Спутник ДЗЗ. Biomass. [Редактировать]

Дополнительная классификация

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#Новостная лента.
12016-05-03. Airbus выбрана головным исполнителем работ по новому аппарату.
Компания Airbus Defence and Space UK выбрана европейским космическим агентством в качестве головного исполнителя работ по космическому аппарату Biomass. Согласно предварительный данным масса аппарата будет составлять около 1250 кг., а датой запуска определен 2021 год. Отличительной особенностью аппарата будет являться то, что он будет оснащен Р-диапазонным радаром с диаметром антенны около 12 метров (производитель компания Harris). Общая стоимость проекта составляет около 420 млн. евро. Средством выведения выбран РН Вега. САС аппарата составляет 5 лет. Данный аппарат не будет входить в состав группировки Copernicus, однако его данные будут дополнять получаемые с КА Sentinel данные. Вместе с тем, европейцы так и не разъяснили то, что заявленные частоты 420-450 мГц, уже используются военными США в системах предупреждения о раннем ракетном нападении. Кроме этого многие страны ранее также обнародовали данные о том, что они собираются задействовать данный диапазон.Тэги: BiomassHarris corporationAirbus GroupЕвропейское космическое агентство
22016-07-29. Компания Harris заключила соглашение с Airbus.
Airbus Defence and Space выбрала компанию Harris в качестве поставщика 12-и метрового рефлектора космического аппарата Biomass, который предназначен для решения задачи слежения за состоянием экосистемы Земли.Срок запуска КА по прежнему обозначен 2021 годом. Источником финансирования выступает европейское космическое агенство, которое и заказало спутник радиолокационного наблюдения Земли в P диапазоне.Тэги: BiomassHarris corporationAirbus Group

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг.1250

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость , млн. евро2016-04-03420

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Biomass». [Перейти к поиску]


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... International Energy Agency ICS improved [biomass] cookstove IFC International Finance Corporation.... These stoves can include advanced biomass Te r m i n o l o g y xi cookstoves, renewable fuel... [biomass] cookstoves (ICS). Solid-fuel stoves that improve on traditional baseline biomass.... • Advanced [biomass] cookstoves (ACS). Fan draft or natural draft biomass gasification... overcome by continuous innovation. Beyond biomass cooking, there is ongoing innovation... government focus on regulation of biomass fuel production; better market intelligence... and development (R&D), low sustainability in biomass fuel supply markets, and a range... fuel (e.g., World LPG Association) and biomass (e.g., Food and Agricultural Organization or... cooking alternatives, advanced biomass cookstoves (ACSs) and improved biomass cookstoves (ICSs) is... cookstove” category includes “legacy” chimney biomass and coal stoves (e.g., South Asia... alternatives, and sustainability strategies for biomass supply. The objectives of this... database of improved and advanced biomass cookstove manufacturers, ICS market growth... of more multidimensional stoves. • Improved biomass cookstoves. This report covers the... underappreciated health consequences of unimproved biomass and kerosene stoves. Though largely... of environmental impacts of traditional biomass cooking vary greatly across geographies... of woodfuel. Biomass is defined as above-ground biomass. Woodfuel includes... Biomass Pressure Map FIGURE 2.3: Annual Woodfuel Consumption as Share of Total Biomass... aggregate because of large overall biomass stocks. Furthermore, recent research suggests... ‘green charcoal’ alternatives from sustainable biomass sources like agricultural waste. Even... Fuels 3.8 2.4 4.4 4.0 a Angola 4.7 1.7 7.5 5.4 4.7 Kenya 10.4 Traditional Biomass Sources: WB country surveys in... loss across fuel collection, traditional biomass cookstove cooking, and related fuel... harm currently created by traditional biomass dependence. The kaleidoscopic complexity of... measured macro-variables such as biomass scarcity, forest degradation, public health... on biomass fuel prices, are even less clear. Theoretically, reduced biomass prices... or employment. Well executed traditional biomass supply interventions should improve the... the promotion of alternative renewable biomass (i.e., briquette and pellets), biogas, and... also includes a small population (<1.5%) of biomass purchasers. stoves without financing; high... to expand their production exponentially. Biomass pellet cooking fuel manufacturing is... focused on coal and biomass, with 500–1,000 biomass briquette factories. Africa likewise has growing activity for green biomass... which biomass is mildly heated to dry out the solid biomass and... Pellets Biomass briquettes and pellets are created by compressing loose biomass and... Efficient Biomass (chimney) 0 9.2 122.1 0.0 0.0 131 Basic Efficient Biomass (non-chimney... 20 Built-in Biomass Rocket 3.5 <0.05 — — 1.28 5 Portable Biomass Rocket 0.5 0.2 3.50 <0.05... (i.e., gasifier) 0.05 0.5 1.0 0.02 0.01 2 Biomass Gasifier <0.1 <0.5 0.7 <0.05 0.01 <1.5 Coal... Differences in Traditional and Improved Biomass Stove Preferences Under this categorization... portable, unvented stoves. The dominant biomass cooking technologies across the region... the 3–15% range. Chinese industrial biomass stove manufacturers (89 players) recently... biomass stoves or biodigesters, are priced considerably higher than basic biomass stoves... households) across a range of improved biomass stove technologies using national coordination... fuel manufacturing (e.g., briquetting), and traditional biomass solid fuel production (e.g., charcoal kilns... market. • Higher end biomass stoves. In higher end biomass stoves, consumers will... more sustainable production of clean biomass and renewable fuel alternatives alongside... of biomass cooking requires supply-side interventions, including more rational biomass supply markets (e.g., linkages to sustainable forestry), more efficient biomass... “biomass gasifier-operated cooking stoves, which run on solid biomass, such..., S., Dutta, A. & Mukherjee, B., 2012. Cooking with biomass increases the risk of depression... Environment, 38(28), pp. 4761–7. Biomass, N. P. S., 2010. Making Charcoal Production in... Africa Sustainable, s.l.: Netherlands Programmes Sustainable Biomass. Biopact, 2007. Energy crisis in..., n.d. Chapter 2: Forest resources and woody biomass, s.l.: s.n. Ferguson, H., 2012. Briquette Businesses in..., S. T., 2003. Renewable energy – traditional biomass vs. modern biomass. Energy Policy, 32(6), pp.... Muneer, S. & Mohamed, E., 2003. Adoption of biomass improved cookstoves in a patriarchal society... State Biomass Energy Center and Department of Agricultural and Biomass Energy Center...=sec1192918473 Program, A. R. E. A., 2011. Wood-Based Biomass Energy Development for Sub-Saharan... Bank Group. Ravindranath, R. H. & Hall, D., 1995. Biomass Energy and Environment: A developing country..., C. T., Shidhaye, R. R. & Sathiakumar, N., 2011. Association between biomass fuel use and maternal report...



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... likelihood of uptake of biomass technologies. Given biomass resources can be used... prices, refining costs for raw biomass resources, resource transportation costs, conversion... A Competition for Electricity Generation – from Biomass Technologies 2010-2015. Available at... demand for biomass in the heat sector leads to higher biomass fuel...% Industrial 500 Biomass boiler 28% 400 Solar thermal 1% Biogas 5% Biomass CHP 2% ASHP 20% 300 GSHP 7% Biomass boiler 65% 200 Biogas 2% Biogas 400 Biomass CHP 300 Solar thermal Heat Pumps 200 Biomass CHP 2% 100 0 2012 Renewable heat output by  technology 2012‐2020 Biomass boiler 100 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Biomass... (Ktoe) Biogas Biomass boiler 28% 400 Solar thermal 1% 300 Biomass CHP 2% ASHP 19% GSHP 7% Biogas 1% 100 400 Biomass CHP Solar thermal 300 Heat Pumps 200 Biomass boiler 67% 200 0 2012 Biogas 4% Biomass CHP 2% Biomass boiler 100 0 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Biomass... choosing in the model?...............................................................................................25  9.  Biomass resources and bioenergy costs. .....................................................................................................................................27... ............................................................................................ XX  List of Boxes: Box 1: Biomass and anaerobic digestion (AD) CHP... 1990-2012 6.0% 5.0% 4.0% 3.0% 2.0% 1.0% 0.0% Geothermal Solar Biogas Biomass 4. Factors that impact the choice... of biomass, which otherwise makes economic sense. Analysis of the available biomass... likelihood of uptake of biomass technologies. Given biomass resources can be used... prices, refining costs for raw biomass resources, resource transportation costs, conversion... A Competition for Electricity Generation – from Biomass Technologies 2010-2015. Available at...  ‐  Biomass CHP < 1500  3,700  2,000‐3,700  205  60 ‐ 220  2.30  1.8‐5.0  Biomass CHP... of biomass boilers. With lower installation and ongoing costs, solid biomass CHP... 2017 2018 2019 Biomass CHP 2% Biomass boiler 96% 2020 Biomass CHP 300 Solar...% 500 Biogas Biomass boiler 28% 400 Solar thermal 1% Biogas 5% Biomass CHP 1% ASHP 20% 300 Biogas 2% Solar thermal 300 200 Biomass boiler Biomass CHP 5% 100 100 0 2012 Biomass CHP Heat Pumps Biomass boiler... 2017 2018 2019 Biomass boiler 93% 2020 0 2012 2020 9. Biomass resources and... of biomass. The cost of the biomass fuel used in heat-generating biomass... the large indigenous biomass resource has embedded high biomass usage in the... Biomass Agreement in 1993 was aimed at increasing the use of biomass by obligating power stations to use biomass as fuel... advances and efficiency improvements in biomass boilers arising from government-supported... thermal 1% 300 Biomass CHP 2% ASHP 19% GSHP 7% Biogas 1% 100 Biomass CHP Solar thermal 300 Heat Pumps 200 Biomass boiler 67% 200 0 2012 Biogas 4% Biomass CHP 2% Biomass boiler 100 0 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Biomass... 150 150 Biomass CHP Biogas 100 100 50 50 - Biomass boiler 2012... 100 100 50 50 Biomass CHP Biogas - Biomass boiler 2012 2013 2014... Pumps 150 150 Biomass CHP Biogas 100 100 50 Biomass boiler 50...) Biogas Biomass boiler 28% 400 Solar thermal 1% 300 Biogas Biomass 4% CHP 3% Biomass boiler 71% Biogas 1% 100 Biomass CHP GSHP 6% ASHP 15% 200 400 Biomass CHP 4% Solar thermal 300 Heat Pumps 200 Biomass boiler 100... uptake of biomass boilers in the industrial sector; however, biomass boilers also... - Solar thermal Heat Pumps Biomass CHP Biogas Biomass boiler 2012 2013 2014... Pumps 150 150 Biomass CHP Biogas 100 100 Biomass boiler 50 50... Heat Pumps 200 Biomass CHP 150 150 100 Biogas Biomass boiler 100... biomass boilers in the industrial sector, with some additional uptake of biomass... Gas Electricity Biomass Solar AS & GS HP79 Oil Gas Electricity Biomass Solar AS & GS HP79 Oil Gas Electricity Biomass Solar AS & GS HP79 Oil Gas Electricity Biomass Solar AS & GS HP79 Oil Gas Biomass Oil Gas Biomass Average.... Cost data about the various biomass streams, refining technologies, resource transportation... incorporating the international trade of biomass resources. Objective function The objective... biomass. Within the biomass categories themselves the energy density of the various biomass... AD CHP – small Solid biomass CHP – large Solid biomass CHP – small Biomethane...-site heat Industrial biomass boiler Commercial biomass boiler Residential biomass boiler size Capex...



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... 6.3.3 Backscatter as a function of aboveground biomass and architecture 6.3.4 Conclusions 6.4 Results of... available radar data for estimating biomass parameters and forest architectural parameters... - Burned areas - Logged areas - Regeneration - Biomass degraded areas - Deforested Forest categories... species composition Timber volume / woody biomass Biodiversity indicators (e.g. canopy roughness, terrain..., actual evapotranspiration, leaf chemistry, leaf biomass, leaf area index) Socio-economic... production, actual evapotranspiration, leaf chemistry, biomass and leaf area index. Like... Basin. Biomass mapping Investigators who aimed to map the biomass of tropical... parameter most closely related to biomass is the Normalized Difference Vegetation... green leaf biomass rather than to variations in total biomass above the... predictor of total aboveground biomass in low biomass, even age plantation forest... radar images, respectively. Estimation of biomass and other structural parameters Signals... better capabilities for estimating forest biomass and other structural parameters than... increase with increasing biomass until it saturates at a dry biomass level of... Belize found evidence of backscatter-biomass relationships comparable to those as... between P-band backscatter and aboveground biomass is presented for a riparian forest... backscatter measurements with on site biomass measurements. They found good correlations... biomass is over approximately 200 t ha-1 (fresh weight). Procedures to estimate biomass... estimating biomass and that L-band data may be used to assess biomass up to a certain threshold level. The biomass level at... bands and biomass were found. Correlations between backscatter ratios and biomass were shown to be stronger. A higher sensitivity to biomass of... better suited for estimating trunk biomass parameters than X- and C-band. 3.2.3 Effects... ha-1 to trunk dry biomass in t ha-1. Biomass measurements in mixed forests... characterised by a reduced total aboveground biomass and a reduced number of stems... biomass above the ground ca. 14 t ha-1. In terms of dry biomass... value of radar for estimating biomass parameters and forest architectural parameters... the forest's high aboveground biomass (see Figure 4.6). High biomass levels have a strong...). 6.3.3 Backscatter as a function of aboveground biomass and architecture Figure 6.17 shows... dry biomass above the ground. Non-forest has the lowest aboveground biomass... increase in biomass up to a point corresponding to the biomass level of... radar backscatter and the aboveground biomass of mostly coniferous forest plantations... of universal formulations for estimating biomass from radar backscatter. Yet these... 4.3.2). The total reduction in aboveground biomass, however, is usually considerably larger... of biomass present, for more than one reason. First, the aboveground biomass...) as a function of total aboveground biomass in C-, L- and P-band: (a) 'Canopy Structure... types correctly. - Architecture and not biomass governs the backscatter behaviour of... have a high leaf and branch biomass. Figure V.8 illustrates how ERASME measurements... - Burned areas - Logged areas - Regeneration - Biomass degraded areas - Deforested Forest categories... species composition - - Timber volume/woody biomass - +/- Evidence in this study Biodiversity... Actual evapotranspiration Leaf chemistry Leaf biomass, leaf area index Socio-economic... aboveground biomass (see section 6.3.3). Backscatter in L- and P-band increases with increasing biomass... biomass, L- and P-band radar systems are only able to map the biomass... such forests represent locations where biomass accumulation and carbon intake are... for 'timber volume / woody biomass' as 'difficult'. Biomass estimation is further complicated... very little biomass differences because many of these forests have biomass levels... development (see section 6.3.3). Extraction of biomass information from radar images requires... level of biomass. To date, universally applicable models for estimating biomass from... on aboveground biomass but also on forest architecture and, if biomass levels... to biomass, the possibilities for estimating timber volume and woody biomass are.../1, 98 p. Cannell, M.G.R., 1982. World forest biomass and primary production data. London... radar backscatter on conifer forest biomass'. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and... SIR-C radar backscatter and the biomass of regenerating tropical forests'. International... R.M. Hoffer, 1991. 'Estimating slash pine biomass using radar backscatter'. IEEE Transactions... backscatter and regenerating tropical forest biomass for spaceborne SAR instruments'. Remote... p. Ranson, K.J. and G. Sun, 1994. 'Mapping biomass of a northern forest using multifrequency... R. Zimmermann, 1994. 'Inference of forest biomass using P-band circular-polarized radar... edition, 449 p. Sader, S.A., 1987. 'Forest biomass, canopy structure and species composition... and A.T. Joyce, 1989. 'Tropical forest biomass and successional age class relationships..., 1987. 'Detecting forest structure and biomass with C-band multipolarization radar: physical...



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... grazing impact on above ground biomass production 154 6.2.2 Assessment of livestock... forests. 133 Table- 5.4 A Percent dry biomass contribution of major food items... forests. 135 Table- 5.4 B Percent dry biomass contribution of major food items... Table- 5.4 C Table- 5.5 Table- 5.6 Percent dry biomass contribution of major food items.... 159 Figure - 6.2 Total above ground biomass production within (ungrazed) and outside... categories in eastern Gir sanctuary. Biomass comparison of species between grazed... - 6.19 Figure - 6.20 Figure - 6.21 Biomass comparison of different species between..., perennial and dead biomass to total above ground herbaceous biomass within (ungrazed... weight regression for available browse biomass on Anogeissus latifolia tree in...% biomass contribution by wild ungulate community to the overall ungulate biomass of... sympatric livestock on above ground biomass and those species contributing to... ungulates Herbaceous Biomass Permanent Vegetation Monitoring Plots • • • • • Total above ground biomass Annual... availability Estimation Availability of browsable biomass on A. latifolia, in • • Lopped v/s unlopped... ungulate population density or prey biomass density estimations have been done... good sambar habitat (Table-2.1). Ungulate biomass is correlated with plant productivity... and quantity of available palatable biomass. In a given condition when quality... biomass consumption) and Boswelia – Lanea – Terminalia (cattle25.6 % buffalo- 29.8 % dry biomass consumption... biomass consumption by any of these animals (chital- 8.9 %, cattle- 3.6 % & buffalo-2.8 % dry biomass... Ziziphus mauritiana (7.6 %) to the dry biomass of winter diet. The contribution... and riverine habitats, the dry biomass contribution was maximum from Anogeissus... biomass consumption) and Boswelia – Lanea - Terminalia habitat (cattle6.6 % & buffalo 24.9 % dry biomass consumption). Livestock diets (dry biomass consumption) were largely... %, respectively, to the total dry biomass 150 consumption during summer (rest... the dry biomass consumption) (Table- 5.3C). 151 Table-5.3 A: Percent dry biomass contribution... scrubland for foraging, maximum dry biomass contribution to the monsoon diet... monsoon. 155 Table-5.4 A: Percent dry biomass contribution of major food items... species importance (Daubenmire, 1968). Further, biomass is closely related to forage... wildlife habitat by modifying plant biomass, species composition and structure components... cover composition and above ground biomass production; 2) short term (one growing... livestock on availability of browse biomass of Anogeissus latifolia, an important... production affecting recruitment. The available biomass of Anogeissus latifolia for browsing... and without livestock. For browse biomass estimation on lopped v/s unlopped trees... composition and above ground biomass The above ground biomass in areas sympatric... exclude only ungulates. Total herbaceous biomass showed an increasing trend as... showed similar trends in biomass production. Above ground biomass production showed an..., F=5.43, p ≤ 0.05). However, the dry biomass of herbaceous species which contributed... (Figure - 6.3). Figure- 6.2: Total above ground biomass production within (ungrazed) and outside... inside of exclosure plots. Figure- 6.5: Biomass comparison of species between grazed... livestock grazed area. 184 Figure- 6.6: Biomass comparison of different species between... higher (74.4 %) proportion of their biomass contributed by palatable annuals compared... livestock grazing areas (3 species). Interestingly biomass of perennial species did not..., perennial and dead biomass to total above ground herbaceous biomass within (ungrazed... intensity Ungrazed Moderate intensity annual biomass perennial biomass Grazed Ungrazed No LS... on Anogeissus latifolia. Similarly, browse biomass production within reach of ungulates... weight regression for available browse biomass on Anogeissus latifolia tree in... on forage availability 6.4.1.1 Above ground biomass and species composition Interactions among...; Murray & Illius, 2000). Above ground biomass within and outside exclosures increased... (Figure - 6.3). However, the above ground biomass of herbaceous species which contributed...; Berwick, 1974). Apparently, above ground biomass drastically declines in areas proximal... settlements. Substantial removal of herbaceous biomass by livestock might be altering... observed increase in above ground biomass production indicated the high potential..., they may compensate for the biomass actually removed (Jameson 1963; McNaughton... trampling (Cumming & Cumming, 2003) and biomass removal (see review by Fleischner... ground cover composition, cover and biomass attained better condition in moderate..., Pretoria. Coe, N. J. Cumming, D. H. & Phillipson, J. (1976) Biomass and production of large African... in Southern Asia: A consideration of biomass estimates for selected habitats. Biological..., M. E. (1992) Population structure, density and biomass of large herbivores in tropical..., W. A. & Johnsingh, A. J. T. (1996) Ungulate density and biomass in the tropical dry deciduous...



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sensors Article Estimating Forest Aboveground Biomass by Combining Optical and SAR... Abstract: Estimation of forest aboveground biomass is critical for regional carbon... the estimation accuracy of forest biomass. A new optical and microwave integrated... and microwave backscattering signatures with biomass, the combined VI (COVI) was... the accurate estimation of forest biomass. Keywords: biomass estimation; Landsat 8 OLI; RADARSAT... aboveground biomass (AGB) accounts for the dominant share of terrestrial biomass stocks... AGB using the relationship between biomass and SAR backscattering remains problematic... information for the estimation of biomass or other vegetation parameters. Attarchi... the estimation accuracy of forest biomass. First,(RADARSAT-2) five widely-used... to improve estimation accuracy forest biomass.data First,separately, five widely... of predictor variable selection on biomass estimation accuracy, In variables order... aboveground biomass from remote sensing data. accurately determines forest aboveground biomass from... spp. 2.2. Field Measurements and Aboveground Biomass Computation The field data collection... biomass value for a single tree was estimated by summing up the biomass values of each tree component. The biomass values of... plot-specific biomass values in megagrams per hectare. The biomass values varied... the estimation of forest aboveground biomass using hyperspectral and LiDAR data... predictive power of forest aboveground biomass and a relatively good performance of... obtain spatial prediction maps of biomass for visual comparison. All statistical... first ordered according to ascending biomass values. (MBI) predictor variables, the... improve biomass estimation accuracy, a new VI incorporating optical and microwave improve biomass... declined with the increasing biomass. Meanwhile, as the biomass increased, there was... to have a higher sensitivity to biomass variation than the microwave backscatter... values and biomass values (Figure 5b) indicates that the biomass value of... increasingly important accompanied by increasing biomass values. Sensors 2016, 16, 834...(b) OSAVI and HVand withHV increasing biomass. biomass. The quantitative regression relationship was... areas of low predicted predicted biomass biomass estimates. estimates. Figure 6. 6. Wall-to... map of of mean mean biomass biomass estimates estimates as as obtained... combination is valuable for accurate biomass estimation. Although the objective of... better at predicting forest aboveground biomass compared to other tested methods... and microwave information under different biomass conditions. In other words, vegetation... yield a significant improvement in the biomass estimation compared to a simple combination... valuable potential to enhance aboveground biomass estimation accuracy. However, further tests...%. Laurin [61] estimated tropical forest biomass using the integration of airborne... presented could be useful in biomass and other vegetation parameters estimation... reflectance and microwave backscatter to biomass and other vegetation variables. For... 1. 2. Houghton, R.A.; Hall, F.; Goetz, S.J. Importance of biomass in the global carbon cycle... remote sensing data for forest biomass assessment. ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens..., 141–170. [CrossRef] Lu, D. Aboveground biomass estimation using Landsat TM data...] Mutanga, O.; Adam, E.; Cho, M.A. High density biomass estimation for wetland vegetation using..., T.L. L- and P-band backscatter intensity for biomass retrieval in hemiboreal forest. Remote..., T.R.; Woodhouse, I.H.; Sonké, B.; Rowland, C.; Meir, P. Measuring biomass changes due to woody encroachment..., M.M.; Sumantyo, J.T.S. Retrieval of tropical forest biomass information from ALOS PALSAR data..., R.M. Understanding the relationship between aboveground biomass and ALOS PALSAR data in..., H.; Ni, W.; Xu, M.; Li, Z. Forest stand biomass estimation using ALOS PALSAR data... forest biomass mapping: A spaceborne data fusion method for estimating forest biomass and..., R. Lidar remote sensing of forest biomass: A scale-invariant estimation approach using..., M.A.; Leal, M.E.; Woodhouse, I.H. Mapping tropical forest biomass with radar and spaceborne LiDAR..., Gabon: Overcoming problems of high biomass and persistent cloud. Biogeosciences 2011..., A.; Guindon, L.; Kimes, D.S. Regional aboveground forest biomass using airborne and spaceborne LiDAR..., A.M.; Randall, J. Estimation of floodplain aboveground biomass using multispectral Güneralp, I.; remote sensing... 8 multispectral sensor in quantifying aboveground biomass in uMgeni catchment, South Africa...-based estimations of aboveground forest biomass. Remote Sens. Environ. 2014, 154...ßle, F.; Ermert, J.; Koch, B. Mapping forest biomass from space—Fusion of hyperspectral... Challenge of Remote Sensing–Based Biomass Estimation. Int. J. Remote Sens. 2006..., Q.; Yin, N.; Li, M. Estimating Forest Aboveground Biomass by Combining ALOS PALSAR and..., Y.; Van Duren, I. Estimating tropical forest biomass more accurately by integrating ALOS..., F.D.; Guerriero, L.; Pirotti, F.; Valentini, R. Above ground biomass estimation in an African tropical...



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... in the AFOLU category 3C1 Biomass Burning under relevant subcategories. Activity... the emissions from the woody biomass and DOM pools. 151 152... (Tier 1 level) whereas methods for biomass, dead organic matter and non..., including activity data, emissions factors, biomass densities, other parameters, and for... forest biomass 358  Table 4.4 - Aboveground biomass in mangrove forests 359  Table 4.5 - Aboveground biomass growth in mangrove forests 360  Table 4.6 - Ratio of belowground biomass to aboveground biomass in mangroves forests 361... and belowground biomass for tidal marshes 363  Table 4.9 - Aboveground biomass for seagrass meadow 364  Table 4.10 - Ratio of belowground biomass to aboveground biomass for seagrass meadow 365... of aboveground and belowground seagrass biomass 366  Table 4.13 - Tier 1 default... 618 619 Values of aboveground biomass derived from field measurements of... in the aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the...-ground biomass growth Ratio of belowground biomass to above-ground biomass Average annual biomass...) -1 -1 -1 -1 Annual increase in biomass carbon stocks due to biomass growth (tonnes C yr...) Biomass expansion Ratio of belowCarbon fraction of factor and wood ground biomass to dry matter density for above-ground conversion of biomass removals in merchantable volume to total biomass removals (including bark) Annual carbon loss due to biomass removals BEF * wood density = [tonnes of biomass removals [tonnes... year Ratio of belowground biomass to above-ground biomass Annual volume of... BEF * wood density = [tonnes of biomass removals [tonnes bg dm (m3... D CF 3 -1 (m yr ) Initial land use Biomass expansion factor and wood density... in merchantable volume to total biomass removals (including bark) Land use... aboveground biomass of areas affected Ratio of belowground biomass to aboveground biomass Carbon... in carbon stocks due to biomass loss (tonnes C yr-1) CL=Lwoodremovals... (a) (b) (c) Total Note: fd = fraction of biomass lost in disturbance (eg. aquaculture... disturbance will kill all (fd = 1) biomass while an insect disturbance may... a portion (e.g. fd = 0.3) of the average biomass C density. 1 in year of start... data sources A Average annual aboveground biomass stock after disturbance (tonnes dm... annual belowground biomass to ground biomass stock above-ground biomass stock before biomass for... RSG BG-BBEFORE Average annual biomass stock above- and below-ground... change in carbon stocks in biomass (tidal marsh and seagrass meadow... change in carbon stocks in biomass (tidal marsh and seagrass meadow... Land 3C1 Biomass Burning 3C1a Biomass Burning in Forest Land 3C1b Biomass Burning in Cropland 3C1c Biomass Burnings in Grassland 3C1d Biomass Burnings... 3C6). (2) If CO2 emissions from Biomass Burning are not already included... stock change and CO2 emissions Biomass Categories 3B Land 3B1 3B1a... stock change and CO2 emissions Biomass Categories 3B5a 3B5b 3B5bi 3B5bii... 888 Table 3.4 AFOLU Background Table: Biomass Burning (3C1) (1 of 2) Activity data... (3) CO2 Biomass CH4 DOM (4) SOM (6) N2O Biomass (Gg) CO DOM SOM (6) NOx Biomass (C Gg) 3C1 Biomass Burning 3C1a Biomass Burning in Forest Land Controlled Burning Wildfires 3C1b Biomass Burning in Cropland Biomass Burning in Cropland Remaining Cropland Controlled Burning Wildfires Biomass burning in Forest Land Converted to Cropland Controlled Burning Wildfires Biomass... Cropland Controlled Burning Wildfires 3C1c Biomass Burning in Grassland Burning in... Burning Wildfires 3C1d Biomass Burning in All Other Land Biomass Burning in... Draft Table 3.4 AFOLU Background Table: Biomass Burning (3C1) (2 of 2) Activity data... CO2 (3) Biomass CH4 DOM SOM (6) (ha or kg dm) N2O Biomass (Gg) CO DOM SOM (6) NOx Biomass (C Gg) Biomass Burning in... Other Land Controlled Burning Wildfires Biomass Burning in Non Forest Land... selected between area burned or biomass burned. Units for area will... in hectare (ha) and for biomass burned in kilogram dry matter... dm). (3) If CO2 emissions from biomass burning are not already included.... Carbon stock changes associated with biomass burning should not also be.... (4) CH4 and CO emissions from biomass burning and DOM are reported...



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0.28/5
... country's tradition of utilizing the biomass for heating, and as a consequence.... Biomass is the most used RES for decentralised heat supply. Biomass still..., there will be a niche for biomass utilization in small-scale cogeneration... a significant reduction in gas and biomass consumption in the residential sector... the process of transformation of biomass into biofuel or other energy... Biofuel of facilities that transform biomass into LPAAs biofuel or other... for installers of small-scale biomass boilers and stoves, solar PV...,000). UNDP – “Moldova Energy and Biomass Project” Financial regulation Secure a sustainable... areas, increased motivation for efficient biomass use. 55 Energy Efficiency Fund... conversion of coal CHPs to biomass CHPs Research Substantiated decisions. Increase... Substantiated decisions for investors in biomass Ministry of Agriculture and Food... investors in biomass CHPs 62 Develop feasibility study on biomass energy use in other sectors Efficient use of biomass Research Ensure transparency for investors in biomass, energy and... the process of transformation of biomass into biofuel or other energy... the process of transformation of biomass into biofuels or other energy...; Increasing uncertainty for grid-connected biomass CHPs or solar thermal collectors... the process of transformation of biomass into biofuel or other energy... solar panels on buildings or biomass boilers in buildings)? If so... promoted? (Such measures may concern biomass boilers, heat pumps and solar... that installers of small-scale biomass boilers and stoves, solar photovoltaic... for installers of small-scale biomass boilers and stoves, solar photovoltaic...: The installers of small-scale biomass boilers and stoves, solar photovoltaic... for installers of small-scale biomass boilers and stoves, solar PV... the expected contributions of large biomass, solar and geothermal facilities in... existing CHPs. The potential of biomass will be continuously used in... areas. No specific contribution from biomass, solar and geothermal energy sources... and cooling. Moldova Energy and Biomass Project, aiming to promote small... and cooling are the following: biomass heating of countryside public buildings...; capacity building for growth of biomass markets at regional and local... energy sources utilisation benefits, especially biomass and visibility of project results... residential sector. Moldova Energy and Biomass Project dedicated to small scale... of energy from biomass 4.6.1 Biomass supply: both domestic and trade Biomass consumption in... biofuels) and agricultural waste. Table 6– Biomass supply in 2009 Sector of.../NonEU 1. Direct supply of wood biomass from forests and other wooded... of wood biomass for energy generation 80 0 0 2009 of which: A) Biomass from... subcategories. 26 Biomass from forestry should also include biomass from forest-based industries. Under the category of biomass from... of origin. 65 of which: B) Biomass from agriculture and fisheries: 1. Agricultural... sludge 0 0 0 0 0 0 of which: C) Biomass from waste: Table 8 Estimated biomass domestic supply in... energy production (ktoe) A) Biomass 1. Direct supply of wood biomass from forestry: from... B) Biomass from agriculture and fisheries: C) Biomass from waste: 2. Indirect supply of wood biomass... types of biomass until 2020, as follows: a linear increase of biomass from... for baseline (2009) consumption of biomass and its potential in 2020... 4.6.2 Measures to increase biomass availability, taking into account other biomass users (agriculture and forest-based sectors) Mobilisation of new biomass... is no specific legislation on biomass in the Republic of Moldova... acts containing technical norms on biomass. These will also include measures... to maximise the extraction of biomass from the forest in a sustainable... maximise the extraction of existing biomass that can already be put... use of biomass; Standardise the usage, production and quality of biomass products; Promote research and technological development in the biomass field... plants to biomass CHP plants; Impact of energy use of biomass on... impact of energy use of biomass on other sectors based on... impact of the use of biomass for energy production will first... studies performed under the coming biomass legislation. The monitoring requirements will...), monitoring the use of wood biomass in energy facilities and through... furniture industry. For forest-based biomass, the principles of Sustainable Forest..., wave, ocean Wind: Onshore Offshore Biomass: Solid Biogas Bioliquids*) TOTAL of..., wave, ocean Wind: Onshore Offshore Biomass: Solid Biogas 2.00 5.00 bioliquids... in heat pump application) Solar Biomass: Solid Biogas Bioliquids 27 27... which DH 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Of which biomass in households 29 237.0 242... cooling will predominantly come from biomass in the form of wood...



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0.42/5
... properties of atmospheric layers of biomass burning and urban/industrial aerosols... parameters for biomass burning aerosols. This indicates probable mixing of biomass burning...; 3.2 ± 1.3 % and 1.7 ± 0.3 respectively for biomass burning aerosols layers. Biomass burning particles are larger... 0.13 ± 0.03 μm for urban/industrial, biomass burning, and mixed aerosols, respectively... layers that are caused by biomass burning and urban/industrial activities... ratios and Ångström exponents for biomass burning and urban/industrial aerosol... a case study, the arrival of a biomass burning aerosol layer over Elandsfontein... microphysical aerosol properties for selected biomass burning, urban/industrial and mixed... product of industrial activities and biomass burning (Ross et al., 2003..., 2012). In addition, emissions from biomass burning (wild fires) contribute significantly... induced activities are responsible for biomass burning (Edwards et al., 2006... not indicate the presence of biomass burning aerosols we checked whether.... An example of a measurement of biomass burning aerosols is discussed in... optical and microphysical aerosol properties. 3. Biomass burning aerosols on 1st October... three aerosol types, i.e. urban/industrial, biomass burning, and mixed aerosols after...öm exponent for urban/industrial (black), biomass burning (red) aerosol layers as... or mixed) biomass burning aerosols. The lidar ratios of biomass burning aerosols... of 1.7 ± 0.3 we observed for ‘pure’ biomass burning aerosols. The role that... of biomass burning aerosols and desert dust particles determined for African biomass... lidar ratios was found for biomass burning aerosols. This observed variability... and biomass-burning aerosols, as well as for mixtures of biomass burning... trajectory analysis. The characteristics of biomass burning emissions in the subtropical... mixture of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols. The contribution of... dust particles within the observed biomass burning plumes is probably lower... largest aerosols are determined for biomass burning aerosols (red) with an... on biomass burning plumes leads to smaller particles compared to pure biomass... Table 3. The particles in the biomass-burning aerosol layers show a mean... and 0.44 μm were found for biomass burning aerosol layers resulting from... mean single-scattering albedo for biomass burning aerosol is 0.90 ± 0.06... reported in literature for fresh biomass burning particles in Europe. Nicolae.... Previous studies show that aged biomass burning layers are characterized by... of Kalahari desert dust to biomass burning aerosol layers. 5. Summary and... aerosol layers of urban/industrial, biomass burning, and mixed aerosols were... in the separation of anthropogenic, biomass burning, and mixtures of aerosols... index) properties was determined for biomass burning aerosols, indicating differences in... or mixed) biomass burning aerosols. Lidar ratios for biomass burning aerosols are... μm and 0.1 ± 0.03 μm were calculated for biomass burning and urban / industrial aerosols... shown that in certain instances biomass burning aerosols may contain a small... pure biomass burning aerosols. Moderately absorbing particles were found for biomass burning... and microphysical properties of fresh biomass burning aerosol retrieved by Raman..., M. E., and Zanis, P.: Optical characteristics of biomass burning aerosols over Southeastern Europe... properties over Thessaloniki, Greece during a biomass burning episode 2003, Atmos. Environ..., J., Swap, R. J., and Slutsker, I.: Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in...-onserved pollution from Southern Hemisphere biomass burning, J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi..., A.: Characterization of fresh and aged biomass burning events using multiwavelength Raman... Buseck, P. R.: Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 1. Compositions..., R.: Airborne measurements on smoke from biomass burning, in Aerosols 30 and... of biomass burning emissions, part II. Intensive physical properties of biomass burning... properties of smoke from individual biomass fires in Brazil, J. Geophys. Res..., M.: Profiling of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization... for large-scale transport of biomass burning aerosols from 33 sunphotometry... characterization aerosol source urban / industrial biomass burning mixed aerosols date time... at 355 nm [%] urban / industrial 0.9 ± 0.4 0.3 – 1.7 1.0 biomass burning 3.2 ± 1.3 1.2 – 5.7 2.7 mixed aerosols 8.3 ± 0.7 7.3 – 9.1 8.1 ångström exponent... and 532 nm urban / industrial 2.3 ± 0.5 1.3 – 3.0 2.4 biomass burning 1.7 ± 0.3 1.0 – 2.4 1.7 mixed aerosols 2.0 ± 0.4 1.6 – 2.5 2.0 aerosol source...) 0.007 – 0.039 (IRI) 0.020 (IRI) biomass burning 1.43 (± 0.07) + 0.016 (± 0.011...:59 UTC 41 4 urban / industrial biomass burning mixed aerosols Ångström exponent... study 42 120 urban / industrial biomass burning mixed aerosols Lidar ratio... R9 R9 G1 biomass burning * 2b B1 9a A0 4 biomass burning 3 12.../industrial (black), biomass burning (red) and for mixed biomass burning with desert...



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0.35/5
... modelling of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke Part I: Model description... of the Saharan dust and biomass-burning plume during the SAMUM... in observation-based estimates of biomass-burning emissions. They are caused... sources of desert dust and biomass-burning aerosol, which each represent... al., 2008). Desert dust and biomass-burning particles affect the global... plume of Saharan dust and biomass-burning aerosol transported off the... plume of Saharan dust and biomass-burning aerosol. For this purpose... transport of Saharan dust and biomass-burning particles. Particular attention is... distribution of Saharan dust and biomass-burning aerosol is simulated using... to each dust bin and biomass-burning particles. In order to... optical properties are prescribed for biomass-burning particles, which are characteristic... feedbacks of mineral dust and biomass-burning particles, we refer to... g day−1 , respectively) that originate from biomass burning are computed for individual... the available fuel load or biomass density M biomass, k following the basic approach...., 2005b) is assumed. A map of biomass density is generated by combining...-ground biomass, 784 B. HEINOLD ET AL. Table 1. Emission parameters of biomass-burning... an approximation for the available biomass in savannas and grasslands. The... satellite, baseline uncertainties in modelled biomass-burning emissions result from the...%. The estimate is made for biomass burning in the Amazon basin...–100% in the potentially available biomass shown by Reid et al... distribution of land-use patterns, biomass density and the area burned... (b) biomass density, which is compiled from a database of maximum potential aboveground biomass...), and the mass load of biomass-burning aerosol. In addition, profiles... plume of Saharan dust and biomass-burning particles. In this study...-derived AOTs of dust and biomass-burning aerosol are additionally compared... distribution of Saharan dust and biomass-burning aerosol Instrumentation/platform Used..., 1986; Laurent et al., 2008). 3.1.2. Biomass-burning aerosol emissions. The biomassburning... burned areas and high available biomass density exceeding 5 kg m−2 in these... the entire period. The total biomass-burning emissions of PM2.5 accumulate... to an efficient transport of biomass-burning aerosol from vegetationfires over... can be used to detect biomass-burning smoke and mineral dust... distribution of Saharan dust and biomass-burning aerosol on days: 25... the computed hot spots of biomass-burning aerosol over northern central... African coast. This overestimation of biomass-burning sources and the transport... (see Section 3.1.1). The advection of biomass-burning aerosol was directed westwards... of Bod´el´e dust and biomass-burning aerosol over the Bight... the modelderived AOT due to biomass-burning particles and the total... of 0.3 and a high amount of biomass-burning aerosol most likely was... Island is remote from African biomass-burning emissions and only little... layers of Saharan dust and biomass-burning aerosol across Santiago Island... model simulates a pronounced maximum of biomass-burning aerosol at 3.5 km height... ratio of desert dust to biomass-burning aerosol and the general... distribution of Saharan dust and biomass-burning aerosol during the Falcon... plume of Saharan dust and biomass-burning aerosol for the period..., but are problematic for regional biomass-burning modelling. Vegetation-fire emissions... patterns of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke agree reasonably well... aerosol layering of dust and biomass-burning aerosol, which is an... composed of mineral dust and biomass-burning smoke transported off the... an effective alternative for estimating biomass-burning emissions. In addition, a combination... mixtures of Saharan dust and biomass-burning aerosol using COSMOMUSCAT. 5. Acknowledgments... trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 15... (1981–1991): burned areas, burned biomass, and atmospheric emissions. Glob. Biogeochem.... Estimates of biomass density for tropical forests. In: Biomass Burning and Global..., Modeling and Inventory Development, and Biomass Burning in Africa, Volume 1 (ed..., marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass burning aerosols and dust by.... Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African monsoon... modelling of Saharan dust and biomass burning smoke, part 2: direct radiative... Reid, J. S. 2009. Baseline uncertainties in biomass burning emission models resulting from... impact of biomass burning aerosols during the Dust and Biomass-burning Experiment... of biomass burning emissions part II: intensive physical properties of biomass burning... of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning... the biosphere and atmosphere from biomass burning. Clim. Change 2, 207–247.... Profiling of Saharan dust and biomass burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization.... 2006. Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to...



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... in the market (roundwood, pulpwood, biomass…) Market non-wood products. The... employment is 237,000 people. Biomass combustion currently contributes to about... and productivity predictions for harvesting, biomass, road construction and maintenance, trucking... BIOS module produces estimates of biomass recoverable volumes by product type... carbon stored in the forest biomass and forest soil. Results show... Governance approaches Logistic planning/ optimal biomass extraction Expert-knowledge Multiple criteria... and game management 7. Wood and biomass utilisation 8. Forest administration and supervision... simulator heuristic modelling digital mapping biomass models, road network participation of... for better use of existing biomass plantations (Barkoczy and Ivelics 2008... model includes digitalised land surface, biomass models, road network and digital...., Ivelics, R. 2008. Energetikai célú ültetvények. [Biomass plantations for energy production] NYME... a SOSKLÍMA projektben. [Evaluation of biomass plantations in project SOSKLIMA] Mész... include operations in renewable energy (biomass and windfarms), panel board production... plot database and reported on biomass levels. It has been significantly... on above- and below-ground biomass, deadwood, litter, soil carbon, emissions... the data, growth simulation and biomass allocation. It is linked with... (107.9 m3 ha-1). Aboveground dry biomass is 874 million Mg in... to determine the quantity of biomass that is convenient to collect... territory, and to control forest biomass exploitation to maintain a sustainable production... Optimization model, wood supply model, biomass growth dynamics model, carbon sequestration... wood supply for a specific use Biomass-TA PoodyBLEP 238 Methods for... researchers and consultants. BIOMASS-TA is a system for biomass and energy planning... al. 2008). The aim of BIOMASS-TA is to quantify, with..., the potential demand for residual biomass for thermal power use. The... network and, of course, forest biomass. All of this data was... algorithms and overlay functionalities. The BIOMASS-TA DSS uses the database.... According to the information available, BIOMASS-TA has so far been... and environmentally sustainable strategies for biomass use for energy production. This... SIFOPI CHARADE ManForFirE ForFun LEaRNForME Biomass-TA PoodyBLEP SAMSIZE PBA A1..., C. 2008. Decision support system for biomass and energy planning in mountain..., A. 2004. Optimizing forest biomass exploitation for energy supply. Biomass and Bioenergy 26... woody biomass logistics for energy production: a strategic decision model. Biomass and Bioenergy...-diversity), or new products like biomass for energy or carbon sequestration... subsidies or the availability of biomass for energy production. Public administration... al. 2011) and utilization of biomass for bioenergy (Rørstad et al... emerging range of questions concerning biomass production for energy purposes and... of carbon sequestration in forest biomass through silvicultural management. Forest Science... storage yards, pulp mills and biomass plants) (Marques et al. 2012b... non-wood products, such as biomass, fruits and mushrooms, recreation and... including non-wood sources of biomass, and developing the spatial analysis... budget: carbon accumulation in the biomass of trees and soil organic... be: timber, grazing, firewood and biomass, carbon sequestration, cork, resins, aspart... and services, timber or/and biomass apply to problem S_2 in... (G&YM), volume/assortment functions, and biomass functions. Examples of this type..., S_2 RODALARBOREX Multi-objective (G&Y_M, biomass, CO2, mushrooms, fire risk) stand... previous - PINEA2 Multi-objective (timber, biomass, CO2, cone production) stand simulator...+ Climate sensitive multi-objective (timber, biomass, CO2, water use efficiency, fire... various goods and services (timber, biomass, CO2, fire risk, diversity, etc...; 2) multi-objective simulation system (timber, biomass, carbon, fire risk, mushroom yield... various goods and services (timber, biomass, CO2, fire risk, diversity, etc... development of the forest resource (biomass, carbon sequestration, biodiversity, etc.) and... related to sustainable use, optimum biomass productivity, minimum environmental vulnerability and... management problems focusing on potential biomass supply for bioenergy plants (perhaps... values than timber and tree biomass. (Developer: SLU) 410 The LandSim..., A. M. 2000. Explaining forest composition and biomass across multiple biogeographical regions. Ecological... structure by tracking density and biomass specifically for individual tree species...