Спутник ДЗЗ. Biomass. [Редактировать]

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#Новостная лента.
12016-05-03. Airbus выбрана головным исполнителем работ по новому аппарату.
Компания Airbus Defence and Space UK выбрана европейским космическим агентством в качестве головного исполнителя работ по космическому аппарату Biomass. Согласно предварительный данным масса аппарата будет составлять около 1250 кг., а датой запуска определен 2021 год. Отличительной особенностью аппарата будет являться то, что он будет оснащен Р-диапазонным радаром с диаметром антенны около 12 метров (производитель компания Harris). Общая стоимость проекта составляет около 420 млн. евро. Средством выведения выбран РН Вега. САС аппарата составляет 5 лет. Данный аппарат не будет входить в состав группировки Copernicus, однако его данные будут дополнять получаемые с КА Sentinel данные. Вместе с тем, европейцы так и не разъяснили то, что заявленные частоты 420-450 мГц, уже используются военными США в системах предупреждения о раннем ракетном нападении. Кроме этого многие страны ранее также обнародовали данные о том, что они собираются задействовать данный диапазон.Тэги: BiomassHarris corporationAirbus GroupЕвропейское космическое агентство
22016-07-29. Компания Harris заключила соглашение с Airbus.
Airbus Defence and Space выбрала компанию Harris в качестве поставщика 12-и метрового рефлектора космического аппарата Biomass, который предназначен для решения задачи слежения за состоянием экосистемы Земли.Срок запуска КА по прежнему обозначен 2021 годом. Источником финансирования выступает европейское космическое агенство, которое и заказало спутник радиолокационного наблюдения Земли в P диапазоне.Тэги: BiomassHarris corporationAirbus Group
32017-10-17. Thales Alenia Space выиграла контракт на поставку оборудования в интересах миссии Biomass.
Европейская Thales Alenia Space подписала контракт с Airbus Defence and Space GmbH на разработку системы подачи для антенного комплекса. Согласно сообщению компании основной особенностью оборудования будет являться повышенная надежность, что позволит гарантировать выход аппарата на полностью функциональный режим. Датой пуска аппарата назван 2021 год. В качестве технических характеристик в сообщении Thales указана возможность осуществлять измерение высоты лесного покрова Земли с разрешением до 200 метров, а мест без растительности с разрешающей способностью около 50 метров. К отличительным особенностям аппарата было отнесено использование P диапазонного радара (SAR, 435 Мгц). Тэги: BiomassThales Alenia Space

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг.1250

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость , млн. евро2016-04-03420

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...-specific planned improvements 223  7.12  Biomass Burning (5(V)) 223  7.12.1  Description 223... and soil surfaces Amount of biomass Biomass burnt Biomass growth Statistical Yearbooks - National... 2.C.1.4 6.B.1 Industrial Wastewater/Sludge 1.AA.3B biomass 1.B.2.C.1.2 2.A.4.2 1.B.2.B.2 Emissions are included in 1.B.2.B.2 Gas... other processes (glass, paper,etc). 5.A.1. - 5(V) - Biomass Burning - Wildfires CO2 emissions due... information is reported in paragraph 3.5.3. Biomass fuel combustion in residential activity...-bituminous" coal Lignite Coke Biomass Solid Biomass Derived Gases, national data Refinery... biomass fuel consumption are included and reported under diesel fuel category. Biomass... GPG classification and definition: living biomass, both aboveground and belowground, dead... amount of aboveground tree biomass (dry matter), belowground biomass (dry matter) and... carbon amount from biomass. With regard to the aboveground biomass: 1. starting from... 7.5 biomass expansion factors for the conversions of volume to aboveground tree biomass... Belowground biomass was estimated applying a Root/Shoot ratio to the aboveground biomass. The belowground biomass is computed, as: Belowground biomass (d.m.) = GS ⋅ BEF... which converts growing stock biomass in belowground biomass BEF = Biomass Expansion Factors which... the aboveground tree biomass and belowground biomass: ∆C Living biomass = ∆C Aboveground biomass + ∆C Belowground biomass where the... increment related uncertainty Aboveground biomass VAG 137.8 Belowground biomass VBG 31.5 Dead... year 1985 Aboveground biomass EAG 42.59% Belowground biomass EBG 42.59... year 2010 Aboveground biomass EAG 78.02% Belowground biomass EBG 78.02... in biomass stocks in a single year is assumed equal to biomass losses... aboveground biomass carbon stock at harvest, harvest/maturity cycle, biomass accumulation rate, biomass... annual crops. The biomass clearing is relatively unusual. Biomass carbon losses have... biomass was calculated, for plantations typologies, through the relation: Aboveground tree biomass... biomass expansion factors for the conversions of volume to aboveground tree biomass and wood basic densities are reported. Table 7.16 Biomass Expansion... Belowground biomass was estimated applying a Root/Shoot ratio to the aboveground biomass. The belowground biomass is computed, as: Belowground biomass (d.m.) = GS ⋅ BEF... woody biomass (ISAFA, 2004) R = Root/Shoot ratio which converts growing stock biomass in belowground biomass WBD = Wood Basic Density... conversion of growing stock biomass in belowground biomass and wood basic densities... in biomass stocks in a single year is assumed equal to biomass losses... biomass was calculated, for shrublands, through the relation: 210 Aboveground tree biomass... biomass expansion factors for the conversions of volume to aboveground tree biomass and wood basic densities are reported. Table 7.23 Biomass Expansion... biomass / growing stock 1.49 WBD Dry weigth t/ fresh volume 0.63 Belowground biomass was estimated applying a Root/Shoot ratio to the aboveground biomass. The belowground biomass is computed, as: Belowground biomass (d.m.) = GS ⋅ BEF... woody biomass (ISAFA, 2004) R = Root/Shoot ratio which converts growing stock biomass in belowground biomass WBD = Wood Basic Density... conversion of growing stock biomass in belowground biomass and wood basic density... and dolomite agricultural application. 7.12 Biomass Burning (5(V)) 7.12.1 Description Under this... stock change in living biomass - decrease. The total biomass reduction due to..., N2O - 1.AA.4.A Commercial/Institutional \ Biomass: update of biomass fuel consumption - §NIR par..., CH4, N2O - 1.AA.4.B Residential \ Biomass: update of biomass fuel consumption - §NIR par... - 1.C3 CO2 Emissions from Biomass: update of biomass fuel consumption in the....7.2.4 5.A.1 Forest Land remaining Forest Land \ 5(V) Biomass Burning \ Wildfires: Update of EF... Marine Multilateral Operations CO2 Emissions Biomass from   NIR Chapter   DESCRIPTION Please..., annual growth, aboveground biomass, carbon stock, deadwood volume and biomass). The phase... for the year 2010 Aboveground biomass Belowground biomass Dead mass Litter Soil... considered negative (e) - Pumping excluded (f) - Biomass production include: biomass used by electric energy... feedstocks Energy (e) l Energy c Energy TOTAL Biomass PRIMARY SOURCES Waste 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11... feedstocks Energy (e) l Energy c Energy TOTAL Biomass PRIMARY SOURCES Waste 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11... Electric Energy SECONDARY SOURCES 33 1 1 a) Biomass b) Coal 33 33 c) Lignite 2 2 d) Nuclear... reported(1) Above- Belowground ground Litter biomass biomass Activity Dead wood Greenhouse gas... Gaseous fuels Biomass c. Agriculture/Forestry /Fisheries Liquid fuels Gaseous fuels Biomass 5. Other... damage evaluation (percentage of oxidised biomass), forest typology (following NFI classification...



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...-specific planned improvements 221 7.12 Biomass Burning (5(V)) 221 7.12.1 Description 221... and soil surfaces Amount of biomass Biomass burnt Biomass growth Statistical Yearbooks - National... 1.AA.3.B Road Transportation 1.AA.3B biomass CO2 1.B.2.A.1 Exploration 1.B.2.A.1 1.B.2.A.2 Emissions are included... 5.A.1 Forest Land remaining Forest Land 5.A.1. - 5(V) - Biomass Burning - Wildfires 1.B.2.B.2 Emissions are included...-bituminous" coal Lignite Coke Biomass Solid Biomass Derived Gases, national data Refinery... GPG classification and definition: living biomass, both aboveground and belowground, dead... amount of aboveground tree biomass (dry matter), belowground biomass (dry matter) and... carbon amount from biomass. With regard to the aboveground biomass: 1. starting from..., through the relation: Aboveground tree biomass (d.m.) = GS ⋅ BEF ⋅ WBD ⋅ A where: GS... 7.7 biomass expansion factors for the conversions of volume to aboveground tree biomass... Table 7.7 Biomass Expansion Factors and Wood Basic Densities Belowground biomass was estimated applying a Root/Shoot ratio to the aboveground biomass. The belowground biomass is computed, as: Belowground biomass (d.m.) = GS ⋅ WBD... which converts growing stock biomass in belowground biomass 188 WBD = Wood Basic... the aboveground tree biomass and belowground biomass: ∆C Living biomass = ∆C Aboveground biomass + ∆C Belowground biomass where the... Monitoring System), for the aboveground biomass. BioSoil (2005-2007) was a Demonstration... related to biomass expansion factors BEF1 for the aboveground biomass, E is the... uncertainties are reported. Aboveground biomass VAG 137.8 Belowground biomass VBG 31.5 Dead... Table 7.11. Aboveground biomass EAG 42.59% Belowground biomass EBG 42.59... the terms linked to aboveground biomass: the biomass increment was estimated with... Table 7.15. Aboveground biomass EAG 42.68% Belowground biomass EBG 42.68... in biomass stocks in a single year is assumed equal to biomass losses... aboveground biomass carbon stock at harvest, harvest/maturity cycle, biomass accumulation rate, biomass... annual crops. The biomass clearing is relatively unusual. Biomass carbon losses have... biomass was calculated, for plantations typologies, through the relation: Aboveground tree biomass... biomass expansion factors for the conversions of volume to aboveground tree biomass and wood basic densities are reported. 201 BEF WBD aboveground biomass... Belowground biomass was estimated applying a Root/Shoot ratio to the aboveground biomass. The belowground biomass is computed, as: Belowground biomass (d.m.) = GS ⋅ WBD... which converts growing stock biomass in belowground biomass WBD = Wood Basic Density... conversion of growing stock biomass in belowground biomass and wood basic densities... removals, in particular the living biomass emissions represent 7%, while the removals... in biomass stocks in a single year is assumed equal to biomass losses... aboveground biomass was calculated, for shrublands, through the relation: Aboveground tree biomass... biomass expansion factors for the conversions of volume to aboveground tree biomass and wood basic densities are reported. BEF WBD aboveground biomass... Belowground biomass was estimated applying a Root/Shoot ratio to the aboveground biomass. The belowground biomass is computed, as: Belowground biomass (d.m.) = GS ⋅ WBD... which converts growing stock biomass in belowground biomass WBD = Wood Basic Density... conversion of growing stock biomass in belowground biomass and wood basic densities... and dolomite agricultural application. 7.12 Biomass Burning (5(V)) 7.12.1 Description Under this... stock change in living biomass - decrease. The total biomass reduction due to..., annual growth, aboveground biomass, carbon stock, deadwood volume and biomass). The phase.../biosoil 264 Aboveground biomass EAG 78.25% Belowground biomass EBG 78.25... emissions trading scheme, promotion of biomass and biofuel, Common Agricultural Policy... not planned to further increase biomass – biofuel objectives already established (ISPRA... Subprodu Natural cts (a) Gas TOTAL Biomass Biodiesel PRIMARY (f) SOURCES 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11... mal Photovoltai Energy c Energy TOTAL Biomass Biodiesel PRIMARY (f) SOURCES Coking coal... feedstocks Energy (e) l Energy c Energy TOTAL Biomass PRIMARY SOURCES Waste 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11... feedstocks Energy (e) l Energy c Energy TOTAL Biomass PRIMARY SOURCES Waste 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11... for production of primary sources a) Biomass b) Coal c) Lignite d) Nuclear fuels e) Natural... Electric Energy SECONDARY SOURCES 33 1 1 a) Biomass b) Coal 36 36 c) Lignite 2 2 d) Nuclear... carbon pool reported Activity Aboveground biomass Belowground biomass Litter Dead wood Greenhouse..., Spain Nussbaumer (2009) + CDCF Moldova Biomass Heating in Rural Communities (Project...: Avoidance of methane production from biomass decay through composting -1 China (c) Italy... damage evaluation (percentage of oxidised biomass), forest typology (following NFI classification...



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... offtake ..................................................................................30 5. Finance ..................................................................................................34 6. Ukrainian biomass-to-energy legislation ................................................ 37 Annex... in the survey .............................................................38 Annex 2. Biomass facts and figures ...........................................................38 4 Acknowledgements... survey Biomass globally and in the EU Globally, by 2050 biomass could... biomass by 2050 for electricity and heat production. International trade in biomass...’s unique climate and natural resources, biomass represents a strong market opportunity for... Power. 2 European Climate Foundation, 2010 Biomass for heat and power: Opportunity... Ukrainian biomass market. Executive summary The structure of the Ukrainian biomass-to... biomass. Pellet producers process available waste into pellets. Boilers for burning biomass... either local producers or importers. Biomass-to-energy facilities produce electricity... power grid. Biomass-to-energy facilities may use biomass only or in... by biomass-to-energy facilities: Companies or individual users that burn biomass... biomass-burning boilers to receive energy. They may use own-sourced biomass... industrial plants. The latter use biomass boilers together with traditional fuel... biomass into biogas and sell electricity to the grid. The Ukrainian biomass... use biomass boilers. Most of them run both gas and biomass boilers. Combined usage of traditional fuel and biomass (co... to install biomass boilers. 10 Executive summary Demand for biomass-to-energy... biomass boilers in the total number of companies, the share of biomass... supply after installing their own biomass boilers. Schools, hospitals, and other... using biomass. Private heat suppliers have been actively entering the biomass-to... of the biomass-to-energy market is industrial enterprises using biomass to.... BIOMASS-TO-ENERGY MARKET STRUCTURE IN UKRAINE Biomass -to-energy producers Biomass supplies (main sources of biomass) Biomass processors... market) Supply and logistics of biomass  Forestry  Wood processing  Agricultural companies... storage capacities for biomass. Additionally, the shortage of biomass of required quality... to implementing biomass-to-energy projects. The shortage of biomass and the... use biomass boilers. Most of them operate both gas and biomass boilers. Combined usage of traditional fuel and biomass (co... biomass boilers. Despite the expanding share of municipal heat suppliers using biomass boilers in the total number of companies, the share of biomass... supply after installing their own biomass boilers. Schools, hospitals, and other... using biomass. Private heat suppliers have been actively entering the biomass-to... biomass-to-energy market in Ukraine CURRENT AND PLANNED USAGE OF BIOMASS... companies surveyed are considering implementing biomass-to-energy projects Estimated number... wood biomass. We believe that the development of the market for biomass as a fuel will be accompanied by increasing biomass prices... in-house sources of biomass. CURRENT USAGE OF BIOMASS AS FUEL BY... that use biomass Municipal heat suppliers Drivers and barriers for biomass-to... of biomass-to-energy projects are as follows: A decreasing price of biomass is the key driver for its use. A decrease in biomass... of biomass supply. The top barriers to the implementation of biomass-to... in stability of biomass supply, Additional investment required for biomass storage, A lack of government support for biomass-to-energy... stability of biomass supply 55 Necessity of additional investment in biomass storage capacity 55 Lack of government support of biomass usage... energy from biomass and traditional fuel, the shortage of biomass of required... used for biomass burning. The key barriers to implementing biomass-to-energy... expects that electricity generation from biomass, often combined with district heating... FOR BIOMASS/BIOGAS7 Type of alternative energy source electricity generated from biomass... risk associated with biomass supply (quantity, quality, and price). Biomass gasification is... and biomass storage capacity, A lack of government support for implementation of biomass-to-energy projects. Parties that plan to implement biomass-to... of investment For already implemented biomass-to-energy projects, investment came... Big agricultural companies Annex 2. Biomass facts and figures Biomass is a non-fossil... municipal waste.8 This definition of biomass in Ukrainian legislation was harmonized... derived from the conversion of biomass where biomass may be used directly... generation, %, - including biomass, ktoe RES: power generation, %, including biomass, MWe: RES: transport... CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLID BIOMASS AND BIOFUELS Types of biomass/ biofuels Moisture content...



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... was a significant correlation between forest biomass and backscatter (R 2 = 0.80 − 0.90) at... main forest properties, including trunk biomass, age, basal area, diameter at... frequency and forest biomass, several studies showed that low biomass levels are... provide a better correlation between forest biomass and radar microwaves, some researchers...) is better correlated to forest biomass than like-polarisation (R 2 = 0.75 − 0.85... biomass, it was found that the intensity generally increased with increasing biomass... radar sensor configurations determined the biomass saturation level. However, as the... (2011). 2.1.1.2 Forest Properties Realizing forest biomass estimation from SAR remote sensing... decrease with increasing quantities of biomass after the saturation level. These... sensitivity of SAR backscatter to biomass quantity improved because the C-band... were most suitable for estimating biomass quantity at L-band frequencies. This... statuses on the estimation of biomass quantity. Topography accounts for significant.... 2.1.1.4 Modelling Techniques The modelling of biomass and the forest parameters related... concern regarding the retrieval of biomass quantity by low-frequency systems... model and prediction of forest biomass quantity (Woodhouse 2006). However, the... applied to landcover classifications and biomass estimations based on optical data... relationship between coherence and forest biomass. The latter two studies clearly... al. 2005), respectively, using forest biomass. These studies depicted a monotonic decrease... can complicate the retrieval of biomass. As for interferometric coherence, the... estimating canopy height and forest biomass through allometric relations. Different approaches... biomass remained lower than the correlation shown by backscattering intensity with biomass... tomographic SAR signals to retrieve biomass at a P-band frequency in a tropical... the planned TanDEM-L, DESDynI and BIOMASS spaceborne missions. 2.2 Fusion of SAR... levels and reduce uncertainties in biomass estimates. For example, Englhart et... as important issues in forest biomass estimation from remote sensing systems... backscatter intensity with increasing forest biomass quantity (Rauste et al. 1994... M, Kellndorfer J (2012) Mapping forest aboveground biomass in the northeastern United States... T, Guerra F, Caraglio Y, Houllier F (2002) Retrieval biomass of a large Venezuelan pine plantation...-Fernandez P, Dupuis X (2011) Retrieving forest biomass from the texture of SAR... T, Villard L (2012) Relating tropical forest biomass to P-band SAR tomography. In... radar backscatter on coniferous forest biomass. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens... Englhart S, Keuck V, Siegert F (2011) Aboveground biomass retrieval in tropical forests—the... of approaches to estimating aboveground biomass in southern pine forests using... RM (1991) Estimating splash pine biomass using radar backscatter. IEEE Trans... multiband SAR system for vegetation biomass measurement. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote...) Radar backscatter and biomass saturation: ramifications for global biomass inventory. IEEE Trans... backscatter and its relationship with biomass of regenerating forests. Int J Remote... and thawed forests of varying biomass. In: 10th annual international symposium... F, Quegan S, Davidson M, Scipal K (2012) The BIOMASS mission retrieval algorithms: results from... backscatter and regenerating tropical forest biomass for spaceborne SAR instruments. Remote...):2364–2372 Mette T (2007) Forest Biomass Estimation from Polarimetric SAR Interferometry...ät München, Doktorarbeit Mette T, Papathanassiou K (2004) Biomass estimation from polarimetric SAR interferometry... KP, Hajnsek I, Zimmermann R (2002) Forest biomass estimation using polarimetric SAR interferometry... boreal forests with applications to biomass and soil moisture estimation. IEEE... Ranson KJ, Guoqing S (1994) Mapping biomass of a northern forest using multifrequency... environmental temperatures on SAR forest biomass estimates. In: Proceedings of 1997..., Shimada M (2001) Employing SAR for biomass retrieval from tropical forests of...) L- and P-band backscatter intensity for biomass retrieval in hemiboreal forest. Remote..., Nichol JE (2011) Improved forest biomass estimates using ALOS AVNIR-2 texture... for the improvement of forest biomass estimation. ISPRS J Photogramm Remote Sens... M, Fransson JES, Askne J, Smith G (1998) Biomass retrieval in boreal forest using... (2010) Estimating spruce and pine biomass with interferometric X-band SAR. Remote...-based estimation of areal aboveground biomass (AAB) of herbaceous vegetation in...) Estimation of forest above-ground biomass using multi-parameter remote sensing... F, Hajnsek I, Papathanassiou K (2012) Boreal forest biomass classification with TanDEM-X. In: 2012... Toan T, Lasne Y, Mermoz S (2012) Specific biomass indicator for tropical dense forests... (1987) Detecting forest structure and biomass with C-band multipolarization radar: physical... IH (2006) Predicting backscatter-biomass and height-biomass trends using a macroecology model... multipolarization SAR for pine-plantation biomass estimation. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote...



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... MICROAGLAE CULTURE SYSTEM FOR EFFICIENT BIOMASS HARVEST . 28 Introduction ....................................................................................................... Materials and... growth system to facilitate biomass harvest with improved biomass yield. In the... system were optimized to improve biomass productivity. A harvesting frequency of 7 days... resulted in a biomass productivity of 10.5 g*m-2 *day-1. The biomass harvested from the... cultivation system that maximizes biomass productivity while reducing biomass harvesting costs. 1.1.1 Oxygen... Biofilm Photobioreactor (RABP) for Easy Biomass Harvest Current large-scale microalgae... various operational parameters to maximize biomass productivity, including attachment material, rotational... biofilm photobioreactor (RABP) for easy biomass harvest. 3 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Algae... novel compounds originate from algae biomass (27). One interesting aspect of... Composition of Microalgae Biomass The majority of microalgae biomass is made up... achieve a healthy culture with high biomass productivity. These nutrients include macronutrients... efficient than in photobioreactors. The biomass concentration generally remains low between... sufficient sunlight penetration. The algal biomass is prevented from settling by... considering the applicability of algae biomass for biodiesel production. However, considering... feedstock for biodiesel production is a biomass high in neutral lipids. 2.3.2 Ethanol... accomplished from fermentation of algae biomass (33). The production of ethanol... raw algal biomass for biogas production can avoid the expensive biomass-harvesting... of the residual biomass. Although anaerobically digesting algae biomass is a low-cost... secondary treatment option of algae biomass after lipid extraction or other...). In the gasification process, algae biomass is converted into a gaseous mixture... conversion of carbon dioxide to biomass. Final Report: Grant No. DEFG2293PC93204... on DHA production and algal biomass composition. Journal of Agricultural and..., A., & Chisti, Y. (2003). Recovery of microalgal biomass and metabolites: process options and... conversion of carbon dioxide to biomass. Final Report: Grant No.DEFG2293PC93204.... (33) Harun R, Danquah K, Forde G. Microalgal biomass as a fermentation feedstock for bioethanol... MICROAGLAE CULTURE SYSTEM FOR EFFICIENT BIOMASS HARVESTING Abstract Microalgae has been... growth system to facilitate biomass harvest with improved biomass yield. In the... system were optimized for improved biomass productivity. A harvesting frequency of 7 days... resulted in a biomass productivity of 10.5 g m-2 day-1. The biomass harvested from the... the numerous applications for algae biomass, current large-scale algae cultivation... with harvesting and dewatering algae biomass. Algae harvest and dewatering contribute...-Based Cultivation Systems. -2 -1 Cultivation Method Biomass Productivity (g m day ) This study **** Carrageenan... consecutive harvests resulted in constant biomass yield (steady state), and was... Operational Parameters. To achieve higher biomass productivity from the RABP system... determine moisture content, the harvested biomass was directly measured for its... content of the biomass was quantified by heating the biomass in a furnace to 550⁰C for 6 h. The remaining biomass after... the total weight of dried biomass. 36 Biomass samples were also collected... 3 Cotton Attachment Material Test Material Biomass Productivity (g m-2 day-1 ) Cotton duct Cotton... regrowth. Figure 2 shows both total biomass yield and daily productivity after.... 39 Daily Biomass Productivity Bioimass Yield 3.5 Dry Algae Biomass (g/m2/day) Biomass Yield... harvest frequency on biomass yield (left) and daily biomass productivity (right). Data... was a contributor to fluctuations in biomass yield and productivity and 4 rpm... the gas phase. 40 Daily Biomass Productivity Biomass Yield (grams/m2) 30... 5 0 0.333 0.667 2 4 6 Dry Algal Biomass (grams/m2/day) Biomass Yield 5 4 3 2 1 0 Rotational Speed... rotation speed on biomass yield (left) and daily biomass productivity (right) 3.3.2.3 Effect... 0.03% (atmospheric level) to 3% the biomass productivity did not increase. ANOVA... 3% Dry Algal Biomass (g/m2/day) Dry Algal Biomass (g/m2/day) Biomass Yield 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.03... on biomass yield (left) and daily biomass productivity (right) 3.3.3 Characterization of Algal Biomass... vs. Suspended Culture Dry Biomass (mg) Total Biomass Lipid* Protein* Carbohydrate* Ash... microalgae Chlorella vulgaris for high biomass production with simple harvesting. The... parameters resulted in 10.5 g m-2 day-1 biomass productivity. Growth in the RABP... of biofilm-forming cyanobacteria for biomass and lipid production. J Applied Microbiology.... Anaerobic digestion of biomass for methane production: a review. Biomass Bioenergy, 1997. 13... Medina A, Chisti Y. Recovery of microalgal biomass and metabolites: process options and... the microalgae C. vulgaris for high biomass production with simple harvesting. The... parameters resulted in 10.5 g m-2 day-1 biomass productivity. Growth in the RABP...



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...  .........................................................................................................  25   2.4.2   Major  composition  of  microalgal  biomass  ..........................................................................  25   2.5   Current  usage  of  microalgae...   3.3   Extraction  of  Microalgal  Oil  from  Biomass  ...................................................................  43   3.3.1   Bead  Mills  ..........................................................................................................................................  43   3.3.2   Presses... also a small fraction of plant biomass is used and left a large... a small fraction of total plant biomass reduced the land use efficiency...-generation biofuels produced from ‘plant biomass’ refers largely to lignocellulosic materials... thermochemical processing, from agricultural lignocellulosic biomass, which are either non-edible... or non-edible whole plant biomass (e.g. grasses or trees specifically grown... grain/sugar crops and lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks [36]. Secondgeneration biofuels share... of being produced from lignocellulosic biomass, facilitating in the use of... is also accumulated with the biomass during the dewatering process, which... lipid concentration in the dry biomass. All these considerations must be... requires large quantities of algal biomass. Macro and microalgae are currently... aquaculture and as bio-fertilizer. Biomass from microalgae is dried and... can be produced from marine biomass [33]. 1.6 Microalgae Microalgae is almost... carbon dioxide (CO2) to create biomass. Algae range in size from... feedstock. 1.6.2 Major composition of microalgal biomass   25       Chapter  1-­‐  Introducing  biodiesel   Microalgae... as chloroplasts, a nucleus, etc. The biomass of microalgae contains a number of... organelles. The composition of the biomass is useful for characterizing how... useful as a biofuel feedstock. Algal biomass contains three main components: carbohydrates... a waste stream from factories. Algal biomass can also be used as... under specialized growth conditions. The biomass from alga can also be...% (w/w) of oil content in algae biomass [39, 46]. Therefore, the competition... oil extraction the resulting algae biomass can be processed into ethanol... land resources without causing potential biomass deficit. Microalgal cultivation consumes less... biofuel production is the low biomass concentration in the microalgal culture... CO2 Nutrients Algae cultivation Harvesting Biomass processing (Dewatering, Filtering, Drying) Oil... achieving "consistently high yields of biomass"; ensuring frequent exposure of all... of growth medium Low High Biomass concentration Higher Lower Table 2-1 Comparison... less than 0.5 grams dry algal biomass per litre broth. The small... can be reached with low biomass concentrations and low flow rates... suitable when contamination of the biomass cannot be tolerated (36). Cross.... 2.3 Extraction of Microalgal Oil from Biomass In general, all separation methods... lipids are extracted from the biomass, they must be converted to... biomass of interest and has been used for multiple forms of biomass... convert lipids from whole cell biomass. In situ transesterification makes use... biomass. Without the need for a separate solvent extracting step, processing algal biomass... works by contacting dried algal biomass with an alcohol and strong... in situ transesterification of algal biomass over traditional biodiesel production methods... fuel and the post-extraction biomass could be converted to methane... [99]. Harvesting 1 kg of algal biomass requires separating 2,000-5,000 kg... approximate molecular formula for microalgal biomass, CO0.48H1.83N0.11P0.01... tons/yr of dried Spirulina biomass for human consumption. Comparatively, a commercial... Algae Oil Content Whole algae biomass energy content Algae oil energy... was the first stage of biomass   63       Chapter  3-­‐  Co-­‐location  of... [114]. 4. DRYING Drying the algal biomass from 20% to 90% d.s. can... 0.05 kWh/kg of dry biomass (Figure 3-5) [117]. The press produces... pressing of the dried algal biomass produces sufficient quality for transesterification...  content   Carbohydrate  content   Ash  content   Biomass  (kg/yr)   Energy  Kwh/kg... would improve carbon capture and biomass accumulation abilities without the need... for the achievement of a higher biomass concentration. However, like harvesting this... production concepts. This includes high biomass productivity, the possibility of utilizing... increase the biomass value by making use of all algal biomass components...   reduces the paste to dry biomass for shipping as a food additive... value lipids, and residual dry biomass (oilcake). Transesterification yields glycerin as... Comment Cultivation: inputs (kg-1 dry biomass) Nitrogen fertilizer 0.26 kg 52... credit. Cultivation: outputs (kg-1 dry biomass) CO2 emitted   179 kg The... by the algae to dry biomass assume 2:1. 82       Chapter  5-­‐  Comparison  between...   Harvesting & dewatering: inputs (kg-1 dry biomass) Electricity 2 kWh A 0.5 kW harvesting pump...



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... organic crop rotations on yield, biomass and development of weed pressure..., ULRICH KÖPKE ............................................................... 497 Aboveground woody biomass production of different tree species...-IVAR KUMM ................................................................................. 1007 Management of biomass resources within the crop rotation... (eprint ID 24008) Management of biomass resources within the crop rotation...: nitrogen, anaerobic digestion, cropping system, biomass, stockless system, multifunctionality Abstract The... the crop with ensiled biomass or incorporation of biomass in situ. The... crops and use the residual biomass to produce biogas as well... application of a biogas digestate from biomass resources (ley, harvest residues and... equivalent biomass resources. Our hypothesis was that anaerobic digestion of biomass and... area, compared to incorporating the biomass directly into the soil. Material... for an additional production of biomass for efficient nutrient recycling (Table... T, CARLSSON G, JENSEN ES Management of biomass resources within the crop rotation... leaching, reduce weeds and produce biomass during the autumn-winter season... of the following biomass management treatments: 1) IS - Leaving the biomass resources in situ in the field. 2) BR - Moving the biomass resources to nitrogen demanding crops. 3) AD - Collecting the biomass resources... catch crops before winter. The biomass resources comprised straw from the... ley and catch crops. The biomass was ensiled before application to... AD. The ensiled and digested biomass was applied to cabbage, beetroot...) The effect of the different biomass management systems was measured in... cabbage Beetroot Fig. 1. The total biomass yield (dry weight) of the... an advantage of anaerobically digested biomass resources (AD) as compared to... legumes did not receive any biomass resources or digestate except from... effects of removing nutrients with biomass resources as compared to the... efficiency after anaerobic digestion of biomass resources. The small yield difference... T, CARLSSON G, JENSEN ES Management of biomass resources within the crop rotation... will show how the studied biomass management scenarios influence the nitrogen... crops and use the residual biomass to produce biogas without lowering... in organic cropping systems. However, biomass production and related below ground... as dissolved N (DN) and microbial biomass N (N mic ) were determined. Stabilisation of... by up to 50%, producing biomass with a protein content of about... soil organic matter, soil microbial biomass and activity, and is changing... by infrared spectrometry. Soil microbial biomass was analysed by chloroform fumigation... stored at 4°C for soil microbial biomass and samples for DNA and... in ploughed soils. Soil microbial biomass carbon (C mic ), as an active... these results also for microbial biomass nitrogen. In Scheyern this comparison... organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (C mic ) Site Scheyern DE... different tillage systems. Soil microbial biomass carbon (C mic ), as an active... these results also for microbial biomass nitrogen. In Scheyern this comparison... method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biol Biochem 19, 703... soil structure and soil microbial biomass in organic farming. Soil Use...., 1960) were determined. Soil microbial biomass carbon (C mic ) and nitrogen (N mic.... The role of soil microbial biomass as a biological indicator of soil... extraction method to measure microbial biomass nitrogen in soil. Soil Biology... root colonization and soil microbial biomass indices in organic farming systems... method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 19, 703... OF FODDER TREES ABOVEGROUND WOODY BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF DIFFERENT TREE SPECIES... RECYCLING IN THE NEAR FUTURE BIOMASS MANAGEMENT SCENARIOS AIMING AT FUNCTIONAL... biodiversity biodiversity biodiversity biodiversity biodiversity biomass biomass Capacity: farmer Europe Capacity: farmer... CROP ROTATIONS ON YIELD, EARTHWORM BIOMASS AND DEVELOPMENT OF WEED PRESSURE... QUALITIES: ORGANIC VS INORGANIC FERTILIZERS BIOMASS MANAGEMENT SCENARIOS AIMING AT FUNCTIONAL... FRANCE (2000-2013) ABOVEGROUND WOODY BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF DIFFERENT TREE SPECIES... CROP ROTATIONS ON YIELD, EARTHWORM BIOMASS AND DEVELOPMENT OF WEED PRESSURE...



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... SI H. Biomass-E85 FC Distributed SMR-H2 FC Central H. Biomass-H2 Small.... 6  PHEVs employing biomass-based fuels (e.g., E85 or hydrogen from biomass sources) may... oil sand (18%) Corn Herbaceous biomass (switchgrass) Conventional crude (82%) and... gas (SMR) Electricity (electrolysis) Herbaceous biomass (switchgrass) 10 driveline in the..., municipal solid waste, wood, and biomass) were included in the thermal..., municipal solid waste, wood, and biomass, were simulated at the unit... regions for biomass-based power generation. Depending on the biomass feedstock type...%. The low generation efficiency for biomass power generation in NE and... 100 100 100 100 95 Biomass Unconstrained (3h-delay) Charging (%) Unconstrained....2 5.3 Residual Oil Utility Boiler 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.3 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 0.0 -0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 Nuclear Biomass Utility Boiler / IGCC Other Renewable... Boiler Combined Cycle 2.5 2.8 5.2 6.9 7.6 14.0 Nuclear Biomass Total 19.7 Utility Boiler / IGCC....8 34.3 32.4 33.0 32.5 35.6 Biomass Power Plants Utility boiler IGCC... Power Plants Utility boiler 34.8 Biomass Power Plants Utility boiler IGCC... PHEVs employing fuels produced from biomass sources (e.g., E85 and hydrogen produced...: H. Biomass H2 FC HEV/PHEV: SMR H2 FC HEV/PHEV: Biomass 3,000.../PHEV: H. Biomass FC HEV/PHEV: NG FC HEV/PHEV: Biomass 300 250... HEV/PHEV: H. Biomass FC HEV/PHEV: NG FC HEV/PHEV: Biomass 0 0 10... that employ biomassbased fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and biomass-hydrogen) may not realize... Table 6.3). All PHEVs powered by biomass-based fuels (e.g., E85 and H2... E85 HEV/PHEV: H. Biomass H2 FC HEV/PHEV: Biomass 400 GHG Emission... E85 HEV/PHEV: H. Biomass H2 FC HEV/PHEV: Biomass GHG Emission [grams... E85 HEV/PHEV: H. Biomass H2 FC HEV/PHEV: Biomass GHG Emission [grams... H. Biomass-E85 PHEV FC Distributed SMR-H2 PHEV FC Central H. Biomass-H2... H. Biomass-E85 PHEV FC Distributed SMR-H2 PHEV FC Central H. Biomass-H2....  PHEVs employing biomass-based fuels (e.g., E85 or hydrogen from biomass sources) may...



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...) - Bacterial dry matter content and biomass estimations. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 48.... BRATBAK G. (1985) - Bacterial biovolume and biomass estimation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 49.... DUCKLOW H. (2000) - Bacterioplankton production and biomass in the oceans. In: Kirchman.... FRY J.C. (1990) - Direct methods and biomass estimation. Methods Microbiol., 22: 41... the estimation of marine bacterioplankton biomass in the Ionian Sea. Sci... A. (1987) - Relationship between biovolume and biomass of naturally derived bacterioplankton. Appl... lipopolysaccharide, an indicator of bacterial biomass, in subtropical areas of the.... NORLAND S. (1993) – The relationship between biomass and volume of bacteria. In... J., PSENNER R. (2001) - Precision of bacterioplankton biomass determination: a comparison of two fluorescent...) - Determination of bacterial number and biomass in the marine environment. Appl... S.W., HOBBIE J.E. (1979) – Measurement of bacterial biomass of lipopolysaccharides. In: Conserton J.W., Colwell.... BRATBAK G. (1985) - Bacterial biovolume and biomass estimation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 49..., distribution, composition, and contribution to biomass and production. Can. J. Aquat. Sci... by variation in morphotype numbers, biomass and secondary production. Microb. Ecol... A. (1987) - Relationship between biovolume and biomass of naturally derived bacterioplankton. Appl.... DUCKLOW H.W. (2000) - Bacterial production and biomass in the oceans. In: Kirchman...) - Leucine incorporation as a measure of biomass production by heterotrophic bacteria. In...-512. KIRCHMAN D.L. (2001) - Measuring bacterial biomass production and growth rates from... J.A. (1987) - Relationships between biovolume and biomass of naturally derived marine bacterioplankton... Sea: variability of activities and biomass. J. Mar. Syst., 57: 146-166... T., KOIKE I. (2007) - Size distribution and biomass of nanoflagellates in meso- and.... SMAYDA T.J. (1978) - From phytoplankters to biomass. In: Sournia A. (ed.), Phytoplankton Manual...: a powerful tool in analysis of biomass distributions in phytoplankton Wat. Sci... 1995: composition, size structure and biomass from individual cell properties measured...): implications to estimation of phytoplankton biomass. Hydrobiologia, 333: 87-94. BRUNET...) - Photoacclimation in phytoplankton: implications for biomass estimates, pigment functionality and chemotaxonomy... Ocean: towarts a better assessment of biomass and composition. Deep Sea Res...- particulate organic matter and bacterioplankton biomass in the oligotrophic south Aegean... labile organic matter and microbial biomass in Antartic shelf sediments: evidence... and direct estimation of active biomass on granular activated carbon trhough... D.A. (2000) - Sampling, preservation, enumeration and biomass of marine protozooplankton In: Harris... the ciliated protozoan and micrometazoan biomass in a Gulf of Maine estuary...), in particolare alle sezioni su “Biomass and abundance” e “Acoustical and optical... calcolo si rimanda al capitolo “Biomass and abundance” dell’ “ICES-Zooplankton... tecnici si rimanda al capitolo “Biomass and abundance” dell’ “ICES-Zooplankton.... BEERS J.R. (1976) - Determination of zooplankton biomass. In:. Steedman H.F. (ed), Zooplankton fixation... rimanda al capitolo “Determinazione della biomass fitoplanctonica”. Il campione per il... (Mytilus edulis). I. Shell growth and biomass. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 17...



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... ACE-FTS observation of a young biomass burning plume: first reported measurements... absorbing pollutants. For this specific biomass burning event, we report simultaneous... (pfcoheur@ulb.ac.be) 1 Introduction Biomass burning events represent an important... on the chemical characterization of biomass burning plumes at different stages....: ACE-FTS observation of a young biomass burning plume al., 2006 and... concentration distributions of several important biomass burning products to be derived... spectral and chemical analysis of a biomass burning plume, which we show... tracers of global pollution and biomass burning, in the non-methane....: ACE-FTS observation of a young biomass burning plume 5439 Fig. 1. Zonal... ZivkovicRothman, 1999). We use the biomass burning emissions from the Global... et al.: observation of a young biomass burning plume FigureACE-FTS 3 ACE... LMDZ-INCA Pressure (hPa) 200 Biomass burning Africa South America Indonesia... CO with (b) LMDZ-INCA the biomass burning contribution. Notice the different... shown by black circles. 200 Biomass burning Africa South America Indonesia... drawn. Figure 3 compares the model biomass burning contribution (bottom panel) to... Fig. 4 shows the contributions of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions to....: ACE-FTS observation of a young biomass burning plume 5441 Table 1. Spectral... for ss11607 comes from African biomass burning and to a lesser extent... the occultation probing the young biomass burning plume, which is motivated... the ACE measurements in aged biomass burning plumes, transported far from... reveals the signatures of other biomass burning related species in specific....: ACE-FTS observation of a young biomass burning plume 1.00 1.00 0.95....: ACE-FTS observation of a young biomass burning plume are generally found....: ACE-FTS observation of a young biomass burning plume Table 2. Volume mixing... for the occultation ss11607 within a biomass burning plume and for the... compared to a series of other biomass burning products delivered by the....: ACE-FTS observation of a young biomass burning plume References Allen, G., Remedios... trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, G. Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, 955... southern tropical to mid-latitude biomass burning plumes using the ACE...-observed pollution from Southern Hemisphere biomass burning, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D14312... CH3 OH in 1997 Alaskan biomass burning plumes by airborne fourier..., H.: Trace gas chemistry in a young biomass burning plume over Namibia: Observations... of the chemical evolution in biomass-burning smoke plumes, J. Atmos. Chem..., G. W., Singh, H., and Talbot, B.: Photochemistry in biomass burning plumes and implications for....: ACE-FTS observation of a young biomass burning plume in infra-red... Arellano, A. F.: Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to...