDou navigation satellite. l February 25, 2012, launch of the 11th BeiDou... of the 12th and 13th BeiDou navigation satellites. l September 19, 2012... 15th BeiDou navigation satellites. l October 25, 2012, launch of the 16th BeiDou navigation satellites. 18 BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Signal... Navigation Office Content 1 Statement ........................................................................................... 1 2 Scope ................................................................................................. 1 3 BeiDou System Overview .................................................................. 1 3.1 Space Constellation .................................................................... 1 3.2 Coordinate... China Satellite Navigation Office 1 Statement BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Signal-In.... 3 BeiDou System Overview 3.1 Space Constellation BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is called BeiDou System... Office 6 Acronyms BDS BeiDou Navigation Satellite System BDT BeiDou Navigation Satellite System... BDS-SIS-ICD-2.0 2013-12 BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Open Service... Foreword The space constellation of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) will... Office 2 References BDS-SIS-ICD-2.0 "BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Signal In... Acronyms 3.1 Terms and Definitions The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Open Service... this document: BDS - BeiDou Navigation Satellite System; BDT - BeiDou Navigation Satellite System...



Дата загрузки: 2017-03-31
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... chains have been updated to BeiDou and QZSS processing capability. Satellite... the GNSS GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou (MEO and IGSO), and QZSS... processing weakly observed GNSS (QZSS, BeiDou) are preferred. Thanks to the... GNSS constellations: GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO, BEIDOU, and QZSS. This gives rise... elevation dependent pattern in the BEIDOU pseudo range residuals for the... Antenna Phase Center Corrections for BEIDOU In support of the IGS...) and Medium Earth Orbiting (MEO) BEIDOU spacecraft (Dilssner et al. 2014... and one–half year of BEIDOU triple–frequency (B1, B2, B3... PCO/PCV corrections to the BEIDOU observables gives an improved performance... available: GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO, QZSS, BEIDOU, SBAS, EGNOS, etc. As of... Antenna Phase Center Corrections for BEIDOU. IGS Workshop 2014, June 23...–GNSS processing including GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo has been set... parameter for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS and SBAS – notice advisories... a total of 14 operational satellites, BeiDou constitutes the third satellite navigation... surrounding regions. Tracking of the BeiDou satellites is supported by a subset... was also set up for BeiDou IGSO and MEO type satellites... other relevant parameters. The a priori BeiDou orbits are taken from the... GFZ generates IGR-like GPS+BeiDou orbits and 5 min clock products.... For the analysis, GPS and BeiDou data of the MGEX and... (doy 200) besides GPS and BeiDou, also GLONASS and GALILEO are... of about 10 cm. For BeiDou, there are three different types... 12 cm, respectively. Fortunately, all BeiDou and Galileo satellites are equipped... processing Satellite System GPS GLONASS BeiDou Galileo Median orbit difference RMS... orbit differences between (GPS+GLONASS+BeiDou+Galileo) and GFR (GFZ IGS... RMS [cm] GPS GLONASS GALILEO BeiDou GBM GEO IGSO MEO 100... given for individual Galileo and BeiDou satellites. 60 References References Bradke... Q. Zhao. Precise orbit determination of BeiDou Satellites at GFZ. IGS workshop... M. Uhlemann. Orbit and Clock Determination – BeiDou. IGS workshop 2014, Pasadena USA... system including GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, and QZSS. WHU analyzes MGEX... solutions based on PANDA software. BeiDou orbit and clock products from... Beidou IGSO (C08) and MEO (C11) satellite orbit provided by GPS+Beidou... Activities Figure 5: Beidou C08 orbit validation by SLR. Figure 6: Beidou C11 orbit... and thus no data from Beidou, etc should be present in... signals (e.g., Galileo, QZS, SBAS, and BeiDou). The summary of the MGEX... file containing GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, and SBAS ephemerides from... from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou ionosphere–corrected pseudorange differences and... offset (PCO) values for Galileo, BeiDou and QZSS satellite antennas taking...) Satellite antennas GPS GLONASS Galileo BeiDou QZSS Number 83 92 0 0 0 Receiver... European Galileo and the Chinese BeiDou, an increasing number of types... offer a notably improved coverage of BeiDou and QZSS tracking in the... product, data and product analysis (BeiDou, Galileo, QZSS, IRNSS) Orbit and... Orbit and clock products Ionosphere BeiDou Figure 1: Distribution of MGEX stations... QZSS (blue), Galileo (red), and BeiDou (yellow) as of October 2014..., and, since early 2014 also BeiDou. No IRNSS support is available... of the orbit quality. For BeiDou precise orbit and clock products... of the MGEX network contributed BeiDou observations, however, many of these... offsets and variations for the BeiDou MEO and IGSO satellites have... files for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, and Satellite Based Augmentation... of GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou is provided by DLR for... Wuhan University products for the BeiDou MEO (C11–C14) and IGSO... M. Uhlemann. Orbit and Clock Determination – BeiDou. IGS Workshop 2014, 23–27... Antenna Phase Center Corrections for BeiDou. IGS Workshop 2014, 23–27...–6. El.Mowafy A. Quality Monitoring of BeiDou GEO/IGSO/MEO Satellite Observations...-Mowafy, A. and C. Hu. Validation of BeiDou Observations. Journal of Geodesy, 8(2): 155..., and O. Montenbruck. The Mixed–Receiver BeiDou Inter–Satellite–Type Bias and...



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... Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. - Scientific Reports, 5. DOI: http://doi... Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou Xingxing Li1,2, Xiaohong Zhang1, Xiaodong... available once all four systems (BeiDou 1 Galileo 1 GLONASS 1 GPS) are fully... two new and emerging constellations (BeiDou, Galileo) as well as the.../Navigation/The_future_-_Galileo/What_is_Galileo). The BeiDou navigation satellite system, being established... analyze data of GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo and also serves... the completion of the BeiDou regional system, GPS 1 BeiDou combined precise orbit.... In this contribution, we develop a BeiDou 1 Galileo 1 GLONASS 1 GPS four-system...’ data of MGEX and BETN19 (BeiDou Experimental Tracking Network) networks from..., the satellite visibilities for Galileo, BeiDou, GLONASS and GPS on September... the various orbital types. The BeiDou GEO satellites have the longest... for the whole day. The BeiDou IGSO satellites C06–C10 are... day. The special constellation of BeiDou, including five GEOs and five... epoch, there are about 7 , 13 BeiDou, 5 , 10 GLONASS, and 7 , 14 GPS.... elevation) of GPS, GLONASS, Galileo 1 BeiDou at GMSD, respectively. Compared with... PDOP values are about 1.2 , 3. The BeiDou PDOP values are larger than.... The SNRs and MPCs of BeiDou GEO C02, IGSO C06 Figure... are shown in different colors, BeiDou in blue, GPS in red... Figure 2 | Satellite visibility of Galileo, BeiDou, GLONASS and GPS at the... September 3, 2013 (GPS Time). Galileo, BeiDou, GLONASS and GPS satellites are... about 0.4 m. The STD of the BeiDou MEO’s MPC values is about... different orbital types of the BeiDou satellites, the GEO MPC values... satellite number of GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, Galileo and the total satellite...; c) BeiDou (pink) and Galileo (red); d) all the satellites including GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou... PDOP values of GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and four-system combination are..., which is covered by the BeiDou service of the AsiaPacific area... PPP results of GPS-only, BeiDou-only, GLONASS-only and Galileo... to the GPS solution. The BeiDou-only PPP presents good performance.... The combined GPS/BeiDou,GPS/GLONASS,GPS/Galileo,GPS 1 BeiDou 1 GLONASS 1 Galileo... seen that the combined GPS/BeiDou and GPS/GLONASS solutions significantly... positioning. Especially, the combined GPS 1 BeiDou 1 GLONASS 1 Galileo PPP present the... the Asia-Pacific region of BeiDou service. At this location, both... | 5 : 8328 | DOI: 10.1038/srep08328 BeiDou and Galileo cannot provide continuous.... The cm level accuracy for BeiDou-only or Galileo-only PPP.... Importantly though, the addition of BeiDou or Galileo to the GPS... position series. The combined GPS 1 BeiDou 1 GLONASS 1 Galileo PPP also shows... the highest accuracy, while the BeiDou-only PPP has the worst.... (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou GEO, BeiDou IGSO and BeiDou MEO; on the first... GPS-only, GLONASS-only and BeiDou-only position series are shown..., respectively. The horizontal accuracy of BeiDou-only kinematic PPP is comparable... that of GPS, but the BeiDou vertical accuracy is worse than... 1.2 m, while the RMS value of BeiDou MEO’s code residuals is largest... the different orbital types of BeiDou satellites, the RMS of GEO... within service regions. For the BeiDou phase observations, the RMS of... (GPS Time). The GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and four-system solutions are... that the RMS value of BeiDou MEO residuals is even slightly... current available GNSSs, we developed a BeiDou 1 Galileo 1 GLONASS 1 GPS four-system... show that the addition of BeiDou, Galileo and GLONASS systems to...), R04 (GLONASS), C02 (BeiDou GEO), C06 (BeiDou IGSO), C14 (BeiDou MEO), and E20... (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou GEO, BeiDou IGSO, and BeiDou MEO). and station displacements... the multiconstellation case, the combined BeiDou 1 Galileo 1 GLONASS 1 GPS observation model... the GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO, and BeiDou satellites, respectively; Rk denotes the... interpreted as a relative calibration of ‘‘BeiDou/Galileo with respect to GPS... carrier phase and pseudorange observations; BeiDou 1 Galileo 1 GLONASS 1 GPS, 74 satellites...: L1/L2; GLONASS: L1/L2; BeiDou: B1/B2; Galileo: E1/E5a.../srep08328 6. China Satellite Navigation Office, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Signal in.... Initial assessment of the COMPASS/BeiDou-2 regional navigation satellite system. GPS... al. Precise orbit determination of BeiDou Satellites with precise positioning. Science... Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. Sci. Rep. 5, 8328; DOI:10...



Дата загрузки: 2017-01-04
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0.13/5
New Systems, New Signals Providing BeiDou Integration Technical literature December 2013..., New Signals, New Positions – Providing BeiDou Integration Abstract Leica Geosystems is.... With new GNSS such as BeiDou and other signals and regional... presents some results from integrating BeiDou into Leica Geosystems’ GNSS technologies... RTK positioning and SmartCheck. The BeiDou signal strength is analysed, and... gained through the assimilation of BeiDou data, as well as some... Interface Control Document (ICD; ICD-BeiDou, 2012) and announced the system... software to fully support the BeiDou constellation in the Leica Viva... indicates that the integration of BeiDou into the Leica Viva GNSS... with GPS and GLONASS measurements, BeiDou observations are analysed in this... for Leica Viva GNSS. The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) program... timing services. Technical literature | 3 Beidou Data Collection BeiDou has been developed to... is a special feature of the BeiDou constellation, which enables regional services... practice, the inclusion of the BeiDou constellation into GNSS RTK processing... the tracking performance of the BeiDou signals, raw GNSS observations, along... obtain full passes of the BeiDou MEO satellites and to maximise..., the benefits of integrating the BeiDou constellation into the Leica RTK... in the position domain. The BeiDou satellites transmit signals on three..., respectively (Ge, 2013). The current BeiDou rubidium clocks are competitive with... al. (2013) showed that the BeiDou orbit quality is affected by.... Looking into the future, the BeiDou solutions and products will be... Beidou Into Leica Viva GNSS Technologies The performance of integrating BeiDou into... phase residuals. Fig. 2 shows the BeiDou skyplot observed in Shanghai (Latitude... to ten BeiDou satellites in open sky environment. Figure 2 BeiDou skyplots at... antenna for GPS, GLONASS and BeiDou signals is depicted in Fig..., p. 16) and −163 dBW (ICD-BeiDou, 2012, p. 4) for L1, G1 and... BeiDou B2 signal. More over, being advantageous to GPS L2, the BeiDou...-Hz) for GPS, GLONASS and BeiDou signal tracking (Leica Viva GS10... et al. (2013). However, the BeiDou MEO satellites provide larger SNR..., IGSO: 35,786 km; ICD-BeiDou, 2012, p. 1). It should be noted... computed for GPS, GLONASS and BeiDou. The results over satellite elevation... 0.2 m at high elevations. Generally, the BeiDou B1 measurements illustrate stronger multipath... to the inhomogeneous distribution of BeiDou data over elevation, the RMS..., GLONASS G1 and BeiDou B1, (b) MP skyplot for the BeiDou constellation. Phase... respect to GNSS constellation and BeiDou satellite component. Considering the frequency... B1 for GPS, GLONASS and BeiDou, respectively, the G1 phase observations... the B1 measurements from the BeiDou MEO satellites is slightly larger... dependent. This indicates that the BeiDou MEO signals at low elevations... SmartTrack technology. For the different BeiDou satellite groups, Fig. 5b illustrates... the groupspecific noise characteristics of BeiDou phase observations. In Fig. 5c... respect to GNSS constellation and BeiDou satellite component (zero-baseline test... residuals over elevation for the BeiDou GEO, IGSO and MEO satellites... residuals over elevation for the BeiDou B1 frequency (zero-baseline test... 14.3 8 21 GPS 6.3 3 11 GLONASS 2.7 1 5 BeiDou 5.3 4 8 SmartCheck and xRTK In difficult... 1, depending on the constellation. The BeiDou constellation produces a smaller range of... (mean 2.7). The higher contribution of BeiDou can be attributed to the... this example, the inclusion of BeiDou into SmartCheck increases the high...) to 18.47% (GPS/GLONASS/BeiDou). Considering the RTK results as....47 39.29 GPS/GLONASS/BeiDou 8 | Technical literature Table 3 provides the... GPS/GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS/BeiDou RTK positions achieved under dense... measuring conditions, the GPS/GLONASS/BeiDou RTK positions are also precise... 8.8 6.1 1.9 9.95 9.6 9.6 4.1 39.29 GPS/GLONASS BeiDou Although the results presented in... the benefits of integrating the BeiDou constellation into the existing Leica.... Conclusions Following GPS and GLONASS, BeiDou is now providing positioning, navigation... shown some results from integrating BeiDou into SmartTrack, SmartCheck and xRTK... at common eleva tions. 2. The BeiDou code multipath level is higher... elevations. 3. The noise level of BeiDou single-difference phase observations is... RTK test, the integration of BeiDou increases the number of visible... dense canopy, the inclusion of BeiDou observations into RTK and xRTK... solutions. The promising performance of BeiDou already indicates a more significant contribution.... During the deployment of the BeiDou constellation, more advantages can be... guarantees the maximum benefits of BeiDou integration in both the measurement..., pp. 1597−1604. Ge, M. (2013) BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and its... precise orbit determination of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System. Sensors, 13... 10 | Technical literature ICD-BeiDou (2012) BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Signal In...) Initial assessment of the COMPASS/BeiDou-2 regional navigation satellite system. GPS...



Дата загрузки: 2017-01-10
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... Rohde & Schwarz GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou Receiver Testing Using a GNSS Signal... Rohde & Schwarz GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou Receiver Testing Using a GNSS Signal... Rohde & Schwarz GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou Receiver Testing Using a GNSS Signal... Rohde & Schwarz GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou Receiver Testing Using a GNSS Signal... for GPS, Glonass, Galileo, and BeiDou. Overview of GNSS options for...-K95 Assisted Glonass ® R&S SMBV-K107 BeiDou (6 satellites) R&S®SMBV-K111 GBAS ® 1GP86_2E... Rohde & Schwarz GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou Receiver Testing Using a GNSS Signal... hybrid GPS, Glonass, Galileo, and BeiDou satellite constellations as seen by... Rohde & Schwarz GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou Receiver Testing Using a GNSS Signal... Rohde & Schwarz GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou Receiver Testing Using a GNSS Signal... Rohde & Schwarz GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou Receiver Testing Using a GNSS Signal... 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Rohde & Schwarz GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou Receiver Testing Using a GNSS Signal... Rohde & Schwarz GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou Receiver Testing Using a GNSS Signal... 9 Abbreviations 2D 3D A-GPS AWGN BeiDou CW C/A code C/N DC DOP GDOP... GPS Additive white Gaussian noise BeiDou (Chinese satellite navigation system) Continuous... markup language GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou Receiver Testing Using a GNSS Signal... Rohde & Schwarz GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou Receiver Testing Using a GNSS Signal...



Дата загрузки: 2017-01-10
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0.12/5
... L2, Galileo E1 and E5a/b, BeiDou B1 and B2, and QZSS... Galileo E1/E2 and E5 BeiDou compatible Support of different types... Signal for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS Connector : Type N female... can be GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS GLONASS freq ch... GL: Glonass GA : Galileo BD: BeiDou IR: IRNSS QZ: QZSS 2. PRN...: Exx For GLONASS: Rxx For BeiDou: C xx For QZSS: Jxx For... interference signal iUC , for unmodulated BeiDou interference signal iUJ, for unmodulated... Galileo interference iSc , for sweeping BeiDou interference iSj , for sweeping QZSS... Galileo interference iNc , for noise BeiDou interference iNj , for noise QZSS... 33 consecutive days. For Galileo, BeiDou, and IRNSS, the GSG unit... with Galileo, INRSS and/or BeiDou simulation. The download functionality does... or a Galileo carrier BeiDou: B1,B2 or BeiDou B1,B2 carrier signal... For GPS, SBAS, Galileo, GLONASS, BeiDou, IRNSS and QZSS signals, the...-5/6 Series Rev. 24 3.5  "Select" Menu BEIDOU China; regional system (Asia); planned... systems, i.e. GPS, Glonass, Galileo, and BeiDou, transmit numerous signals across several... L2 Galileo E1 E5 E6 BeiDou B1 B2 B3 L5 For... Galileo: E1 E5A E5B For BeiDou: B1 B2 For QZSS: C/A 72... offsets Constellation GPS GLONASS Galileo Beidou QZSS 3.6.1.1 Signal Power offset, dB... can support: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, SBAS. If equipped with the... supported are: GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou, and QZSS, and their corresponding... supported include GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou and mixed. The RINEX file...: [-7,6] Galileo: [1, 36] SBAS: [120, 158] BeiDou: [1,37] QZSS: [1,4] IRNSS: [1:7] Specifies the... Options for GSG-5: GLONASS GALILEO BEIDOU QZSS Upgrade to 4-channel unit... and 4 simultaneous frequencies GLONASS, GALILEO, BEIDOU, QZSS, IRNSS Add New GPS... L2) Add Galileo E5a/b and BeiDou B2 5.13.3 List of Available... testing. OPT-BDS : enables all BeiDou signals supported. OPT-FN: fixed...: enables GPS L5, Galileo 5a/b, BeiDou B2, IRNSS signals. CHAPTER 5 • User...: reserved for Galileo E6 and BeiDou B3. OPT- MP : allows for... E5a/b, BeiDou B2 L6 – L6 Frequency band, required for BeiDou B3 / Galileo... Generation BDS – BeiDou, enables B1, is required for BeiDou B2 RP – Record... ‘E’ (or ‘e’) for Galileo 'C' (or 'c') for BeiDou ‘J’ (or ‘j’) for QZSS 'I' (or 'i') for... 'UC' (or 'uc') for unmodulated BeiDou signal ‘UJ’ (or ‘uj’) for.... For an unmodulated GPS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, or IRNSS signal, the..., for example E01 Cxx for BeiDou, for example C11 Jxx for... Galileo signal UC for unmodulated BeiDou UJ for unmodulated QZSS UI... Satellite system GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO, BeiDou/QZSS/IRNSS and modulation are... Galileo String BDSB1, BDSB2 for BeiDou String QZSSL1CA, QZSSL1SAIF, QZSSL2C, QZSSL5..., for example E01 C xx for BeiDou, for example C11 Jxx for... Galileo signal UC for unmodulated BeiDou signal UJ for unmodulated QZSS... frequency bands for GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS and IRNSS. Command Syntax... frequency bands for GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS and IRNSS. Command Syntax...:SIGNALtype? Parameter satID – GPS, Glonass, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS and SBAS are... execution. Parameter satID – GPS, Glonass, BeiDou, QZSS and SBAS are supported... Galileo : E1, E5a, E5b For BeiDou: B1, B2, For QZSS : L1CA... Galileo E5a: page id For BeiDou: subframe id For QZSS L1CA... Galileo E5a: 0 (not relevant) For BeiDou: page id For QZSS L1CA... various timescales including GPS, UTC, BeiDou, QZSS, Galileo, GLONASS, EGNOS Network... timescales includ ing GPS, UTC, BeiDou, Galileo, GLONASS, EGNOS Network Time.... Parameters satID – GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS and SBAS are... Galileo: E1, E5a, E5b For Beidou: BDSB1 (or B1), BDSB2 (or.... Parameters satID – GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS and SBAS are... Galileo: E1, E5a, E5b For BeiDou: B1, B2, For QZSS: L1CA... satellites satID – GPS, Glonass, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS and SBAS are...