Спутник ДЗЗ. Biomass. [Редактировать]

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#Новостная лента.
12016-05-03. Airbus выбрана головным исполнителем работ по новому аппарату.
Компания Airbus Defence and Space UK выбрана европейским космическим агентством в качестве головного исполнителя работ по космическому аппарату Biomass. Согласно предварительный данным масса аппарата будет составлять около 1250 кг., а датой запуска определен 2021 год. Отличительной особенностью аппарата будет являться то, что он будет оснащен Р-диапазонным радаром с диаметром антенны около 12 метров (производитель компания Harris). Общая стоимость проекта составляет около 420 млн. евро. Средством выведения выбран РН Вега. САС аппарата составляет 5 лет. Данный аппарат не будет входить в состав группировки Copernicus, однако его данные будут дополнять получаемые с КА Sentinel данные. Вместе с тем, европейцы так и не разъяснили то, что заявленные частоты 420-450 мГц, уже используются военными США в системах предупреждения о раннем ракетном нападении. Кроме этого многие страны ранее также обнародовали данные о том, что они собираются задействовать данный диапазон.Тэги: BiomassHarris corporationAirbus GroupЕвропейское космическое агентство
22016-07-29. Компания Harris заключила соглашение с Airbus.
Airbus Defence and Space выбрала компанию Harris в качестве поставщика 12-и метрового рефлектора космического аппарата Biomass, который предназначен для решения задачи слежения за состоянием экосистемы Земли.Срок запуска КА по прежнему обозначен 2021 годом. Источником финансирования выступает европейское космическое агенство, которое и заказало спутник радиолокационного наблюдения Земли в P диапазоне.Тэги: BiomassHarris corporationAirbus Group
32017-10-17. Thales Alenia Space выиграла контракт на поставку оборудования в интересах миссии Biomass.
Европейская Thales Alenia Space подписала контракт с Airbus Defence and Space GmbH на разработку системы подачи для антенного комплекса. Согласно сообщению компании основной особенностью оборудования будет являться повышенная надежность, что позволит гарантировать выход аппарата на полностью функциональный режим. Датой пуска аппарата назван 2021 год. В качестве технических характеристик в сообщении Thales указана возможность осуществлять измерение высоты лесного покрова Земли с разрешением до 200 метров, а мест без растительности с разрешающей способностью около 50 метров. К отличительным особенностям аппарата было отнесено использование P диапазонного радара (SAR, 435 Мгц). Тэги: BiomassThales Alenia Space

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг.1250

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость , млн. евро2016-04-03420

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... 2.3.1 Change in biomass carbon stocks (above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass) ............2.11... 2.9 Annual increase in biomass carbon stocks due to biomass increment in land... (dead organic matter plus live biomass) biomass consumption values for fires in...: AB = above-ground biomass BB = below-ground biomass DW = deadwood LI = litter... products 2.8 Above-ground biomass Litter Below-ground biomass Dead wood Increase of... in biomass carbon stocks (above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass) Plant biomass constitutes a significant carbon stock in many ecosystems. Biomass is... estimating biomass carbon gains, losses and net changes. Gains include biomass growth... changes in biomass. The Gain-Loss Method requires the biomass carbon loss... time. Annual biomass change is the difference between the biomass stock at...-ground biomass to above-ground biomass, tonne d.m. below-ground biomass (tonne d.m. above-ground biomass... volume to above-ground biomass, tonnes above-ground biomass (m3 growing stock... estimate changes in biomass carbon stocks. Note that some biomass losses can... No Gather data on biomass growth and biomass loss. Use aggregate data... CARBON STOCKS IN BIOMASS (∆C B ) A.1 Estimating annual increase in biomass carbon stocks (Gain... increase in biomass, using estimates of area and mean annual biomass increment... 2.9 ANNUAL INCREASE IN BIOMASS CARBON STOCKS DUE TO BIOMASS INCREMENT IN LAND... = annual increase in biomass carbon stocks due to biomass growth in land... the total biomass growth expanded from the above-ground biomass growth (Gw) to include belowground biomass growth. Following... ratio of below-ground biomass to above-ground biomass differentiated by woody... density (D) and biomass expansion factor (BEFI) or directly with biomass conversion and... AVERAGE ANNUAL INCREMENT IN BIOMASS Tier 1 = ∑ {GW • (1 + R)} Biomass increment data (dry matter... applying a biomass conversion and expansion factor Where: GTOTAL = average annual biomass growth...-1 R = ratio of below-ground biomass to above-ground biomass for a specific vegetation type, in tonne d.m. below-ground biomass (tonne d.m. above-ground biomass)-1. R must be set...-ground biomass growth for specific vegetation type, tonnes above-ground biomass growth... biomass to total biomass. BCEFI is relevant only to perennial woody tree biomass for which merchantable biomass data are available... perennial woody biomass loss is likely to be small. Default biomass carbon... merchantable components or stem biomass to total biomass, excluding or including roots... biomass to above-ground biomass, in tonne d.m. below-ground biomass (tonne d.m. above-ground biomass... volume to total biomass removals (including bark), tonnes biomass removal (m3 of... biomass to above-ground biomass, in tonne d.m. below-ground biomass (tonne d.m. above-ground biomass... merchantable volume to biomass removals (including bark), tonnes biomass removal (m3 of... of biomass that is lost from the total biomass. The partitioning of biomass... biomass to above-ground biomass, in tonne d.m. below-ground biomass (tonne d.m. above-ground biomass... the proportion of biomass that is lost from the biomass pool: a standreplacing disturbance will kill all (fd = 1) biomass while... POOLS To: Above-ground biomass Belowground biomass Dead wood Litter Soil organic... (must equal 1) B C D E F 1 From: Aboveground biomass Belowground biomass A 1 1 Dead wood 1 Litter 1 Soil organic... STOCKS IN BIOMASS (∆C B ) i) Annual increase in carbon stocks in biomass, ∆C G Tier 1: Annual increase in carbon stocks in biomass due... to biomass growth, changes due to actual conversion (difference between biomass stocks... with a change in biomass stocks, e.g., part of the biomass may be withdrawn... the carbon contained in biomass killed during a biomass burning is emitted into... biomass losses estimated in Equation 2.7. The biomass losses in Equation 2.7 contain additional biomass... root biomass increments are counted in Equation 2.10, then root biomass losses... removal into above-ground biomass removals, tonnes biomass removal (m3 of removals... biomass to above-ground biomass, in tonne d.m. below-ground biomass (tonne d.m. above-ground biomass)-1. R must be set to zero if root biomass... may represent C transfers between biomass, dead biomass and soils, which are advantageous... is usually made to biomass burning, since biomass is the main pool... (DEAD ORGANIC MATTER PLUS LIVE BIOMASS) BIOMASS CONSUMPTION VALUES (TONNES DRY MATTER... (DEAD ORGANIC MATTER PLUS LIVE BIOMASS) BIOMASS CONSUMPTION VALUES (TONNES DRY MATTER... calabozo, in Biomass Burning and Global Change: Volume 2. Biomass burning in South... with total above-ground biomass, C, nutrient pools, and biomass burning of primary... Northwest, in Biomass Burning and Global Change: Volume 2. Biomass burning in South...



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... omitted, except CH4 emissions from biomass burning, which can be counted... carbon in soil carbon, belowground biomass, dead wood and harvested wood... criterion shall apply.  Below-ground biomass of trees is recommended, as... proposed AUD project activity Sources Biomass burning Livestock emissions Gas Included... on deforested lands (including from biomass burning) are conservatively omitted in... done as follows: a) Above-ground biomass:  Initial forest classes (icl): immediate... accumulated each year). b) Below-ground biomass:  Initial forest classes (icl): an... the baseline, CH4 emissions from biomass burning can be estimated. Where... of insufficient accuracy, emissions from biomass burning should not be considered...: EBBtoticl,t Total GHG emission from biomass burning in forest class icl... ante estimated) actual emissions from biomass burning in the project area..., No.1 Brown, S. 1997. Estimating Biomass and Biomass Change of Tropical Forests: A primer..., and A. E. Lugo. 1992. Tropical forest biomass estimation from truncated stand tables... deforestation. Houghton, R.A., 2005, Aboveground forest biomass and the global carbon balance... remaining forest land” (living tree biomass) Forest degradation Forest management Forest...-use / land-cover transition Living biomass (trees) Dead organic matter Soil.... Table 5. Approximate values of daily biomass intake (d. m. – dry mass) for different... Intake (MJ head-1 day-1) Daily Biomass Intake (kg d. m. head-1 day-1) Developed... percentages rather than absolute units (biomass, carbon, or CO2), and coefficient... literature from different volume or biomass forest inventories in forest plantations... should be estimated . The living biomass components that are measured and... method basically involves estimating the biomass per average tree of each... in combination with an allometric biomass regression equation (explained later). Stand..., Version 1.1 Sectoral Scope 15 The biomass density can be calculated from... multiplying this value with the Biomass Conversion and Expansion Factor (BCEF... volume expansion factor (VEF) and biomass conversion and expansion factor (BCEF... above-ground biomass density: = 1.3 x 140 = 182 t/ha Below-ground tree biomass (roots... through a relationship to above-ground biomass (usually a root-to-shoot ratio... trees: (1) Allometric Equations method, and (2) Biomass Expansion Factors (BEF). The Allometric... equations are constructed relating the biomass with values from easily measured... biomass of tree tr; kg C tree (or t C tree- ) TBabtr = Above-ground biomass... above-ground biomass in plot pl; t C ha TCabtr = Above-ground biomass of... steps 4 and 5 to below-ground biomass. TCbbtr  TCabtr  R j (A3-15)  TR... LU/LC class cl; dimensionless -1 Biomass Expansion Factor (BEF) Method 1. In... example: Brown, S. 1997. Estimating Biomass and Biomass Change of Tropical Forests: A prim... values AP = plot area; m 2 Choose a biomass expansion factor (BEF) and a root... carbon stock in aboveground biomass and below-ground biomass per tree via..., Version 1.1 Sectoral Scope 15 5. BEFpl = Biomass expansion factor for converting volumes... in aboveground and below-ground biomass by aggregating successively at the... out the biomass of leaves (about 2-3% of the above-ground biomass for... original biomass has been lost, it is conservative to estimate the biomass... BEF method, but ignoring the Biomass Expansion Factor. f. To aggregate the... different components of originally live biomass. To differentiate small woody debris... Extraction Estimation Step 1: Calculate the biomass carbon of the commercial volume... species j; t d.m.m -3 CFj = Carbon fraction of biomass for tree species j; t C t-1d.m. 44... is released Step 4: Calculate the biomass carbon extacted at time t that... inventory estimation Step 1: Calculate the biomass carbon of the commercial volume...: -1 CXBicl,t = Mean stock of extracted biomass carbon from initial forest class...-e ha Cabicl,t = Mean above-ground biomass carbon stock in initial forest..., Version 1.1 Sectoral Scope 15 BCEF = Biomass conversion and expansion factor for... volume to total aboveground tree biomass; dimensionless Pcomicl = Commercial volume as... and markets. Step 3: Calculate the biomass carbon extracted at time t that... immediately; dimensionless Step 4: Calculate the biomass carbon extacted at time t that... is released Step 5: Calculate the biomass carbon extacted at time t that... year t; kg d.m. yr-1 DBI = Daily biomass intake; kg d.m. head day GWPCH4... the linear regression) dimensionless BCEF Biomass conversion and expansion factor for... volume to total aboveground tree biomass dimensionless Source Monitoring annually calculated... Equation Observation Source Monitoring BEFpl Biomass expansion factor for converting volumes... stock per hectare below-ground biomass carbon pool of final postdeforestation... literature from different volume or biomass forest inventories in forest plantations... forest type j, linking aboveground tree biomass (in kg tree-1) to diameter... that could burn (above-ground biomass, dead wood, litter) dimensionless Pburntp...



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... Biomass of Shrubs 4.10.3. Above-Ground Biomass of Herbs 4.10.4 Above-Ground Biomass... for Estimating Below-Ground Biomass 4.13.1 Below-Ground Biomass: Features and Broad... for biomass baseline assessment which incorporates approaches, steps and techniques of biomass... and perennial biomass production and litter turnover, contributing to increased biomass and... often included as dead biomass. The quantity of biomass is expressed as... pool. 7|Page Biomass density: Changes in time of vegetation biomass per unit... using the term “biomass” we refer to the vegetation biomass density, that... plant biomass (aboveground and belowground) and in the soil. C = (0.50)*biomass.This means about 50% of plant biomass consists of...-ground biomass (AGB) Above-ground biomass is expressed as tonnes of biomass or carbon per hectare. Above-ground biomass is the.... Below-ground biomass (BGB) Below-ground or live root biomass is expressed as tonnes of biomass or carbon... above-ground biomass. Dead wood includes all non-living woody biomass not... consists of biomass and the soil carbon pools. The biomass pool includes living aboveground and below-ground biomass, litter...-use change, extraction of biomass, burning of biomass, soil disturbance leading to... Aboveground Belowground Litter Deadwood Soil biomass biomass Avoided deforestation Annual _ 3-5 3-5 Annual initially... | P a g e Litter and deadwood Belowground biomass Aboveground biomass Table 3.2 Methodological options for estimating... adopted - Requires above-ground biomass estimate -Biomass equations -Requires input data on... Estimating Above-Ground Biomass Above-ground biomass includes all biomass in living vegetation.... For 27 | P a g e above-ground biomass, actual biomass inventory data are very useful... Biomass Pool The frequency of measurement and monitoring of above-ground biomass... biomass Carbon pool Above-ground biomass of trees and shrubs Above-ground biomass... herb layer biomass (g/m2) -Dry weight of herb layer biomass (g/m2) Source... period.However, since tree biomass will dominate total biomass (and therefore will... and biomass is calculated only for that year. Next year, biomass is... shrub and tree biomass periodic monitoring of shrub biomass could be through...-layer biomass includes all annual plants, regenerated saplings and grass biomass. Herb-layer plots are usually small (1 × 1 m) but more numerous. Biomass... biomass are the parameters to be recorded. Frequency of estimation the biomass... production of grass biomass (grams/hectare), calculate the average biomass for all... factor  Estimating tree biomass using allometric equations where biomass of a tree is... up the biomass of each species to obtain the total biomass of... (dry matter) Estimation of biomass using equations: Biomass of a tree can be... generic biomass estimation equations are available in the literature. Often generic biomass... biomass equations for individual trees, they are also available for estimating biomass... field is difficult. Many biomass equations are indeed biomass volume equations. Tree... farms to biomass in tons using the density of biomass for the... biomass  If the equation provides only the merchantable volume, use the biomass conversion and expansion factor (BCEF) to obtain total biomass in... biomass per ha. BCEF: The data on biomass volume and the default biomass... volume into total biomass, BCEF are used (IPCC 2006). Biomass expansion factors (BEF) could be used if a biomass equation provides the merchantable biomass (tons per ha... biomass (t/ha) = Total merchantable biomass (t/ha) × BEF Total biomass (t/ha) = volume of merchantable biomass (m3/ha) × BCEF (t/m3) 54 | P a g e Tree biomass... to lower biomass estimates, especially in the low-to-medium biomass categories... to tree biomass. Shrub biomass is expressed as tons of dry biomass production... Below-Ground Biomass Below-ground biomass is defined as the entire biomass of.... 1997) of the total biomass. Below-ground biomass accumulation is linked to... of above-ground biomass. The greatest proportion of root biomass occurs in... loss of below-ground biomass. Since below-ground biomass could account for 20–26% of the total biomass, it... and monitoring below-ground biomass. 4.13.1 Below-Ground Biomass: Features and Broad... biomass of trees. 3: Select the sample plots identified for above-ground biomass... live above-ground biomass: 7: The method for calculating the biomass stock of... biomass of trees. 3: Select the sample plots identified for above-ground biomass...    4.13.2.4 Litter Biomass Litter includes all non-living biomass other than deadwood...-ground biomass. Methods for long-term monitoring of above-ground biomass: The... or per shrub Biomass: in Kg 0.50*Bi omass Biomass baseline survey... Biomass Kg/tree Carbon stock /Tree Biomass: in Kg 0.50*Biomas s Form 4: Biomass...



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... conditions ........................ 4 1.5. Characteristics of picophytoplankton ................................................................... 6 1.6. Picophytoplankton biomass and distribution ....................................................... 7 1.7. Picophytoplankton diversity in... 5.4.2. Carbon biomass.......................................................................................... 118 5.4.3. Contribution of picophytoplankton to total phytoplankton biomass (picophytoplankton ratio..., 5-yearly mean picophytoplankton and diatom biomass over depth; black: preindustrial B1...). ...... 120 Figure 5. 6 Difference in picophytoplankton biomass in the rcp8.5 projections of... [mmol m-3]concentration and mean picophytoplankton biomass over depth [mmol m-3] in 1800... Figure 5. 10 Changes in picophytoplankton biomass (black), nitrogen (green) and phosphorus... results in an increased phytoplankton biomass (Doney 2006, Figure 1. 2). Figure 1. 2 The... Mooy et al. 2006). 1.6. Picophytoplankton biomass and distribution Picophytoplankton are found... translating chlorophyll a concentration into carbon biomass and primary production  Picoeukaryotes differ... contribute substantially to both phytoplankton biomass and primary production in oligotrophic... translating chlorophyll a concentration into carbon biomass and primary production? 2) Do picoeukaryotes... observational chlorophyll concentrations into phytoplankton biomass and/or primary production. Therefore... been shown to dominate picophytoplankton biomass in oligotrophic environments (Moore et... translating chlorophyll a concentration into carbon biomass and primary production. 41 2.7. Appendix... ocean waters, picoeukaryotes dominate picophytoplankton biomass in colder waters (Buitenhuis et... increase their contribution to phytoplankton biomass over a wider temperature range. 69... global phytoplankton biomass with a substantial contribution to total phytoplankton biomass in the... commonly used to estimate phytoplankton biomass. 75 4.3. Material and Methods 4.3.1. Cultures... picophytoplankton, their relative contribution to biomass and as a consequence, the influence....6 117 5.4.2. Carbon biomass In all scenarios the carbon biomass of both groups... of the total biomass. With climate change picophytoplankton biomass decreases by 3.2 - 4.6% and... temperature parameters, the mean total biomass is higher with picophytoplankton accounting... biomass they achieved in scenario A. With climate change picophytoplankton gain 0.4 - 2.3% of biomass and diatoms loose 16.2 - 16.6%, leading to a total decrease of biomass by 12.2 - 12.6%. 118 Table 5. 5 Mean picophytoplankton, diatom and total biomass in 1800, 2100 and relative differences Picophytoplankton Total biomass Diatoms 1800 2100 mg m-3 mg m-3 Δ biomass [%] A 5.99 5.79... 2100 mg m-3 mg m-3 Δ biomass [%] 1800 2100 mg m-3 mg m-3 Δ biomass [%] 8.90 7.99 -10... conditions. Figure 5. 6 Difference in picophytoplankton biomass in the rcp8.5 projections of... picophytoplankton biomass decreases strongly and nitrogen availability is highest. Diatom biomass in... or diatom concentration with picophytoplankton biomass regarding the 5-yearly average mean... [mmol m-3] concentration and mean picophytoplankton biomass over depth [mmol m-3] in 1800... Figure 5. 10 Changes in picophytoplankton biomass (black), nitrogen (green) and phosphorus... decreases in biomass at the surface but increases its biomass below 110m... of picophytoplankton to total phytoplankton biomass (picophytoplankton ratio) and export of... of picophytoplankton to total phytoplankton biomass (picophytoplankton ratio) is shown in... 5. 12. Picophytoplankton dominate the phytoplankton biomass strongly in most ocean areas... average picophytoplankton biomass substantially. They also underestimate the picophytoplankton biomass in all... 5. 5). Figure 5. 14 Average surface picophytoplankton biomass from Maredat database in mmol... than the contribution to carbon biomass. As satellites measure chlorophyll concentration... carbon biomass between 40°N and 40°S, where picophytoplankton dominates phytoplankton biomass and... translating chlorophyll a concentration into carbon biomass and primary production. With the... translating chlorophyll a concentration into carbon biomass and primary production has not... chlorophyll a concentration from observations into biomass and primary production. 137 The... picophytoplankton contribution to phytoplankton carbon biomass and that 140 regions with... biogeochemical models. Picoeukaryotes constitute a higher biomass than picoprokaryotes and contribute substantially... field measurements of picophytoplankton carbon biomass, a better comparison of laboratory studies... contribution of picoplankton to phytoplankton biomass and production. Limnology and Oceanography.... Buitenhuis, E.T. et al., 2012. Picophytoplankton biomass distribution in the global ocean... II). I. Microplankton community abundances and biomass. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 201...



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... sets used included total catch biomass for 1961-2003, size compositions... fishery catch and 2003 survey biomass estimates. A preliminary assessment of uncertainty... 2002 fishery ages, 2003 survey biomass estimate, removal of the 1978... remaining above B40%, with projected biomass decreasing slightly. Responses to SSC... underestimated when examining our survey biomass figures. The 2002 model was...) based on distribution of exploitable biomass. Amendment 41, which took effect..., as good recruitment and increasing biomass for this species have resulted... collections are consistent. 7.2.2 Survey Data Biomass Estimates from Trawl Surveys Bottom... theoretically an estimate of absolute biomass, but we treat them as... of slope rockfish. Summaries of biomass estimates from the 2003 trawl... biomass estimates for Pacific ocean perch are shown in Table 7-4. Gulfwide biomass... have been incorporated into the biomass estimates listed here, and the... of these two surveys. The biomass estimates for Pacific ocean perch... 72). Such wide fluctuations in biomass do not seem reasonable given... individual hauls can greatly influence biomass estimates and may be a source... catches have especially affected the biomass estimates for Pacific ocean perch... actual cause of changes in biomass estimates will remain the subject... focused on improving rockfish survey biomass estimates using alternate sampling designs... survey precision is also underway. Biomass estimates of Pacific ocean perch... and 2001 with much uncertainty. Biomass estimates in 2003 have less... changes in more detail, the biomass estimates for Pacific ocean perch.... The 1996 survey showed continued biomass increases in all areas, especially..., there was a substantial decline in biomass in all areas except Chirikof... in a very large biomass estimate. In 2001, the biomass estimates in both... the surveys. In particular, the biomass in Shumagin was much greater...; as discussed previously, the increased biomass here can be attributed to... from the estimation of beginning biomass (B0). Survey catchability, q, was computed... matrix Survey catchability coefficient Spawning biomass in year y, (=ma wa Ny... a sa * wa max ( sa ) Survey biomass index (mt)    N *s  y ,a a  * Ta ,a ' = ∑ a   N * s ∑ y ,a a    a  Survey age... = λ2 ∑ y (I y − Iˆy ) BOX 1 (Continued) 2 Catch likelihood 2 Survey biomass index likelihood 2 * σˆ 2 ( I y ) endyr a+ styr a endyr.... MCMC confidence intervals around predicted biomass (Figure 7-15 and 7-16) show... reflection of uncertainty around recent biomass predictions than the base model... series estimates such as total biomass, spawning biomass and recruitment (Figs. 7-9, 7-10... spawning biomass are highly skewed, indicating possibilities of much higher biomass estimates... the 2003 survey biomass estimate. Using last survey’s biomass estimate as a placeholder... estimated in the assessment. Spawning biomass is computed in each year... stock’s estimated spawning biomass in 2003: a) If spawning biomass for 2004 is... condition. c) If the mean spawning biomass for 2006 is above ½ B35... mean spawning biomass for 2016. If the mean spawning biomass for 2016... distribution of biomass based on the average proportion of exploitable biomass by... in predicting the distribution of biomass (a reasonable assumption), the weight of... Ocean Perch Summary A summary of biomass levels, exploitation rates and ABCs... rockfish, Sebastes polyspinis, recruitment and biomass in the Gulf of Alaska... Ocean Perch November 2003 Table 7-4. Biomass estimates (mt) and Gulfwide confidence... the 1984-2003 trawl surveys. (Biomass estimates and confidence intervals for... Southeastern areas). Substitute estimates of biomass for the Yakutat and Southeastern... were obtained by averaging the biomass estimates for Pacific ocean perch... of female spawning biomass, 6+ biomass (age 6 and greater), catch/6 + biomass, and number of... 298,816 266,963 Catch/6+ biomass Current Previous 0.348 0.152 0.243... Half maximum F 5-year average F Spawning biomass (mt) 97,765 97,765... 463 November 2003 10^6 5*10^5 0 Biomass(t) 1.5*10^6 Pacific Ocean Perch 1985... and predicted GOA POP survey biomass. Observed =solid line and recommended... (ABC) 1000 2000 3000 Exploitable Biomass 10000 0 Frequency 3.0 Log-mean-recruitment...) 0 5*10^5 10^6 1.5*10^6 Current Total Biomass Figure 7-7. MCMC distributions of key... 1.5 100000 200000 300000 0 20000 Exploitable Biomass 40000 60000 0 0 200 1000 400... Mortality (M) 10^6 2*10^6 Current Total Biomass Figure 7-8. MCMC distributions of key... Biomass (t) 1.4*10^6 p g 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year 300000 100000 0 Spawning Biomass (t) 500000 Figure 7-9. Predicted total biomass for GOA Pacific... Year Figure 7-10. Predicted total biomass for GOA Pacific ocean perch...^5 1.2*10^6 Pacific Ocean Perch 0 Predicted Biomass (t) November 2003 1960 1970 1980... 50000 0 Spawning Biomass (t) 250000 Figure 7-15. Predicted total biomass for GOA Pacific... Year Figure 7-16. Predicted spawning biomass for GOA Pacific ocean perch... over F40 versus estimated spawning biomass over B40 for recommended model...



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... Studer The Carbon Cycle and Biomass Energy Samuel Stucki The Hydrogen..., solar-thermal, photovoltaics or even biomass. The conversion via photovoltaics, for... Count= 3.2 The Carbon Cycle and Biomass Energy 37 announced new projects... to produce liquid fuels from biomass (“sunfuels”). Liquid and gaseous fuels... blending of conventional fuels with biomass-derived liquids. Agricultural surplus, energy... biomass in power plants is another relatively straightforward way of adding biomass... role. 3.2 The Carbon Cycle and Biomass Energy Samuel Stucki 3.2.1 The Carbon... (“natural” and anthropogenic combustion of biomass). The difference between GPP and... Count= 3.2 The Carbon Cycle and Biomass Energy 39 Fig. 3.3 The carbon... effect on global climate. 3.2.2 Biomass for Energy Biomass is the oldest form... of biomass as a fuel, there has been increasing interest in using biomass as a resource in a sustainable energy system. Biomass has the... (refineries, coal technology). Furthermore, biomass is widely available in a broad... providing local jobs and income. Biomass is usually considered a carbon neutral... deviations from carbon-neutrality, if biomass utilization is to be increased... period [25]. The establishment of biomass plantations and the consequent change... use prior to conversion to a biomass plantation. Influencing carbon stocks... Kyoto Protocol. The potential of biomass residues and wastes to produce... consumption. The potential estimates for biomass from dedicated energy plantations depend... environmental compatibility are considered. Many biomass energy potential studies have been... range of potentials for additional biomass energy use that have been..., etc.) (Table 3.3). 3.2.3 Biomass and Hydrogen The chemical composition of biomass with respect... of processes for conversion of biomass, which are interesting in the... overall chemical reactions involved in biomass conversion are listed in Table... conditions ( H◦ 298 ). Biomass combustion releases the stored energy in biomass as heat... thermo-chemical hydrogen production from biomass. Technically the reaction is carried... 3.4 Options for thermal conversion of biomass. ◦ (kJ mol−1 ) H298 Combustion C6... the zero-valence carbon in biomass. The reaction is mildly exothermic... wet biomass in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic digestion of biomass). The... at T < 400 ◦ C (Biollaz). Hydrogasification. Biomass can be reduced to methane...–1000◦ C. Hydrogasification converts all biomass carbon to methane fuel and... heating value of the biomass. 3.2.4 Use of Biomass for Hydrogen Production or as a Renewable Carbon Resource As biomass... the carbon compounds constituting the biomass material. As with fossil fuels.... A strong alternative to hydrogen from biomass is the production of conventional... for renewable hydrogen derived from biomass will develop as its production.... The production of hydrocarbons from biomass via thermochemical gasification to... be restricted for environmental reasons, biomass will play an important role... for the chemical reduction of biomass to liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons... type of the hydration of biomass (e.g. the hydro-gasification reaction... important as a means of converting biomass to chemicals without wasting carbon... could boost the potential of biomass to produce the hydrocarbons, which... “marriage” of renewable hydrogen with biomass has also been discussed as... sources, such as solar, wind, biomass or hydro-electricity, allows the... states of development. (i) Biomass The use of biomass techniques to produce a variety... global demands. By definition, biomass production techniques are sustainable, but... in demand in advanced economies. Biomass may, however, be relevant in... will be complex. Should the biomass crops be directed to alleviating... to reduce protons obtained from biomass and give off gaseous hydrogen... this approach (150 LH2 /h/kg biomass). Combined biophotolytic and phototrophic processes..., A., Berndes, G. (2001) Carbon sinks and biomass energy production – a study of linkkages..., A., Broek, R.V.D., Berndes, G., Gielen, D., Turkenburg, W. (2003) Biomass Bioenergy, 25, 119–33. Intergovernmental... hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass at high feed concentrations. Paper... coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the hydrocarb process. Brookhaven... after oil does. A combination of biomass gasification (BG) and Fischer... wind power for electrolysis or biomass, hydrogen is the preferred energy... 100 binary hydrides 188–189 biomass – autothermal reforming 41–42 – combustion... 11:4 Char Count= 0 Index 416 biomass (continued) – renewable carbon resource 42... – air/fuel ratio 374–375 – biomass 41–42 – hydrogen 9, 91 – internal... production 149–155 hydrogasification, biomass 41–42 hydrogen – adsorption and... launch vehicles 384 hydrogen production – biomass 40–43, 51 – coal gasi...), hydrogen storage 186–187 methane – biomass methanation 41–42 – combustion and... – hydrogen 325–326 shift reaction, biomass 41–42 shutter effect, microscopic... – structure 205–206 thermal conversion, biomass 41–42 thermal desorption spectroscopy...



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... tree height, canopy structure, aboveground biomass, among other parameters. It has... change. [512] Topographic correction for biomass retrieval from P-band SAR data... for topographic correction for improved biomass retrieval. Eleven models were tested... biomass retrieval. Even by means of the most simplified approach, forest biomass...). [521] Polarimetric decomposition for forest biomass retrieval. In this paper, the... investigated with respect to forest biomass retrieval. It is demonstrated that.... The relation between in-situ biomass measurements and the individual decomposition... SAR for BIOMASS mission. In the frame of the BIOMASS mission promoted by ESA for evaluating and monitoring Earth biomass... challenge on a platform. [604] Forest biomass estimation in northeastern China using... transfer model. Forest above ground biomass (AGB) is an important variable... ecosystem. In this study, a forest biomass estimate technique based on forest... find the accurate results. The biomass retrieved from forest inventory data... aboveground biomass. The distance threshold LUT method gives the better biomass estimation... height, crown cover, and aboveground biomass maps for the southwestern United... cover, fractional height, and aboveground biomass for the southwestern United States.... Crown cover, canopy height, and biomass distributions are compatible with those... lidar waveform and the forest biomass estimation was demonstrated by model... of landcover types, forest regrowth biomass, and selective logging. Vegetation type... demonstrated by simulation experiments. [772] A biomass estimate over the harvard forest... radar backscatter data along with biomass estimates from a field campaign conducted... SIGNAL PROCESSING SYSTEMS (2010) 181 Biomass retrieval based on UAVSAR polarimetric... result shows good correlation between biomass and backscattering coefficient in 1 ha... tropical forest biomass estimation. Cloud cover in the tropics and biomass saturation...) could provide a solution. Tropical forest biomass recovery using X-P DBInSAR has been... employ the corrected height with a biomass inversion equation derived from plot... algorithms. [837] Estimation of pasture biomass and soil-moisture using dual...-including dry/wet above ground biomass, soil moisture, surface roughness profiles... forest radar scattering, consequences on biomass retrieval. Ground topography under vegetated... to forest biomass. Within the framework of the ESA BIOMASS mission, this... quantify the possible consequences on biomass retrieval, conducted with the two... the Earth Explorer candidate mission, Biomass. Several specific questions need to... are global forest height and biomass inventories, large scale measurements of... increasing biomass the sensitivity to SWE strongly decreases. Moreover when biomass is.... [955] Robust estimation of pasture biomass using dual-polarisation TerrASAR-X imagery... РЕФЕРАТЫ ПУБЛИКАЦИЙ В МАТЕРИАЛАХ КОНФЕРЕНЦИЙ pasture biomass. The best model is a linear... the model for the pasture biomass itself. Finally, a repeated measures analysis... BIOMASS mission-An ESA Earth Explorer candidate to measure the BIOMASS of... is BIOMASS, which has recently been selected to proceed to Phase-A. BIOMASS... in the estimation of forest biomass. [985] Сборник рефератов публикаций электронной... change the environment. Mostly underexploited, biomass detection via active radar remote... (2010) 339 Regional aboveground forest biomass estimation using airborne and spaceborne... of vegetation and the aboveground biomass (AGB). Airborne discrete return LiDAR... height and biomass in various sites. To estimate aboveground forest biomass in.... Then we combined forest aboveground biomass derived from GLAS pulses footprint... aboveground forest biomass map of study area. Forest aboveground biomass was minimal... captured the distribution of aboveground biomass. [1514] Extraction of features from.... [1517] Estimation of wetland aboveground biomass based on SAR image: A case... images. The estimation of wetland biomass by Synthesize Aperture Radar (SAR... Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) missions: BIOMASS operating in P-band and CoReH2O... 513. Soja M.J. Topographic correction for biomass retrieval from P-band SAR data.... Sauer S. Polarimetric decomposition for forest biomass retrieval. / Sauer S., Kugler F., Seung Kuk.... Ramongassie S. Spaceborne P-band SAR for BIOMASS mission. / Ramongassie S., Castiglioni S.K., Lorenzo J., Labiole... реферат 605. Zhifeng Guo. Forest biomass estimation in northeastern China using... height, crown cover, and aboveground biomass maps for the southwestern United.... 4624-4627 реферат 773. Ahmed R. A biomass estimate over the harvard forest...-3776 реферат 799. Zhiyu Zhang. Biomass retrieval based on UAVSAR polarimetric... forest radar scattering, consequences on biomass retrieval. / Villard L., Borderies P., Le Toan.... McNeill S.J. Robust estimation of pasture biomass using dual-polarisation TerrASAR-X imagery... BIOMASS mission-An ESA Earth Explorer candidate to measure the BIOMASS of.... Kebiao Huang. Regional aboveground forest biomass estimation using airborne and spaceborne...



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... 2.4.1.2 CO2 Emissions........................................................................................................................ 18 2.4.1.2.1 Accounting for Biomass-Derived Carbon ............................................................................. 18 2.4.1.2.2 Comparison of... Emissions......................................................................................................... 181 6.1.4 The Fate of Biomass Carbon Leaving the Tailpipe of... 9.1.2 CO2 Emissions .............................................................................................................................. 215 9.1.2.1 Accounting for Biomass-Derived Carbon .............................................................................. 215 9.1.2.2 Petroleum Diesel... Life Cycle.................................................... 214 Table 126: Biomass Carbon Balance for Biodiesel Life... Biodiesel Life Cycle .............17 Figure 7: Biomass Carbon Balance for Biodiesel Life... of petroleum diesel-fueled engines5 • Biomass-derived carbon dioxide (CO2) in... 2.4.1.2 CO2 Emissions 2.4.1.2.1 Accounting for Biomass-Derived Carbon Biomass plays a unique role in... biological carbon compounds and respire. Biomass derived fuels reduce the net... the atmosphere, while combustion of biomass fuels participates in a process that... flow and biomass carbon flow to and from the atmosphere, biomass carbon... balance on biomass carbon. The material balance shows all the biomass carbon... proportionately lower the amount of biomass carbon credited as part of... Total Cycle Fossil Cycle Biomass Cycle CO2 Fossil Biomass Tailpipe CO2 from... -2.36 g carbon in wastewater Figure 7: Biomass Carbon Balance for Biodiesel Life... higher viscosity and lower volatility (Biomass Digest, 1993)19. To mitigate... Carbon Dioxide (CO2 fossil) Biomass Carbon Dioxide (CO2 biomass) Methane (CH4) Nitrous... cycle stages. 3.3.4 LCA-Specific Parameters Biomass carbon in this study is... emissions during biodiesel combustion. The biomass-derived CO2 releases are offset... deposition of both fossil and biomass carbon. 3.4 System Boundaries 3.4.1 LCA Principle... the biodiesel life cycle. The biomass resources used to produce biodiesel... (CO2, fossil) Carbon Dioxide (CO2, biomass) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O... (CO2, fossil) Carbon Dioxide (CO2, biomass) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O... (CO2, fossil) Carbon Dioxide (CO2, biomass) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O... (CO2, fossil) Carbon Dioxide (CO2, biomass) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O... (CO2, fossil) Carbon Dioxide (CO2, biomass) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O... (CO2, fossil) Carbon Dioxide (CO2, biomass) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O... burning the biomass fraction of the biodiesel made from soybeans (biomass CO2... (CO2, fossil) Carbon Dioxide (CO2, biomass) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O... (CO2, fossil) Carbon Dioxide (CO2, biomass) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O... (CO2, fossil) Carbon Dioxide (CO2, biomass) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O... (CO2, fossil) Carbon Dioxide (CO2, biomass) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O... (CO2, fossil) Carbon Dioxide (CO2, biomass) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O... (CO2, fossil) Carbon Dioxide (CO2, biomass) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O... the methyl ester contains only biomass-derived carbon. The distinction is... biodiesel production, biodiesel contains 73.2% biomass carbon and 4% fossil-derived carbon... components65. 63 This assumes that biomass carbon and fossil carbon partition...) from operating a hydroelectric plant (flooded biomass decomposition). We have not included... do not distinguish flooded biomass decomposition from new biomass decomposition and are assumed to refer only to flooded biomass... 9.1.2 CO2 Emissions 9.1.2.1 Accounting for Biomass-Derived Carbon Biomass plays a unique role in... biological carbon compounds and respire. Biomass derived fuels reduce the net... the atmosphere, while combustion of biomass fuels participates in a process that... flow and biomass carbon flow to and from the atmosphere, biomass carbon..., we provide a material balance on biomass carbon. The material balance (Table... proportionately lower the amount of biomass carbon credited as part of... for soybean oil100. Table 126: Biomass Carbon Balance for Biodiesel Life... g carbon in wastewater Figure 97: Biomass Carbon Balance for Biodiesel Life... to biodiesel.” Biomass Digest, Vol. 2, No. 3, Western Regional Biomass Energy Program, Kansas... Vegetable Oils: Status and Opportunities.” Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp... Laboratory, “Fuel Cycle Evaluations of Biomass-Ethanol and Reformulated Gasoline,” Golden..., J. “U.S. Biodiesel Overview.” In Proceedings: Second Biomass Conference of the Americas. National... Rape Oil” In Proceedings: First Biomass Conference of the Americas. National... Vegetable Oils: Status and Opportunities.” Biomass and Bioenergy, 4/4, pp 227-242... Effect on Diesel Fuel Performance,” Biomass V9, P1,(1986). Hemmerlein, N, Korte... as a Diesel Fuel,” Proceedings, First Biomass Conference of the Americas,P891...



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... of smoke contamination due to biomass burning.  a (0.55) indicates the AOD... played by biomass burning in climate change. In fact, biomass burning is... in the atmosphere due to biomass burning decrease the amount of...., 2004). At the regional level, biomass burning may induce changes in... may derive from South American biomass burning. In addition, vegetation fires... the aerosol effects associated to biomass burning, since it is also..., 1997); estimating the total biomass and leaf biomass of several forest ecosystems... aerosols associated to smoke from biomass burning events. This feature of... of smoke contamination due to biomass burning. Transmittance attenuation is defined... optical depth (AOD) associated to biomass burning. Values of transmittance attenuation... perturbed with aerosols associated to biomass burning, based on cloud-screened... of smoke contamination due to biomass burning.  a (0.55) indicates the AOD... nm from aerosols associated to biomass burning, based on cloud-screened... presence of aerosols associated to biomass burning. Retrieval of the MIR..., in particular those associated to biomass burning. In this respect the...., 1997); estimating total and leaf biomass of several forest ecosystems (Boyd... those associated with smoke from biomass burning events (Libonati et al... V makes it a good classifier (of biomass) and the large scale character... referred to as the “biomass” and the “non-biomass”, respectively and it... the remaining colors identify the “biomass” cluster. When k-means is further... pixels (i.e. to those belonging to “biomass”), the obtained four clusters in... curve V  1 , as opposed to the “biomass” cluster, whose pixels lie along... upon the type of “non-biomass” surface (e.g. clouds or water bodies... V makes it a good classifier (of biomass) whereas the large scale character... W. Surfaces containing any kind of biomass tended to lie close to... in what regards to the biomass/non-biomass character of the surfaces... to discriminate biomass (by means of V) and to assess biomass water content... contribute to a better understanding of biomass emissions, and therefore to an... (INPE-5501TDI/516). Andreae, M. (1991). Biomass Burning in the Tropics: Impact..., D. S. (1999). The relationship between the biomass of Cameroonian tropical forests and..., P. J. (1999). The relationship between the biomass of Cameroonian tropical forests and...-263. Crutzen, P. J., and Andreae, M. O. (1990). Biomass burning in the tropics: Impact... aerosol single scattering albedo for biomass burning aerosols in Amazonia. Journal... and transport of urban and biomass burning aerosol black carbon at..., Cahoon, D. R., Jr., and Winstead, E. L. (1995). Biomass burning: a driver for global change..., C. A. (1992). Effects of aerosol from biomass burning on the global radiation..., B. N. (2004). Multiyear analysis of amazonian biomass burning smoke radiative forcing of... remote sensing the solution? Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic, and Biospheric... using NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery. Biomass Burning and Global Change, 2, 802... presence of aerosols associated to biomass burning. Retrieval of the MIR... played by biomass burning in climate change. In fact, biomass burning is...., 1992). At the regional level, biomass burning may induce changes in... may derive from South American biomass burning. In addition, vegetation fires... heavy smoke layers due to biomass burning, since both channels are... the aerosol effects associated to biomass burning on Earth observation from..., 1997); estimating the total biomass and leaf biomass of several forest ecosystems... of smoke contamination due to biomass burning. Transmittance attenuation is de... optical depth (AOD) associated to biomass burning. Values of transmittance attenuation... 2) perturbed with aerosols associated to biomass burning, based on cloud-screened... of smoke contamination due to biomass burning. τa(0.44) indicates the AOD..., in particular those associated to biomass burning. In this respect the..., D. S. (1999). The relationship between the biomass of Cameroonian tropical forests and..., 217−233. Crutzen, P. J., & Andreae, M. O. (1990). Biomass burning in the tropics: Impact... and transport of urban and biomass burning aerosol black carbon at..., C. A. (1992). Effects of aerosol from biomass burning on the global radiation... processes is emphasized. Key words: biomass burning; burn area index; burn... of CO2 emissions derived from biomass burning in Latin America is... the region. Additionally, Latin American biomass burning is a very important source... most continuous areas affected by biomass burnings are the savanna regions... words, according to our results, biomass burning had much less impact... they have much higher biomass loads. Seasonal trends Biomass burning followed seasonal... the comparison of three satellitederived biomass burning products. Geophysical Research Letters... Collins, Colorado, USA. Levine, J. S. 1996. Biomass burning and global change. MIT... spatial and temporal distributions of biomass burning emissions. Pages 77–120.... 2006. Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to...



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...-ground биомасса biomass Litter Валежная Подземная Below-ground биомасса biomass Increase of... данные по data on для biomass биомассе оценки available to estimate...? Использовать подробные Use the detailed biomass данные по биомассе для data... Имеются ли Are оcountryданные биомассе и biomass data specific коэффициенты d emission/removal... о Use country-specific биомассе и коэффициенты biomass data and по выбросов/поглощений... изменения в запасах in C stocks in biomass in углерода биомассы в данной thisклассификации... aggregate data Имются ли on biomass данные growth оand обобщенные росте... on о росте биомассы и biomass growth потерях and биомассы. biomass loss. Использовать обобщенные... данные по data on биомассы biomass burning сжиганию для оценки to... the detailed данные по сжиганию biomass burning data биомассы для метода... aggregate обобщенные данные о data on biomass burning сжигании биомассы? available? Yes... trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15... methods of large-scale forest biomass estimation. European Journal of Forest...). A tropical rainforest clearing experiment by biomass burning in the state of... in Amazonia: Dynamics of residual biomass and the storage and release... calabozo, in Biomass Burning and Global Change: Volume 2. Biomass burning in South... emissions and atmospheric influence, in Biomass Burning and Global Change: Volume..., Modeling and Inventory Development, and Biomass Burning in Africa, J. Levine, Editor..., J., Costa, F., Veras, C., et al. (2001). Biomass fire consumption and carbon release...: a vegetation gradient of above-ground biomass, root mass and consumption by... characteristics: A case study, in Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic, and Biospheric... and the global carbon budget: biomass, combustion efficiency and charcoal formation... in Brazilian Amazonia: measurement of biomass loading, burning efficiency and charcoal... fire intensity, on understory vegetation biomass in British Columbia. in 13th... forest in Ariquemes, Rondonia, Brazil: biomass, charcoal formation and burning efficiency... with total above-ground biomass, C, nutrient pools, and biomass burning of primary... Mitra, A. (2001). CH4 emissions from biomass burning of shifting cultivation areas... Northwest, in Biomass Burning and Global Change: Volume 2. Biomass burning in South...). Seasonality of carbon emissions from biomass burning in a Zambian savanna. Journal... the Brazilian Amazon 3. Dynamics of biomass, C, and nutrient pools in regenerating..., G. (1994). Trace gas emissions from biomass burning in tropical Australian savannas..., R., Cummings, D., Salcedo, I. and Sampaio, E. (1993). Biomass and nutrient dynamics associated with... Ward, D. (1994). Relationships of fire, biomass and nutrient dynamics along a vegetation...). Fire in the Brazilian Amazon: 1. Biomass, nutrient pools, and losses in...). Fire in the Brazilian Amazon: 2. Biomass, nutrient pools and losses in.... Lacaux, J., Cachier, H. and Delmas, R. (1993). Biomass burning in Africa: an overview...-26890. 44. Levine, J. (2000). Global biomass burning: a case study of the... Kalimantan and Sumatra, Indonesia, in Biomass Burning and its Inter-relationships... a boreal forest ecosystem, in Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic, and Biospheric... study of savanna fires, in Biomass Burning and Global Change: Volume..., Modeling and Inventory Development, and Biomass Burning in Africa, J. Levine, Editor..., P., Sharma, C., Mitra, A. and Badarinath, K. (2001). Biomass and combustion characteristics of secondary... computation of global emissions from biomass burning. Climatic Change, 14: p. 243..., D., Haskins, C. and Scholes, M. (1996). Fuel biomass and combustion factors associated with... use and fire activity: examining biomass burning in the Brazilian Lower.... 66. Stocks, B. and Kauffman, J. (1997). Biomass consumption and behaviour of wildland... scenarios, in Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change, J. Clark... for a mass fire, in Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic, and Biospheric... pine-hardwood stands: above-ground biomass, forest floor mass, and nitrogen...