Спутник ДЗЗ. Biomass. [Редактировать]

Дополнительная классификация

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#Новостная лента.
12016-05-03. Airbus выбрана головным исполнителем работ по новому аппарату.
Компания Airbus Defence and Space UK выбрана европейским космическим агентством в качестве головного исполнителя работ по космическому аппарату Biomass. Согласно предварительный данным масса аппарата будет составлять около 1250 кг., а датой запуска определен 2021 год. Отличительной особенностью аппарата будет являться то, что он будет оснащен Р-диапазонным радаром с диаметром антенны около 12 метров (производитель компания Harris). Общая стоимость проекта составляет около 420 млн. евро. Средством выведения выбран РН Вега. САС аппарата составляет 5 лет. Данный аппарат не будет входить в состав группировки Copernicus, однако его данные будут дополнять получаемые с КА Sentinel данные. Вместе с тем, европейцы так и не разъяснили то, что заявленные частоты 420-450 мГц, уже используются военными США в системах предупреждения о раннем ракетном нападении. Кроме этого многие страны ранее также обнародовали данные о том, что они собираются задействовать данный диапазон.Тэги: BiomassHarris corporationAirbus GroupЕвропейское космическое агентство
22016-07-29. Компания Harris заключила соглашение с Airbus.
Airbus Defence and Space выбрала компанию Harris в качестве поставщика 12-и метрового рефлектора космического аппарата Biomass, который предназначен для решения задачи слежения за состоянием экосистемы Земли.Срок запуска КА по прежнему обозначен 2021 годом. Источником финансирования выступает европейское космическое агенство, которое и заказало спутник радиолокационного наблюдения Земли в P диапазоне.Тэги: BiomassHarris corporationAirbus Group

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг.1250

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость , млн. евро2016-04-03420

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...  3.4  Variation of biomass with habitat ...................................................................................... 148  3.5  Variation in biomass across the plots... of biomass at national scale ........................................................................................ 194  6.1  Biomass variability in Zambia ............................................................................................ 194  6.2  Biomass variability in Cameroon ....................................................................................... 195  6.3  Biomass variability... ........................................................................................................................................... 212  3.1  Aboveground biomass ........................................................................................................ 212  3.2  Ground impacts ................................................................................................................... 213  3.3  Impacted biomass ............................................................................................................... 213  3.4  The greenhouse... plant biomass, (2) belowground living plant biomass (3) dead organic matter, (4) soil and (5) litter. 5 Biomass...  inventory  volume  and  biomass  allometric  equations,  volume  biomass  and  carbon  ;  measurements at...) (Figure 6).    18 Aboveground biomass Dead biomass Litter Belowground biomass Soil organic carbon   Figure...  where  C  is  stored:  aboveground  biomass,  belowground  biomass, litter, dead wood, and SOC... 13 countries used biomass coefficient for the national  biomass accounting and only... the other C stock components (dead biomass, belowground biomass, litter and soil) it...  biomass  (Ct)  is  estimated  as  a  function  of  tree  biomass  (AGB  (i).  Tree  biomass  itself...: individual biomass expansion factor (conversion of the trunk biomass to the total biomass), BCEF: individual biomass conversion and... volume to the total biomass). When the biomass of the tree compartment... an overestimation of stand biomass.   Most  of  the  biomass  variability  is  related...  harvested  to  determine  its  biomass,  the  tree  biomass  is  mainly  determined  based... to biomass using a  wood density and a biomass expansion factor (IPCC, 2003), or a biomass...).  Aboveground biomass was computed from merchantable biomass using:  Biomass partial  V  WD  and   BiomassBiomass partial  BEF   (3)  Or directly  Biomass  V  BCEF   (4)          Where  biomasspartial  was  the  biomass  of...‐specific  biomass  allometric  equation  providing  either  total  or  partial  biomass.  Partial  biomass  was  obtained  by  summing  the  biomass  estimates  obtained...  the  fresh  biomass.  To  convert  fresh  biomass  into  dry  biomass,  the  moisture  content...  estimate the total aboveground biomass including leaves, biomass estimates from the equations...  equation  582,  converting  fresh  biomass  into  dry  biomass  adds  the  uncertainty  bound... a  pantropical aboveground dry biomass  equation. Taking  Tier‐3–total biomass as the reference...  factors  to  convert  partial  biomass  to  total  biomass,  the  BEF  from  IPCC... reporting for volume and biomass  estimates  Science of biomass prediction is young... estimate forest biomass.     Keywords: West Africa, Forest ecology, Ecosystem, biomass, carbon, nutrients... ))               (2)  Dead standing trees biomass and the dead biomass on the ground was... the portion of biomass lost.   AGBd  AGB  (1  %dead )                              (3)  The biomass of palm....1         147 3.4 Variation of biomass with habitat  Tree biomass and wood samples were... the  biomass corresponded to the trunk biomass (60%), the woody branch biomass (24...  convert  it  into  biomass.  The  IPCC  (2006a)  reported  biomass  conversion and expansion...( D)) 2  0.0281* (ln( D)) 3 )      Estimation of biomass  160 Different  biomass  algometric  equations  were  used... converted to total biomass (Mg ha‐1) using the biomass expansion factor found...  proportion  of  tree  biomass. Subsequently, the total biomass was calculated.  100% HERB... Root 6. Variability of biomass at national scale  6.1 Biomass variability in Zambia  Forests... forest biomass using a local developed biomass equation,  (ii) estimation of impacted area, biomass... ))               (5)  Dead standing trees biomass (AGBd) and the dead biomass on the ground...)   (B) 30 20   10   0 Tree biomass Log biomass Residues 50   60 100 150.... 211 3. Results  3.1 Aboveground biomass  Liana Dead Aboveground  biomass  stock  was  411±29...



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... for Decision Maker”, 2007. -6- Asian Biomass Handbook 1.3 Bagaimana Memanfaatkan Biomassa 1.3.1 Ruang... untuk keseluruhan sistem. - 10 - Asian Biomass Handbook 1.4 Manfaat Penggunaan Biomassa 1.4.1. Ruang...-1808 (2005) Saxena, R.C.; Adhikaria, D.K.; Goyal, H.B. Biomass-based energi fuel through biochemical.... - 18 - Asian Biomass Handbook Informasi Lebih Lanjut Ogi, T. in “Biomass Handbook”, Japan..., Washington, Island Press. - 23 - Asian Biomass Handbook 2.3. Komposisi Biomassa 2.3.1 Tinjauan komposisi... (dalam bahasa Jepang) - 27 - Asian Biomass Handbook 2.4. Kandungan energi biomassa 2.4.1. Indikator... ratarata pertahun (ton/ha) 1.8 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 Asian Biomass Handbook 2.6.3. Sumber biomassa berkayu Menurut.../) Hall, D. O.; Rosillo-Calle, F.; Williams, R. H.; Woods, J. “Biomass for Energi: Supply Prospects”, In... - 94 - Asian Biomass Handbook beberapa bentuk bahan bakar biomass kayu dengan luas... kayu, n = 1,2-1,5 dan p =0.8-1.0 saat m = 2. - 115- Asian Biomass Handbook (b) Komposisi abu dan titik.... Informasi Lebih Lanjut Bridgwater, A. V.; Bridge, S. A.: “Biomass Pyrolysis Liquids Upgrading and Utilization... fast pyrolysis of biomass, Biomass Bioenergy, 7, 49-60 (1994) Pomeroy, C. F. “Biomass Conversion processes... “Science in Thermal and Chemical Biomass Conversion”, Vol. 2, Bridgwater, A. V.; Boocock, D. G. B., Eds... dapat meningkatkan reaksi. - 126- Asian Biomass Handbook 4.5.3 Reaktor untuk gasifikasi hidrotermal..., M. J., Jr.; Allen, S. G.; Schulman, D.; Xu, X. D.; Divilio, R. J. Biomass gasification in supercritical water, Ind... (2006) Kruse, A.; Henningsen, T.; Sinag, A.; Pfeiffer, J. Biomass gasification in supercritical water: Influence.... Biomass gasification in near- and super-critical water: Status and prospects, Biomass... digasifikasi (lihat Bab 4.5). - 129- Asian Biomass Handbook 4.6.3 Skema reaksi pencairan hidrotermal... HTU-processes for biomass liquefaction, Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion, 1312-1325... berdasarkan informasi terbaru. - 177- Asian Biomass Handbook Gambar 6.4.3 Biaya biomassa (Pembangkit... sebagai “redistribusi kekayaan”. - 180- Asian Biomass Handbook Gambar. 6.5.2. Pabrik produksi etanol..., “Biomass Yogo Jiten”, Ohmsha, 2004 (dalam bahasa Jepang) - 187- Asian Biomass Handbook... adalah sebagai berikut: - 213- Asian Biomass Handbook 1) mengintensifkan pengembangan energi sumber... Actual Biomass Status in the Philippines. Paper presented during the Biomass Asia Workshop held in Japan - 215- Asian Biomass Handbook... lignoselulosa generasi kedua. - 241 - Asian Biomass Handbook 8.5.2 Bahan baku biomassa lignoselulosa... mewujudkan perkembangan masyarakat. - 246 - Asian Biomass Handbook 5. Efektivitas pengembangan dan pengenalan... Biomass-Asia Project-Second Stage: Research and Technological Development for Sustainable Biomass... Biomass Energi, AIST, Japan 1525-1550 The Road Map of Chinese Biomass... Partnership on Sustainable Environmentally Benign Biomass Production and Utilisation Moderator: Yukihiko... Partnership on Sustainable Environmentally Benign Biomass Production and Utilization Nuwong Chollacoop... ekonomi secara berkelanjutan. - 264 - Asian Biomass Handbook …………………………………………………….. PASAL 3 PRINSIP ………………………………………………….. Dalam tindakan... terhadap perdagangan internasional. - 265 - Asian Biomass Handbook …………………………………………………….. PASAL 4 KOMITMEN …………………………………………………….. 1. Semua pihak... (a) dan (b) di atas. - 270 - Asian Biomass Handbook ………………………………………………………………… PASAL 6 PENDIDIKAN, PELATIHAN, DAN... ilmiah dan teknologi. - 271 - Asian Biomass Handbook (b) Mempromosikan dan memfasilitasi pertukaran... Konferensi Para Pihak. - 274 - Asian Biomass Handbook ………………………………………………………………… PASAL 10 BADAN PERWAKILAN...-undang menyediakan sebaliknya. - 279 - Asian Biomass Handbook ………………………………………………………………… PASAL 15 PERUBAHAN TERHADAP... LAMPIRAN PADA KONVENSI ……………………………………………………………….... - 280 - Asian Biomass Handbook 1. Lampiran pada Konvensi ini... Konverensi secara bersamaan. - 283 - Asian Biomass Handbook 3. Pada instrumen ratifikasi, penerimaan... sembilan puluh dua. - 285 - Asian Biomass Handbook ………………………………………………………………… NEGARA-NEGARA LAMPIRAN I DAN... emisi berdasarkan Pasal 3. - 303 - Asian Biomass Handbook 3. Berdasarkan mekanisme pembangunan bersih... Biomass Asia Workshop (Bangkok) 2006.1 Biomass Asia Forum (Tokyo) 2006.11 3rd Biomass Asia Worksop (Tokyo dan Tsukuba) 2007.3 Stratup of Asia Biomass Association 2007.4 Laos joins Asia Biomass Association 2007.11 4th Biomass Asia Workshop (Shar Alam) - 347 - Asian Biomass... Inggris Knoef, H. Ed., “Handbook Biomass Gasification”, BTG Biomass Technology Group (2005) Van Loo, S. and Koppejan, J. Eds., “Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-Firing”, Twente University Press (2002) Klass, D. L., “Biomass... Biomass Handbook A12.2 Buku di Jepang (dalam Bahasa Jepang) - 350 - Asian Biomass Handbook A12.2 Buku di China (dalam Bahasa China) - 351 - Asian Biomass...



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... support biomass energy projects; 2) establishing a track record for investments in sustainable biomass... financing for biomass energy projects; and 4) overcoming negative perceptions of biomass energy... waste availability in Belarus ........................................................................................................58 1 Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot... Q. Commitments of Project Beneficiaries ................................................................................................131 2 Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot... contaminated areas’ through biomass power production using contaminated biomass and forest litter... Biomass and Forest Litter in Belarus, Final Report, Phase 1, September 1998. 6 Biomass...), opportunities and versatility of biomass energy. 10 Biomass Energy for Heating and... and Launched Output 3.1: Pipeline of biomass investment projects developed Output 4.1: Relevant... and versatility of biomass energy ii Perception of biomass boilers as a small... Implemented Output 3.2 Revolving fund for biomass energy established Output 1.3: Findings from... Implemented Output 3.2: Revolving fund for biomass energy established Output 4.1: Relevant decision... and Implemented Output 3.1 Pipeline of biomass investment projects developed OBJECTIVES 4.1 Overall... support biomass energy projects Establish a track record for investments in sustainable biomass... financing for biomass energy projects. Overcome negative perceptions of biomass energy and... to assess the market for biomass energy projects. A Geographical Information Systems... 2: Technical Capacity Development Output 2.1 Output 2.2 Biomass Boiler Conversion Investment Projects Implemented... Project Organized and Implemented Output 2.1 Biomass Boiler Conversion Investment Projects Implemented... Location Ownership status Existing system Biomass resources 1 Poultry Farm ‘Molodechno’ Olekhnovichi... of biomass investment projects developed Output 3.2 Revolving fund for biomass energy established Output 3.1 Pipeline of biomass investment projects developed... Belarus Output 3.2 Revolving fund for biomass energy established A revolving fund will... Committee’s supervision, will administer the biomass energy revolving fund. The specific... Universities Private and State Enterprises Biomass Energy Association Institutes and Universities... other government organisations, ensuring that biomass energy activities continue after the... the biomass fuel, if the pre-contractual prices for wood 27 Biomass... Transfer Institute, “Belnipienergoprom”, Sakharov’s); 28 Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot... strong incentive for biomass energy. In addition, biomass energy has been shown... biomass as an energy By the end of the project the biomass... (biomass fuel supply investment) By the end of year 3 the 'biomass fuel... expanding biomass use. The existence of a prior official plan for expanding biomass... and program development related to biomass energy. Alternatively, research institutions such... investment funds for the biomass fuel supply and biomass boiler conversion investment.... Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot Water Supply in Belarus 55 Biomass... biomass energy) 8.0 6.0 4.0 used as firewood 2.0 0.0 2000 2005 2010 Year 59 2015 Biomass... 88 Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot Water Supply in Belarus Biomass... jobs **CO2 reduction through enabling biomass energy activities Replication potential Replication... Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot Water Supply in Belarus 94 Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot Water Supply in Belarus 95 Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot Water Supply in Belarus 96 Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot Water Supply in Belarus 97 Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot Water Supply in Belarus 98 Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot Water Supply in Belarus 99 Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot Water Supply in Belarus 100 Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot Water Supply in Belarus 101 Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot Water Supply in Belarus 102 Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot Water Supply in Belarus 103 Biomass Energy for Heating and Hot Water Supply in Belarus 104 Biomass...-art biomass energy technologies • Relevant experiences in Eastern European countries with biomass... biomass energy supply system • Relevant regional experience in the arrangement of biomass... perspectives on facilitative policies for biomass energy Advise on foundation documents... working experience energy, preferably in biomass energy Experience with project management... design, Practical experience with implementing biomass energy projects in Belarus and... management the implementation of the biomass fuel supply demonstration projects (output... • Other duties relating implementation of biomass fuel supply demonstration site, • Prepare... project • Practical experience with implementing biomass energy projects in Belarus and... in and public acceptance of biomass energy projects • Develop information dissemination... barriers to the realisation of biomass energy activities; Dissemination and awareness...



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... Messages                                                       Introduction                                                                         Emissions from Open Biomass Burning                                         Fire as a Resource Management... residential sector (cookstoves) and  open biomass burning.   Current emissions from the... high biomass burning emissions in the dry season. Further,  seasonal biomass emissions... = fossil fuel; BF = biofuel; BB = biomass burning.    1    2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13... associations with sources related to biomass  combustion and metal processing.  However...‐mobile source and non‐open biomass  U.S. Black Carbon Emissions                                                                1  Most estimates..., all emissions estimates for “open biomass  burning” categories (wildfires, agricultural burning... Million Tons) 1.1% 35.3% 52.3%  3.6% 1.0% 1  Open Biomass Burning Energy/Power Residential  Industrial... Source Category Specific Category Open Biomass Wildfires Prescribed Burning Agricultural Burning... source categories: “open biomass burning”,  “residential heating/cooking”, and “biomass fired stationary sources” have been combined into a  “biomass combustion... the sources categories  included this “biomass combustion” category and their associated... for Biomass Combustion Sources in  2002/2005 (short tons).  4  5  6  7  8  These biomass combustion... United  States comes from ‘‘open biomass burning” sources (Figure 4‐7).  Wildfires contribute...) for “open biomass burning” than for the other categories  of biomass burning... s 1    2  Figure 4‐6.  BC Emissions from all “Biomass Combustion” Source Categories.   3  4  5  6  7  8  Often, global... those of less developed areas   ( biomass burning).  A crucial difference  between China... differences between the two inventories (e.g., biomass combustion sources,  mobile sources, and... over ocean regions), boreal biomass, crop  and grass biomass, and pollution.   Depending... of agricultural waste, and eliminating  biomass cookstoves in developing countries.   In.../11  1  2  3  4  5  other kinds of solid biomass (e.g., wood pellets).  Manufacturers may not... pellets from biomass or briquettes from either coal or biomass can lead...  Advanced Biomass Stoves:  There are two types of advanced biomass stoves that... advanced biomass stoves to date generally confirms that these advanced biomass  stoves... for Open Biomass Burning  1  2    3  10.1 Summary of Key Messages   4  5  6  7  8  Open biomass burning...  18  o BC emissions from open biomass burning (predominately from widespread agricultural... reduce particle emissions from open biomass burning (agricultural burning, prescribed  burning... options for open  biomass burning.  8  10.3 Emissions from Open Biomass Burning  9  10  11  12  13    Open biomass burning, as... in Chapter 4  indicate that open biomass burning represents a potentially large, though... contained biomass combustion, including residential heating and cooking and industrial biomass combustion... use of biomass.  Harvesting and selling or trading the biomass is one  alternative to prescribed burn.  Woody biomass can... have large diameter woody biomass and the biomass is plentiful  10‐8    External... as to make biomass utilization economically viable.  Small‐diameter  biomass can be... information regarding costs of open biomass burning mitigation  internationally.  Mitigation costs... combustion, industrial sources) and  nonpoint (biomass burning) source categories.  The basic... (E.g., forests, savanna).   Agricultural burning and biomass combustion for heating and cooking....  Their inventory includes categories for  biomass (i.e., savanna and forest fires), agricultural...  India (1998).  2 residential/  commercial  8 transportation  4 biomass/biofuels  burning  Streets et al...  other), 10  transportation  categories, and 3  biomass burning  categories.  Literature review U.S.  EPA... factors  for fossil fuel combustion. Biomass combustion emission factors were determined.../Fs  during the Southeast Asia Biomass Burning Event. Environmental Science & Technology... smoke  characteristics: a case study. Global biomass burning: Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric... T.B.,  Schwarz J.P., Spackman J.R., and Veres P. (2009) Biomass burning in Siberia and Kazakhstan...) Climate effects of seasonally varying biomass burning emitted  carbonaceous aerosols. Atmospheric...‐cutting for nitrogen heterocyclics in biomass burning aerosols. Journal  of Chromatography... M.A.F., and Gonalves F.L.T. (2009) Impact of biomass burning aerosols on  precipitation in... Corrigan C.E. (1995a) Thermal characterization of biomass smoke particles. Mikrochim  Acta  119... of biomass burning emissions part II:  intensive physical properties of biomass burning... D.G., Yarber K.F., Woo J.H., and Carmichael G.R. (2003b) Biomass burning in Asia: Annual and... T.B., Schwarz J.P.,  Spackman J.R., and Veres P. (2009) Biomass burning in Siberia and Kazakhstan...



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... transformed biomass data………………………….105-106 Table 3.17 DistLM results for biomass data... 4.13 W-statistics generated from abundance/biomass comparison plots……..200 Table 4.14... based on 4th root transformed biomass data ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….97 Figure 3.18 Second... on biomass data………………………………………………………108 Figure 3.19 Relationship between 4th root transformed biomass...) but species diversity, abundance and biomass increase from reflective beaches towards... macrofaunal species richness, abundance and biomass (McLachlan and Dorvlo, 2005). Sandy... autochthonous production depends on a large biomass of macrofauna, particularly bivalves, so... which best predicts macrofaunal abundance, biomass and species richness (McLachlan and... environmental measure. The abundance and biomass measures were fourth root transformed... relevant subsections (Species richness 3.3.2.1; Abundance: 3.3.2.2; Biomass: 3.3.2.3). 3.3.2 Description of the macrofaunal assemblages... 1 131 59 2319 6 Total Biomass (mg) Mean biomass per individual (mg) 4.8 0.1 15... (X+1) 0.299 0.161 N/S 95 3.3.2.3 Biomass The total dry biomass collected over the entire... largest biomass (110.04 g) despite being on the South Coast. The biomass... lowest biomass of all the regions, equating to only 4 % of the biomass in region B (Table 3.12). Table 3.12 Total biomass collected from... source of the variation. Area Biomass (g) Region Biomass (g) ANOVA results Doringbaai 51... biomass values from each site. There was a significant difference detected between biomass... for species assemblages based on biomass (p < 0.05; Table 3.13). Pairwise comparisons... be found in Appendix 2. Region A - Biomass PERMANOVA Source PERMDISP Pairwise (PERMANOVA... found in Appendix 2. 100 Region B - Biomass PERMANOVA PERMDISP Pairwise (PERMANOVA) ANOSIM.... Scavenger biomass varied significantly with Condition (p < 0.01; R = 0.7; U < NU). Predator biomass was slightly... the upwelling sites. Direct developer biomass was different between conditions (p < 0.01... feeder biomass (R = 0.969; U > NU). There was no significant variation in scavenger biomass... be found in Appendix 2. Region C - Biomass PERMANOVA PERMDISP Pairwise (PERMANOVA) ANOSIM... found in Appendix 2. 105 Region D - Biomass PERMANOVA Source PERMDISP Pairwise (PERMANOVA... Regions C and D Taxonomic groups Species biomass assemblages were significantly different between.... 109 14 4th rt transformed biomass 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 Beach Index 2.4 2.6 2.8 AWY1NU... environmental variables Transformation of the biomass data generally had little effect... macrofaunal species richness, abundance and biomass (McLachlan and Dorvlo, 2005) because... biased species richness, abundance or biomass measurements. Similarly, beach length did... no seasonal difference detected when biomass data were examined. Multivariate analysis... their position at sea. 3.4.4 Biomass Distribution of biomass around the coast of... the overall biomass per region presented a different picture, with the biomass from... of biomass over biogeographic provinces, D. serra were removed from total biomass values for regions. This resulted in a total biomass of... upwelling areas would support a higher biomass due to increased productivity potential... the low biomass at Bitter River. However, the significantly larger biomass at... year 1, causing lowered biomass, or in year 2, increasing biomass but due to... where assemblages were analysed using biomass data, potentially reflecting resource investments... biomass data. Abundance and biomass measures provide different information about the system. Biomass... dissipative morphodynamic extreme) where a greater biomass of lower trophic levels exists... significant variation in scavenger biomass across sites, however, biomass of both deposit..., but biomass differences were marked. An increase in indirect developer biomass in... for abundance or biomass. Trends of increasing abundance and biomass from reflective... over time. 4.2.4.2 Abundance/biomass comparison plots ABC (abundance/biomass comparison) plots are essentially K-dominance curves for abundance and biomass plotted... if the biomass is greater than abundance and negative if biomass is... each site generated from abundance-biomass comparison plots. W = Winter; S = Summer; 1 = year... significant differences indicated the abundance/biomass ratio remained fairly constant over... total species richness, abundance or biomass measures without specific species information... availability. Significant differences in total biomass values were present between upwelling... lower biomass within the upwelling area, but result in greater biomass in... beach macrofauna: Species richness, abundance, biomass and body size. Geomorphology, 199..., G. R., Bartlett, J. H. W., McAllister, A. P., and Heard, R. W. (1996) Biomass variations of estuarine macrobenthos preserved..., A. (1977). Composition, distribution, abundance and biomass of the macrofauna and meiofauna..., E. (1999). Global patterns of macroinvertebrate biomass in marine intertidal communities. Marine...



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... 22 February 2014 Keywords: Forest biomass L-band radar Multi-temporal Polarimetric... and full polarimetric acquisitions on biomass retrieval was investigated by means... to a dual-polarized system. The biomass estimation error was considerably reduced... would not significantly improve biomass estimation accuracy using backscatter-based... la Riva, & Santoro, 2009) and biomass estimation (Dobson, Pierce, Sarabandi, Ulaby... information on forest spatial distribution, biomass levels and dynamics is needed...). L-band SAR sensors cannot measure biomass directly since the backscattered waves... tree biomass. However, canopy biomass is often a reliable indicator of total tree biomass... such capabilities could improve the biomass estimation accuracy using current or...; Trisasongko, 2010) rather than direct biomass estimation (Gonçalves, Santos, & Treuhaft... for model parameterization and direct biomass estimation has only been investigated... were used to produce a reference biomass map. Second, backscatter intensities and... acquisitions were used to retrieve biomass through parametric and non-parametric... biomass retrieval errors was investigated. The use of a reference Lidar based biomass... estimating forest biomass at high spatial resolution. 4.1. Lidar-based biomass reference map... based estimation of biomass from multi-temporal L-band data Biomass estimation was... biomass levels. Previously, several models were investigated for the retrieval of biomass... different attempts to “guess” the biomass level. Without a priori information it... for biomass retrieval. −1 AGB–aboveground biomass Mg ha 4.3. Factors that influence biomass... backscatter metrics and lidar-based biomass were extracted at corresponding locations... computed by averaging all daily biomass estimates obtained from single parametric... (i.e., Da-all aggregation method). 5. Results 5.1. Biomass reference map For each forest... biomass reference map was estimated as 17.2 Mg ha− 1 for average biomass...-parametric models were evaluated for biomass retrieval only results obtained for... daily biomass estimates did not improve the retrieval Table 2 Indicators of biomass... different aggregation methods of daily biomass estimates (see Section 4.3). Multi-temporal... and multi temporal averages of biomass estimates Day1 (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) HH HV VV...–104 99 Table 3 Indicators of biomass retrieval accuracy from target decomposition... different aggregation methods of daily biomass estimates (see Section 4.3). Multi-temporal... (Fig. 6). 5.3. Factors that influence biomass retrieval 6. Discussion The difference in... relatively high spatial resolutions (i.e., 25 m) biomass estimation error reached 45% when... Fig. 4. Daily temporal changes in biomass retrieval for three representative plots... areas, retrieval accuracy of forest biomass from L-band radar backscatter observations... in biomass retrieval (Table 1 and Fig. 4). Neither the aggregation of daily biomass... variability (top). Observed decline in biomass prediction error with decreasing spatial... geolocation errors might affect the biomass/backscatter relationship, we have shown... retrieval approaches. The most reliable biomass estimates were obtained when using... estimate. Fully polarized systems improved biomass estimation accuracy only marginally over... retrieval showed similar sensitivity to biomass levels as when using backscatter... 1:1 relationship between forest variability and biomass estimation error has considerable implications... biomass (AGB) refers to the sum of trees, saplings and grass biomass..., P. V. (2001). Allometric relationships and community biomass stocks in White Cypress Pine... radar backscatter on coniferous forest biomass. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and.... Englhart, S., Keuck, V., & Siegert, F. (2011). Aboveground biomass retrieval in tropical forests — The..., C. (2005). Allometric relationships for estimating biomass in grey box (Eucalyptus microcarpa..., N. L. (1997). Evaluation of approaches aboveground biomass in using SIR-C data to...). Radar backscatter and biomass saturation: Ramifications for global biomass inventory. IEEE..., T., Beaudoin, A., & Guyon, D. (1992). Relating forest biomass to SAR data. IEEE Transactions... forest canopy height and aboveground biomass using ICESat. Geophysical Research Letters... challenge of remote sensing-based biomass estimation. International Journal of Remote... PALSAR L-band backscatter — Above ground biomass relationship Queensland, Australia: Impacts of... to predict above-ground woody biomass: A consistent relationship across four different..., 36, 1–6. Moreau, S., & Le Toan, T. (2003). Biomass quantification of Andean wetland... estimating boreal forest above-ground biomass. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and...). L- and P-band backscatter intensity for biomass retrieval in hemiboreal forest. Remote..., K., Aponte, C., Hacker, J. M., & Walker, J. P. (2014). Forest biomass estimation at high spatial resolution... L-band radar backscatter to forest biomass in semi-arid environments: A comparative...). A meta-analysis of terrestrial aboveground biomass estimation using lidar remote sensing...



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... produced significantly high shoot biomass and shoot biomass ratio were IS 10876... produced significantly lower shoot biomass and shoot biomass ratio were IS 12531... dry biomass yields were 12.6, 17.9 and 20.7 t/ha. The root biomass... 2.8 t/ha. In maize, the stem biomass decreased between flowering and maturity... mean biomass yield was 17.82 t ha-1. However, 24 lines had a biomass... forage traits like fresh biomass yield, dry biomass yield, and ear length...) between the biomass yield under low P and the biomass yield under control... (low biomass under low P) and ICMP 85410 - P7 (high biomass under low P), and between 81B - P6 (low biomass under low P) and ICMP 451 - P8 (high biomass under low P). We found similar differences here based on biomass... hybrids with enhanced tillering and biomass productivity. Ninety-three Sudangrass germplasm..., plant height, plant agronomic performance, biomass, lodging, stay-green and grain... hybrids. The average heterosis for biomass, in the best individual testcrosses... with significant heterosis for both biomass and HI. FR Bidinger Identification....6.1.1: Additional germplasm sources with high biomass yield identified (KNR/RB/HDU...) between the biomass yield under low P and the biomass yield under control... (low biomass under low P) and ICMP 85410 - P7 (high biomass under low P), and between 81B - P6 (low biomass under low P) and ICMP 451 - P8 (high biomass under low P). We found similar differences here based on biomass... and Economics. Agricultural Production and Biomass conversion. 20-22 August 2007... sorghum genotypes for salinity tolerant biomass production. Euphytica 156(1/2):15-24..., and related parameters (pod number, biomass, etc.). The screening was repeated... biomass is low under saline conditions, the genotypic differences in biomass under...) Internal output target S 6A.1: High biomass forage/sweet sorghum lines with... 299 Activity S 6A.1.1: Selecting high biomass forage and sweet sorghum lines... genotyping and multilocational phenotyping for biomass yield, sugar content and sugar... sweet sorghum productivity traits including biomass yield and sugar content. After... biomass, not sweet × High biomass, sweet Low biomass, not sweet × High biomass, sweet Low biomass, not sweet × Low biomass, sweet Low biomass, not sweet × Low biomass, sweet High biomass, sweet × Low biomass, sweet High biomass, sweet × Low biomass, sweet High biomass, sweet × High biomass, sweet 301 (SP 39105-P01 x ICSR 93024-1-P05)-P13 High biomass, sweet × High biomass, sweet In addition, a diallel..., and related parameters (pod number, biomass, etc.). The screening was repeated... biomass is low under saline conditions, the genotypic differences in biomass under..., resulting in a dramatic decrease in biomass accumulation. We also observed very... sorghum genotypes for salinity tolerant biomass production. Euphytica 156:15-24... pearl millet varieties produce a high biomass yield prior to flowering. During... mycorrhizal inoculation on nodulation and biomass of Pongamia seedlings in nursery... African sorghum/millet phenology and biomass partitioning. Model released, along with... stem and leaf growth, and biomass partitioning improvements are underway. These... more important than determinants of biomass partitioning (plant growth) especially in... area expansion, phenology, radiation interception, biomass accumulation and partitioning, water dynamics... shown here include LAI, total biomass and N leaching. 375 A) B) Figure 9.1.2.6.3: A) Yield... attributes such as soil respiration, biomass carbon and nitrogen increased sharply... lab. Inorganic N, soil respiration, microbial biomass C and N, net N mineralization and population... for the soil respiration (b), biomass C (c) population of fungi (d), biomass N, total N, and mineralized....2 Variation in a) OC, b) soil respiration, c) biomass C and d) population of fungi in... treatments, soil type, soil microbial biomass C, soil organic C, rainfall and soil... the locations, Organic C and microbial biomass C showed significant positive (p≤0.05) correlation... (Log10) (Log10) microbial carbon g C (Log10) Biomass C population kg-1 soil g Cg-1soil... more than a 3-fold increase in biomass over the 0 L treatment. A practical application... atmospheric nitrogen and provide root biomass leading to increased soil fertility...



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... distribution of forest height and biomass from multisensor data fusion Yifan... mean forest height and aboveground biomass. Height estimates over evergreen (R2... regional and continental scale forest biomass distribution. Citation: Yu, Y., S. Saatchi, L. S. Heath... distribution of forest height and biomass from multisensor data fusion, J. Geophys.... Among these components, the woody biomass and amount of carbon stock...]. Moreover, credible information on vegetation biomass has significant economic value in... carbon is based on the biomass inventories that provide reliable estimates... measure vegetation structure and aboveground biomass. In lidar sensing, backscatter returns... data for forest height and biomass estimation from future planned sensors... Ice) and European Space Agency’s BIOMASS missions. 2. Area of Study [7] The... Statistics From FIA Ground Data Biomass Deciduous Evergreen Mixed Percent of... of m2/ha), and aboveground biomass in our analysis. 3.2. Remote Sensing... a great choice for studying terrestrial biomass distribution. The data was re... large scale forest canopy and biomass maps generated using SRTM. [13... [Saatchi and McDonald, 1997]. The biomass value of a forest is correlated... YU ET AL.: FOREST HEIGHT/BIOMASS FROM DATA FUSION Figure 3. Flowchart... of obtaining above ground live biomass (AGLB) information from the remote... forest canopy height and forest biomass using least‐squares fit. See... allometric equations between height and biomass. Figure 7. Linear fits for deciduous... extracted using box search with biomass values, and (c) AGLB with SRTM... for biomass. 8 of 16 G00E12 YU ET AL.: FOREST HEIGHT/BIOMASS FROM... unrealistic values of height and biomass. All the above operations were... of forest biomass generated in this study were compared with biomass map... of height relationship and the biomass relationship. The R2 for deciduous... extracted using box search with biomass values, and (c) AGLB with SRTM... generated using equation (2) to produce a biomass map. The exponential relationship of... three forest groups, height and biomass maps were generated with the.... First, functions for 5.1. Structure and Biomass Relations [37] The structural variables... data and the plot level biomass values derived from allometric equations... relationships between average forest height, biomass, and basal area. First, we..., the algorithms for estimating forest biomass from remote sensing data or... examined the relations between aboveground biomass, basal area, and average height... height and linear fit of biomass plotted against measured values. Solid..., (c) mixed; and above ground live biomass for (d) deciduous, (e) evergreen, (f) mixed. types... linear relationship with the aboveground biomass and represented only 40–55... regression provided a positive correlation between biomass and height for evergreen (R2... Lorey’s mean height and forest biomass. 5.2. Interpolation of SRTM‐NED [38... in areas of 5.3. Height and Biomass Algorithms [40] The linear relationships... higher RMSE across the board. Biomass estimations from direct linear relationships... 9c show the results for biomass relationship using corrected plot locations... those for biomass relationships based on box search results using biomass (Figures... R2 RMSE (m) 0.613 0.805 0.912 3.7 4.5 3.3 Biomass Linear R2 RMSE (Mg/ha... between basal area, height, and biomass from FIA ground data. (a, b, and... linear function of height and biomass are direct linear correlations between... hectare (deciduous). 5.4. Final Height and Biomass Maps [44] Final images of... approximately represent the errors in biomass estimation. Large spatial variation in... Tables 4 and 5. The distribution of biomass corresponds well with the division... final biomass map was produced at 270 m resolution where an average biomass... an average forest biomass instead of an average biomass for the pixel... of the biomass generated from this study with the biomass map provided... the variations of the forest biomass over the landscape. A comparison with... YU ET AL.: FOREST HEIGHT/BIOMASS FROM DATA FUSION Table 5. Comparison... biomass images also confirms the statistical analysis. The general patterns of biomass... small scale variations in forest biomass over the landscape. However, large... (at about 1 hectare) of the biomass accurately without a more direct remote... directly estimate the above ground biomass or forest structure. 6.2. Caveats and... errors in forest height and biomass estimation. This effect is noticeable...] 3. Generating the final height or biomass map at a coarser resolution to... mixed). Applying the mixed forest biomass algorithm to a large pixel comprising... include an error analysis of biomass estimation that can include measurement... radar backscatter on coniferous forest biomass, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens... forest canopy height and aboveground biomass using ICESat, Geophys. Res. Lett... and stem water content and biomass of boreal forest using polarimetric... on radar estimation of aboveground biomass in tropical forests, Remote Sens... E. Rodriguez (2006), Mapping height and biomass of mangrove forests in Everglades...



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... agricultural lime application (5(IV)) ............................ 7.12 Biomass burning (5(V)) ....................................................................................... 7.12.1 Source category description... use. Carbon dioxide emissions from biomass combustion are not included in...-bituminous” coal Lignite Coke Biomass Solid Biomass National emission factors Derived Gases... category, CO2 emissions, from living biomass, dead organic matter and soils... removals, in particular the living biomass removals represent 45%, while the... GPG classification and definition: living biomass, both aboveground and belowground, dead... years [a]) even if data on biomass removed in commercial harvest published... aforesaid, considering all the computed biomass oxidised. In the following, the... biomass. Once estimated the growing stock, the amount of aboveground tree biomass (dry matter) belowground biomass (dry matter) and.... With regard to the aboveground biomass: 1. starting from the 1985 growing..., the amount of aboveground tree biomass [t dry matter] was calculated, for..., with the relation: Aboveground tree biomass (d.m.) = GS ·BEF · WBD · A where: GS... = Biomass Expansion Factors for the conversions of volume to aboveground tree biomass... 7.3 biomass expansion factors for the conversions of volume to aboveground tree biomass and wood basic densities are reported: Table 7.3 Biomass Expansion... partial total Total BEF aboveground biomass / growing stock 1.29 1.34 1.22... biomass was estimated applying a BEF to the growing stock. The belowground biomass is computed, as: Belowground biomass (d.m.) = GS ·BEF · WBD... = Biomass Expansion Factors for the conversions of volume to belowground biomass WBD... for each forest typology: Table 7.4 Biomass Expansion Factors and Wood Basic... partial total Total BEF belowground biomass / growing stock 0.29 0.28 0.29... the aboveground tree biomass and belowground biomass: ∆C Living biomass = ∆C Aboveground biomass + ∆C Belowground biomass 120 where... has been obtained from the biomass (d.m.), multiplying by the conversion factor... content / dry matter. The deadwood biomass was estimated applying a dead mass... = Biomass Expansion Factors for the conversions of volume to aboveground tree biomass... 5.A.1, carbon stocks change in living biomass, decrease. 122 7.2.3 Uncertainty and time... uncertainty related to biomass expansion factors for the aboveground biomass, EBD is... t CO2 eq. ha-1 Aboveground biomass Belowground biomass Dead mass Litter Soil Growing... for the year 1985 Aboveground biomass Belowground biomass Dead mass Litter Soil... the terms linked to aboveground biomass: the biomass increment has been computed... biomass uncertainty are reported: 124 Table 7.10 Uncertainties for the aboveground biomass... for the year 1986 Aboveground biomass Belowground biomass Dead mass Litter Soil... category, CO2 emissions, from living biomass, dead organic matter and soils... removals, in particular the living biomass removals represent 95%, while the... in biomass stocks in a single year is assumed equal to biomass losses... aboveground biomass carbon stock at harvest, harvest/maturity cycle, biomass accumulation rate, biomass... biomass clearing is relatively unusual. This is the reason why no biomass carbon loss is estimated, since no data about biomass clearing... loss in carbon stocks in biomass immediately before conversion to cropland... the default estimates for standing biomass grassland, as dry matter, reported...) and the application of different biomass accumulation rates and harvest/maturity... category, CO2 emissions, from living biomass, dead organic matter and soils... removals, in particular the living biomass emissions represent 4%, while the emissions..., assuming that carbon stocks in biomass immediately after the conversion are... annual crops, carbon stocks in biomass immediately before conversion have been... reported; CO2 emissions, from living biomass, from land converted in settlements... to carbon stocks in living biomass immediately following conversion to settlements... Annual cropland Perennial woody cropland Biomass carbon stock t C ha-1 5 63 As... category, CO2 emissions, from living biomass, dead organic matter and soils... lime application is occurring. 7.12 Biomass Burning (5(V)) 7.12.1 Source category description... carbon stock change in living biomass - decrease. 7.12.2 Methodological issues In... stock change in living biomass - decrease. The total biomass reduction due to... Natural gas Biogas Municipal waste / Biomass total BEN/ GRTN differences tot... Natural gas Biogas Municipal waste / Biomass total BEN/ GRTN differences atz... Natural gas Biogas Municipal waste / Biomass total BEN/ GRTN differences atz... Natural gas Biogas Municipal waste / Biomass total BEN/ GRTN differences Refinery... fuels and the emissions from biomass combustion. The methodology followed is... quantities; 8) from 1990 to 2003 biomass consumption data are those reported... the same source quotes BEN biomass consumption estimates as official statistics...



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... berdasarkan penggunaan atau - 16 - Asian Biomass Handbook aplikasi sebagai sumber daya... biomassa) + (bobot air) (2.1.2) - 17 - Asian Biomass Handbook Menggunakan definisi ini, kadar.... - 18 - Asian Biomass Handbook Informasi Lebih Lanjut Ogi, T. in “Biomass Handbook”, Japan... sumber daya biomassa. - 19 - Asian Biomass Handbook Contoh parameter untuk estimasi... dari limbah kayu. - 20 - Asian Biomass Handbook Tabel 2.2.1. Parameter yang digunakan... biomassa di dunia. - 21 - Asian Biomass Handbook (b) Potensi energi limbah biomassa..., yaitu sekitar 2.8 EJ. - 22 - Asian Biomass Handbook Gambar 2.2.2. Ketersediaan residu biomassa..., Washington, Island Press. - 23 - Asian Biomass Handbook 2.3. Komposisi Biomassa 2.3.1 Tinjauan komposisi... dalam larutan alkali. - 24 - Asian Biomass Handbook Hemiselulosa yang umum adalah... 3 komponen yang sebelumnya. - 25 - Asian Biomass Handbook (f) Komponen-komponen lain (organik... karbohidrat dalam Tabel 2.3. 2. - 26 - Asian Biomass Handbook Tabel 2.3.1. Analisis kimia dari... (dalam bahasa Jepang) - 27 - Asian Biomass Handbook 2.4. Kandungan energi biomassa 2.4.1. Indikator... pembakaran yang terjadi. - 28 - Asian Biomass Handbook 2.4.2. Nilai kalor berbagai jenis... 98%. Untuk kebanyakan - 29 - Asian Biomass Handbook jenis biomassa, jika kadar... selulosa dan lignin. - 30 - Asian Biomass Handbook Tabel 2.4.2. Komposisi unsur khas..., hasilnya tepat mendekati. - 31 - Asian Biomass Handbook Tabel 2.4.3. Perbandingan nilai kalor... aktivitasnya. Status siklus - 32 - Asian Biomass Handbook karbon untuk setiap jenis... di masa depan. - 34 - Asian Biomass Handbook Gambar 2.5.1. Perubahan keseimbangan dan.... Hutan yang ditanam, - 35 - Asian Biomass Handbook biasanya berjarak untuk mempertahankan... hektar setiap tahun. - 36 - Asian Biomass Handbook Pertumbuhan biomassa hutan menunjukkan... ratarata pertahun (ton/ha) 1.8 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 Asian Biomass Handbook 2.6.3. Sumber biomassa berkayu Menurut... 1990, 7, FAO, 1995 - 38 - Asian Biomass Handbook 2.7. Biomassa Herba 2.7.1. Arti biomassa...). Efisiensi fotosintesis tertinggi - 39 - Asian Biomass Handbook untuk spesies C4 biasanya..., JP Hokkaido, JP - 40 - Asian Biomass Handbook Tabel 2.7.2. Biomassa tanaman tahunan.... 2, 137-139. (1996). - 45 - Asian Biomass Handbook 2.8. Tanaman gula dan pati... bakar bio (biofuel). - 46 - Asian Biomass Handbook Gambar 2.8.2. Produksi tanaman guladunia...) sebagai bahan bakar - 49 - Asian Biomass Handbook transportasi. Saat ini, tebu... dalam buah sawit. - 51 - Asian Biomass Handbook Tabel 2.9.1 Produksi biji serta..., dan Genus Cocos. - 53 - Asian Biomass Handbook (b) Asal Ada 2 pandangan yang... dengan struktur bergranular. - 54 - Asian Biomass Handbook (e) Pembuahan Varietas yang berbeda... digunakan di industry. - 56 - Asian Biomass Handbook Tabel 2.9.2. Nilai kalor residu... tumbuh tanpa perlindungan - 57 - Asian Biomass Handbook dan dapat digunakan sebagai... pernah dipilih untuk - 59 - Asian Biomass Handbook pemanfaatan biomassa. Dalam 60... seperti agar-agar. - 61 - Asian Biomass Handbook Tabel 2.10.1 Hasil produksi...) Indergaard, M. The aquatic resource. In Biomass utilization (ed. W. A. Cote) Plenum Press... Ltd., London (1979) - 63 - Asian Biomass Handbook 2.11 Residu Pertanian Residu... digunakan sebagai residu. - 64 - Asian Biomass Handbook 2.11.2 Volume produksi Meskipun...-masing sebanyak 3.3EJ. - 65 - Asian Biomass Handbook Tabel 2.11.1. Potensi bioenergi.../) Hall, D. O.; Rosillo-Calle, F.; Williams, R. H.; Woods, J. “Biomass for Energi: Supply Prospects”, In... pemanfaatan (1.000m3) (2005) - 68 - Asian Biomass Handbook 2.12.3 Residu dari pemanfaatan... hasil pengolahan daging. - 70 - Asian Biomass Handbook 2.13.2 Karakteristik limbah hewan... - 2.62 0.29 - 0.29 - 71 - Asian Biomass Handbook 2.13.3 Produksi limbah hewan... sebagai sumber industri. - 72 - Asian Biomass Handbook Gambar 2.13.1. Jenis pembiakan... tinggi, sehingga dapat dipertimbangkan sebagai biomass yang dapat digunakan kembali. 2.14... teraktivasi kembali ini - 74 - Asian Biomass Handbook dibebaskan dari fasilitas sebagai...) (dalam bahasa Jepang) - 76 - Asian Biomass Handbook Japan Sewage Works Association... rendah disebabkan praktek - 77 - Asian Biomass Handbook pembakaran yang umum dan....1. Alur proses biogasifikasi. - 78 - Asian Biomass Handbook 2.15.3 Pembakaran dengan perolehan... sekeliling digunakan untuk - 79 - Asian Biomass Handbook pembangkit listrik pusat) menjadi... menjadi lindi hitam. - 82 - Asian Biomass Handbook Gambar 2.16.1. Diagram alir... baku untuk kertas. - 83 - Asian Biomass Handbook 2.16.3 Karakteristik dan signifikansi... 9,652 Amerika Latin - 84 - Asian Biomass Handbook Infromasi Lebih Lanjut Keiichi..., jerami/tunggul/ sekam - 85 - Asian Biomass Handbook padi, limbah dari pabrik... untuk pembangkit listrik. - 87 - Asian Biomass Handbook Gambar 2.17.1. Rincian pembangkit... 2006 dimana Amerika - 88 - Asian Biomass Handbook Serikat meliputi hampir separuh... International Group Co. - 89 - Asian Biomass Handbook Produk nilai tambah lainnya... glutamat), cuka dan - 90 - Asian Biomass Handbook pakan ternak sedangkan 2 Tg...