Спутник ФКИ. CALIPSO. [Редактировать]

Американо-французский исследовательский спутник, запущенный 28 апреля 2006 с космодрома Ванденберг с помощью ракеты-носителя Дельта-2 7420-10C вместе с другим исследовательским спутником CloudSat. Спутники запущены в рамках программы НАСА EOS (Earth Observing System (Система наблюдения Земли)) и предназначены для изучения облачного покрова Земли. CloudSat расшифровывается как Cloud Satellite, CALIPSO — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation.
Оба спутника решают общие задачи: получение трёхмерных изображений облаков и атмосферных аэрозолей; исследование того, как формируются и «развиваются» облака, как они влияют на погоду, климат, качество воздуха и количество осадков. Для этого на CloudSat установлен очень чувствительный радар с миллиметровой длиной волны (который более чем в тысячу раз чувствительнее обычного гидрометеорологического радара), а на CALIPSO — поляризационный лазерный локатор, который позволяет отличить в толще облаков водяной пар и кристаллы льда, жидкие и твёрдые частицы атмосферных аэрозолей. Кроме того, на CALIPSO имеется камера и инфракрасный радиометр.
Полезная нагрузка:

  • CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization) - лидар с ортогональной поляризацией для наблюдения облаков и аэрозолей. Разработан в Исследовательском центре имени Лэнгли, изготовлен фирмой Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. Прибор предназначен для получения вертикальных профилей упругого рассеяния от облачного слоя в различное время суток, а также для описания распределения в нём водяных паров, аэрозолей и пыли.
  • IIR (Imaging Infared Radiometer) - Видовой инфракрасный радиометр. Разработан Национальным центром космических исследований (CNES) Франция, изготовлен компанией EADS Sodern и предназначен для измерения уровня излучения в различных диапазонах ИК-спектра.
  • WFC (Wide-Field Camera) - Широкоугольная камера высокого разрешения, изготовлена фирмой Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp.   

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
129107НайтиНайти
22006-016ВНайтиНайти
3Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite ObservationНайтиНайти
4Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite ObservationНайтиНайти
529108НайтиНайти
6CalipsoНайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Тип орбиты - НОО
4Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса (сухая), кг.607
2Масса, кг.635
3Платформа 1xProteus
4Габариты, м1,9 x 1,6 x 2,46
5Полезная нагрузка 1xWFC
6Полезная нагрузка 1xIIR
7Полезная нагрузка 1xCALIOP
8Мощность, Вт560

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, градусов98.2
2Расчетный срок функционирования, год3
3Перигей, км702
4Период, минут98.8
5Эксцентрет0.0000707

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром База Ванденберг
2Средство выведения (парный пуск с КА CloudSat)1xДельта 2 7420-10C
3Дата пуска2006-04-28
4Код NSSDC2006-016A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.190
2Разработчик NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
3Оператор Космическое агентство США
4Оператор Космическое агентство Франции
5Стоимость программы , млн. долл.2006-01-01298
6Стоимость КА , млн. долл.223
7Прогнозная стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2003-01-01150.9
8Прогнозная стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2003-01-01133.9

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2006-04-28 at 11:02:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xCALIPSO
3Полезная нагрузка 1xCloudSat
4Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «CALIPSO». [Перейти к поиску]


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0.12/5
... .............................................................................................16 2. Applications ........................................................................................18 3. CALIPSO............................................................................................21 C. RESEARCH AREAS.....................................................................................23 D. CALIPSO SENSOR.......................................................................................23 1. Sensor... Remote Sensing ..........................................26 3. Drawbacks of CALIPSO for Water Measurements .......................26 E. THEORY... A. CLASSIFICATION METHODOLOGY AND THRESHOLDS...............57 B. CALIPSO'S CAPABILITIES.......................................................................57 vii VI. SUMMARY... Severance (From NASA CALIPSO, 2009)..............................................................................................22 Schematic diagram of CALIPSO system (From... NASA CALIPSO, 2009)..............................24 CALIPSO 532-nm transient response (From NASA CALIPSO, 2006... a laboratory measurement (From NASA CALIPSO, 2006)..............................................................................................28 “CALIPSO’s transient response (thick blue... et al., 2007, p. 14509). ................................................29 CALIPSO scene from NASA with red... NASA CALIPSO, 2009) ...............................................32 Global map with CALIPSO scan segment (From NASA CALIPSO... Bahamas transect segment (From NASA CALIPSO, 2009) ................................................................................................................36 Figure of deep... (over the Bahamas) compared to CALIPSO LIDAR reflectance ratios (in color..., and colored points from NASA CALIPSO). ..........................................................54 National Ocean Services bathymetric... Table 1. Statistics for CALIPSO sensor (From NASA CALIPSO, 2009).....................26 xi THIS...-Aerosol LIDAR with Orthogonal Polarization CALIPSO Cloud-Aerosol LIDAR and Infrared... a correspondingly larger scan area. The CALIPSO satellite studies aerosols and clouds... can also look into water. CALIPSO's receiver has a polarizing element, which... electromagnetic noise is lower. The CALIPSO satellite utilizes two different wavelengths... results and actual capabilities of CALIPSO to produce a shallow water signature... distinctively with the environment. The CALIPSO sensor has two wavelengths of..., similar to the sensor onboard CALIPSO. On a satellite the wavelength cannot... Africa (From WFF GLAS, n.d.) 20 3. CALIPSO This research analyzes the utility... September 7, 2007. During these periods, CALIPSO operated with the LIDAR pointed... be permanently changed to 3.0 degrees. CALIPSO thus captures on a fixed angle... provided CALIPSO data from Bora Bora via Matlab files derived from CALIPSO... used alongside the CALIPSO data in this thesis. D. CALIPSO SENSOR 1. Sensor Overview The automation of data from CALIPSO helps... CALIPSO system (From Winker, 2004) Satellite system and scan (From NASA CALIPSO, 2009) 24 CALIPSO was a joint mission with... and data type specifications. The CALIPSO sensor is equipped with a fixed... reflectance information. Since data from CALIPSO does not have the proximity... help from Fibertek built the CALIPSO sensor. The engineering unit demonstrated.... Table 1 lists some statistics on CALIPSO. Not included— the pulse length... Table 1. 2. Statistics for CALIPSO sensor (From NASA CALIPSO, 2009) Advantages of Satellite... sensing. 3. Drawbacks of CALIPSO for Water Measurements CALIPSO was designed to look.... Figure 19. CALIPSO 532-nm transient response (From NASA CALIPSO, 2006) 27... height measurements. 28 Figure 21. “CALIPSO’s transient response (thick blue curve... al., 2007, p. 14509). E. THEORY The CALIPSO 1064-nm wavelength laser light... a mostly cloudfree area. Overlaying the CALIPSO data over optical imagery allows... select data to download. • Select CALIPSO under Projects • LIDAR specific data... Global map with CALIPSO scan segment (From NASA CALIPSO, 2009) 34 Figure... Bahamas transect segment (From NASA CALIPSO, 2009) Sequoias Data over land...-polarization component. 2. Cloud Cover The CALIPSO sensor was designed to study... and have variable environments. The CALIPSO transects cross over shallow water... to the CALIPSO backscattered light and polarization information. Ideally, the CALIPSO data... from NASA CALIPSO). COMPARISON TO BATHYMETRIC NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY The CALIPSO data... clearly identifies shallow water. B. CALIPSO'S CAPABILITIES CALIPSO can identify shallow water reliably... as SHOALS, is substantially less. CALIPSO and other spaceborne LIDAR sensors... further surveying. The measurements from CALIPSO can distinguish some features in... in "XXI congress, Beijing: China. CALIPSO - Cloud-Aerosol LIDAR and Infrared...://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/PRODOCS/calipso/Quality_Summaries/CALIOP_tra nsient_response.html Camacho...



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0.11/5
.... Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter...-borne lidar CALIOP -onboard the CALIPSO satelliteLevel 1 attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles... during CALIPSO overpasses. The ground-based measurements were performed each time CALIPSO... Polarization), onboard the NASA/CNES CALIPSO satellite, provides a first opportunity to... lidar during a long-term mission. CALIPSO observations provide global, but snapshot... with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard CALIPSO provides information on the vertical... R. E. Mamouri et al.: Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter... perform coincident correlative measurements for CALIPSO validation studies. EARLINET was established... CALIPSO validation, according to which, each station performs measurements each time CALIPSO.../ R. E. Mamouri et al.: Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter... Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission (http://www-calipso.larc. nasa.gov...). CALIPSO produces Level 1 and Level 2 science data products (http://www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/products/CALIPSO DPC Rev2x4.pdf... R. E. Mamouri et al.: Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter... 2, (version 2.01) release of the CALIPSO profile products are still unvalidated...) to convert backscatter coefficients into “CALIPSO-like” attenuated backscatter is followed... backscatter coefficient β tot (z) provided by CALIPSO is defined at each altitude... nighttime measurements of the previous CALIPSO coincidental measurement (with approx. 11... the increased signal noise of CALIPSO during daytime measurements (comparing with... the appropriate spatial averaging of CALIPSO attenuated backscatter profiles, for validation.../ R. E. Mamouri et al.: Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter...’s lidar station (red square) and CALIPSO ascending and descending orbits overpassing... dots for “case 3”, according to CALIPSO correlative measurement strategy of EARLINET... final 40 coincidential groundbased and CALIPSO profiles is first demonstrated for... layer during daytime measurements. The CALIPSO’s total attenuated backscatter at 532... CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles 22 AUGUST 2007 CALIPSO...] HEIGHT A.S.L. [km] 0.01 9 CALIPSO, 20km Horizontal resolution CALIPSO, 5km Horizontal resolution NTUA... for 20km Horizontal resolution 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 Fig. 3. CALIPSO total attenuated backscatter at 532... resolution averaging period for the CALIPSO data, respectively. Atmos. Meas. Tech... -50 0 50 0 100 CALIPSO- GB At. bp/CALIPSO At. Bp [%] ATHENS 22 AUGUST 2007 LEVEL 1 VERSION 2 CALIPSO DATA... distance: 85.5994km 9 9 CALIPSO, 20km Horizontal resolution CALIPSO, 5km Horizontal resolution NTUA... lidar station. In Fig. 4, the CALIPSO attenuated backscatter coefficient is plotted... of CALIPSO to ground-truth lidar measurements with respect to CALIPSO profile... layers. For time averaging purposes, CALIPSO attenuated backscatter profiles are averaged... 0 50 0 100 CALIPSO- GB At. bp/CALIPSO At. Bp [%] Fig. 4. CALIPSO level 1 total... of CALIPSO data. Figure 5 presents the mean percent differences between the CALIPSO..., respectively. Our results indicate that CALIPSO lidar underestimates the attenuated backscatter.../ R. E. Mamouri et al.: Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter... [CALIPSO - NTUA Attenuated Backscatter]/CALIPSO Attenuated Backscatter [%] Fig. 5. Mean percent biases between CALIPSO... [CALIPSO - NTUA Attenuated Backscatter ]/CALIPSO Attenuated Backscatter [%] Fig. 6. Mean percent biases between CALIPSO and NTUA attenuated backscatter coefficient with respect to the CALIPSO... density, exhibiting very small variations, CALIPSO’s algorithm uses the height range... activities. To compare the coincident CALIPSO-ground based dataset under different... R. E. Mamouri et al.: Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter... [CALIPSO - NTUA Attenuated Backscatter]/CALIPSO Attenuated Backscatter [%] Fig. 7. Mean percent biases between CALIPSO..., for 5 km horizontal resolution for CALIPSO data, showing no significant difference... initial CALIPSO validation study is presented using ground-based lidar measurements. CALIPSO.../ R. E. Mamouri et al.: Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter... D.M., Vaughan M.A., Powell K.A., Lucker P.L. and Weimer, C.: CALIPSO Lidar Description and Performance Assessment... R. E. Mamouri et al.: Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter... coauthors: EARLINET correlative measurements for CALIPSO, Proc. SPIE, 6750, doi:10...-wavelength Raman lidar measurements and CALIPSO measurements, Proc. SPIE, 6750, doi... lidar measurements in correspondence of CALIPSO overpass: Level 1 products comparison, Atmos..., D., Hostetler, C., and Hunt, W.: CALIOP: The CALIPSO Lidar, Proc. 22nd International Laser.... Winker, D., Vaughan, M., and Hunt, W.: ”The CALIPSO mission and initial results from...



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0.07/5
... AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CloudSat-CALIPSO Launch Press Kit April 2006...-Hubert, Quebec, Canada Chris Rink CALIPSO Mission NASA Langley Research Center... CloudSat Science Objectives ................................................................................................... 25 CALIPSO Satellite .................................................................................................................... 27 CALIPSO Science Objectives .................................................................................................. 32 Why... and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) are undergoing final preparations for... Force Base, Calif. CloudSat and CALIPSO will provide a new, 3-D perspective on... State University, Fort Collins, Colo. CALIPSO's polarization lidar instrument can detect... works," said Dr. David Winker, CALIPSO principal investigator at NASA's Langley... as partnerships with the project. CALIPSO was developed through collaboration between...'s Langley Research Center leads the CALIPSO mission and provides project management... More information on the CloudSat-CALIPSO missions, including an electronic copy... Science instrument: Cloud-profiling radar CALIPSO Dimensions: Main structure about 1.9 meters..., estimated) 6 Mission Overview CloudSat and CALIPSO were selected under NASA's Earth..., with seasonal and geographical variations. CALIPSO will collect information about the... aerosols remain in the atmosphere. CALIPSO measurements will ultimately contribute to... CloudSat radar with measurements from CALIPSO and NASA's Aqua satellite provides... kilometers (432 miles) above Earth. CALIPSO satellite separation occurs approximately 62... separation from the launch vehicle, CALIPSO's thermal control is activated. Final... CloudSat satellite in formation with CALIPSO and following Aqua. The CloudSat... satellite at a fixed distance from CALIPSO. The satellite will be controlled... (16,808 mph) CloudSat separation CALIPSO separation Payload fitting separation Second... Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. CALIPSO Satellite Operations The CALIPSO mission S-band system is... input from CALIPSO, and cloud classification with lidar input from CALIPSO. CloudSat... first year of operations). CALIPSO Data Products CALIPSO products will be produced... formation in the A-Train constellation, CALIPSO will provide a comprehensive suite of...’s online data ordering system. CALIPSO Data Access CALIPSO data will be processed... system -- production software that converts CALIPSO instrument data into scientific data... mission management during mission operations. CALIPSO Mission Operations Once operational, mission..., targeting up to 100 schools. CALIPSO Outreach CALIPSO supports a strong educational and... environments and public awareness. The CALIPSO outreach effort is implemented by... University. 16 Activities such as a CALIPSO and CloudSat live video-conference... climate through the missions. The CALIPSO outreach program strives to provide... participate in current atmospheric research. CALIPSO students will report visual observations... optical depth for comparison with CALIPSO mission observations. Hampton University is... CloudSat Science Objectives CloudSat and CALIPSO will provide the first space... Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Program 26 CALIPSO Satellite CALIPSO's payload includes three co...., Boulder, Colo., which built the CALIPSO payload; and, as international partner... the X-band transmitter. Validation of CALIPSO products will be based primarily... and international research facilities. Lidar CALIPSO’s primary instrument is a three-channel... antenna Lidar electronics Solar array CALIPSO satellite GPS antenna Lidar telescope... be uplinked. 31 CALIPSO Science Objectives The CALIPSO satellite mission objective is... or, increasingly, directly from observations. CALIPSO will provide a global suite of... and uncertainties can be made. CALIPSO profiles will provide vertical information... reflective properties and life span. CALIPSO will dramatically improve the global... -- the effects of cloud multilayering. CALIPSO with the A-Train satellites will... layering. Concurrent cloud observations from CALIPSO, CloudSat and other satellites will... atmospheric state. Cloud profiles from CALIPSO and CloudSat will be combined... types persist in the atmosphere? CALIPSO, CloudSat's sister mission, will take... important scientific firsts: CloudSat and CALIPSO will provide the first statistics... atmosphere produces rain from condensates. CALIPSO will provide the first statistics... formation, with CloudSat closely tracking CALIPSO. Adjustments to CloudSat's orbit are... position with CALIPSO. The usefulness of data from CloudSat, CALIPSO and the... dust aerosols. What Will CALIPSO Do? CALIPSO will help determine the altitudes... global atmosphere on a daily basis. CALIPSO's innovative lidar and imaging system... is the CALIPSO project manager. Dr. David Winker is the CALIPSO principal investigator. Dr. Charles Trepte is the CALIPSO deputy..., Va., Dr. M. Patrick McCormick is a CALIPSO co-principal investigator. At the...



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0.08/5
... cloud properties from CloudSat and CALIPSO 111 H. Okamoto, K. Sato, Y. Hagihara, and... E. O’Connor Development of a combined CloudSat/CALIPSO cloud mask to show global... TOA fluxes C. Domenech and T. Wehr CALIPSO, CloudSat, CERES, and MODIS merged... window analysis and the CloudSat/Calipso simulators M. Satoh, T. Inoue, and H. Miura... cloud-resolving model simulations and CALIPSO/ CloudSat over the tropical open... aerosol direct forcing using ESSP/CALIPSO observation and 259 GCM simulation.... Started on April 2006, the CALIPSO (CloudAerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder... have been studied thanks to CALIPSO high-resolution vertical profiles. The... clouds optical properties provided by CALIPSO will be virtually extended by... noon, when the THE EARLINET-CALIPSO EXPERIENCE Because of its geographical... aerosol optical properties retrieved from CALIPSO. In particular EARLINET Raman station... lidar on board CALIPSO. Furthermore, an integrated study of CALIPSO and EARLINET... correspondence of CALIPSO overpasses. Within the EARLINET correlative program for CALIPSO, still in 3.1 Level 1 comparisons The comparison between EARLINET and CALIPSO... assessment of the accuracy of CALIPSO raw signals (namely Level 1 data... ground-based measurements with the CALIPSO Level 1 data products, any potential... already contained in the calibrated CALIPSO lidar signals can be distinguished... in terms of the main CALIPSO Level 1 product, the attenuated backscatter... systematic comparison between EARLINET and CALIPSO data in terms of Level... 18 months of EARLINET and CALIPSO correlative measurements performed in the... CALIPSO pointing angle from 0.3° to 3° off nadir (Pappalardo et al., 2009). CALIPSO... EARLINET and CALIPSO data are considered. Potenza 10 EARLINET CALIPSO 8 Altitude a.s.l. (km... in time and space to CALIPSO ones, within 4 h and 100km. Additional... terms of direct comparison between CALIPSO data and ground based data... -50 Attenuated Backscatter (Calipso-EARLINET)/EARLINET (%) O nm Figure 2: CALIPSO and EARLINET mean... 532 nm as measured by CALIPSO and EARLINET Potenza station. Figure... between CALIPSO and EARLINET measurements, demonstrating the good performances of CALIPSO and the absence of evident biases in the CALIPSO raw... et al., 2009). 3.2 Representativeness study CALIPSO level 2 data, i.e. pro¿les of.... Finally, an integrated study of CALIPSO and EARLINET correlative measurements opens... Space Agency supports the EARLINET-CALIPSO correlative measurements program, with two... type, and investigating representativeness of CALIPSO data in describing aerosol and... factors and first comparisons of CALIPSO Level 2 and EARLINET data, performed... Potenza EARLINET station (PO) and CALIPSO at different horizontal distances. Additional... agreement is observed between the CALIPSO observation related to an horizontal... May evening (temporal shift from CALIPSO of 320 min). This corresponds... be kept in mind that CALIPSO extinction measurements are strongly affected... is compared with the corresponding CALIPSO overpass measurement and a multiple-point... measurements (within 10 minutes by CALIPSO) at different horizontal distances are... it is a primary product of CALIPSO and it is available from... and space), count distributions of CALIPSO and EARLINET backscatter coefficient measurements... 08 CALIPSO D = 48 km 't = 0.3 min CALIPSO D = 72 km 't = 0.3 min CALIPSO D = 76 km 't = 0.6 min CALIPSO... Naples (NA) EARLINET stations, and CALIPSO at different horizontal distance from... of the correlation coefficient between CALIPSO and EARLINET backscatter counts distributions... reports the correlation coefficient between CALIPSO and EARLINET backscatter counts distributions... [km] Figure 4: Correlation coefficient between CALIPSO and EARLINET backscatter counts distributions... EARLINET measurements is increased for CALIPSO correlative study. Development of a suitable... started well before the first CALIPSO measurement. In May 2008, this... of CALIPSO correlative measurements. First results concerning comparisons between EARLINET and CALIPSO... through an integrated study of CALIPSO and EARLINET correlative measurements. In... York. Liu, Z. et al., 2008: CALIPSO lidar observations of the optical...., 2007: EARLINET correlative measurements for CALIPSO, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6750... and D.S. Balis, 2009: Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter... lidar measurements in correspondence of CALIPSO overpass: Level 1 products comparison, Atmos...., 2009: EARLINET correlative measurements for CALIPSO: first intercomparison results, submitted to... al., 2009: Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing...



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0.09/5
... Orthogonal Polarization), was launched on CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared... Satellite Observations) in April 2006. CALIPSO is part of the A-train... art of aerosol retrieval using CALIPSO, POLDER, AATSR, MODIS, OMI and... Aerosol and Cloud Parameters from CALIPSO Observations CALIPSO is a satellite mission (see... the French space agency, CNES. CALIPSO provides unique measurements to improve... et al. 2003; 2009). The CALIPSO payload (see Table 6.1) consists of... polarization Table 6.1 Characteristics of the CALIPSO instruments Characteristic CALIOP Wavelengths Polarization... physical properties of cirrus clouds. CALIPSO is flown in a polar orbit... the A-Train constellation which, besides CALIPSO, consists of the Aqua, CloudSat... local time. The orbit of CALIPSO is maintained to provide space... other satellites of the constellation. CALIPSO was launched at the end... available from 13th June 2006. CALIPSO has been designed to provide... parameterizations of cloud-climate feedbacks. CALIPSO is also intended to address... retrieval performance. 6.6.1 The CALIPSO Science Payload The CALIPSO payload consists of three...). The data product levels for CALIPSO are reported in Table 6.3. They.... 6 Retrieval of Aerosol Properties Table 6.3 CALIPSO product list Data level Data... derived using measurements from multiple CALIPSO instruments. The data products are... do not include the UV. e CALIPSO CALIPSO, the space borne lidar, is... distribution between different global models. CALIPSO data will be used to... et al. (2009) show how CALIPSO data can be used to... properties. OMI, MODIS, POLDER and CALIPSO are all part of the..., M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, C. Weimer, 2009, CALIPSO lidar description and performance assessment..., C. Trepte, and C. Hostetler, 2009, The CALIPSO Lidar Cloud and Aerosol Discrimination..., R. E. Kuehn, and C. A. Hosteler, 2009, The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar..., R. R. Rogers, S. A. Young and D. M. Winker, 2009, CALIPSO lidar calibration algorithms Part I: Night... Cloud and Aerosol Layers in CALIPSO Lidar Data. In: L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy... and aerosol layers in the CALIPSO lidar measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol... D.M., J.R. Pelon and M.P. McCormick, 2003, The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation... S.A. Young, 2009., Overview of the CALIPSO Mission and CALIOP Data Processing... lidar infrared pathfinder satellite observations (CALIPSO) data: algorithm description. J. Atmos. Oceanic...



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0.18/5
... © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License. CALIPSO climatological products: evaluation and suggestions... Lidar and Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) space platform. The European Aerosol... for CALIPSO calibration/validation studies on a continental scale. In this work, CALIPSO.... The CALIPSO monthly mean profiles following this approach are called CALIPSO Level... backscatter, showing better performances of CALIPSO backscatter retrievals. Additionally, the aerosol... et al.: CALIPSO climatological products Introduction The NASA-CALIPSO (Cloud–Aerosol Lidar... accuracy of CALIPSO retrievals in comparison with independent measurements. CALIPSO products have.../2341/2016/ N. Papagiannopoulos et al.: CALIPSO climatological products CL3 comparison (not.... 4 closes with our conclusions. 2 2.1 Data CALIPSO CALIPSO is a joint NASA/CNES (Centre... with accurate depolarization measurements make CALIPSO an indispensable tool to monitor... et al.: CALIPSO climatological products Figure 1. Example showing CALIPSO’s ground track that.... 2.3 2.3.1 Analysis setup Comparison methodology The CALIPSO measurements that result in the... the CALIPSO aerosol classification is compared against EARLINET typing data. 2.3.2 CALIPSO aerosol classification As was noted in Sect. 2.1, CALIPSO retrieval classifies... et al.: CALIPSO climatological products 2345 Table 1. Characteristics of CALIPSO and EARLINET data considered for this analysis. CALIPSO Quantity Coverage... et al.: CALIPSO climatological products Table 3. Number of CALIPSO overflights and EARLINET... the EARLINET station. EARLINET station CALIPSO overpasses Monthly profiles Minimum distance.../2341/2016/ N. Papagiannopoulos et al.: CALIPSO climatological products 2347 Table 4. AOD... aerosol layering and extinction values. CALIPSO reported a strong aerosol feature around... et al.: CALIPSO climatological products Figure 6. Évora: (a) EARLINET and (b) CALIPSO typing barplots... polluted continental particles. Overall, the CALIPSO and EARLINET aerosol typing indicate... et al.: CALIPSO climatological products Figure 9. Naples: (a) EARLINET and (b) CALIPSO typing bar... the CALIPSO backscatter with respect to the extinction. Hence, using the CALIPSO... et al., 2014). More importantly, CALIPSO’s depolarization measurements facilitate the discrimination.../2341/2016/ N. Papagiannopoulos et al.: CALIPSO climatological products Figure 11. Relative... mixtures of marine particles. Besides, CALIPSO underestimated the outflow of anthropogenic... subtype by CALIPSO. In many cases the complexity of the CALIPSO scene..., 2016 2352 N. Papagiannopoulos et al.: CALIPSO climatological products Table 5. Mean lidar....: CALIPSO climatological products values of lidar ratio to improve the CALIPSO extinction... profiles measured during satellite overflights. CALIPSO monthly profiles yielded lower extinction.../limitations with the CALIPSO measurements, and uncertainty of the CALIPSO assumptions. A mean... identification of irregular shaped particles. A CALIPSO overestimation of the polluted dust... greater than the CALIPSO 40 sr, highlighting the low CALIPSO lidar ratio... change the composition affecting the CALIPSO optical properties retrieval. The correction..., 2016 2354 N. Papagiannopoulos et al.: CALIPSO climatological products are particularly grateful..., A., Taylor, M., Baldasano, J., and Ansmann, A.: Optimizing CALIPSO Saharan dust retrievals, Atmos. Chem... Wilson, K. M.): EARLINET Correlative Observations for CALIPSO (2006–2010), World Data Center.../2341/2016/ N. Papagiannopoulos et al.: CALIPSO climatological products Hu, Y., Vaughan, M., Liu..., D.: The depolarization –attenuated backscatter relation: CALIPSO lidar measurements vs. theory, Opt..., Z., Young, S., Stamnes, K., Huang, J., and Kuehn, R.: CALIPSO/CALIOP cloud phase discrimination algorithm..., A., Powell, K., Trepte, C., and Hostetler, C.: The CALIPSO lidar cloud and aerosol discrimination.... Lopes, F. J. S., Landulfo, E., and Vaughan, M. A.: Evaluating CALIPSO’s 532 nm lidar ratio selection..., E., Tsaknakis, G., and Balis, D. S.: Validation of CALIPSO spaceborne-derived attenuated backscatter coefficient... lidar measurements in coincidence with CALIPSO overpasses: Level 1 products comparison, Atmos..., 2016 2356 N. Papagiannopoulos et al.: CALIPSO climatological products Omar, A. H., Won, J.-G., Winker..., R., Lee, K., Kuehn, R., and Hostetler, C.: The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar... Wiegner, M.: EARLINET correlative measurements for CALIPSO: first intercomparison results, J. Geophys. Res..., O., Lapyonok, T., and Trepte, C.: Comparison of CALIPSO aerosol optical depth retrievals to..., J., and McCormick, M.: Initial results from CALIPSO, in: 23rd International Laser Radar..., K., Trepte, C., Vaughan, M., and Wielicki, B.: The CALIPSO Mission: a global 3-D view of aerosols.../ N. Papagiannopoulos et al.: CALIPSO climatological products Observations (CALIPSO) data: algorithm description, J. Atmos... and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) data: uncertainty and error sensitivity...



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... (3 yrs.) 2005-2014: Facility Director, CALIPSO Borehole and continuous GPS Facility...-2010, Funded by NSF-EAR CALIPSO Science award. Justin Palmer: “Experimental... flow generated tsunami recorded by CALIPSO borehole strainmeters at Soufriere Hills... Research: Facility Support for the CALIPSO Borehole Observatory, Soufriere Hills, Montserrat... Dynamics program, “Collaborative Research: The CALIPSO Project: imaging the magma chamber..., Geophysics program, “Collaborative Research: SEA-CALIPSO: An Offshore/Onshore Tomography and... Research: Facility Support for the CALIPSO Borehole Observatory, Soufriere Hills Volcano... Dynamics program, “Collaborative Research: The CALIPSO Project: Imaging the Magma Chamber..., 2004, Prototype PBO Instrumentation of CALIPSO Captures World-Record Lava Dome... of Montserrat from the SEA-CALIPSO offshore/onshore experiment, Geophys. Res... observatory and continuous GPS: The CALIPSO Project plan and goals, EarthScope... comparisons of surface broadband and CALIPSO borehole data at Soufrière..., Borehole strainmeters on Montserrat: the CALIPSO project and the July 2003..., integration, and progress on the CALIPSO borehole project at Soufriere Hills..., E., Malin, P., and Elsworth, D., 2003, The CALIPSO Borehole Observatory Project, Montserrat: Overview..., P.N Dunkley, R. Herd, and G. Norton, 2003, CALIPSO borehole instrumentation project at Soufriere..., S.R. Young, D. Elsworth, and D. Hidayat, 2003, CALIPSO borehole station observations before and..., A. Jolly, G. Norton, and G. Thompson, 2003, CALIPSO Borehole Instrumentation Project at Soufri..., E. Shalev, and B. Voight, 2003, The CALIPSO borehole project, Montserrat, Seismological Research... and storage region processes: the CALIPSO borehole observatory project at Soufriere..., G. Thompson, P. Williams, D. Williams, A.B. Clarke, 2004, CALIPSO project at Soufrière Hills... Montserrat, July 2003 with unique CALIPSO geophysical measurement of pyroclastic flows... generated tsunami waves detected by CALIPSO borehole strainmeters at Soufriere Hills..., G. Thompson, C. Williams, D. Williams, A.B. Clarke, 2004, CALIPSO Borehole Monitoring Project at Soufriere..., W. Johnston, P. Dunkley, A.B. Clarke, V. Bass, 2005, CALIPSO project at Soufrière Hills...., G43B-03. Mattioli, G.S., 2005, The CALIPSO Project and the ongoing eruption.... West Indies Press. Mattioli, G.S., 2005, CALIPSO, and a decade of GPS surface.... Mattioli, G.S., et al., 2007, The CALIPSO Project on Soufriere Hills Volcano... inc. G.S. Mattioli, 2008, The SEA-CALIPSO volcano imaging experiment on Montserrat... of Montserrat from the SEA-CALIPSO offshore/onshore experiment, Eos Trans... inc. G.S. Mattioli, 2011, The SEA-CALIPSO active-source seismic experiment finds... – Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism, SEA-CALIPSO Science Meeting, Carnegie Institution of...



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... validation and climatological studies.............................................................................................................................19 4.2.1 CALIPSO .............................................................................................................................19 4.2.2 MODIS .................................................................................................................................19 4.2.3 OMI .......................................................................................................................................19... 7 GOMOS..............................................................................................................................................27 8 ACE FTS.............................................................................................................................................33 9 CALIPSO............................................................................................................................................37 10 MODIS ..........................................................................................................................................40 11...’s and third-party atmospheric sensors (e.g., CALIPSO, ADM-AEOLUS, EarthCARE). The main..., comparison and correlative study for CALIPSO aerosol and clouds products are... for the systematic EARLINET versus CALIPSO comparison was properly modified in... of comparison between EARLINET and CALIPSO versions 2 and 3 of the data... data, section 9 is dedicated to CALIPSO and section 10 to MODIS... volcano eruptions. Finally, a strategy for CALIPSO related correlative measurements has been... Technical University of Athens) group CALIPSO (4993) Measurements performed following a devoted... measurements: MODIS, OMI, MISR and CALIPSO. In 2010 a further satellite product... annual reports. 4.2.1 CALIPSO Started on April 2006, the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar... Polarization), the lidar on board CALIPSO, is an elastic backscatter lidar... validation of CALIPSO. In particular in the case of CALIPSO the validation... EARLINET measurements are planned for CALIPSO correlative studies starting from high... and realized within the ESA-CALIPSO project (ESTEC contract 21487/08... with the latest release of CALIPSO data. In particular, in the... VALID-1 final report 2008-2010 9 CALIPSO EARLINET ground based lidars as... aerosol optical properties retrieved from CALIPSO. In particular EARLINET Raman station... pure backscatter lidar on board CALIPSO. With EARLINET, Raman lidars we.... Already before the launch of CALIPSO, a strategy for correlative measurements had... a dedicated ESA study (ESA-EARLINET-CALIPSO project) aiming at a long-term... lidars to correlate it to CALIPSO observations for validation purposes and... in space and time. Since CALIPSO related EARLINET activities are carried... assessment of the accuracy of CALIPSO raw signals (namely level 1 data... ground-based measurements with the CALIPSO Level 1 data products, potential problems... already contained in the calibrated CALIPSO lidar signals can be distinguished... systematic comparison between EARLINET and CALIPSO data in terms of Level... 18 months of EARLINET and CALIPSO correlative measurements performed in the... period before the change of CALIPSO pointing angle from 0.3° to 3° off... the criteria established in the CALIPSO validation plan (http://calipsovalidation.hamptonu... a temporal integration centered around the CALIPSO overpass time, so measurements can... the planetary boundary layer, where CALIPSO signals seems to have strange... of CALIPSO and the absence of evident biases in the CALIPSO raw... in terms of comparison with CALIPSO level 2 data (aerosol extinction and... cases, but in other cases CALIPSO classifies most of the plume... and Leipzig, around 12:00UT. CALIPSO signals show the presence of... so called dust belt, the CALIPSO cloud-aerosol discrimination algorithm forces... of CALIPSO related activities, some issues are highlighted concerning CALIPSO data/retrieval... the EARLINET Potenza station and CALIPSO version 2 and version 3 corresponding profiles... wavelengths and for both versions, CALIPSO retrievals are significantly higher than... to the difference between the CALIPSO’s assumed lidar ratio (around 50... the limit established for the CALIPSO validation purposes on the base...). Results of the validation of CALIPSO have been published in ACP... for the almost automatic EARLINET-CALIPSO comparison was updated taking into... the aerosol products within version 3 CALIPSO data. An example of version..., C., Hu, Y. and Hostetler, C., 2010. The CALIPSO cloud and aerosol discrimination: version... lidar measurements in coincidence with CALIPSO overpasses: Level 1 products comparison. Atmospheric.... Representativeness of aerosol measurements: EARLINET-CALIPSO correlative study, 25th International Laser... the EARLINET correlative measurements for CALIPSO, Lidar Technologies, Techniques, and Measurements..., M., 2010b. EARLINET correlative measurements for CALIPSO: first intercomparison results. Journal of...



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National Aeronautics and Space Administration CALIPSO CloudSat GRACE SCIENCE WRITER’S GUIDE... Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (CALIPSO Section) Katherine E. Lorentz, SAIC / NASA... CONTENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 Table of Contents Introduction CALIPSO Quick Reference Guide CloudSat Quick... Program, and ESSP Mission Summaries CALIPSO and CloudSat Catch the “A-Train... to CALIPSO 12 14 15 16 17 Q&A on CALIPSO Instruments on CALIPSO CALIPSO Feature..., Climate, and Air Quality CALIPSO Feature 2: CALIPSO Studies Aerosols and Clouds Using... PATHFINDER PROGRAM (ESSP) SATELLITES The CALIPSO, CloudSat, and GRACE missions WHAT... of climate variability and change. * CALIPSO — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared...’s weather, climate and air quality. CALIPSO will collect information about the...-observing satellites, and data from CALIPSO will improve our understanding of.../USDA NASA SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE CALIPSO Quick Reference Guide The Cloud... and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) will fly in formation with...-1237 TO ANSWER CALIPSO MISSION AND SCIENCE QUESTIONS: CALIPSO Princi pal Investigator...-8417 Dale.F.Schulz@nasa.gov CALIPSO Deputy Principal Investigator Dr. Charles... Charles.R.Trepte@nasa.gov CALIPSO RELATED PUBLICATIONS: CloudSat / CALIPSO BROCHURE: http://www-cali pso.larc.nasa.gov/resources CALIPSO fact sheet: http://www-cali pso.larc.nasa.gov/resources CALIPSO... Winker, D. M., J. Pelon and M. P. McCormick, The CALIPSO mission: Spaceborne lidar for observation..., D., C. Hostetler and W. Hunt, CALIOP: The CALIPSO Lidar, 22nd International Laser Radar....gov CALIPSO Web site: http://www.nasa.gov/cali pso CALIPSO Instrument Websites: http://www-cali pso.larc.nasa.gov CALIPSO.../data/general/brochure_final.pdf CloudSat/CALIPSO Brochure: http://www-cali pso... and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) - CALIPSO employs an innovative set of...’s weather, climate, and air quality. CALIPSO will collect information about the...-observing satellites, and data from CALIPSO will improve our understanding of....gov 6 NASA SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE CALIPSO & CLOUDSAT CATCH THE “A-TRAIN” WITH... A-Train consists of: Aqua, Aura, CALIPSO, CloudSat, OCO, and PARASOL. GRACE..., CALIPSO and CloudSat will share a single launch vehicle. Once in orbit, CALIPSO... reacting to any changes in CALIPSO’s orbit. CALIPSO will, in turn, react...’s orbit. This tight formation between CALIPSO and CloudSat enables complementary measurements... TO CALIPSO NASA SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE Q&A on the CALIPSO Mission WHAT DOES “CALIPSO... Pathfinder Satellite Observations WHAT IS CALIPSO’S PURPOSE AND MISSION? To help... TYPES OF THINGS WILL CALIPSO LOOK AT? CALIPSO provides a new and unique... FORM THE BASIS FOR CALIPSO’S OBJECTIVES? The CALIPSO satellite mission objectives are... change. WHAT QUESTIONS WILL CALIPSO ANSWER? CALIPSO will give us new 3-D perspectives... CALIPSO in that they both flew space-based lidars. WHAT MAKES CALIPSO... to validate the CALIPSO measurements. WHOM DO I CONTACT ABOUT CALIPSO SCIENCE QUESTIONS... Project Scientists. 1. Dr. David M. Winker, CALIPSO Princi pal Investigator. Tel. 757... THE CALIPSO MISSION? NASA’s Langley Research Center is leading the CALIPSO mission... engineering support for the CALIPSO satellite and payload. CALIPSO is being developed... OF INSTRUMENTS WILL FLY ON CALIPSO? CALIPSO will fly a 3-channel lidar with... DIRECTORATE The Three Instruments on CALIPSO The CALIPSO spacecraft carries three co... the payload of instruments on CALIPSO. Credit: Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation... climate. 15 CALIPSO FEATURES: 2 NASA SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE CALIPSO Studies Aerosols and... aerosols over the globe. The CALIPSO lidar satellite provides vertical profiles... d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), one of CALIPSO’s partner institutions. This instrument has... these clouds. A third instrument that CALIPSO carries is a high-resolution digital... aerosols remain in the atmosphere. CALIPSO measurements will ultimately contribute to... Hampton University is responsible for CALIPSO Quid-Pro-Quo validation, outreach... code development. Research objectives for CALIPSO center mainly on the effects..., validation and experiment design. 17 CALIPSO Science Team NASA SCIENCE MISSION... relevant, integral aerosol properties. For CALIPSO, focuses on methods of coupling... polluted clouds. Plans to use CALIPSO observations to characterize haze particles... analyzing air quality measurements from CALIPSO in coordination with other sensors... cloud properties. Interested in using CALIPSO data to improve our understanding... Research Center Research activities for CALIPSO are focused on the determination... Reagan’s role/research objectives for CALIPSO are development, validation and application... ratio. Reagan will also use CALIPSO aerosol retrievals and associated A-Train... Research Center Research interests for CALIPSO are focused on obtaining a better... contact for validation activities. 19 CALIPSO Science Team NASA SCIENCE MISSION... Princi pal Investigator for the CALIPSO mission. Research involves clouds and...



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National Aeronautics and Space Administration CALIPSO CloudSat GRACE SCIENCE WRITER’S GUIDE... Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (CALIPSO Section) Katherine E. Lorentz, SAIC / NASA... CONTENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 Table of Contents Introduction CALIPSO Quick Reference Guide CloudSat Quick... Program, and ESSP Mission Summaries CALIPSO and CloudSat Catch the “A-Train... to CALIPSO 12 14 15 16 17 Q&A on CALIPSO Instruments on CALIPSO CALIPSO Feature..., Climate, and Air Quality CALIPSO Feature 2: CALIPSO Studies Aerosols and Clouds Using... PATHFINDER PROGRAM (ESSP) SATELLITES The CALIPSO, CloudSat, and GRACE missions WHAT... of climate variability and change. * CALIPSO — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared...’s weather, climate and air quality. CALIPSO will collect information about the...-observing satellites, and data from CALIPSO will improve our understanding of.../USDA NASA SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE CALIPSO Quick Reference Guide The Cloud... and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) will fly in formation with...-1237 TO ANSWER CALIPSO MISSION AND SCIENCE QUESTIONS: CALIPSO Princi pal Investigator...-8417 Dale.F.Schulz@nasa.gov CALIPSO Deputy Principal Investigator Dr. Charles... Charles.R.Trepte@nasa.gov CALIPSO RELATED PUBLICATIONS: CloudSat / CALIPSO BROCHURE: http://www-cali pso.larc.nasa.gov/resources CALIPSO fact sheet: http://www-cali pso.larc.nasa.gov/resources CALIPSO... Winker, D. M., J. Pelon and M. P. McCormick, The CALIPSO mission: Spaceborne lidar for observation..., D., C. Hostetler and W. Hunt, CALIOP: The CALIPSO Lidar, 22nd International Laser Radar....gov CALIPSO Web site: http://www.nasa.gov/cali pso CALIPSO Instrument Websites: http://www-cali pso.larc.nasa.gov CALIPSO.../data/general/brochure_final.pdf CloudSat/CALIPSO Brochure: http://www-cali pso... and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) - CALIPSO employs an innovative set of...’s weather, climate, and air quality. CALIPSO will collect information about the...-observing satellites, and data from CALIPSO will improve our understanding of....gov 6 NASA SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE CALIPSO & CLOUDSAT CATCH THE “A-TRAIN” WITH... A-Train consists of: Aqua, Aura, CALIPSO, CloudSat, OCO, and PARASOL. GRACE..., CALIPSO and CloudSat will share a single launch vehicle. Once in orbit, CALIPSO... reacting to any changes in CALIPSO’s orbit. CALIPSO will, in turn, react...’s orbit. This tight formation between CALIPSO and CloudSat enables complementary measurements... TO CALIPSO NASA SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE Q&A on the CALIPSO Mission WHAT DOES “CALIPSO... Pathfinder Satellite Observations WHAT IS CALIPSO’S PURPOSE AND MISSION? To help... TYPES OF THINGS WILL CALIPSO LOOK AT? CALIPSO provides a new and unique... FORM THE BASIS FOR CALIPSO’S OBJECTIVES? The CALIPSO satellite mission objectives are... change. WHAT QUESTIONS WILL CALIPSO ANSWER? CALIPSO will give us new 3-D perspectives... CALIPSO in that they both flew space-based lidars. WHAT MAKES CALIPSO... to validate the CALIPSO measurements. WHOM DO I CONTACT ABOUT CALIPSO SCIENCE QUESTIONS... Project Scientists. 1. Dr. David M. Winker, CALIPSO Princi pal Investigator. Tel. 757... THE CALIPSO MISSION? NASA’s Langley Research Center is leading the CALIPSO mission... engineering support for the CALIPSO satellite and payload. CALIPSO is being developed... OF INSTRUMENTS WILL FLY ON CALIPSO? CALIPSO will fly a 3-channel lidar with... DIRECTORATE The Three Instruments on CALIPSO The CALIPSO spacecraft carries three co... the payload of instruments on CALIPSO. Credit: Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation... climate. 15 CALIPSO FEATURES: 2 NASA SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE CALIPSO Studies Aerosols and... aerosols over the globe. The CALIPSO lidar satellite provides vertical profiles... d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), one of CALIPSO’s partner institutions. This instrument has... these clouds. A third instrument that CALIPSO carries is a high-resolution digital... aerosols remain in the atmosphere. CALIPSO measurements will ultimately contribute to... Hampton University is responsible for CALIPSO Quid-Pro-Quo validation, outreach... code development. Research objectives for CALIPSO center mainly on the effects..., validation and experiment design. 17 CALIPSO Science Team NASA SCIENCE MISSION... relevant, integral aerosol properties. For CALIPSO, focuses on methods of coupling... polluted clouds. Plans to use CALIPSO observations to characterize haze particles... analyzing air quality measurements from CALIPSO in coordination with other sensors... cloud properties. Interested in using CALIPSO data to improve our understanding... Research Center Research activities for CALIPSO are focused on the determination... Reagan’s role/research objectives for CALIPSO are development, validation and application... ratio. Reagan will also use CALIPSO aerosol retrievals and associated A-Train... Research Center Research interests for CALIPSO are focused on obtaining a better... contact for validation activities. 19 CALIPSO Science Team NASA SCIENCE MISSION... Princi pal Investigator for the CALIPSO mission. Research involves clouds and...