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12016-05-03. Airbus выбрана головным исполнителем работ по новому аппарату.
Компания Airbus Defence and Space UK выбрана европейским космическим агентством в качестве головного исполнителя работ по космическому аппарату Biomass. Согласно предварительный данным масса аппарата будет составлять около 1250 кг., а датой запуска определен 2021 год. Отличительной особенностью аппарата будет являться то, что он будет оснащен Р-диапазонным радаром с диаметром антенны около 12 метров (производитель компания Harris). Общая стоимость проекта составляет около 420 млн. евро. Средством выведения выбран РН Вега. САС аппарата составляет 5 лет. Данный аппарат не будет входить в состав группировки Copernicus, однако его данные будут дополнять получаемые с КА Sentinel данные. Вместе с тем, европейцы так и не разъяснили то, что заявленные частоты 420-450 мГц, уже используются военными США в системах предупреждения о раннем ракетном нападении. Кроме этого многие страны ранее также обнародовали данные о том, что они собираются задействовать данный диапазон.Тэги: BiomassHarris corporationAirbus GroupЕвропейское космическое агентство
22016-07-29. Компания Harris заключила соглашение с Airbus.
Airbus Defence and Space выбрала компанию Harris в качестве поставщика 12-и метрового рефлектора космического аппарата Biomass, который предназначен для решения задачи слежения за состоянием экосистемы Земли.Срок запуска КА по прежнему обозначен 2021 годом. Источником финансирования выступает европейское космическое агенство, которое и заказало спутник радиолокационного наблюдения Земли в P диапазоне.Тэги: BiomassHarris corporationAirbus Group

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1Масса, кг.1250

Экономические характеристики

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1Стоимость , млн. евро2016-04-03420

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..., DO and now also viable biomass probes. 200 L – Advanced control of... NEW   BioPAT ® ViaMass – single-use biomass sensor The thickness, strength and... non-invasive measurement of viable biomass. Biostat® RM is the only... times With single-use viable biomass sensors (BioPAT® ViaMass) Available with..., DO and now also viable biomass probes. 200 L – Advanced control of... NEW   BioPAT ® ViaMass – single-use biomass sensor The thickness, strength and... non-invasive measurement of viable biomass. Biostat® RM is the only... times With single-use viable biomass sensors (BioPAT® ViaMass) Available with... chemical DO Single-use viable biomass (not yet available for Biostat... chemical DO Single-use viable biomass (not yet available for Biostat...) 2 – recalibration function • • Single-use viable biomass (BioPAT® ViaMass) – (•) (•) Load cells (•) (•) (•) – weight...



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... project "Evaluation of Commercialization of Biomass Energy Conversion Technologies and Their... China 192 4.5 Conclusion 195 Chapter 5 Biomass Resource Database Development in SABRC... Biomass Resource in Sichuan Province 209 6.1 Brief Introduction 209 6.2 Distribution of Biomass... Biomass Resource in Zhejiang Province 223 7.1 Introduction 223 7.2 The Distribution of Biomass Energy Resource 232 Chapter 8 Research on the Availability of Biomass Resource in Shandong Province 242 8.1 Introduction 242 8.2 246 Biomass Energy... of Biomass Resource in Shanghai 9.1 Introduction 255 255 Assessment of Biomass Resource... of Biomass Energy in Shanghai 265 9.8 Conclusion 268 Assessment of Biomass Resource... demonstrate the enormous potential of biomass as a sustainable resource. Allan R. Hoffman... Department of Energy Assessment of Biomass Resource Availability in China • Preface..., inappropriate exploration and utilization of biomass energy has caused ecological deterioration... the Chinese government should support biomass energy exploration and utilization, as... other relevant departments have made biomass energy exploration and utilization a priority... and biomass energy utilization demonstrations. Since the 1980s, R&D to improve biomass energy... farming, biomass gasification systems fed by crop straw, and biomass power generation have shown notable progress. 130 Assessment of Biomass Resource... commercialize biomass energy resource, how to accelerate the industrialization of biomass energy... agencies on a study of biomass resources and biomass energy conversion technologies. I believe... Assessment of Biomass Resource Availability in China • Introduction 131 Introduction Biomass resource... commercialization of biomass energy technologies, through the assessment of biomass resource availability... of bioenergy 132 Assessment of Biomass Resource Availability in China • Introduction... titled “Assessment of Biomass Resource Availability in China”, “Biomass Energy Conversion Technologies... a coproduct. Biomass Resource Database Development in SABRC 197 CHAPTER 5 Biomass Resource Database... of the Biomass Resource Database System (BRDS) is to provide biomass energy.... 5.2 Significance of Establishing the System Biomass is a conventional energy, and people..., biomass energy ranks just behind coal, oil, and natural gas. Worldwide, biomass... farms. As a lowcarbon, renewable energy, biomass does not cause serious environmental... progressed slowly. Given this situation, biomass technologies cannot meet the energy... system to analyze biomass resource availability and assess biomass energy. This information... measures in biomass energy development. « SABRC-- Study on Availability of Biomass Resource in China 198 Biomass Resource Database Development... system BRDS centralizes information about biomass energy such as socioeconomic, conventional... consumption provide complementary information for biomass energy research. The data in... in the research of biomass energy resource availability. Biomass energy resource data... (Table 5.1). 199 Biomass Resource Database Development in SABRC Chinese Biomass Resources Database Indicator System Macroeconomic Basis data of biomass resource... expenditure Wage of staff Figure 5.1 Biomass resource database indicators system Table... per household Population density (Continued) Biomass Resource Database Development in SABRC... heating washed coal coking (Continued) Biomass Resource Database Development in SABRC... another software environment. After 205 Biomass Resource Database Development in SABRC.... Menu options include "Macro-economics", "Biomass Energy Resource", "Energy Production and... m3) 6 Biomass (10 TCE) Research on the Availability of Biomass Resource in... Availability of Biomass Resource in Sichuan Province 215 6.2 Distribution of Biomass Resources... Resource Collection 6.3.1 Collection range Different biomass resources have different collection ways... 7 Research on the Availbility of Biomass Resource in Zhejiang Province 7.1 Introduction... are biomass energy, conventional energy, and other natural energy. The biomass Research on the Availability of Biomass Resource in Zhejiang... Biomass Resource in Zhejiang Province Annex 1 Research on the Availability of Biomass... converted into standard coal equivalent): l l l Biomass energy resource (mainly includes husk.... A1.4 Suggestion on utilization of biomass energy resources A1.4.1 Introduction and... of Biomass Resource in Zhejiang Province 2) In the regions where the biomass... Biomass Resource in Shandong Province CHAPTER 8 Research on the Availability of Biomass... households using high-quality energy 8.2 Biomass Energy 8.2.1 The development of agriculture... Biomass Energy in Shanghai 255 CHAPTER 9 Research on the Availability of Biomass... LPG), 4.2%; Heating power; 0.4%. In the biomass energy, fuelwood shares 0.5% in the... petroleum gas -gross domestic product -Biomass Resource Database -Renminbi Terms collection...



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... plan and goals. 5 5.1 5.1.1 Biomass Power Generation Introduction Biomass Sources 46 Background Paper... wastes and sewages. 5.1.2 Biomass Power Generation Technologies Biomass power generation technologies covered... combustion of biomass (includes direct combustion of bagasse), mixed combustion, biomass gasification... biomass power sector development in China. The following table 9 depicts annual biomass installations. By the end of 2008, the total installed biomass... m and total biomass of 836 Mt. Therefore, the total biomass from logging... of provinces and biomass from a unit area, the biomass from shrubs is 300-400 Mt. Others Biomass from other... agricultural residues biomass and the same capacity from forest biomass will be... power; 592 MW biomass direct combustion power; 18 MW biomass gasification; 50... agro-residue biomass power generation projects, there was no biomass fuel facility... County Biomass Power Plant (owned by NBE Biomass Electricity), Hebei Jinzhou Biomass Power... installed biomass capacity. Before December 2006, there had been no biomass-fueled... Biomass Power Sector Straw (and forest residue) direct combustion generation projects Biomass... first biomass direct combustion power project was installed at NBE Shanxian Biomass... 12 MW). Other biomass power projects include: Suqian Biomass Power Plant invested...’an Biomass Power Plant invested by Jiangsu Guoxin, 24 MW; Baoying Biomass.... In developing biomass direct combustion power generation projects, NBE (NBC) Biomass Co... put into operation. 3. Biomass co-combustion technology Biomass co-combustion power generation... obtain the subsidy. 4. Biomass gasification power generation Biomass gasification power generation technology..., and dispersed biomass resources. So far, only one biomass gasification technology has... for vehicle fuel. 5.5.4 Biomass Generation Development Trend Biomass power generation is one of the most effective biomass utilization technologies. For example, a 25MW biomass direct combustion project can consume more than 200 Kt biomass. Hence, direct combustion power generation is the dominated biomass power... trend of biomass power generation will be as follows:  Overall biomass power... installed biomass power generation capacity will be over 20 GW.  Biomass power....  Development of biomass power generation sector, especially electricity form biomass direct combustion... biomass power projects will gradually be abolished. 5.6 5.6.1 The Impact of Biomass Power... new biomass power capacity is installed, 40 Mt agro and forestry biomass... the biomass gasification system and biomass collection machinery and technology. 5.7.2 R&D on Biomass Power Generation Boilers Biomass power generation boilers are critical equipment in biomass... further enhancement. 2. R&D on biomass direct combustion boilers Biomass direct combustion systems are... for biomass direct combustion boiler system. Among the 15 established biomass power... of biomass resources and marginal land uses, as well as biomass technology... biomass. 5.8.3 Supporting Suitable Biomass Generation Technologies in the Principle of Local Adaptability Biomass resources are dispersed with varied local conditions. Therefore, R&D of diversified biomass power generation technologies should be encouraged in order to establish a biomass... to biomass fuel collection, processing, storage, and transport. 5.8.6 Establishing Specialized Biomass Businesses... to invest in biomass industry and to establish specialized biomass businesses so that the current situation of low-level redundant biomass... of biomass power generation projects are encouraged to improve management of biomass projects for better revenue and social benefits. Cooperation between strong biomass... of biomass, the price subsidy and tax incentive policy for biomass energy... a specialized biomass energy development company. In addition to investing in biomass power..., solar, hydro, biomass, geothermal, and ocean energy, etc.” Biomass energy is specifically... are necessary to maintain a biomass industry. Since biomass energy industry is just... and 2020 will include biomass power generation, biogas, biomass pellets (used directly... of biomass power will reach 5.5 GW; the annual use of biomass pellets for fuel will reach 1 Mt…” 3. Concerning agro and forestry biomass power generation priorities, it requires that “Biomass power from agro and forestry biomass will be developed... forestry based biomass power generation.” 4. In terms of developing biomass power capacity... cost sharing, cover biomass power. 6 6.1 Liquid Biofuels Introduction Biomass energy is always... with biomass. It seems difficult to reach the targets for both biomass...



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... ANNEX I: �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������100 Traditional use of biomass in China ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������100 v iii R e newa... trading...........................................................................45 Figure 14: Primary biomass demand by sector with REmap... Table 14: Breakdown of total biomass supply in 2030 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������48 Table... an estimated 6% traditional use of biomass, and 7% modern renewables. Hydroelectricity (3.4%) and... of biomass in the renewable energy transition Under REmap 2030, modern biomass... biomass, and transport logistics. Challenges and solutions: —— Biomass feedstock: China has abundant biomass... energy options other than biomass: Realising the biomass potential in REmap 2030... and data collection on biomass and develop a working biomass feedstock market China... for biomass-based power by 2020. Power generation from modern biomass was about 34 TWh in 2012 (using around 0.5 EJ biomass). Solid biomass... uses of biomass population, still rely on traditional uses of biomass (IEA... 1500 1000 500 0 Biomass heat/cooking (incl. traditional biomass) Solar thermal heat... abundant biomass resources, little of which are effectively used today. Biomass resources... of the total biomass supply potential in 2030 by biomass. With the... biomass use would double from 2012. While traditional use of biomass is fully substituted between 2010 and 2030, modern uses of biomass increase by five times in the same period. Additional biomass... biomass use in the 2030 Reference Case of 2.9 EJ is substituted. Biomass/biogas As discussed in Section 5, China has considerable biomass potentials... biomass for heat production in industrial CHP plants and 0.3 EJ of biomass... Transport <1% Biomass Heat Industry* 1% Biomass Heat/District Heat Buildings 7% Geothermal Power 0.1% Biomass Heat...-use sec tor Biomass Power 1% Traditional uses of biomass 45% r to r cto... Total Total excl. trad. biomass incl. trad. Biomass TFEC TFEC The building... Solid biomass Mt 28 85 133 2.3 EJ 0.8 EJ Traditional biomass Mt 225 66 - - - Modern biomass industry Mt 6 40... 4. Biofuel Total 5. District heat generation Biomass 6. Electric vehicles 7. Ratio of electricity... of traditional uses of biomass with modern biomass which is by a factor... Ocean Transport with renewable electricity Biomass traditional Biomass other Biofuel Biogas 20... Ocean Transport with renewable electricity Biomass traditional Biomass other Biofuel Biogas 30... traditional use of biomass. The most competitive is modern biomass-based space... with traditional uses of biomass when modern solid biomass is used. Utilising... biomass, waste and other fuels without any process modifications. In addition, biomass... biomass, increasing from 26% in REmap 2030 to 29% in REmap-E. Biomass... PV Solar thermal Biomass (power) 2500 Modern biomass (liquid) Modern biomass (solid) 500... uses of biomass and REmap-E results in a reduction of biomass use for... CHP. Biomass-fired district heat generation and other non-biomass renewables are... and data collection on biomass and develop a working biomass feedstock market In....3cdn.net/d9d44cd750f32071c6_ h2m6vaik3.pdf. Biomass Magazine (2013), Beta renewable technology...-art biomass gasification in China”, 5th International Conference on Application of Biomass...), Large Industrial Users of Energy Biomass, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta...: Coal Buildings Renewables: Cooking (solid biomass) Conventional: Industry Renewables: Conventional: Coal... 46.8 Primary biomass 1 – fuelwood 11.9 Primary biomass 2 – biogas 2.8 Biomass residues 1 – ag. residues 3.9 Biomass residues 2 – forest residues 12.2 Traditional biomass... part (solid biomass) 196 1 12 Autoproducers, CHP heat part (solid biomass) 838 2 13 Space heating: Biogas (replace trad. Biomass) 244... part (solid biomass) 196 -1 11 Autoproducers, CHP heat part (solid biomass) 838... part (solid biomass) 17 Autoproducers, CHP heat part (solid biomass) 17 Coal... Natural gas Traditional biomass Modern biomass (incl. biogas) Modern biomass (liquid) Solar thermal.... trad. biomass) incl. renewable electricity and DH TFEC (excl. trad. biomass) TPES (excl. trad. biomass) Financial indicators (in USD2010... biomass in China, it is not entirely clear how much traditional biomass... biomass, namely crop stalk, firewood and biogas. The source states that biomass... total biomass use based on different sources, 1990-2013 9000 Biomass use... traditional to modern biomass use. The share of traditional biomass decreased from...



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... showed high variability of microbial biomass and activity between sites. Differences... biomass values in wet micro-sites, In accordance with low microbial biomass.... Significant greater values of microbial biomass were attributed to a rhizosphere effect.... ................... 94 Fig. 5.4.1: Relationship of fbngal biomass and substrate induced heat output... predominant hngal microbial biomass ..................................... 106 Fig. 5.4.2: Relationship of bacterial biomass and substrate.... 5,4.4: Impact of lichens on bacterial biomass in lichenized and nonlichenised soils... in all habitats although their biomass, species composition and productivity largely...) enabled indirect determination of microbial biomass. As an example given, SPARLING... not (e.g., anaerobic micro-organisms). Microbial biomass may thus be underestimated in...., in press). Estimation of microbial biomass is recommended under standardized conditions... Parameters as in Equation (4.3.2.5) Microbial biomass In anaerobic soils substrate induced... for the determination of microbial biomass are troublesome. During measurements this.... Therefore, further calculation of microbial biomass from the substrate induced heat... number, bacterial biovolume and bacterial biomass were determined by & BOLTER,unpubl... to 170.0 (median 2.7). Thus, microbial biomass was dominated by h n g i although the... inventosy of fungal and bacterial biomass data from Sections 5.3.1 and 5.3.2. m"] for... 5.4.4 Allocation of microbial habitats Microbial biomass vs. substrate induced heat output... microbial biomass. In this study overall data of fungal and bactesial biomass... (Lb2a195). Fig. 5.4.2: Relationship of bacterial biomass [pg Ci, g'l d.wt.1 and substrate... values. Activity of substrate sensitive biomass Figure 5.4.3 shows the relationship of... these horizons. Fungal and bacterial biomass was significantly (p=0.10; p tussock tundra... pattern was discemible for bacterial biomass (BBM). Thus microbial community composition... in Section 5.4.1 microbial biomass shifted towards higher bacterial biomass in unvegetated soils... (pw0.6-0.8). Fungi only showed greater biomass values with increasing nitrogen content... activity, which correlated with bacterial biomass ( ~ ~ 0 . 7 1In) . dry topsoils, carbon content... quotient q C 0 2 (basal respiration to microbial biomass carbon) (INSAM,1990), the ratio... just mentioned microbial properties (fimgal biomass, low ATP concentrations, high caloric... bacterial biomass) followed the relative or absolute peak in fungal biomass (SCHMIDT... decomposition. As discussed earlier, microbial biomass occussed in higher abundance in...,1986). Yet, despite gseater microbial biomass, all Parameters that characterize the... (RPD) and rhizosphere. Although microbial biomass in 'frontier' horizons was significantly... microbial biomass values. This is j~istifiedbecause of exceptional high belowground biomass production... of methods to estimate tnicrobial biomass m d N-mineralization in agricultural and grassland.... L., L.A. Bouwman, M. Geurs, J. Hassink & K.B. Zwart, 1990, Biomass, composition and temporal dynamics of... research needs. In: Beyond the Biomass, K . Ritz, J. Dighton & K.E. Giller (Eds.), pp..., D.J.. K.R. Tate, A. Caims & E.A. Pausicr. 1980. Microbial biomass estimations in soils from hissock... German). Schmidt, N. & M. BölterFungal and bacterial biomass in arctic tundra soils from... & K. N. Whale, 1986, Changes in niicrobial biomass C, ATP content, soil phosphomonoesterase and..., 268 pp. Syzova, M.V. & N.S. Panikov, 1995, Biomass and composition of microbial communities.... Vance. E.D.. P.C. Brookes & D.S. Jenkinson, 1987, Microbial biomass nieasurements in forest soils: The... detect changes in soil microbial biomass. Toxicological and Enviroimiental Chemistt-y,30... equations for predicting total niicrobial biomass carbon using pliysiological and biochemical...;] 4.5 4.3 3.8 4.3 4.2 4.6 8. Appendices 175 A4. Biovolume and biomass of fungi and bacteria Tab... biornass FBM [pg C g" d.wt.1, bacterial biomass BBM [pg C g"'d.wt.1 (SCHMIDT& BOLTER... accepted. (where FBM: fungal biomass, BBM: bacterial biomass, FB: ratio of fungal..., ATPIMBM: ATP content per m i t microbial biomass, C: carbon content, N: nitrogen content, CIN...: fungal biomass, BBM: bacterial biomass, FB: ratio of fungal to bacterial biomass, Q: basal...: ATP content per unit microbial biomass, C: carbon content, N: nitrogeil content, C m : carbon...: fungal biomass, BBM: bacterial biomass, FB: ratio of fungal to bacterial biomass, Q: basal...: ATP content per unit microbial biomass, C: carbon content, N: nitrogen content, C m : carbon... accepted. (where FBM: fungal biomass, BBM: bacterial biomass, Fßratio of fungal to...: ATP content per unit microbial biomass, C: carbon content, N: nitrogen content, C m : carbon...: fungal biomass, BBM: bacterial biomass, FB: ratio of fungal to bacterial biomass, Q: basal...: ATP content per unit microbial biomass, C: carbon content, N: nitrogen content, CIN... mit FS =Meteor" First International BIOMASS Experiment (FIBEX) Liste der Zooplankton...



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... Remotely sensed products, LAI and biomass .................. 23 iii 2.3 Results and discussion................................ 29 2.3.3 Comparison of LAI and biomass between UAV and RapidEye imagery...-Based Imagery and Ground Calculated Biomass .................................................................................. 46 3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 46 3.2 Materials and... GNDVI calculation ................... 59 3.3.2 Winter wheat biomass vs. plant height and fCover... ...................................... 74 3.4.3 PAI vs. fCover for biomass estimation ..................................................... 76 3.4.4 Discussion of estimated... 2015................................................................................................. 100 Table E-3 Ground reference biomass for wheat fields in 2015............................................... 35 Figure 2.13 Relationship between biomass and UAV cumulative vegetation indices... biomass measurements and cumulative vegetation indices. ................................................... 37 Figure 2.14 Relationship between biomass... best-fit function between all biomass measurements and cumulative vegetation indices... biomass, in terms of accuracy. Chapter 3 develops wheat total nitrogen and biomass prediction models from an alternative biomass estimate method..., S., Broscheit, J., Eichfuss, S., & Bareth, G. (2014). Estimating biomass of barley using crop surface... of remotely sensed data for biomass estimation (Gunlu, Ercanli, Baskent, & G., 2014... and biomass The relationships between vegetation indices and LAI and biomass were... evaluation of plant phenology, total biomass and absorbed photo synthetically active... evaluated using the LAI and biomass later on. (a) (b) 29 (c) (d) Figure 2.8 Relationship... decrease at maturity stage, the biomass continuously increased. All cumulative vegetation... difference of biomass at the end of July when biomass 36 of... total biomass measurements in this study. (a) (b) (c) (d) 37 (e) (f) Figure 2.13 Relationship between biomass... best-fit function between all biomass measurements and cumulative vegetation indices... total biomass was greater than 500g/m2 along the entire biomass measurement... biomass was greater than 500g/m 2 but regained sensitivity when the total biomass reached greater than 1500g/m2. 38 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 2.14 Relationship between biomass... best-fit function between all biomass measurements and cumulative vegetation indices... VIs had invariance responses to biomass when biomass was 500 g/m2. Although..., S., Broscheit, J., Eichfuss, S., & Bareth, G. (2014). Estimating biomass of barley using crop surface..., A., Ercanli, I., Baskent, E. Z., & G., C. (2014). Estimating aboveground biomass using landsat TM imagery: A case..., D., Strachan, I. B., & Hinther, M. (2004). Monitoring Crop Biomass Accumulation Using Multi-temporal Hyperspectral...-Based Imagery and Ground Calculated Biomass 3.1 Introduction Precision farming is an... a time consuming and destructive biomass measurements, this biomass estimation method could provide... index, plant height, and wheat biomass. 3.2.2 Field data collection Three height... properties and biomass at our study sites. We then used biomass and... a linear relationship between wheat dry biomass and PAI × plant height (biomassPAI... the relationship between GNDVI and biomass × N content to determine total nitrogen... and biomassPAI were determined. Temporal biomass data were derived from temporal... biomass Ground yield data GNDVI of all sampling points Estimated temporal biomass... wheat plant dry biomass could be represented by the biomass calculated model... relationship between estimated multi-temporal biomass results, which was derived from... leaf density, the comparison between biomass estimation models derived from fCover... between reference biomass and fCover × plant height and reference biomass and PAI... A relationship between GNDVI and estimated biomass which was calculated based on... was strongly correlated with estimated biomass in winter wheat, with coefficient... correlation between predicted multi-temporal biomass and reference yield is higher... strong correlation between GNDVI and biomass. A multiple linear regression model was..., J. K. (2003). Reflectance measurement of canopy biomass and nitrogen status in wheat..., K., Vasander, H., & Finér, L. (2006). Relationship between biomass and percentage cover in understorey..., H. (2000). Linear relationships between aboveground biomass and plant cover in low... entire biomass measurement. The remote sensing products of LAI and biomass revealed... SR yielded a better performance in biomass estimation using UAV-based multispectral... of calculated biomass model in winter wheat biomass estimation. This biomass calculated model provides a non-destructive ground reference biomass... Results This theorem calculated cumulative biomass using cumulative vegetation index with...



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... access global and regional burnt biomass from satellite observations to derive...@aero.obs-mip.fr 2 Calculating biomass burning emissions requires a knowledge of... and temporal distributions of burnt biomass. Several satellite products are currently... users and producers of burnt biomass estimates within the ACCENT network... Crutzen 1980) and satellite-based biomass burned estimates (VGT, ASTR and... gas and particle emissions from biomass burning Ian Burling 1, Robert Yokelson... study focused on North American biomass burning that measured both initial... (2000-2100 gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases... gases and aerosols anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions that are being... calculations, to build a database linking biomass plume injection heights to atmospheric... Particulate Matters Emitted During Open Biomass Burning Vanisa Surapipith 1, Sawan Phoothiwut... the source signatures of open biomass burning in Lampang, Northern Thailand... species in aerosols emitted from biomass used over delhi Saraswati Yadav... of volatilization from animal excreta. Biomass burning emissions are more important..., India Contact: trailokyasaud@gmail.com 2 Biomass is a major source of energy... decay, atmospheric production, anthropogenic and biomass burning sources account for the... inventories associated with most recent biomass burning inventory (Liousse et al... precursors from anthropogenic, natural, and biomass burning sources from POET and... the present day anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols over South-Asia... of aerosols from present-day biomass burning and anthropogenic sources (based... temperature decreases during the peak biomass burning season in all years... (Hennessey et al., 2007). Annually, biomass burning results in the emission... and aerosol to the atmosphere. Biomass burning aerosols influence the radiative... and released high concentrations of biomass burning aerosols into the atmosphere... simulations forced by 3-D daily mean biomass burning aerosols mainly consisting of.... We will relate the varying biomass burning emissions (GFEDv2) and meteorological... satellite retrievals of NO2 from biomass burning Nicolas Bousserez 1, Randall Martin... a GEOS-Chem simulation with daily biomass burning emission inventory to assess... the aerosol correction. Over African biomass burning, a persistent aerosol layer in... indicator of anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning hydrocarbon emissions in the... sources (e.g. over evergreen forest). The biomass burning source typically shows pronounced... importance of anthropogenic pollution and biomass burning emissions from various regions... significant linear relationship with K+ suggests biomass burning as their dominant source..., such as fossil fuel and biomass combustion, and natural processes, including... levoglucosan is a tracer of primary biomass burning aerosol. We performed an... impact of emissions from biogenic, biomass burning and fossil fuel primary.... Different emissions datasets for both biomass burning and anthropogenic sources have...@stonybrook.edu 2 A record of preindustrial biomass burning over the past ~650... these observations, we conclude that biomass burning strongly modulated the CO... 2 In the Amazon Basin, biogenic, biomass burning, and urban emissions react... of precursors emissions from urban, biomass burning and biogenic sources, as... observations, the contribution of remote biomass burning to background ozone was... NOx and PAN emissions from biomass burning: Implications for tropospheric ozone... and underestimating PAN emissions from biomass burning. This can have a large... the summer samples, indicating that biomass burning could be a main source... from understanding the impact of biomass burning both spatially and temporally... a full atmospheric-chemistry mechanism, transient biomass burning emissions, and nudging towards... precursors are emitted, either from biomass fires, or from deep continental...-tropospheric CO plumes emitted by biomass fires over both southern Africa... January-March. Role of springtime biomass burning is studied and enhancements.../m3 respectively. Significant influences of biomass burning on tropospheric column NO2... nadir mode. Over the tropics e.g. biomass burning is extensive. During these... increase of industrial activities, traffic, biomass burning, and the ever increasing.... In air masses affected by biomass burning plumes photochemical active layers... methane). Its major sources are biomass burning, vegetation and fossil fuels... due to the misidentification of biomass burning aerosols with clouds. P-Observations... MAT receives influences of the biomass burning region. These average concentrations... nuclei. On the global scale, biomass burning represents an important source... season (31 ng m-3). Vehicular emissions, biomass burning and photochemical reactions are... oxalate in agreement can suggest biomass burning origin. Conclusion Local sources... concentrations of pollutants produced by biomass burning and soil resuspension. P-Observations... organosulfates from oxidation of marine biomass is a novel aerosol formation process...



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... are sensitive to forest aboveground biomass (AGB), and the observations from... radar observations globally. Keywords: radar; biomass; saturation; ALOS PALSAR; GLAS; NISAR... by changing the biomass significantly [3]. Quantifying the aboveground biomass (AGB) of global... emissions and removals [1,4,5]. The global biomass in vegetation is distributed in... disturbance and recovery [6–8]. However, forest biomass stocks and changes are not... P-band SAR BIOMASS missions for monitoring forest structure and biomass. These two... and requirements for global forest biomass estimation. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Remote... allows us to use height biomass relationships developed for different forests... forest aboveground biomass in a systematic approach. The errors from the biomass estimation... with GLAS derived AGB. 2.3.1. Radar Biomass Models To demonstrate the relations... of biomass by taking the derivative of Equation (2) with respect to biomass... NISAR requirement. 2.3.3. Radar Detection of Biomass Estimating the number of observations... L-band SAR observations at different biomass levels. This requires multi-temporal... range of biomass shows backscatter variation gradually reduces at higher biomass values... backscatter-biomass relations. The variation due to these errors at high biomass... biomass range the contrast between radar backscatter from a pixel of low biomass... of biomass. −1, 20% change requires the detection of 4 Mg·ha ´ 1 biomass. For... of 4 Mg¨ ha´1−1 1 , 20% changeininbiomass; biomass;whereas whereasfor foran anAGB AGBvalue... the 20 ha change changeininbiomass. biomass.Therefore, Therefore, the increase and... in absolute absolute change of biomass thedecreased decreasedradar radar sensitivity as... terms of biomass, the sensitivity is monotonically decreasing with increasing biomass. the sensitivity is monotonically decreasing with increasing biomass. (a) (b) Figure4... potentially enhanced sensitivity to forest biomass soil moisture [47]. We explore... potentially enhanced sensitivity to forest biomass and soil moisture [47]. We... LiDAR showed thethe strongest tobiomass. biomass. The fitted function (5) is plotted... conifer forests within 5 Mg·ha−1 biomass bins. Figure 7. Average sigma-0 values... radar backscatter polarizations along with biomass and surface moisture conditions are... scattering terms. 4.2. Backscatter Sensitivity to Biomass The sensitivity of L-band radar...´1 for low biomass swamps and ~175 Mg¨ ha´1 for high biomass swamps... distinct in their biomass values. Mg·ha−1 for low biomass swamps and ~175 Mg·ha−1 for high biomass swamps... water level with the low biomass swamp forests coinciding with significantly... different high inundation and high biomass in swamps underwith a lower inundation... high inundation state and high biomass swamps under a lower inundation state... transitioning toisthe regular HV biomass relationshipscattering to high biomass swamps.swamps and... a strong volume-surface in low biomass There is alsotothe GLAS relationship... thepossibility regular HVofbiomass to high biomass swamps. high-level inundation. Water... cause of measurements of forest biomass and multi-temporal radar observations... may be multi-temporal required. biomass and radar observations at different... in radar biomass relationship may be larger and vary with biomass range... algorithmic models to infer forest biomass. The number of observations required... the estimation of the aboveground biomass. However, our study suggests that... Geoscience Laser Altimeter System Aboveground Biomass Synthetic Aperture Radar Light Detection.... Houghton, R.A.; Hall, F.; Goetz, S.J. Importance of biomass in the global carbon cycle... sensing of impacts on aboveground biomass and canopy structure. J. Geophys. Res..., B.G.; Lindenmayer, D.B. Re-evaluation of forest biomass carbon stocks and lessons from... Equations for Estimating Aboveground Volume, Biomass, and Carbon for Trees in..., H.; et al. The BIOMASS mission: Mapping global forest biomass to better understand... to predict above-ground woody biomass: A consistent relationship across four different..., T. L- and P-band backscatter intensity for biomass retrieval in hemiboreal forest. Remote... PALSAR L-band backscatter—Above ground biomass relationship Queensland, Australia: Impacts of..., O.; Santoro, M.; Kellndorfer, J. Mapping forest aboveground biomass in the Northeastern United States... radar backscatter on coniferous forest biomass. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens... of spatial variability on aboveground biomass estimation from L-band radar in... Estimating Boreal Forest Above-Ground Biomass. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens..., D.H.; Quiriones, M.J. Land cover type and biomass classification using AirSAR data for..., J.V.; Yu, Y. Distribution of aboveground live biomass in the Amazon basin. Glob... forest biomass with radar and spaceborne LiDAR: Overcoming problems of high biomass...: Comparing the accuracy of aboveground biomass estimates and forest structure metrics..., R.; Haddad, Z. An error model for biomass estimates derived from polarimetric radar...



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... a result, the diversity, abundance and biomass of the benthos was very... low biomass values. Bivalves and crustaceans included also large and biomass rich... for spatial distribution Samples for Biomass adjustment Location Samples for spatial... further included in the investigations. Biomass adjustment To find a way to... to crustaceans and bivalves. The biomass samples from 2001 varied between... significant difference between the mean biomass values of the plots of... in some months extraordinary high biomass values (Fig. 31). 3 Tropical tidal... benthos taxa according to their biomass and abundance values. Given are... values of abundance [individuals/m²] and biomass [mgAFDW/m²] (in brackets) obtained at... biomass contributors in January and May (both 67% of the total biomass... groups differed significantly in their biomass contributions over the months in... Tagelus plebeius (Table 2). Abundance vs. biomass When densities and biomasses per... hardly any biomass. All other species were low in biomass and in... radiata) and Nemertinea. The main biomass source were crustaceans. The plots... Grande, with large amounts of biomass from crustaceans (mostly Uca maracoani... Chato 300 200 100 0 Mean biomass [gAFDW/m²] 88 66 Sipunculida Nemertinea... Capitellidae, Nephtyidae and Nemertinea. High biomass values were found at some... the bivalve biomass and nearly 2/3 of the crustacean biomass was found there.... In the section “Abundance vs. biomass” it was found that individuals... by Acheampong (2001) by direct biomass measurements at the same study... high densities have extremely low biomass values. They are polychaetes (Nephtyidae... numbers Benthos density [individuals/m²]* Benthos biomass [gAFDW] Bird densities [individuals/ha... fractions constitude different amounts of biomass, depending on the number and... items belonging to these fractions. Biomass rich depth/size fractions of... tidal flats 75 Table 8. Harvestable biomass available to the birds in... and crustaceans generally provided more biomass per prey item (chapter 3.2.4), polychaetes... taxa, whether the abundances, the biomass or the mean profitability of... 300 mean 246.2 200 100 0 Biomass[gAFDW]/m² 8 Benthic biomasses Min-Max... benthic abundance, total harvestable benthic biomass and mean benthic profitability per... they do not provide much biomass. Crustaceans and bivalves have comparatively... comprise a comparable amount of harvestable biomass for Red Knots (Wadden Sea... the prey were investigated – abundance, biomass and profitability – no clear picture... month, a mean benthic standing stock (biomass) was determined and compared with... prey items differed significantly, the biomass actually ingested during the 6 Avian... again, the amount of ingested biomass was not influenced. Territoriality was...). As a consequence, the harvestable benthic biomass, as well as the energetic... know about annual production/mean biomass (P/B) ratios in tropical environments (Longhurst... further restrict the available prey biomass (Piersma 1987). Thus, a food limitation... prey intake rate, but the biomass ingestion was constant. The foraging... this study (Table 4). Unfortunately, no biomass data is available for the.... Distribution of macrozoobenthos abundance and biomass in intertidal soft sediments of..., J. J. 1974. Seasonal changes in the biomass of the macrobenthos of tidal..., B. 1998. Mangrove forest productivity and biomass accumulation in Hichinbrook Channel, Australia...-154. Reise, A. 2002. Estimates of biomass and productivity in fringe mangroves... A. L. Spaans. 1982. Numerical density and biomass of macrobenthic animals living in..., A. Meijboom, G. Moerland et al. 1993a. Biomass of macrobenthic tidal fauna of... variation in energy, body weight, biomass, burying depth and behaviour of.... ........................................34 Fig. 12. Abundance and biomass of the benthos in the... benthos taxa according to their biomass and abundance values. Given are... values of abundance [individuals/m²] and biomass [mgAFDW/m²] (in brackets) obtained at... are bold. ..........................................................................................62 Table 8. Harvestable biomass available to the birds in... month, a mean benthic standing stock (biomass) was determined and compared with... species and total benthic abundance, –biomass and mean profitability per plot... Divaricella quadrisulacata (Orbigny 1842) Bivalvia Biomass [mgAFDW/m²] Mean ± Std dev Range... X Stomatopoda 1 Tanaidacea X Mean ± Std dev Biomass [mgAFDW/m²] 2.51 ± 7.56 Gammaridea X X X X X X 5.16... Magelonidae FC X FG X X Densities [indiv./m²] Biomass [mgAFDW/m²] Mean ± Std dev Range... species and total benthic abundance, –biomass and mean profitability per plot... Knot sppl spsa month abundance biomass profitability R p R p R p January - - 0.068 0.654 0.089... Will whim 171 month abundance biomass profitability R p R p R p January 0.357 0.015* 0.174... (abund) Groups (abund) Taxa (biomass) Groups (biomass) spsa January 0.33 0.04 0.21.... Species Number of prey Prey biomass Difference U Z p U Z p - - - - - - Snowy Egret 68.0 -0.938...



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....com/journal/forests Article Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity... sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been... and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based... results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was... of forest biomass energy resources in China. Forests2015, 6 3971 Keywords:biomass energy... [2–4], forest biomass accounts for 40% of the total global biomass resource potential [5], and Chinese forest biomass accounts for about one third of the whole national biomass energy resources [6,7]. Currently, forest biomass energy development is... biomass [9–11], the potential and distribution of energy resources from forest biomass... industry [2]. A domestic study on forest biomass energy resources started in 2000... simple estimationsof the total national biomass resources based on forest inventory.... Therefore, a detailed study on forest biomass energy resources and their spatial... lacking. As for the forest biomass energy resource in China, the... been that the local forestry biomass was only processed on the... impact of non-local forest biomass resource processing, which is quite.... In this study, the forest biomass energy resource and its spatial... Different Forest Biomass Energy Resources In the study, forest biomass energy resources... can be collected as raw biomass materials for biofuel production, including... the residue resource from forestry biomass inventory information, regardless whether forestry... to the definition of forest biomass energy resources indicated in Section... this study, the total forest biomass energy resources in this study... Rtotal refers to total forest biomass energy resources (ton); Rburning means... estimate WPR using the forestry biomass, the specific parameters for different... estimated based on the forestry biomass resource [16] for comparison with... 2. Parameters for the estimation offorest biomass energy resources. Category Residue proportion... biomass energy at a national scale. However, the spatial distribution of forest biomass... 3.1. Total Forest Biomass Energy Resourcesin China The total forest biomass energy resources... (Figure 2). The two kinds of biomass resources, wood residues and bamboo... of Chinese forestry biomass energy resources in 2010. 3.2. Forestry Biomass Energy Resources... the amount of different forestry biomass energy resources in each province....3% of the local total forestry biomass energy resources and 27.4% of....3% of the total local forest biomass energy resources and 17.5% of... respect to the total forestry biomass energy resources in each province... southern regions of China. Forest biomass resources (104 t) 2000 1500 Bamboo.... Figure 4. Spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources across different provinces... resources Figure 5. Contributions of forestry biomass energy resources from different regions... China. For the total forest biomass energy resources (Figure 5f), the... 4.1. Comparison of Estimations of Forest Biomass Energy Resources In recent years... conducted to quantify the forest biomass energy resources in China; however... definition and category of utilizable biomass energy resources were different. It...]. In this study, the forest biomass energy resources included WFBR, WPR... different definitions and categories of biomass energy resources, the results obviously... forest biomass energy resources at different periods. Table 3. Comparison of forest biomass... and Shen (2007) [6] Chinese Forest Biomass Energy Research Group (2006) [20... of Forest Biomass Energy Resources The contribution of forest biomass energy resources... provinces with the highest forest biomass energy resources were Shandong, Guangxi... from the amount of forest biomass, which assumed that the harvested...