Спутник навигационных систем. Beidou IGSO 3. [Редактировать]

BD 2M (Beidou 2M) и BD 2I (Beidou 2I) - это космические аппараты которые располагаются на средней и геостационарной орбите и составляют второй этап развития китайской клобальной навигационной системы. Условно данные аппараты разделены на две группировки одна из которых носит наименование Compass-M, а вторая Compass-I. Аппараты построены на основе платформы DFH-3 и оснащены как фазированной антенной для передачи сигналов так и лазерными рефлекторами.

Дополнительные наименования

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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - Китай
2Тип оператора(владельца) - военные
3Тип орбиты - ГСО
4Страна производитель - Китай

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град56.5
2Апогей, км35897.6
3Перигей, км35692.4
4Период, минут1436.2
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км42165

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2011-013A

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2011-04-09 at 20:47:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xBeidou IGSO 3
3Ракета-носитель 1xВеликий поход 3A

Найдено 172 документов по запросу «Beidou IGSO 3». [Перейти к поиску]


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...,GLONASS,QZSS, Galileo BeiDou(検討のみ) GPS,GLONASS,QZSS, Galileo,BeiDou 複数衛星系の基線解析 異機種衛星系間で 位相差を取る 異機種衛星系間で 位相差を取る 受信機ハードウェア バイアス(ISB) GLONASSチャンネル間 バイアス(IFB...,Galileo 全ての組み合わせ評価 GPS,GLONASS,QZSS,Galileo, BeiDou 全ての組み合わせ評価 複数衛星系の 信号選択 品質が良好な信号を自動 で選択する方法 3 平成26年度マルチGNSS解析技術等の開発に向けた衛星系の組み合わせに関する技術改良業務 平成26年12月9日 各種バイアスの定義 ※第4回マルチGNSS...年12月9日 各受信機の捕捉信号と周波数 GPS 受信機 GLONASS QZSS Galileo BeiDou L1 C/A L1 P(Y) L2 P(Y) L2 C L5... ● × ● ○ ● ● ○ ○ ● × ● ○ ● ● ● ● ○ ● ● ○ ●:解析に使用、○:受信機捕捉可能、×:受信機捕捉不可 周波数(MHz) GPS QZSS Galileo GLONASS BeiDou L1, E1, B1 1575.42...解析技術等の開発に向けた衛星系の組み合わせに関する技術改良業務 平成26年12月9日 BeiDou衛星情報 IGSのThe Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) で公開されているBeiDou情報 (http://www.igs.org/mgex/constellation#BeiDou) 衛星情報 GEO IGSO MEO Common Name BEIDOU M1 BEIDOU G2 BEIDOU G1 BEIDOU G6 BEIDOU G3 BEIDOU G4 BEIDOU G5 BEIDOU IGSO 1 BEIDOU IGSO 2 BEIDOU IGSO 3 BEIDOU IGSO 4 BEIDOU IGSO 5 BEIDOU M3 BEIDOU M4 BEIDOU M5 BEIDOU...は日本で観測する場合、低仰角で静止しているため観測データのノイ ズが多く、基線解析でフィックス解が減少するため、本業務では解析から除外した 9 平成26年度マルチGNSS解析技術等の開発に向けた衛星系の組み合わせに関する技術改良業務 平成26年12月9日 GPS-BeiDou異機種受信機混合解析 基準点、移動点の座標を固定したFixedモードでキネマティック解析 2014年8月9日0時から24時間 基準点:Javad Delta... 仰角 SNR GPS, BeiDou MEO, IGSO BeiDou GEO BeiDou GEOとMEO間、BeiDou GEOとIGSO間でL1搬送波位相に 1/2サイクル(約10cm)のバイアスが発生 ISTB..., et.al, “The mixed-receiver BeiDou inter-satellite-type bias and... 平成26年度マルチGNSS解析技術等の開発に向けた衛星系の組み合わせに関する技術改良業務 平成26年12月9日 GPS-BeiDou異機種受信機混合解析ISTB補正 キネマティック解析 2014年8月9日0時から24時間 基準点:Javad Delta...と他の衛星系の補正値で入力 内部で他の衛星系との組み合わせに変換 ③ ④ QZSS L2C 1/4サイクルシフト補正機能追加 QZSS L2Cで発生する1/4 サイクルシフト補正機能実装 ① ⑤ BeiDou B1 1/2サイクルシフト補正機能追加 BeiDouで発生する1/2 サイクルシフト補正機能実装 ⑤ ④ 12 平成26年度マルチGNSS解析技術等の開発に向けた衛星系の組み合わせに関する技術改良業務 平成26年12...の 温度依存性評価 13 平成26年度マルチGNSS解析技術等の開発に向けた衛星系の組み合わせに関する技術改良業務 平成26年12月9日 解析 衛星系の組み合わせ ・BeiDouと他の衛星系(GPS、GLONASS、Galileo、QZSS)の組み合わせ 受信機の組み合わせ ・Javad...千葉市川のF3解を基準としたGPS のみStaticモードによるFix解 仰角マスク 15度 解析使用周波数 BeiDou - GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, QZSS : L1... 平成26年度マルチGNSS解析技術等の開発に向けた衛星系の組み合わせに関する技術改良業務 擬似距離ISB推定 推定値 平成26年12月9日 BeiDouと他の衛星系の組み合わせ Javad Delta基準Trimble NetR9(1,2) 擬似距離ISB... 平成26年度マルチGNSS解析技術等の開発に向けた衛星系の組み合わせに関する技術改良業務 平成26年12月9日 擬似距離ISB推定温度依存性プロット BeiDouと他の衛星系の組み合わせからGPSと他の衛星系の組み合わせに変換 Javad Delta基準Trimble NetR9... 平成26年度マルチGNSS解析技術等の開発に向けた衛星系の組み合わせに関する技術改良業務 平成26年12月9日 搬送波位相ISB推定 推定値 BeiDouと他の衛星系の組み合わせ Javad Delta基準Trimble NetR9 (1,2) 搬送波位相ISB... 平成26年度マルチGNSS解析技術等の開発に向けた衛星系の組み合わせに関する技術改良業務 平成26年12月9日 搬送波位相ISB推定値温度依存性プロット BeiDouと他の衛星系の組み合わせからGPSと他の衛星系の組み合わせに変換 Javad Delta基準Trimble NetR9... 平成26年度マルチGNSS解析技術等の開発に向けた衛星系の組み合わせに関する技術改良業務 平成26年12月9日 BeiDouと他の衛星系を組み合わせた解析  擬似距離ISB及び搬送波位相ISBの値が大きい場合 これらを補正しないとフィックス解は得られない  BeiDouと他の衛星系間の搬送波位相ISBが 受信機再起動で変化するため ISBの補正値をテーブルとして与えることが難しい 衛星系の組み合わせと受信機再起動による搬送波位相ISBの変化 ●:変化あり 衛星系 信号 Javad... L1 ● BDS-QZS L1 L2 ● ● BeiDouと他の衛星系で位相差を取らない混合解析 21 平成26年度マルチGNSS解析技術等の開発に向けた衛星系の組み合わせに関する技術改良業務 平成26年12...の補正値は0m基線の観測データで 推定した値を使用 GLONASSのIFBは0m基線の観測データで推定した値を使用   GLONASSと他の衛星系の組み合わせは位相差を取らない混合解析 BeiDouと他の衛星系の組み合わせは位相差を取らない混合解析  GPS、Galileo、QZSSの組み合わせは位相差を取る統合解析  22 平成26...衛星、PDOP平均1.1 GPS GLONASS Galileo QZSS BeiDou 時刻 (hh:mm) <GPST> 24 平成26...年度マルチGNSS解析技術等の開発に向けた衛星系の組み合わせに関する技術改良業務 仰角15度 衛星捕捉状況スカイプロット GPS QZSS GLONASS BeiDou 2014年7月26日6時0分0秒<GPST>のスカイプロット Galileo All... 平成26年度マルチGNSS解析技術等の開発に向けた衛星系の組み合わせに関する技術改良業務 平成26年12月9日 まとめ  BeiDouと他の衛星系の組み合わせによる擬似距離ISBは、受信機 ファームウェアや1m基線、アンテナ個体差、アンテナ交換で変化するが 測位解に影響を与えるほど大きな変化はない  BeiDouと他の衛星系の組み合わせによる搬送波位相ISBは、受信機 ファームウェアや受信機再起動で変化し、測位解に影響を与える そのため、BeiDouと他の衛星系間で位相差を取らない混合解析とする  擬似距離ISB、搬送波位相ISBとも受信機内部温度に依存して変化する が、今回の受信機の組み合わせでは変化量は小さい  GPS...



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... Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. - Scientific Reports, 5. DOI: http://doi... Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou Xingxing Li1,2, Xiaohong Zhang1, Xiaodong... available once all four systems (BeiDou 1 Galileo 1 GLONASS 1 GPS) are fully... two new and emerging constellations (BeiDou, Galileo) as well as the.../Navigation/The_future_-_Galileo/What_is_Galileo). The BeiDou navigation satellite system, being established... comprises 5 GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit), 3 IGSO (Inclined Geo-Synchronous Orbit), and... 35,786 km, five in IGSO at an altitude of 35... analyze data of GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo and also serves... the completion of the BeiDou regional system, GPS 1 BeiDou combined precise orbit.... In this contribution, we develop a BeiDou 1 Galileo 1 GLONASS 1 GPS four-system...’ data of MGEX and BETN19 (BeiDou Experimental Tracking Network) networks from..., the satellite visibilities for Galileo, BeiDou, GLONASS and GPS on September... the various orbital types. The BeiDou GEO satellites have the longest... for the whole day. The BeiDou IGSO satellites C06–C10 are tracked... day. The special constellation of BeiDou, including five GEOs and five... epoch, there are about 7 , 13 BeiDou, 5 , 10 GLONASS, and 7 , 14 GPS.... elevation) of GPS, GLONASS, Galileo 1 BeiDou at GMSD, respectively. Compared with... PDOP values are about 1.2 , 3. The BeiDou PDOP values are larger than... SNRs and MPCs of BeiDou GEO C02, IGSO C06 Figure 1 | The distribution... are shown in different colors, BeiDou in blue, GPS in red... Figure 2 | Satellite visibility of Galileo, BeiDou, GLONASS and GPS at the... September 3, 2013 (GPS Time). Galileo, BeiDou, GLONASS and GPS satellites are... for SNR and MPC. The IGSO satellites can be observed much... about 0.4 m. The STD of the BeiDou MEO’s MPC values is about... different orbital types of the BeiDou satellites, the GEO MPC values... a STD about 0.22 m, compared to IGSO with about 0.3 m, which is between... satellite number of GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, Galileo and the total satellite...; c) BeiDou (pink) and Galileo (red); d) all the satellites including GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou... PDOP values of GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and four-system combination are... proportion of lowelevation periods for IGSO is lower than that of..., which is covered by the BeiDou service of the AsiaPacific area... PPP results of GPS-only, BeiDou-only, GLONASS-only and Galileo... to the GPS solution. The BeiDou-only PPP presents good performance.... The combined GPS/BeiDou,GPS/GLONASS,GPS/Galileo,GPS 1 BeiDou 1 GLONASS 1 Galileo... seen that the combined GPS/BeiDou and GPS/GLONASS solutions significantly... positioning. Especially, the combined GPS 1 BeiDou 1 GLONASS 1 Galileo PPP present the... the Asia-Pacific region of BeiDou service. At this location, both... | 5 : 8328 | DOI: 10.1038/srep08328 BeiDou and Galileo cannot provide continuous.... The cm level accuracy for BeiDou-only or Galileo-only PPP.... Importantly though, the addition of BeiDou or Galileo to the GPS... position series. The combined GPS 1 BeiDou 1 GLONASS 1 Galileo PPP also shows... the highest accuracy, while the BeiDou-only PPP has the worst..., R04, E20, C02(GEO), C06(IGSO) and C13(MEO) are selected... station. (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou GEO, BeiDou IGSO and BeiDou MEO; on the first... GPS-only, GLONASS-only and BeiDou-only position series are shown..., respectively. The horizontal accuracy of BeiDou-only kinematic PPP is comparable... that of GPS, but the BeiDou vertical accuracy is worse than... 1.2 m, while the RMS value of BeiDou MEO’s code residuals is largest... the different orbital types of BeiDou satellites, the RMS of GEO... 1.3 m, while the RMS of the IGSO residuals is about 1.5 m, which is... of low-elevation periods for IGSO is lower than that of... within service regions. For the BeiDou phase observations, the RMS of... (GPS Time). The GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and four-system solutions are... that the RMS value of BeiDou MEO residuals is even slightly... current available GNSSs, we developed a BeiDou 1 Galileo 1 GLONASS 1 GPS four-system... show that the addition of BeiDou, Galileo and GLONASS systems to...), R04 (GLONASS), C02 (BeiDou GEO), C06 (BeiDou IGSO), C14 (BeiDou MEO), and E20 (Galileo... types (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou GEO, BeiDou IGSO, and BeiDou MEO). and station displacements... the multiconstellation case, the combined BeiDou 1 Galileo 1 GLONASS 1 GPS observation model... the GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO, and BeiDou satellites, respectively; Rk denotes the... interpreted as a relative calibration of ‘‘BeiDou/Galileo with respect to GPS... carrier phase and pseudorange observations; BeiDou 1 Galileo 1 GLONASS 1 GPS, 74 satellites...: L1/L2; GLONASS: L1/L2; BeiDou: B1/B2; Galileo: E1/E5a.../srep08328 6. China Satellite Navigation Office, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Signal in.... Initial assessment of the COMPASS/BeiDou-2 regional navigation satellite system. GPS... al. Precise orbit determination of BeiDou Satellites with precise positioning. Science... Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. Sci. Rep. 5, 8328; DOI:10...



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... СПУТНИКОВЫХ РАДИОНАВИГАЦИОННЫХ СИСТЕМ ГЛОНАСС, GPS И BEIDOU IGSO ...................................................................................................................................... 27 2.1 Общие закономерности орбитальной эволюции... и орбитальной эволюции неуправляемых объектов системы BEIDOU IGSO ................................................................... 37 2.2.3 Особенности орбитальной эволюции объектов... спутниковых радионавигационных систем ГЛОНАСС, GPS, BEIDOU IGSO и рассмотрена проблема утилизации объектов системы... отработавших объектов СРНС ГЛОНАСС, GPS и BEIDOU IGSO, показано, что влияние вековых резонансов..., GPS и BEIDOU IGSO (inclination geostationary orbits), то есть для навигационной системы BEIDOU рассмотрена... СПУТНИКОВЫХ РАДИОНАВИГАЦИОННЫХ СИСТЕМ ГЛОНАСС, GPS И BEIDOU IGSO 2.1 Общие закономерности орбитальной эволюции неуправляемых... трех навигационных систем ГЛОНАСС, GPS и BEIDOU IGSO. 2.1.1.Зависимость возрастания эксцентриситета от наклонения....4974 M 0 , град 99.7009 0.0000 BEIDOU IGSO-1 86178.60 0.00280 54.7511... BEIDOU IGSO-3 86169.00 0.00212 55.6720 92.6995 191.2421 0.7374 BEIDOU IGSO... объектов с орбитами типа ГЛОНАСС, GPS и BEIDOU IGSO на столетнем интервале времени. В процессе..., 2008). Геосинхронные спутники навигационной системы BEIDOU IGSO (рисунок 2.1б) находятся по наклонениям... орбит спутников систем ГЛОНАСС, GPS и BEIDOU IGSO, но также наклонения орбит спутников... неуправляемых объектов системы BEIDOU IGSO Орбитальные параметры объектов китайской системы BEIDOU IGSO существенно отличаются от параметров систем ГЛОНАСС и GPS. Спутники BEIDOU IGSO расположены... для всех спутников навигационной системы BEIDOU IGSO, расположенных на геосинхронных орбитах, определенные.... Результаты данного моделирования для объектов BEIDOU IGSO показаны на графиках, приведенных на... периоды спутников системы BEIDOU IGSO Спутник T, с IGSO-1 87520 IGSO-2 86515 IGSO-3 85850 IGSO-4 86725 IGSO-5 86960 Следует отметить, что у всех спутников BEIDOU IGSO, кроме IGSO... IGSO-1, IGSO-2, IGSO-4 и IGSO-5 не достигают резонансных значений на 500-летнем интервале численного моделирования. BEIDOU IGSO-1 BEIDOU IGSO-2 BEIDOU IGSO-3 BEIDOU IGSO-4 BEIDOU IGSO-5 Рисунок 2.9 — Определение периодов орбитального резонанса для спутников навигационной системы BEIDOU IGSO 39... орбитального резонанса и периода обращения спутника BEIDOU IGSO-3 на интервале времени 500 лет... резонанса BEIDOU IGSO-3 Перейдем к анализу структуры вековых резонансов неуправляемых объектов системы BEIDOU IGSO. В таблице... объектов BEIDOU IGSO № 10 11 12 13 14 25 27 29 BEIDOU IGSO-1 BEIDOU IGSO-2 BEIDOU IGSO-3 BEIDOU IGSO-4 BEIDOU IGSO-5 Мин... На рисунке 2.11 для объекта BEIDOU IGSO-1 показаны изменения во времени всех... им критических аргументов (б) для объекта BEIDOU IGSO-1 41 аргументы, кроме двух  25... параметров MEGNO и значительной хаотизации движения. BEIDOU IGSO-1 Рисунок 2.12 — Эволюция наклонения i, эксцентриситета... MEGNO для объектов для спутника BEIDOU IGSO-1 Спутники BEIDOU IGSO-2 и -5 (таблица 2.4) имеют одинаковый набор... объектов навигационной системы BEIDOU IGSO-2 (и -5) 43 То, что объекты BEIDOU IGSO-2, -5 обладают одинаковыми наборами... рисунке 2.13 данные для BEIDOU IGSO-2, а данные для BEIDOU IGSO-5 опускаем. Приведенные данные говорят... 2.14). Из всех объектов системы BEIDOU IGSO эти объекты имеют наименьшие значения... после 100 летнего интервала эволюции. BEIDOU IGSO-2 BEIDOU IGSO-5 Рисунок 2.14 — Эволюция наклонения i, эксцентриситета... MEGNO для объектов для спутников BEIDOU IGSO-2 и -5 44 а) б) Рисунок 2.15 — Эволюция резонансных... BEIDOU IGSO-3 45 Cпутник BEIDOU IGSO-3 имеет такой же набор острых вековых резонансов что и BEIDOU IGSO... через орбитальный резонанс (рисунок 2.10). BEIDOU IGSO-3 Рисунок 2.16 — Эволюция наклонения i, эксцентриситета... MEGNO для объектов для спутника BEIDOU IGSO-3 В результате всех перечисленных особенностей изменение... весьма быстро (рисунок 2.16). У объекта BEIDOU IGSO-4 в процессе долговременной орбитальной эволюции 4 резонансных... аргументов (б) для объекта навигационной системы BEIDOU IGSO-4 47 Критические аргументы, связанные с резонансами... говорит о хаотичности движения данного объекта. BEIDOU IGSO-4 Рисунок 2.18 — Эволюция наклонения i, эксцентриситета... MEGNO для объектов для спутника BEIDOU IGSO-4 2.2.3 Особенности орбитальной эволюции объектов СРНС... радионавигационных систем ГЛОНАСС, GPS, а также BEIDOU IGSO. Показано, что наложение вековых резонансов... объектам навигационных систем GPS, ГЛОНАСС и BEIDOU IGSO. Кроме того, как показано в разделе... глобальных навигационных систем: ГЛОНАСС, GPS и BEIDOU IGSO. 64 Полученные оценки хорошо согласуются... отработавших объектов СРНС ГЛОНАСС, GPS и BEIDOU IGSO. Показано, что влияние вековых резонансов...



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...: 18 June 2016 Abstract: The BeiDou satellite-induced code biases have... or the improved model. Keywords: BeiDou; code bias variation; code-phase... The Chinese BeiDou navigation satellite system (abbreviated as BDS, or BeiDou, or... BeiDou satellites including six geostationary orbit (GEO), seven inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO... mentioning that only 13 operational BeiDou satellites are presently available (5GEO... characteristics of BeiDou signals, Nadarajah et al. first discovered the BeiDou Inter..., however, are commonly found in BeiDou IGSO and MEO satellites [22]. The... important contribution to the current BeiDou constellation. Nevertheless, the data used... frequencies triple-frequency Take (B1, BeiDou example; the codecombinations. multipath on... Figure 1 are MP seriesin ofthis BeiDou satellites observed on JFNG (Wuhan... of BeiDou satellites observed on JFNG China) a Trimble Net R9 receiver. BeiDou..., types, i.e., GEO,with IGSO, a Trimble Net R9 receiver. BeiDou satellites are grouped... GPS, are found in BeiDou MEO and IGSO satellites. The code bias variation reaches approximately 1 m at high elevation BeiDou MEO and IGSO satellites. The code bias... elevation [degrees] 75 90 Figure 1. BeiDou and GPS code MP series... coefficients for both GPS and BeiDou satellites. In general, the correlation... for BeiDou IGSOs and MEOs, whereas the correlations of GPS and BeiDou... whether such code biases affect BeiDou GEO code measurements. Hence, the... series. BeiDou GPS MP1 MP2 MP3 ´0.04 0.08 0.12 GEO IGSO MEO... GNSS receivers capable to receive BeiDou signals. Most of these stations... NetR9 receivers providing triple-frequency BeiDou observations. However, only a few stations... a long-term variation of the BeiDou satellite induced code bias. However... of 10 for Figure BeiDou MEO and IGSO satellites. As already mentioned, stations equipped with Septentrio receivers BeiDou MEO MEO and and IGSO IGSO satellites. satellites. As... with Septentrio Septentrio receivers receivers BeiDou provide only B1 and B2... an interval of 10° for BeiDou MEO (left) Figure Figure 3. 3. Number... a Trimble NetR9 receiver. AllNetR9 available BeiDou duringBeiDou the test period (i.e.,the... a Trimble NetR9 receiver. All available BeiDou data during the test period... models for BeiDou MEO MEO (left) (left) and and IGSO satellites satellites... models for BeiDou BeiDou Figure 4. 4. Piecewise linear for MEO (left) and IGSO IGSO satellites... linear MP models for BeiDou MEO (left) and IGSO satellites (right) using... for for BeiDou MEO MEO (left) (left) and and IGSO IGSO satellites satellites... different stations (equipped with six BeiDou Trimble receivers and four Septentrio... model for BeiDou satellite bias. addition the correction the corresponding BeiDou satellite... correction values, the corresponding precisions BeiDou code bias. In addition to... BeiDou MEO/IGSO code measurements. Table 2. Correction values and their precisions for BeiDou MEO/IGSO... Correction andelevation their precisions for(0,5) BeiDou code measurements. 5° and 85° are... are summarized in Table 3. Precise BeiDou orbits and clock corrections provided... are summarized in Table 3. Precise BeiDou orbits and clock corrections provided... after convergence with the current BeiDou constellation even if we leave... from the other GNSS systems, BeiDou (IGSO and MEO) code measurements are... from the other GNSS systems, BeiDou (IGSO and MEO) code measurements are..., S. Initial Assessment of the COMPASS/BeiDou-2 Regional Navigation Satellite System. GPS..., L.; Uhlemann, M. Orbit and Clock Determination-BeiDou. In Proceedings of the International... ionospheric delay with ground-based BeiDou and GPS observations in China..., X. Estimating zenith tropospheric delays from BeiDou navigation satellite system observations. Sensors... differential code bias corrections for BeiDou positioning. J. Geod. 2015, 89, 427... analysis of code measurements for BeiDou geostationary satellites. GPS Solut. 2015...-frequency carrier ambiguity resolution for Beidou navigation satellite system. GPS Solut... triple-frequency ambiguity resolution with BeiDou observations. GPS Solut. 2015, 20... navigation and positioning performance of BeiDou regional navigation satellite system. Sci..., X. Precise Point Positioning with the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System. Sensors 2014... Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. Sci. Rep. 2015, 5. [CrossRef] [PubMed...-time precise positioning: GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, and Galileo. J. Geod. 2015, 89.... 2016. [CrossRef] Nadarajah, N.; Teunissen, P.J.G.; Raziq, N. BeiDou inter-satellite-type bias evaluation..., P.J.G.; Sleewaegen, J.M.; Montenbruck, O. The mixed-receiver BeiDou inter-satellite-type bias and..., 357–368. [CrossRef] Wanninger, L.; Beer, S. BeiDou satellite-induced code pseudorange variations... Asia: First Experience with the BeiDou-2 Regional Navigation System. Poster at...



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... chains have been updated to BeiDou and QZSS processing capability. Satellite... GNSS GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou (MEO and IGSO), and QZSS in a fully... processing weakly observed GNSS (QZSS, BeiDou) are preferred. Thanks to the... GNSS constellations: GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO, BEIDOU, and QZSS. This gives rise... elevation dependent pattern in the BEIDOU pseudo range residuals for the... Antenna Phase Center Corrections for BEIDOU In support of the IGS... the Inclined Geosynchronous (IGSO) and Medium Earth Orbiting (MEO) BEIDOU spacecraft (Dilssner... and one–half year of BEIDOU triple–frequency (B1, B2, B3... angle with 13 (MEO) and 9 (IGSO), respectively, linear segments (Fig. 2). The... PCO/PCV corrections to the BEIDOU observables gives an improved performance... Figure 2: Satellite– and block–specific IGSO (top) and MEO (bottom) PCV... variance–covariance matrix. Results for IGSO–4/5 are not shown for reasons... available: GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO, QZSS, BEIDOU, SBAS, EGNOS, etc. As of... Antenna Phase Center Corrections for BEIDOU. IGS Workshop 2014, June 23...–GNSS processing including GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo has been set... parameter for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS and SBAS – notice advisories... a total of 14 operational satellites, BeiDou constitutes the third satellite navigation... surrounding regions. Tracking of the BeiDou satellites is supported by a subset... 57 GFZ Analysis Center orbit (IGSO) can be provides as well... was also set up for BeiDou IGSO and MEO type satellites. The... other relevant parameters. The a priori BeiDou orbits are taken from the... GFZ generates IGR-like GPS+BeiDou orbits and 5 min clock products.... For the analysis, GPS and BeiDou data of the MGEX and... (doy 200) besides GPS and BeiDou, also GLONASS and GALILEO are.... For BeiDou, there are three different types of orbits: GEO, IGSO and... value of 1 to 2 meter. The IGSO and MEO satellites have RMS... 12 cm, respectively. Fortunately, all BeiDou and Galileo satellites are equipped... processing Satellite System GPS GLONASS BeiDou Galileo Median orbit difference RMS... orbit differences between (GPS+GLONASS+BeiDou+Galileo) and GFR (GFZ IGS... [cm] GPS GLONASS GALILEO BeiDou GBM GEO IGSO MEO 100 40 20...) SLR residuals [m] Stdv (grey) 0.2 0.0 −0.2 −0.4 MEO IGSO GEO E11 E12 E19 C11... given for individual Galileo and BeiDou satellites. 60 References References Bradke... Q. Zhao. Precise orbit determination of BeiDou Satellites at GFZ. IGS workshop... M. Uhlemann. Orbit and Clock Determination – BeiDou. IGS workshop 2014, Pasadena USA... system including GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, and QZSS. WHU analyzes MGEX... solutions based on PANDA software. BeiDou orbit and clock products from... the Beidou IGSO (C08) and MEO (C11) satellite orbit provided by GPS+Beidou... Activities Figure 5: Beidou C08 orbit validation by SLR. Figure 6: Beidou C11 orbit... and thus no data from Beidou, etc should be present in... signals (e.g., Galileo, QZS, SBAS, and BeiDou). The summary of the MGEX... file containing GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, and SBAS ephemerides from... from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou ionosphere–corrected pseudorange differences and... offset (PCO) values for Galileo, BeiDou and QZSS satellite antennas taking...) Satellite antennas GPS GLONASS Galileo BeiDou QZSS Number 83 92 0 0 0 Receiver... European Galileo and the Chinese BeiDou, an increasing number of types... offer a notably improved coverage of BeiDou and QZSS tracking in the... product, data and product analysis (BeiDou, Galileo, QZSS, IRNSS) Orbit and... Orbit and clock products Ionosphere BeiDou Figure 1: Distribution of MGEX stations... QZSS (blue), Galileo (red), and BeiDou (yellow) as of October 2014..., and, since early 2014 also BeiDou. No IRNSS support is available... of the orbit quality. For BeiDou precise orbit and clock products... of the MGEX network contributed BeiDou observations, however, many of these... satellites in inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and geostationary orbit (GEO) and... (MEO). For the MEO and IGSO orbits a consistency at the few... and variations for the BeiDou MEO and IGSO satellites have been estimated... files for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, and Satellite Based Augmentation... of GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou is provided by DLR for... products for the BeiDou MEO (C11–C14) and IGSO satellites (C06–C10... M. Uhlemann. Orbit and Clock Determination – BeiDou. IGS Workshop 2014, 23–27... Antenna Phase Center Corrections for BeiDou. IGS Workshop 2014, 23–27....Mowafy A. Quality Monitoring of BeiDou GEO/IGSO/MEO Satellite Observations IEEE Workshop...-Mowafy, A. and C. Hu. Validation of BeiDou Observations. Journal of Geodesy, 8(2): 155..., and O. Montenbruck. The Mixed–Receiver BeiDou Inter–Satellite–Type Bias and...



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... 16-18 July, 2013 The BeiDou Navigation Message Oliver Montenbruck DLR... provides an overview of the BeiDou navigation message contents and highlights... CONGO networks, the quality of BeiDou broadcast ephemerides is assessed through... consideration in the positioning. KEYWORDS: BeiDou, Broadcast Ephemeris, multi-GNSS positioning... of the Russsian GLONASS system, BeiDou is the third navigation satellite... of the GEO and IGSO satellites, the BeiDou system provides best coverage... this area can benefit from BeiDou as either a supplement to legacy... geometry and coverage of the BeiDou constellation is fully symmetric with... quality of navigation information. 1 Table 1. BeiDou constellation status as of April... deployment and testing of the BeiDou system, a public interface control document... a full regional navigation service. All BeiDou satellites transmit signals on a total... previously enabled researchers to track BeiDou signals in all frequency bands... first provide a summary of the BeiDou navigation message contents and describe... al. 2013). 2 2. BEIDOU MESSAGE TYPES AND STRUCTURE The BeiDou system utilizes two... structure of the BeiDou D1 navigation message for MEO/IGSO satellites. Each... message broadcast by the geostationary BeiDou satellites employs a ten times higher... ICD. Subframe 5, finally, contains the BeiDou almanac, ionosphere grid data for... the D2 navigation message for BeiDou GEO satellites. Each block represents... navigation accuracy for single-frequency BeiDou users in this region. The... and scaling factors for the BeiDou ephemeris parameters in the D1... al. 2012b). 3. BEIDOU BROADCAST NAVIGATION MODELS 3.1 Orbit Model BeiDou is the first navigation system employing MEO, IGSO, and... to communicate correction data in BeiDou, but are an integral part... has been defined for geostationary BeiDou satellites to cope with the...  0w (2) For use with geostationary BeiDou satellites, the model is modified... orbital inclination of the geostationary BeiDou satellites relative to the Earth... completeness, it is emphasized that BeiDou employs different values for the... parameters of BeiDou, GPS, and Galileo ephemeris models. Parameter GM ω BeiDou GPS... well aware, though, that the BeiDou TGD1 group delay parameter is... by Chinese authorities for the BeiDou extension of the Receiver INdependent... hand, inspection of the raw BeiDou navigation data frames shows that... Model For single-frequency users, BeiDou broadcasts a set of eight correction... night side. Coefficients for the BeiDou ionosphere model are determined from... Wu et al. (2013) the BeiDou model outperforms the Klobuchar model... PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT 4.1 Ephemeris Age The BeiDou navigation message comprises an integer..., since uplink stations of the BeiDou ground segment are limited to... the satellite’s ground-position for BeiDou IGSO satellites 8 This is illustrated in... the satellite’s ground-position for BeiDou MEO satellites. Due to a lack... As a first test of the BeiDou broadcast ephemeris accuracy, satellite laser... range error (SISRE) of the BeiDou broadcast ephemerides. Interestingly, the observed... based on broadcast orbits) for BeiDou satellites tracked by the ILRS... Products For a complementary quality assessment, BeiDou orbit and clock products have... a ionosphere-free linear combination of BeiDou observations in the B1/B2.... 10 Figure 7. Differences between BeiDou MEO and IGSO broadcast orbits and post... post-processed products for BeiDou MEO and IGSO satellites (March 10-19... to different realization of the BeiDou system time. As discussed in... in the comparison of BeiDou MEO and IGSO broadcast orbits with post... positioning results using GPS and BeiDou observations. Results for a total of... signal combinations. In case of BeiDou, broadcast group delay parameters were... a somewhat lower positioning performance for BeiDou as compared to GPS. Best... the BeiDou satellites and employ them for real-time navigation. The BeiDou... the geostationary satellites of the BeiDou constellation a distinct navigation message type... of the standard navigation data. BeiDou thus 13 combines the services...-frequency B1 navigation service, the BeiDou system can already be used... must be taken, though, that BeiDou adopts a different concept for the... the GPS constellation average of 0.8 m, BeiDou users are also commonly affected... of 2.5-5 m have been obtained in BeiDou-only solutions, while GPS-only... combination. With the given performance, BeiDou clearly lends itself as a standalone... to a take full advantage of BeiDou in precise point positioning applications... the BeiDou navigation information. Satellite laser ranging observations of the BeiDou satellites.../s10291-008-0095-y CSNO (2012) BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Signal In... Precise Orbit Determination of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, Sensors 13... Asia: First Experience with the BeiDou-2 Regional Navigation System, IGS Workshop...) Initial Assessment of the COMPASS/BeiDou-2 Regional Navigation Satellite System, GPS... J (2012) Precise orbit determination of Beidou satellites with precise positioning, Science...



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.../constellation#BeiDou」 表 2-18 BeiDou 衛星情報 軌道 タイプ Common Name SVN 37 PRN Notes GEO IGSO MEO Suspected clock problems BEIDOU M1 C001 C30 BEIDOU G2....5°E BEIDOU G4 C005 C04 160.0° E BEIDOU G5 C011 C05 58.75° E BEIDOU IGSO 1 C006 C06 ~120° E BEIDOU IGSO 2 C007 C07 ~120° E BEIDOU IGSO 3 C008 C08 ~120° E BEIDOU IGSO 4 C009 C09 ~95° E BEIDOU IGSO 5 C010 C10 ~95° E BEIDOU M3 C012 C11 BEIDOU M4 C013 C12 BEIDOU M5.... 2012) 2.2.7. GPS と BeiDou GEO の混合解析による BeiDou GEO の影響調査 BeiDou の GEO 衛星は静止衛星であり、衛星の仰角、方位角が一定である。マルチパ ス誤差は一般的に仰角により変化するが、静止衛星では変化が小さくなるため、マルチ パス誤差が大きい場合、測位に悪影響を及ぼすことが懸念される。そこで、GPS と BeiDou の GEO 衛星のみを使用し、GPS と BeiDou で位相差を取らない混合解析で基 線解析を行い、解析結果の残差の確認を行った。 0m 基線観測条件の 8 月 9 日 24... Research Centre, Curtin University)らの報告[3]によると、BeiDou の衛星タイプの違いにより、異機種の受信 機で二重差を取る場合に、GEO と MEO の間、及び GEO と IGSO の間で、搬送波位相 に Inter System Type... と報告と同様に、BeiDou GEO とそれ以外との衛星との間に L1 の みにおいて、0.5 サイクルに相当する約 10cm の搬送波位相の差が確認された。 42 ●フィックス解、●フロート解 擬似距離残差 搬送波位相残差 BeiDou GEO GPS, BeiDou MEO, BeiDou IGSO SNR と仰角 図 2-31 GPS と BeiDou の混合解析結果 L1 残差、SNR と仰角 ●フィックス解、●フロート解 擬似距離残差 搬送波位相残差 SNR と仰角 図 2-32 GPS と BeiDou の混合解析結果 L2... モデル 対流圏補正 Saastamoinen モデル 除去衛星 BeiDou C02 解析結果を衛星系の組み合わせごとに表 2-65 から表 2-68 に示す。また、フィックス 解の割合のプロット図及び座標の精度のプロット図を図 2-54 から図 2-61 に示す。 なお、表の補正の分類は下記のとおりである。  BeiDou のみ BeiDou のみの解析  混合解析 BeiDou と他の衛星系で位相差を取らない混合解析  統合解析 全補正なし BeiDou と他の衛星系で位相差を取る統合解析 擬似距離 ISB、搬送波位相 ISB とも補正なし  統合解析 擬似距離 ISB 補正なし BeiDou と他の衛星系で位相差を取る統合解析 擬似距離 ISB 補正なし、搬送波位相 ISB 補正あり  統合解析 搬送波位相 ISB 補正なし BeiDou と他の衛星系で位相差を取る統合解析 擬似距離 ISB 補正あり、搬送波位相 ISB 補正なし  統合解析 全補正あり BeiDou と他の衛星系で位相差を取る統合解析 擬似距離 ISB、搬送波位相 ISB とも補正あり BeiDou のみの解析では、フィックス率が 100%、 、BeiDou と他の衛星系の組み合わせ による混合解析でも 100%のフィックス率であった。座標の精度については BeiDou の みと比較し混合解析の方が向上した。 BeiDou と他の衛星系の組み合わせによる統合解析では、BeiDou と Galileo の組み合 わせ以外、擬似距離 ISB 補正と搬送波位相 ISB 補正の両方を補正することで 99.9%以上 のフィックス解が得られた。BeiDou... の補正値が小さいためと推測される。しかし、擬 似距離 ISB のみの補正では座標の精度が補正ありに比較し低下した。 BeiDou と GPS、GLONASS、Galileo の組み合わせでは、BeiDou のみと比較し、統 合解析においても座標の精度向上がみられた。 BeiDou と QZSS の組み合わせでは QZSS が 1 機のため座標の精度向上はわずかであった。 BeiDou と他の衛星系の組み合わせによる統合解析において、擬似距離 ISB、搬送波 位相 ISB を補正することでフィックス解が得られることが確認できた。また、BeiDou 単体より混合解析同様に座標の精度が向上することが確認できた。 なお、アンビギュイティ決定モードを「Continuous」にした場合、L1 一周波解析では擬 似距離 ISB、搬送波位相 ISB 両方を補正することで 100%近いフィックス解が得られたが、 二周波解析では BeiDou と GPS、BeiDou と GLONASS の組み合わせで 20%以下となる現 象がみられた。BeiDou と Galileo の組み合わせでは共通の信号が L1 一周波のためこの現象 はみられず、BeiDou と QZSS の組み合わせでは共通の信号が二周波であるが、GPS や GLONASS のようなフィックス率の低下はみられなかった。この原因についてはまだ不明で あり、原因解明にはより詳細な調査が必要である。 表 2-65 ISB 補正基線解析結果(BeiDou.... BeiDou と他の衛星系間で位相差を取ることを可能にする方法 2.2 の「BeiDou の系統誤差の補正方法」のこれまでの調査結果を踏まえ、BeiDou と 他の衛星系間で位相差を取ることを可能にする方法について検討した。 BeiDou と他の衛星系間の統合解析では、擬似距離 ISB、搬送波位相 ISB を補正する ことでキネマティック基線解析においてフィックス解を得ることができた。しかし、受 信機機種にもよるが表 2-74 の通り搬送波位相 ISB が受信機再起動によって変化するた め、事前に推定した補正値をテーブルとして与えて補正することができない。この解決 策としては、BeiDou と他の衛星系の組み合わせでは衛星系間で位相差を取らない混合 解析とすることで、擬似距離 ISB、搬送波位相 ISB とも発生しないため、受信機再起動 で変化する搬送波位相 ISB を考慮する必要がなくなる。 なお、平成 25 年度の業務での調査結果では GLONASS と他の衛星系間で受信機再起 動により搬送波位相 ISB が変化し、本業務では BeiDou...



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... Assessment of the Contribution of BeiDou GEO, IGSO, and MEO Satellites to... European Galileo, the developing Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS) consists... well as Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites. In this study, the..., the largest contribution of BDS IGSO among the three kinds of... December 2012, the developing Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS) was... (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO), and four Medium Earth Orbit... tracks of BDS satellites. The IGSO satellites form two loops in... and its neighboring countries. The IGSO constellation is further complemented by... BDS constellation makes almost all IGSO IGSO and and GEO GEO satellites... for three GEO and four IGSO satellites, and used these products... BDS satellites, more specifically, GEO, IGSO and MEO to the PPP... vertical component, the contributions of IGSO and MEO satellites are not... geometry component, the contributions of IGSO and MEO satellites are not... to assess the contributions of IGSO and GEO satellites as their... to assess the contributions of IGSO and GEO satellites as their... different contributions of BDS GEO, IGSO, and MEO satellites to PPP... BDS GEO and IGSO BDS GEO and MEO BDS IGSO and MEO... plus BDS IGSO and MEO GPS, plus GLONASS, BDS IGSO and MEO... exclusion of BDS GEO or IGSO measurements in data processing may... for the whole day, whereas IGSO satellites are visible for most... 2b), all of GEO and IGSO satellites can be tracked continuously... observation condition for GEO and IGSO satellites is relatively poor in... 15˝ ). In addition, the five IGSO satellites in two separated orbital... significantly when IGSO satellites un-convergence significantly when thethe IGSO satellites are... percentage is significantly high once IGSO satellites are not all sites... percentage is significantly high once IGSO satellites are not used in... indicates that that the the IGSO IGSO satellites satellites make make the... types of satellites. This confirms IGSO satellites make the largest improvement... the three types again. that IGSO satellites make the largest improvement... 3c), the geometric condition of IGSO and GEO satellites is poor... of IGSO and GEO satellites is poor, the contributions of IGSO satellites... in hence, the contributions of IGSO satellites are weak, and the... demonstrates the largest contribution of IGSO among three types of BDS... to the ambiguities, the continuous IGSO tracking by sites in Asia... + GLONASS and BeiDou IGSO, MEO, GPS + BDS GEO, GPS + BDS IGSO, GPS + BDS... MEO, and finally GPS + BDS IGSO and MEO. The corresponding abbreviations... + I, and GPS + M solutions, respectively. Again, IGSO satellites make the largest reduction... static PPP solutions once the IGSO observations are also used. However... in the eastincomponent is improved IGSO or satellites MEO satellites to... accuracy of and the BDS IGSO combined static PPP solutions slightly... GPS + I or GPS and BDS IGSO combined static PPP solutions slightly.... For other two components, BDS IGSO and MEO satellites make similar.... For other two components, BDS IGSO and MEO satellites make similar... GEO satellites to GPS and IGSO combined PPP solutions, i.e., contaminated slightly... GEO satellites to GPS and IGSO combined PPP solutions, i.e., GPS + I and... combined solutions solutions when when IGSO IGSO observations observations are are also... contribution offour BDSweeks GEO, of IGSO, and GLONASS to the In... different contribution of BDS GEO, IGSO, MEO, and GLONASS observations to... PPP performances demonstrate that the IGSO satellites make the convergence positioning... performances demonstrate that improvement the IGSO satellites make the accuracy of... the convergence time and improvement IGSO of positioning condition, MEO observations... thewith sitespoor with geometry. better IGSO tracking Various numerical results show... by inclusion of either BDS IGSO/MEO GLONASS satellites improve the... general, the positioning performance is IGSO/MEO or GLONASS satellites. improved... with the GPS ones. The IGSO satellites make the largest contribution... results29981 demonstrate the inclusion of BeiDou GEO satellites 12 Sensors 2015... results demonstrate the inclusion of BeiDou GEO satellites could slightly degrade..., X.; Liu, J. Precise orbit determination of Beidou satellites with precise positioning. Sci... analysis of Compass GEO and IGSO satellites. J. Geod. 2013, 87, 515..., J.; Liu, X.; Wang, G. Preicse Positioning with BeiDou and Galileo—Initial Results; International..., X. Precise Point Positioning with the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System. Sensors 2014... Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. Sci. Rep. 2015, 5. [CrossRef] [PubMed... Point Positioning using the regional BeiDou navigation satellite constellation. J. Navig. 2014..., China, November 2014. Wanninger, L.; Beer, S. BeiDou satellite-induced code pseudorange variations..., P. Carrier phase multipath mitigation for BeiDou navigation satellite system. GPS Solut... analysis of code measurements for BeiDou geostationary satellites. GPS Solut. 2015... BeiDou observations. GPS Solut. 2015. [CrossRef] Lu, G. Precise orbit determination of BeiDou...



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...-constellation signal [16–18]. The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is... the BeiDou Navigation Satellite (BDS) regional system. GEO: geostationary orbits; IGSO: inclined... BEIDOU M1 BEIDOU G2 BEIDOU G1 BEIDOU G3 BEIDOU G4 BEIDOU IGSO 1 BEIDOU IGSO 2 BEIDOU IGSO 3 BEIDOU IGSO 4 BEIDOU IGSO 5 BEIDOU G5 BEIDOU M3 BEIDOU M4 BEIDOU M5 BEIDOU M6 BEIDOU G6 BEIDOU I1-S BDS M1-S BDS M2-S BDS I2-S BDS M3-S BEIDOU IGSO 6 BEIDOU... 110.5◦ E GEO 160.0◦ E IGSO 120◦ E IGSO 120◦ E IGSO 120◦ E IGSO 95◦ E IGSO 95◦ E GEO 58... MEO GEO 80.3◦ E IGSO MEO MEO IGSO MEO IGSO GEO Researchers [20–22...: BeiDou Navigation Satellite System; GLONASS: Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya PPP. BDS: BeiDou Navigation...-time precise positioning: GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, and Galileo. J. Geod. 2015, 89... systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. Sci. Rep. 2015, 5. [CrossRef] [PubMed..., J. Precise point positioning using combined BeiDou and GPS observations. In China..., X. Precise point positioning with the BeiDou navigation satellite system. Sensors 2014... using GPS, Glonass, Galileo and BeiDou. J. Geod. Sci. 2014, 4. [CrossRef] ISPRS... positioning with quad-constellations: GPS, BeiDou, GLONASS and Galileo. Adv. Space... the positioning performance analysis of BeiDou in Hong Kong. Surv. Rev...



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... спутниковых радионавигационных систем ГЛОНАСС, GPS, BEIDOU IGSO и рассмотрена проблема утилизации объектов системы... отработавших объектов СРНС ГЛОНАСС, GPS и BEIDOU IGSO, показано, что влияние вековых резонансов..., GPS и BEIDOU IGSO (inclination geostationary orbits), то есть для навигационной системы BEIDOU рассмотрена... типа ГЛОНАСС и GPS и орбитами типа BEIDOU IGSO. Более того наклонения орбит рассматриваемых... ГЛОНАСС, GPS и пяти спутников системы BEIDOU IGSO. На рисунке 1 приведены оценки долговременной... орбитального резонанса объекта GPS Спутники BEIDOU IGSO расположены на геосинхронных орбитах, но... одной особенностью орбитальной эволюции объектов BEIDOU IGSO является возможность прохождения их в процессе... вращения Земли. Из пяти спутников BEIDOU IGSO, рассматриваемых в диссертационной работе, наибольший интерес... точки зрения, представляет орбитальная эволюция BEIDOU IGSO-3, поскольку именно этот объект имеет... резонанс. Орбитальная эволюция объектов системы BEIDOU IGSO и влияние на нее вековых резонансов... отработавших объектов СРНС ГЛОНАСС, GPS и BEIDOU IGSO. Показано, что влияние вековых резонансов...