Спутник ДЗЗ. Biomass. [Редактировать]

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12016-05-03. Airbus выбрана головным исполнителем работ по новому аппарату.
Компания Airbus Defence and Space UK выбрана европейским космическим агентством в качестве головного исполнителя работ по космическому аппарату Biomass. Согласно предварительный данным масса аппарата будет составлять около 1250 кг., а датой запуска определен 2021 год. Отличительной особенностью аппарата будет являться то, что он будет оснащен Р-диапазонным радаром с диаметром антенны около 12 метров (производитель компания Harris). Общая стоимость проекта составляет около 420 млн. евро. Средством выведения выбран РН Вега. САС аппарата составляет 5 лет. Данный аппарат не будет входить в состав группировки Copernicus, однако его данные будут дополнять получаемые с КА Sentinel данные. Вместе с тем, европейцы так и не разъяснили то, что заявленные частоты 420-450 мГц, уже используются военными США в системах предупреждения о раннем ракетном нападении. Кроме этого многие страны ранее также обнародовали данные о том, что они собираются задействовать данный диапазон.Тэги: BiomassHarris corporationAirbus GroupЕвропейское космическое агентство
22016-07-29. Компания Harris заключила соглашение с Airbus.
Airbus Defence and Space выбрала компанию Harris в качестве поставщика 12-и метрового рефлектора космического аппарата Biomass, который предназначен для решения задачи слежения за состоянием экосистемы Земли.Срок запуска КА по прежнему обозначен 2021 годом. Источником финансирования выступает европейское космическое агенство, которое и заказало спутник радиолокационного наблюдения Земли в P диапазоне.Тэги: BiomassHarris corporationAirbus Group

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг.1250

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость , млн. евро2016-04-03420

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... Change 2 Sustainable & Affordable Biomass Power and CHP Introduction Biomass has an essential... dedicated biomass from 2013, and tightening the GHG targets for all biomass................................................................................................................................... 6 Executive Summary................................................................................................................................ 8 Consultation questions ........................................................................................................................ 10 Biomass power ..................................................................................................................................... 14 1. Brief background ........................................................................................................................ 14... dedicated biomass (without CHP) generation ....................................................... 43 13 Standard co-firing of biomass...: biomass@decc.gsi.gov.uk Consultation reference: URN 12D/015 – Biomass Electricity... 7 Sustainable & Affordable Biomass Power and CHP Executive Summary Biomass power has an... solid biomass supply-chains and better aligning our approach 8 Sustainable & Affordable Biomass... for (a) new dedicated biomass, (b) existing dedicated biomass and (c) other biomass plants ? Q3. Do... for solid and gaseous biomass, except where that biomass is woodfuel using...? 11 Sustainable & Affordable Biomass Power and CHP UK Biomass & Biogas Carbon Calculator... biomass pellets may contain up to 2% by weight of another solid biomass... the resulting biomass generation from the pellet? 12 Sustainable & Affordable Biomass Power... & Affordable Biomass Power and CHP Bio m a s s p o we r 1. Brief background 1.1 Biomass refers to plant and animal matter of recent origin. Biomass suitable... 85% biomass use the support per megawatt hour of biomass electricity generated... build dedicated biomass by setting the support levels for dedicated biomass at... from new dedicated biomass and ensure that new dedicated biomass is affordable... biomass (without CHP). We have retained 2 ROCs/MWh support for dedicated biomass... solid biomass and biogas; • The setting of a cap on new dedicated biomass... a requirement for biomass power generators of above 50kWe capacity using biomass (liquid... biomass was sourced – the ‘Land Criteria’. The Land Criteria for solid biomass... Sustainable & Affordable Biomass Power and CHP Content of Solid Biomass & Biogas Sustainability... of the most attractive dedicated biomass or biomass CHP schemes also coming... of biomass electricity generators, supported by some of the large biomass feedstock... large-scale investment in biomass power and biomass supplychains cannot happen. With... use of sustainable biomass for energy and considers that biomass electricity has... expect that new dedicated biomass power, including biomass CHP, will have higher... other plant using biomass, including coal to biomass conversion/co-firing plant... for (a) new dedicated biomass, (b) existing dedicated biomass and (c) other biomass plants ? Q3. Do... from which the biomass was composed (e.g. wood); where the biomass can take different forms the form of the biomass; (e.g. pellet); its mass/volume; whether the biomass was waste or wholly derived from waste; whether the biomass... use biomass except landfill gas, sewage gas, bioliquids, waste or biomass wholly... as the biomass they took in originally less any biomass they have... for solid and gaseous biomass, except where that biomass is woodfuel using... biomass pellets may contain up to 2% by weight of another solid biomass... the resulting biomass generation from the pellet? 39 Sustainable & Affordable Biomass Power... solid biomass & biogas feedstocks from October 2013. Content of Solid Biomass & Biogas Sustainability Report GHG Lifecycle Criteria For solid & gaseous biomass consignments other than waste, biomass wholly derived from... use change. • For biomass plants – including dedicated biomass and CHP- accredited before 1 April 2013, confirmation of whether the biomass... to biomass conversion/co-firing plants, confirmation of whether the biomass met... For solid & gaseous biomass consignments other than waste, biomass wholly derived from... is solid biomass or biogas, but not solid Sustainable & Affordable Biomass Power... for biomass co-firing and conversion. 12 Cap on new dedicated biomass... low risk, priority pathways for biomass. Biomass CHP offers more cost-effective... biomass ROCs, depressing their value and affecting the economics of dedicated biomass...-combust low volumes of biomass. The amount of biomass used – ranging from... other forms of biomass, and to increase the total biomass resource available... Biomass Power and CHP ANNEX A – Land Criteria as applied to solid biomass... which generates electricity from biomass (excludes waste, biomass wholly derived from waste... energy, including woody biomass. 57 Sustainable & Affordable Biomass Power and CHP 1.2 Model...



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... (1) Major Developments of Biomass Policy in Japan  Biomass utilization promotion was incorporated... society with full biomass utilization • Begins to create Biomass Town in 2004...) • Building Biomass Towns and developing biomass energy conversion technologies 2006 Biomass Nippon Strategy (Revised) • Aims to use biomass energy, including fuel for transportation • Fortifying Biomass Town creating. (Goal: 300 Biomass... Biomass Industrialization Strategy • Specifying the targeted conversion technologies and biomass for realizing biomass industrialization • Setting principles and policies for realizing biomass industrialization 1 Reference 6 Biomass... up the principles for biomass utilization, “the Basic Biomass Utilization Promotion Plans... national measures regarding biomass utilization and promoting comprehensive biomass utilization actions as... up “the National Biomass Policy Council” 2 Reference 6 Biomass Policies and Assistance Measures... Awareness for Biomass  Consistency between Stable Food Supplies and Biomass Utilization  Considerations for Environment Preservation 3 Reference 6 Biomass Policies and... to promote biomass utilization Promote effective utilization of biomass among biomass suppliers in... the Use of Biomass  Expand the use of biomass resources equal to... the Promotion of Biomass Utilization(2010) (b) Target of biomass utilization by type... each type of biomass to promote high utilization biomass based on their... biomass resources Draw up the Biomass Industrialization Strategy (Adopted by the National Biomass... 6, 2012)  Industrialization using biomass resources with the targeted biomass and technologies  Creation... 6 – Biomass Policies and Assistance Measures in Japan (4) The Biomass Industrialization Strategy (2012) (b) Biomass energy potential  The table below shows biomass energy... in Japan (4) The Biomass Industrialization Strategy (2012) (c) The biomass conversion technology roadmap... variety of biomass conversion technologies and types of biomass, the biomass conversion technology...) Biomass  Woody biomass, food waste, sewage sludge, animal waste, etc. 13 Reference 6 – Biomass Policies and Assistance Measures in Japan (4) The Biomass Industrialization Strategy (2012) (d) Biomass.... Principles for biomass industrialization 1. Biomass-used Industrialization with the targeted Biomass and commercialized... business owners into biomass related market 14 Reference 6 – Biomass Policies and Assistance... in Japan (4) The Biomass Industrialization Strategy (2012) (d) The Biomass Industrialization Strategy (2/4)  Technological... tax related biomass industrialization Utilization of carbon credit system Biomass-used industrialization... in Japan (4) The Biomass Industrialization Strategy (2012) (d) The Biomass Industrialization Strategy (3/4)  Specific... for the targeted biomass (1) Woody biomass  Establishment of a woody biomass (forest off-cuts) energy utilization system is biomass... Biomass Industrialization Strategy (2012) (d) The Biomass Industrialization Strategy (4/4)  Creation of the Biomass Industrial Community is presented to realize the Biomass Industrialization strategy. The Biomass Industrial Community develops the Biomass Town Concept further and promotes biomass industrialization... Japan (4) The Biomass Industrialization Strategy (2012) (e) Creation of the Biomass Industrial Community... disaster-resistant communities (Biomass Industrial Communities), centering on the biomass industry. Local... and biomass power generation facilities. Introduction of biomass plant Woody biomass  Construction of biomass power plant using woody biomass  Lumber... support  Establishment of Biomass Industrial Communities 21 Reference 6 Biomass Policies and Assistance... medium-scale hydroelectric power, Biomass 22 Reference 6 Biomass Policies and Assistance Measures... years Energy source 20 years Biomass Biomass type Biogas Wood-fired power... of biomass industrialization in order to promote biomass utilization. 1. Activities of the Biomass Town Advisors  Support the Biomass Town... Biomass 30 Reference 7 Publications and Websites about Biomass (1) Publications Name The Asian Biomass Handbook -A Guide for Biomass Production and Utilization- Biomass... Biomass Gasification", H.A.M.Knoef Ed., BTG Biomass Technology Group (2005) English "Handbook of Biomass... about Biomass (2) Websites Type Name Language URL General Biomass Hiroshima University Biomass Project...



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....105/51 Biomass 2020: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TF Biomass Jeppe Bjerg... will impede biomass trade and deter investment in biomass cultivation and biomass-powered... different types of biomass. While sustainability of agricultural biomass is often connected... supply of biomass and biogas. ¾ Markets for all primary biomass resources should be open and progressively integrated across the EU. Biomass... from biomass. Such harmonisation would encourage the utilisation of indigenously produced biomass... facilitate and maintain international biomass trade. 6 ¾ Competition for biomass materials on international... indigenous biomass production. These policies and measures are required across all biomass... growth in biomass use will require: ™ Significant investment in biomass supply chains... that biomass is a sustainable fuel, especially for imports ™ Imports of biomass from... CURRENT STATE OF THE BIOMASS POWER SECTOR .........................17 3.1 Biomass power generation capacity... ..................................................... 18 4 BIOMASS DEMAND AND SUPPLY BALANCE ...........................................................20 4.1 Biomass demand..................................................................................................... 20 4.2 Biomass availability within the EU .......................................................................... 22 4.3 Biomass import from... in biomass-fired power generation. The most important argument for using biomass... influence the entire process of biomass utilisation. Biomass power plants for electricity... gas treatment is necessary. In biomass gasification, biomass is converted into a gaseous... biomass. 16 3. OVERVIEW OF THE CURRENT STATE OF THE BIOMASS POWER SECTOR 3.1 Biomass... of biomass in fossil fired power plants into three different biomass co... principally on the biomass fuel characteristics. Coal and biomass can be mixed... biomass is used for generating electricity in existing mono-combustion plants. Biomass...”. 4.1 Biomass demand In quantifying the current and projected use of biomass, it... primary figures for biomass use. The amount of primary biomass is defined... biomass in 2010 (EURELECTRIC/ POYRY) Estimated EU production of solid/gaseous biomass in 2020 (EURELECTRIC /POYRY) Total import requirement for solid/gaseous biomass... supply chains. 4.3 Biomass import from outside EU Solid biomass is predominantly imported... significant biomass potential at global level, and the amounts of solid biomass... demand for biomass which would greatly constrain available biomass for import into... role in supplying and using biomass. Biomass for all application areas needs... forest biomass from different sources 5.1.3 Challenges of mobilizing forest-based biomass for... FOR FOREST-BASED BIOMASS: • • • A framework is needed that incentivises biomass producers (forest... future markets for torrefied biomass are use of biomass in large-scale...-grade biomass as feed and conversion of the low-grade biomass into... of biomass decreases, while systems for recycling plastics increase the biomass share... transport of biomass. The support schemes for electricity from biomass in member... production from biomass. The full range of support schemes for biomass electricity... between types of biomass or exclude certain types of biomass (e.g. Sweden supports... wind; For biomass only if in cogeneration Not for biomass Belgium Bulgaria... levels for other biomass. 60 subsidies to small n.i. Solid Biomass: 135 €/MWh (17.9 + 17.1); Different levels for other biomass. Yes Solid Biomass... €/MWh; different levels for other biomass. n.i. Solid biomass: 15 øre/kWh (20... €/MWh); Biomass second largest RES-E contributor 61 Member State Support biomass Greece... day/time and typ of biomass Solid Biomass:150-200 €/MWh Biogas...€/MWh; Banding allows for a biomass coefficient: Biomass, agricultural/forestry biogas and: 1.8, for... and other biomass 1.3; FIT between 180 (biogas) and 280 (solid biomass) €/MWh; n.i. For first 10 y.: Biomass <4 MW ~91.05176.99 €/MWh ; biomass... size Biomass: (>90%biomass) ~ 185.44 -126.42 €/MWh, Co-firing (> 5% biomass): ~ 61... feedstock based biomass; Capacity limit of 250 MW for biomass and biogas... 2012) Some type of biomass excluded Biomass use is tax-free n.i. Annual... production based on biomass is the use of sustainable biomass, avoiding potential... for biomass. Associations like EURELECTRIC41, AEBIOM&EBA42, WBA, Council on Sustainable Biomass... market for biomass as a sustainable product. The import of biomass from countries... different types of biomass. While sustainability of agricultural biomass is often connected... biomass used in Finland, ................ 32 Table 6: Strengths and weaknesses of forest biomass...



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... paper Energy production from biomass (part 1): overview of biomass Peter McKendry 1,2 Applied... been focused on identifying suitable biomass species, which can provide high... three papers, the background to biomass production (in a European climate) and... production from purpose-grown biomass versus waste-biomass. The third paper considers... for biomass gasification. Ó 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Biomass; Gasification; Landfill; Electricity; Gas engines 1. Background Biomass is a term... release their stored, chemical energy. Biomass has always been a major source... requirements, advantages and disadvantages. 2. Introduction Biomass is the plant material derived... form the building blocks of biomass. Typically photosynthesis converts less than... of the structural components of biomass. If biomass is processed efficiently, either... a non-renewable resource. Burning new biomass contributes no new carbon dioxide... the atmosphere, because replanting harvested biomass ensures that CO2 is absorbed... to a more secure energy supply. Biomass production can generate employment and..., compared to current agricultural practice. Biomass is available on a renewable basis... i.e. organic wastes. The potential of biomass energy derived from forest and... a source of biomass, the total energy potential of biomass for energy production... supplied by renewables, of which biomass is a significant component (Price, 1998... biomass will form a significant part. To date, the 10 or so biomass projects working/under construction will generate about 100 MW. Biomass... briefly. 4. Biomass types Researchers characterise the various types of biomass in different... primarily upon the biomass moisture content, the type of biomass selected subsequently... energy conversion process. Highmoisture content biomass, such as the herbaceous plant... biochemical fermentation processes. 5. Plant characteristics Biomass contains varying amounts of cellulose.... Traditionally, the biochemical conversion of biomass into liquids, such as ethanol... with highcellulose content biomass, than with lignin-rich biomass i.e. woody species, which... energy potentially available from a given biomass source is the same, irrespective... bio-conversion of carbohydrate-rich biomass to alcohol (ethanol) fuels, which... proposal for a low moisture content biomass feedstock, with a high-cellulose content... fuels. 8. Biomass properties It is the inherent properties of the biomass source... biomass as an energy source. As indicated above, the categories of biomass... two types examined by most biomass researchers and technology providers. Dependent..., • cellulose/lignin ratio. For dry biomass conversion processes, the first five... content are of interest in biomass: • intrinsic moisture: the moisture content... during harvesting on the overall biomass moisture content. In practical terms... 1 Proximate analysis of some biomass feedstocks (wt%) Biomass Moisturea (%) VM (%) FC (%) Ash... gas/oil, the relationship between biomass moisture content and appropriate bio... energy potentially recoverable from a given biomass source. The actual amount of... Table 2 Ultimate analyses for typical biomass materials (wt%) Material C H O N S Ash Cypress...–46 Table 3 Properties of selected biomass materials (wt%) Material Moisture content... biomass affects both the handling and processing costs of the overall, biomass... lignin, a determining factor when selecting biomass plant species for biochemical processing... 4 Cellulose/lignin content of selected biomass (wt%) Biomass Lignin (%) Cellulose (%) Hemi-cellulose... For the production of ethanol, a biomass feedstock with a high, cellulose/hemi... density An important characteristic of biomass materials is their bulk density... volume and density of selected biomass sources Biomass Bulk volume (m3 /t, daf... subsequent energy conversion technology. Woody biomass can be obtained as felling... a thermal power station operating on biomass, indicates that road transport accounts... fuel systems Table 6 Typical biomass harvesting costs Biomass type Harvested form Cost... of biomass. There is intensive research and development into increasing biomass yields.... Table 7 Energy yields from selected biomass Biomass Crop yield (dmt/ha/a) HHV... acknowledged that each species of biomass has a specific yield/output, dependent... efficiency of conversion i.e. 20%, of biomass to electricity. Combustion processes using..., from a biomass source, the maximum value is equivalent to the biomass CV i.e. as measured by combustion in air. While a given biomass..., the overall conversion efficiency from biomass source to alternative energy product... biomass, is the form in which the energy is required. • All biomass... No. 404. Hislop, D., Hall, D., 1996. Biomass Resources for Gasification Plant. ETSU...-P1. Price, B., 1998. Electricity from Biomass. Financial Times Business Ltd., ISBN... Logistics of Biomass Fuels, vol. 1. Supply chain options for biomass fuels. ETSU.../2. Warren, T.J., Poulter, R., Parfitt, R., 1995. Converting biomass to electricity on a farm-sized...



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... Parović BELGRADE, November 2009. SUMMARY Biomass is a renewable energy source that.... Unlike fossil fuels, combustion of biomass does not increase the amount... field. For example, the total biomass energy potential in Serbia is... in wood biomass. Analysis of the structure of the biomass residues from... potential of forest biomass as another important resource of biomass in Serbia... the like. The third important biomass resource in Serbia, biogas, is... of renewable energy sources, especially biomass, and the lack of incentive... green energy, which includes the biomass. Significant use of renewable energy... of biomass • Allocating direct incentive funds to encourage the use of biomass... staff for the use of biomass INTRODUCTION Biomass is one of the... of renewable energy. The term biomass means living or until recently... for industrial production. In Serbia, biomass is mainly used in the... of renewable energy, biomass can be divided into: • Wood biomass (sawdust, remains... residues (wheat straw, corn, etc.). Biomass from waste (green fraction of... all these forms of biomass, wood biomass is currently the most exploited... of biomass in Serbia (especially in AP Vojvodina) is plant biomass in agriculture. When it comes to biomass in agriculture... consumption of energy derived from biomass amounted to 3.6 quadrillion Btu, which... total energy derived from biomass, the wood biomass accounts for about 2.2 quadrillion... has significant energy resources of biomass (estimated to be about 2.7 million... on the development of the biomass sector. BACKGROUND Key features of.... CONDITION OF BIOMASS IN SERBIA Much potential of biomass in Serbia lies in the agricultural residue and wood biomass... in wood biomass). Apart from these two sources of biomass another major... livestock production. Another group of biomass sources includes energy plants (e.g. mishantus... overview of the potential of biomass from agriculture in Serbia (Brki...,5 Yield (t/ha) 3,5 2,5 1,6 2 5,5 2,3 2 2 2,5 1.6 1 1,05 0,95 - Total biomass (103 t) 2975 412,5 25.6 12... Table 1: The potential amount of biomass from the residue of agricultural... of biomass It is estimated that the total potential of biomass from... justified to use all the biomass resulting from agricultural production residues... and other potential users of biomass in agriculture there are conflicting... to use biomass. Farmers believe that most of the biomass should be... feed, thermal engineers believe that biomass should primarily be used to... covered, given that there is biomass from agricultural production residues in... that the total quantity of biomass residues from agricultural production intended... cutting in vineyards Manure TOTAL: Biomass for combustion (25% of total... Table 2: The energy potential of biomass from the residue of agricultural... than obtained (produced) energy. Using biomass from the residue of agricultural... plants for the combustion of biomass. Also, there is valuable experience... burning biomass to produce heat. Another major source of biomass is wood biomass... the other hand, briquetted wood biomass is used in large industrial... the energy potential of forest biomass, left to be dissolved after... that domestic supply of wood biomass can provide clean energy from... and waste from livestock production, biomass is also available from raising... of dry biomass per hectare per year. The resulting biomass is very... Serbia has a high potential for biomass energy utilization, it is currently... investing in the sector of biomass (agricultural farms, agricultural cooperatives, wood... of biomass. Bearing in mind the fact that the exploitation of biomass... using biomass and making special rules that would refer only to biomass... using biomass. Allocating direct incentive funds for the use of biomass. The...'' producers of energy can use biomass or biogas under favorable conditions... of raw materials for necessary biomass energy production. Yet there are... facilities for the use of biomass. Encouraging research and comprehensive pilot... considered. RELEVANT LITERATURE [1] Sustainable Forest Biomass: Promoting Renewable Energy and Forest... of briquetting and pelleting waste biomass in the territory of Vojvodina... 2005. Torrefaction for biomass upgrading. Published at 14th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition and, Paris, France, 17-21 October 2005 p. 8. [4] Biomass... collection, storage and briquetting of biomass in agriculture, Proceedings from the...: "The significance and perspectives of biomass briquetting”, Ecological Movement of Vojvodina...ć, M, Janić, T: The possibilities of using biomass in agriculture, Proceedings of works... conference: "Briquetting and pelleting of biomass in agriculture and forestry, Regional...ć, S: Energy potential and characteristics of biomass residue and technology for its..., V, Bajić, S, Oreščanin, S, Rončević, S: Biomass remains in forestry and wood... energy potential and characteristics of biomass residues and technology for its... sources - biomass and wind", Novi Sad Fair, 05/11/2008:BIOMASS POTENTIALS...



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... Schindlbeck (GIZ), Vojislav Milijic (National Biomass Association SERBIO), Vukašin Vu... solid biomass or biogas (for example, the World Bank-financed Biomass District... the efficient use of renewable biomass in heat and electricity generation... the persisting traditional use of biomass heating, while other countries have... (58%, hydropower), Montenegro (46%, traditional biomass uses and hydropower), Albania (38... traditional biomass uses), Georgia (28%, mostly hydropower but also some traditional biomass... wind, solar PV and biogas/biomass installations). Although rural electrification is... the Russian Federation have large biomass resources, which are only partially... renewable energy and consumption of biomass. The exclusion of any programmes... district heating sector, and modern biomass-based individual heating technologies are... production, persisting traditional use of biomass for cooking and heating, or... Liquid biofuels Solid biomass (traditional uses) Wind Solid biomass (modern uses) Solar... hydropower production; and improvements in biomass accounting, which greatly affected the... as solar PV, wind and biomass- based district heating systems – although.... The relatively erratic development of biomass use during 1990-2005 also... biomass use, even though such use presumably existed, and estimates of biomass... have large biomass resources, which are only partially exploited.8 Woody biomass is... 714 Solar Biogas Wind Solid biomass Geothermal Uzbekistan Ukraine Turkmenistan Tajikistan.... The country also possesses abundant biomass resources, which, if exploited sustainably... energy sources, in particular abundant biomass sources, could help decrease the... investments in biomass boilers or small CHP plants based on biomass, the..., too, had a successful Energy and Biomass Project, supported by the European... rural communities by installing 25 biomass heating systems in schools and... project included the installation of a biomass pellet plant that uses agricultural... 3. iii. Solid fuels include traditional biomass (wood, charcoal, agricultural and forest... support for conversions to modern biomass (see section 2), which also can... by the use of traditional biomass and inefficient district heating systems... several countries dominated by traditional biomass rather than electricity (see section... using biomass from forestry and agriculture: EUR 0.1371 per kWh Biomass For power plants using biomass from wood-processing... No. 2.1 Incentive Measures Decree) Serbia Biomass 1-10 MW: 0.1382 EUR per...: * Small hydro plants, plants using biomass, biogas, solid waste or landfill... energy resources for solar, wind, biomass and geothermal (see section 2). In... are eligible for participation, and biomass and other technologies are excluded... a 20% investment grant for eligible biomass projects.16 Bosnia and Herzegovina... develop its biomass market, making available a wide range of biomass baling, milling..., including solar, wind, small hydro, biomass and biogas. More recently, non... projects cover solar water heating, biomass, wind, small hydro and geothermal... used most widely, although modern biomass solutions are getting traction. Biogas... district heating sector, and modern biomass-based individual heating technologies are... technologies and biomass. Switching from traditional to modern uses of biomass would... and gaseous fuels derived from biomass. Biofuels – including liquid fuel ethanol... from sustainably produced non-food biomass sources using technologies that are... engines without fear of corrosion. BIOMASS. Any material of biological origin... solid biomass pellets. BIOMASS PELLETS. Solid biomass fuel produced by compressing pulverised dry biomass... pellets produced by heating the biomass pellets have higher energy content... flammable matter made from solid biomass fuels, including cereal straw, that... (FUEL). A liquid fuel made from biomass (typically corn, REN21 UNECE RENEWABLE... wind, solar radiation, natural gas, biomass, etc. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY. Heat energy... BIOMASS ENERGY. Energy derived from combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous biomass... transport (as opposed to traditional biomass energy). NET METERING. A regulated arrangement... gas, uranium ore, geothermal and biomass energy, etc.) before it undergoes... processing (as opposed to modern biomass energy). WATT/KILOWATT/MEGAWATT/GIGAWATT... or reduce production costs. TRADITIONAL BIOMASS. Solid biomass, including gathered fuel wood...ć, “Biomass in the Western Balkans: Why Don’t We Use Our Wood Biomass....com/biomass-in-the-westernbalkans-why-dont-we-use-our-wood-biomass... Information Document (Appraisal Stage) - Belarus Biomass District Heating Project - P146194” (Washington.../ Project0Inform0ng0Project000P146194.pdf; World Bank, “Belarus - Biomass District Heating Project”. (Washington, DC..., “Biomass Project”, http://www.2kr.md/index.php/ introduction-to-biomass, viewed...-award-of-grantsfor-construction-of-biomass-biogas-combined-combinedheat-and-power...-Moldova. pdf; Moldova Energy and Biomass Project, “Project Background”, http://www...



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... biomass conversion facilities in California. This paper does not cover other biomass... describe the biomass conversion process, feedstocks, current utilization of biomass in California... THE BIOMASS CONVERSION PROCESSES AND FACILITIES IN CALIFORNIA What is biomass conversion? Biomass..., biomass conversion is used to generate electricity for sale to a utility. Biomass... types of biomass are available for conversion? As mentioned above, biomass is... coal. The main feedstocks for biomass conversion are forest products, agricultural... of these biomass types is used in significant quantities. Many biomass conversion facilities use more than one of these types of biomass.... 1 Table 1: Biomass Use in California by Energy Content (2011)1 Biomass Type Energy... nonrecyclable pulp or nonrecyclable paper. Biomass does not included recyclable pulp... Toxic Substance Control (DTSC). What biomass conversion systems are currently being... from the California Biomass Collaborative, there are 22 biomass conversion facilities in... financial incentives available for biomass conversion facilities. Biomass conversion facilities generally accept... recovering waste heat. 2 Table 2: Operational Biomass Conversion Facilities in California1 Facility... Wheelabrator Shasta Anderson 50 Woodland Biomass Power Ltd. Woodland 25 Total... BIOMASS CONVERSION FACILITIES IN CALIFORNIA How much power is generated from biomass facilities in California? According to the California Energy Commission (CEC), biomass... in Table 2, the currently operating biomass facilities have a net capacity to... from biomass conversion facilities? The 2011 reported GHG emissions from biomass conversion...) were biomass-based. The distinction between biomass based (biogenic) and non-biomass based... (IPPC). Table 3: GHG Emissions from Biomass Conversion Facilities in California (2011... are avoided due to biomass conversion operations? California biomass conversion operations result... the facilities above indicate that biomass conversion facilities result in net... is chipped and burned in a biomass facility. (ARB, “Methods for Estimating... biomass. Table 4: Preliminary Estimates of Total Annual Net GHG Emissions from Biomass Conversion Facilities in California (year) Biomass Waste (bone... new biomass conversion facilities? While acknowledging that most GHG emissions from biomass... reduce GHG emissions from existing biomass conversion facilities, especially those that... electricity generated per ton of biomass combusted; or (3) greater utilization of... restarting idled or non-operational biomass facilities, the conversion of fossil... 100% biomass fueled plants, or the construction of new biomass conversion facilities..., Number 1). Also, new designs in biomass conversion and gasification systems sized... or a small community. (UC, Woody Biomass Utilization). Finally, there may be... status of emissions control at biomass conversion facilities? These facilities are... THE WASTE SECTOR WITH BIOMASS CONVERSION FACILITIES Biomass conversion facilities can play... emissions can be reduced through biomass conversion facilities. Renewable Portfolio Standard... sources. Under existing state law, biomass conversion facilities are eligible for... the 2020 RPS deadline approaches. Biomass Conversion Facilities and the Cap.... As shown in Table 3 above, biomass conversion facilities in California do... could include small biomass conversion facilities. V. CHALLENGES FACING BIOMASS CONVERSION FACILITIES This... current and future challenges facing biomass conversion facilities. The challenges discussed... The vast majority of California’s biomass conversion facilities were built in... will take 3 to 5 years for biomass facilities. New facilities are required.... 1). Barriers to Increased Utilization of Biomass According to the 2012 Bioenergy... in unanticipated environmental impacts. Most biomass conversion facilities rely on a combination... of biomass conversion facilities as an end use market for all biomass... Development of Small Community-Scale Biomass Conversion Facilities According to the... the scale comparable to current biomass conversion facilities. Beneficial Uses for... improve the permitting process for biomass facilities. First, it suggested that... of bio-energy projects, including biomass electricity generation. It was also... standing of new or existing biomass conversion facilities. Listed below are... projects; Ensure that community-scale biomass projects benefit from the SB... loan/grant programs geared for biomass conversion facilities using Cap and.... Barriers to Increased Utilization of Biomass The 2012 Bioenergy Action Plan... of biomass: ▪ Update the assessment of California biomass resources, identifying locations of biomass... public regarding the benefits of biomass use, including reducing wildfire risk...; Define and ensure sustainable forest biomass utilization for energy. These efforts... removal of biomass). Long-Term Development of Small Community-Scale Biomass Facilities... the criteria of “community-scale” biomass energy facilities, identifying a few candidate...



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...  Zooplankton community analysis  Macro-benthic biomass  Macro-benthic community analysis The... on a volume basis. 2.5.2.9 Macro-benthic-biomass and population At each sampling... (Saunders et al 2007). Benthic biomass has been studied in the...). 90 4.2.3 Macro-benthos Macro-benthos biomass and population varied over the... mean values of macro-benthos biomass and population during winter and...). Mean variations in macro-benthos biomass and population in the channel....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Population Sampling (gm/m2....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Population Station Depth (gm....9 12.3 0.2 10.1 2451.9 94 Macrobenthos Biomass (gm/m2) Macrobenthos Species (No... indicated drastic variations in the biomass, density and diversity of the... of Dubai Creek sustains a healthy biomass (19.5 gm/m2), density (8278... given the comparative values of biomass( 0.09 gm/m2), density (280... species Biomass (ml/m3) 1.00 Total population (No/m3) 1.00 Biomass (ml/m3) Values 2748.00 0.10 No.of species 0.10 Biomass...) 10.00 Values 1000.00 Biomass (ml/m3) Values 1268.00... Total population (No/m2) 1.00 Biomass (g/m2; wet wt) 10.00... Values Values 1000.00 3897 Biomass (g/m2; wet wt) 10000.00....of species Biomass (g/m2; wet wt) No.of species Biomass (g/m2; wet... Figure 4.9: Composition of macro-benthic biomass (gm/m2) density (no/m2... Not more than 5 Macro-benthos biomass 0.1 Not available Not available Not....00 Average Average Threshold Threshould Biomass Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll a 0.10 MacroBenthos Total... Average Threshold Average Thres hould biomass Macro-benthic 0.10 Phsophate-P Total... Population (No./m3) Macro-Benthos Biomass (gm/m2) Macro-benthos sp... of the relationship between phytoplankton biomass and the euphotic layer off...-Said TFO (1999) Short Communication: Biomass and Production Characteristics of the... Seasonal Dynamics of Density and Biomass of Euglenoids in Peter the....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Sampling Station Depth (gm....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Sampling Station (gm/m2....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Sampling Station Depth (gm/m2....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Sampling Station (gm/m2) Depth....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Sampling Station Depth (gm/m2....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Sampling Station (gm/m2) Depth....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Sampling Station (gm/m2....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Station (gm/m2) (No....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Sampling Station Depth (gm....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Sampling Station (gm/m2....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Population Sampling Depth (gm....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Population Station Depth (gm....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Population Station Depth (gm....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Population (gm/m2) (No....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Population Sampling Depth (gm....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Population Station Depth (gm....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Sampling Depth (gm/m2....) (ml/m3) (No.) (No./ m3) Biomass Species Station Depth (gm/m2... plicata 40 240 Spondylus sp. Biomass (g/m2; wet wt.) 6.00 22... Class Stelleroidea Ophiothrix c.f. savignyi 120 Biomass (g/m2; wet wt.) 8.00 24... Class Stelleroidea Ophiothrix c.f. savignyi 40 Biomass (g/m2; wet wt.) 10.00... Class Stelleroidea Ophiothrix c.f. savignyi 240 Biomass (g/m2; wet wt.) 12.00... Pelecypods Barbatia plicata 0 0 0 Ophiothrix c.f. savignyi Biomass (g/m2; wet wt.) 4.38 15... 43 Ophiothrix c.f. savignyi 86 86 Biomass (g/m2; wet wt.) 5.67 14...



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...  Forestry and Biomass 1 [2‐4‐1] ................................................................................................... 22  Forestry and Biomass 2 [2‐4‐2] ................................................................................................... 23  ESA's Biomass Mission [2‐4‐3] .................................................................................................... 23  SAR...‐P‐03 ESA's Biomass Mission ................................................................................................. 36  Tue‐P‐04 REDD, Forestry and Biomass ........................................................................................ 36... GSi‐Biomass which measures timber density directly. It provides above  ground  biomass...  Visualization Forestry and  Methods and  Biomass 1 Products OPT/IR Tectonics 2 GSCDA... Quality 11:10 Forestry and  Biomass 2 Land Surface  Temperature  and Fires...:  Ocean Colour 3 Coastal Zones 1 ESA's Biomass  Climate optical 1 Mission Volcanoes 2 Copernicus... Observation ‐ EnMap ‐ ESA's Biomass Mission ‐ REDD, Forestry and Biomass ‐ Land Surface Temperature..., from page 43  Forestry and Biomass 1 [2-4-1] 10 September 2013, Carrick (Level... Symposium – Programme Guide Forestry and Biomass 2 [2-4-2] 10 September 2013, Carrick (Level..., GB  Integration of a Northern‐Hemispheric Biomass Map Derived from Envisat ASAR..., DE  Concerted Actions for a Global Biomass Monitoring Initiative  C.  Schmullius  (1)  F.  Seifert  (2)  M.  Reichstein...‐ESRIN, IT 3: MPI‐Biogeochemistry, DE  A Biomass Map of African Savannas at... 10, from page 36  ESA's Biomass Mission [2-4-3] 10 September 2013, Carrick... and Measurement Concepts Underlying the Biomass Mission  S. Quegan (1) J. Chave (2) J. Dall (3) T. Le..., University of Edinburgh, GB  ESA's Biomass Mission System and Payload Overview..., NL  Biomass Retrieval Using P‐Band Polarimeric Sar Data: the Biomass Mission  T. Le... Estimation in the Context of BIOMASS  K. Papathanassiou (1) S. Lee (2) F. Kugler (2) R. Scheiber (2) F. Lopez... Institute, DLR, DE  Capabilities of Biomass Tomography for Investigating Tropical Forests...-P-03 ESA's Biomass Mission 2‐P‐5 On the Calibration Strategy for Biomass Mission Retrieval...‐ESTEC, NL  2‐P‐8  Estimation  of  Biomass  and  Biomass  Change  in  Boreal  Forests  using...  Tue-P-04 REDD, Forestry and Biomass 2‐P‐11 Model‐based Estimation of... a Multistep Approach for Wide Area  Biomass Mapping in Borneo  M. Quinones (1) D. Hokman... Guide 2‐P‐15  Mapping  Above‐Ground  Biomass  in  Savanna  Woodlands  using  L‐band... Estimation of Above Ground Woody Biomass in African  Savanna Woodlands  C. Paradzayi...  Regional  Patterns  in  Aboveground  Woody  Biomass  in  a  Complex  African Woodland (Miombo...  Microwave  Data  for  Assessment  of  Biomass,Soil  Moisture  and  Carbon  Balance... Finland,  FI  2‐P‐32  Improving  Forest  Biomass  Estimation  Methodology  in  Estonia  Using... and Derivation of Above‐ Ground Biomass Estimates for Kazakhstan  C. Eisfelder (1) C. Kuenzer...  Assimilation  of  Sentinel‐2  Data  for  Biomass Prediction  M. Machwitz (1) L. Giustarini (1) C. Bossung (2) D. Frantz... a Soil‐Crop Model for Predicting Biomass and Yield of Field Crops...  Calibration  of  Global  Above  Ground  Biomass  Estimate  Using  Multi‐Source  Remote... York, GB  3‐P‐302 Study of Biomass Burning Emissions in Africa with...‐2012:Assessing the Capabilities of Biomass and Soil Moisture Monitoring with... Soil Moisture and Above Ground Biomass Monitoring  A. Egido (1) M. Caparrini (1) S. Paloscia (2) E. Santi... Gas to Aerosol Relationships over Biomass Burning Areas using  Daily Satellite...



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... (up to 10 MW) ....................................................................................................... 27 1.2.1.4.3. Biomass ...................................................................................................................................... 28 1.2.1.4.4. Wind Power ................................................................................................................................ 29 1.2.2. Power... (Source: Gesto) .......................................................... 27 Figure 15 – Biomass projects potential (Source: Gesto) .............................................................................................. 28... is highly dependent on traditional biomass sources resulting in significant levels... all rural dwellings which use biomass for cooking. Recommendations on Access...      Establish mechanisms to guarantee that biomass for energy is produced in... 10 MW, Solar, Wind and Biomass. Angola has only recently completed... project (based on sugar cane biomass) it does not have for... Assessment and Gap Analysis - Angola 1.2.1.4.3. Biomass Biomass is defined as any biodegradable... residues. All of the vegetable biomass is formed during the photosynthesis... of the biomass’s structural components. The process of using biomass for energy... resource considered as being renewable. Biomass is issued from a various numbers... different types of residues from biomass, of which the two first... Industrial biodegradable residues; Figure 15 – Biomass projects potential (Source: Gesto) 28... plant rehabilitation – 50 MW  Biocom – biomass power plant – 40 MW available... 90% of rural households using biomass for domestic uses with efficient... targets:   To have almost all biomass for energy coming from sustainable... coming from renewable energies (hydro, biomass and other renewables) The following... is highly dependent on traditional biomass sources resulting in significant levels... of around 100 MW from biomass (sugarcane) near Malange. In the... under study, combining a series of biomass plants (based on forest residues... reducing the use of forest biomass for cooking in rural areas... 800 MW of additional renewables (biomass, solar, wind and mini-hydro... regularization and multi-purpose possibilities, biomass plants and electricity energy distribution... hydropower, thermal, wind, solar and biomass. Hydro and Thermal account for... electric energy. In rural areas biomass still remains one of the... and the unsustainable use of biomass in rural areas constitute problems... Assessment and Gap Analysis - Angola o o o  Biomass, reach 500 MW of installed.... Establish mechanisms to guarantee that biomass for energy is produced in...,0 30,0 Hydrothermal Project 300,0 776,3 Biomass power plants in the East...-grid mini-hydro CCGT Thermal Biomass Utility PRODEL Private Private Private...