Спутник ФКИ. CALIPSO. [Редактировать]

Американо-французский исследовательский спутник, запущенный 28 апреля 2006 с космодрома Ванденберг с помощью ракеты-носителя Дельта-2 7420-10C вместе с другим исследовательским спутником CloudSat. Спутники запущены в рамках программы НАСА EOS (Earth Observing System (Система наблюдения Земли)) и предназначены для изучения облачного покрова Земли. CloudSat расшифровывается как Cloud Satellite, CALIPSO — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation.
Оба спутника решают общие задачи: получение трёхмерных изображений облаков и атмосферных аэрозолей; исследование того, как формируются и «развиваются» облака, как они влияют на погоду, климат, качество воздуха и количество осадков. Для этого на CloudSat установлен очень чувствительный радар с миллиметровой длиной волны (который более чем в тысячу раз чувствительнее обычного гидрометеорологического радара), а на CALIPSO — поляризационный лазерный локатор, который позволяет отличить в толще облаков водяной пар и кристаллы льда, жидкие и твёрдые частицы атмосферных аэрозолей. Кроме того, на CALIPSO имеется камера и инфракрасный радиометр.
Полезная нагрузка:

  • CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization) - лидар с ортогональной поляризацией для наблюдения облаков и аэрозолей. Разработан в Исследовательском центре имени Лэнгли, изготовлен фирмой Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. Прибор предназначен для получения вертикальных профилей упругого рассеяния от облачного слоя в различное время суток, а также для описания распределения в нём водяных паров, аэрозолей и пыли.
  • IIR (Imaging Infared Radiometer) - Видовой инфракрасный радиометр. Разработан Национальным центром космических исследований (CNES) Франция, изготовлен компанией EADS Sodern и предназначен для измерения уровня излучения в различных диапазонах ИК-спектра.
  • WFC (Wide-Field Camera) - Широкоугольная камера высокого разрешения, изготовлена фирмой Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp.   

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
129107НайтиНайти
22006-016ВНайтиНайти
3Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite ObservationНайтиНайти
4Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite ObservationНайтиНайти
529108НайтиНайти
6CalipsoНайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Тип орбиты - НОО
4Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса (сухая), кг.607
2Масса, кг.635
3Платформа 1xProteus
4Габариты, м1,9 x 1,6 x 2,46
5Полезная нагрузка 1xWFC
6Полезная нагрузка 1xIIR
7Полезная нагрузка 1xCALIOP
8Мощность, Вт560

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, градусов98.2
2Расчетный срок функционирования, год3
3Перигей, км702
4Период, минут98.8
5Эксцентрет0.0000707

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром База Ванденберг
2Средство выведения (парный пуск с КА CloudSat)1xДельта 2 7420-10C
3Дата пуска2006-04-28
4Код NSSDC2006-016A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.190
2Разработчик NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
3Оператор Космическое агентство США
4Оператор Космическое агентство Франции
5Стоимость программы , млн. долл.2006-01-01298
6Стоимость КА , млн. долл.223
7Прогнозная стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2003-01-01150.9
8Прогнозная стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2003-01-01133.9

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2006-04-28 at 11:02:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xCALIPSO
3Полезная нагрузка 1xCloudSat
4Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2

Найдено 858 документов по запросу «CALIPSO». [Перейти к поиску]


Дата загрузки: 2017-03-26
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.... The U.S. Cloudsat and the French-U.S. Calipso satellites were launched on 28... Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is leading Calipso by 135 seconds in the... of atmosphere with different instruments. Calipso, which cost NASA and CNES... two satellites complement each other: Calipso observes thin clouds, while CloudSat... through thick clouds, that block Calipso’s 30-m resolution lidar. The two... (France) two minutes later, then Calipso (France and USA) 15 seconds... Mission satellite, QuikSCAT, Cloudsat, and Calipso. NASA announced on 31 August... launched on 14 April 2006. Calipso The Calipso (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and... launched on 28 April 2006. Calipso is a joint US National Aeronautics...’s weather, climate, and air quality. Calipso consists of three co-aligned... at the same time as Calipso becoming part of the A-Train... consisting of the Aqua, CloudSat, CALIPSO, PARASOL, and Aura satellite missions... BLAST BLPB BLSS BXF C CALIOP CALIPSO CAM Cartosat CASSINI CAWSES CCD...



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... AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CloudSat-CALIPSO Launch Press Kit October 2005...-Hubert, Quebec, Canada Chris Rink CALIPSO Mission NASA Langley Research Center... CloudSat Science Objectives ................................................................................................... 25 CALIPSO Satellite .................................................................................................................... 27 CALIPSO Science Objectives .................................................................................................. 32 Why... and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) are undergoing final preparations for... Force Base, Calif. CloudSat and CALIPSO will provide a new, 3-D perspective on... State University, Fort Collins, Colo. CALIPSO's polarization lidar instrument can detect... works," said Dr. David Winker, CALIPSO principal investigator at NASA's Langley... as partnerships with the project. CALIPSO was developed through collaboration between...'s Langley Research Center leads the CALIPSO mission and provides science team... for television transmissions for CloudSat-CALIPSO activities is available on the... More information on the CloudSat-CALIPSO missions, including an electronic copy... Science instrument: Cloud-profiling radar CALIPSO Dimensions: Main structure about 1.9 meters... of Energy ($12 million, estimated) CALIPSO Cost: NASA $200 million, consisting..., estimated) 6 Mission Overview CloudSat and CALIPSO were selected under NASA's Earth..., with seasonal and geographical variations. CALIPSO will collect information about the... aerosols remain in the atmosphere. CALIPSO measurements will ultimately contribute to... CloudSat radar with measurements from CALIPSO and NASA's Aqua satellite provides... (375 nautical miles) above Earth. CALIPSO satellite separation occurs approximately 62... separation from the launch vehicle, CALIPSO's thermal control is activated. Final... after launch. First acquisition of CALIPSO's signal occurs 8 hours after liftoff... CloudSat satellite in formation with CALIPSO and following Aqua. The CloudSat... satellite at a fixed distance from CALIPSO. The satellite will be controlled... (16,808 mph) CloudSat separation CALIPSO separation Payload fitting separation Second... Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. CALIPSO Satellite Operations The CALIPSO mission S-band system is... input from CALIPSO, and cloud classification with lidar input from CALIPSO. CloudSat... year of operations). 13 CALIPSO Data Products CALIPSO products will be produced... formation in the A-Train constellation, CALIPSO will provide a comprehensive suite of...’s online data ordering system. CALIPSO Data Access CALIPSO data will be processed... system -- production software that converts CALIPSO instrument data into scientific data... management during mission operations. 15 CALIPSO Mission Operations Once operational, mission... the X-band transmitter. Validation of CALIPSO products will be based primarily... up to 100 schools. 16 CALIPSO Outreach CALIPSO supports a strong educational and... environments and public awareness. The CALIPSO outreach effort is implemented by.... Activities such as a February 2005, CALIPSO and CloudSat live video-conference... climate through the missions. The CALIPSO outreach program strives to provide... participate in current atmospheric research. CALIPSO students will report visual observations... optical depth for comparison with CALIPSO mission observations. Hampton University is... CloudSat Science Objectives CloudSat and CALIPSO will provide the first space... Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Program 26 CALIPSO Satellite CALIPSO's payload includes three co..., Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. Lidar CALIPSO’s primary instrument is a three-channel... antenna Lidar electronics Solar array CALIPSO satellite GPS antenna Lidar telescope... be uplinked. 31 CALIPSO Science Objectives The CALIPSO satellite mission objective is... or, increasingly, directly from observations. CALIPSO will provide a global suite of... and uncertainties can be made. CALIPSO profiles will provide vertical information... reflective properties and life span. CALIPSO will dramatically improve the global... -- the effects of cloud multilayering. CALIPSO with the A-Train satellites will... layering. Concurrent cloud observations from CALIPSO, CloudSat and other satellites will... types persist in the atmosphere? CALIPSO, CloudSat's sister mission, will take... important scientific firsts: CloudSat and CALIPSO will provide the first statistics... atmosphere produces rain from condensates. CALIPSO will provide the first statistics... formation, with CloudSat closely tracking CALIPSO. Adjustments to CloudSat's orbit are... position with CALIPSO. The usefulness of data from CloudSat, CALIPSO and the... dust aerosols. What Will CALIPSO Do? CALIPSO will help determine the altitudes... global atmosphere on a daily basis. CALIPSO's innovative lidar and imaging system... is CALIPSO project manager. At LaRC, Dr. David Winker is the CALIPSO..., Va., Dr. M. Patrick McCormick is a CALIPSO co-principal investigator. At the...



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... Visualising Data from CloudSat and CALIPSO Satellites Bachelor’s Thesis Degree Programme... dát zo satelitov CloudSat a CALIPSO Súhrn práce CloudSat a CALIPSO sú satelity obiehajúce... sú identifikovateľné hlavne oblaky tvorené z kvapiek. CALIPSO nesie lidar (laserový radar) CALIOP...: Vizualizácia dát zo satelitov CloudSat a CALIPSO. Univerzita Komenského, Bratislava, Fakulta.... 77pp. Školiteľ: Bašták Ďurán, I. CloudSat a CALIPSO sú pozemské satelity obiehajúce na...áv z produktov CloudSat 2BGEOPROF, CALIPSO Lidar L1B Profiles Products, CALIPSO Lidar L2 Cloud...: Visualising Data from CloudSat and CALIPSO Satellites. Comenius University, Bratislava, Faculty... radar for observation of clouds. CALIPSO carries a visible and infrared polarisation... CloudSat 2B-GEOPROF, CALIPSO Lidar L1B Profiles, CALIPSO Lidar L2 Cloud Layer...-compatible BSD license. Keywords: CloudSat, CALIPSO, MODIS, A-Train, HDF4, HDF-EOS2... 1.1 Goals 1.2 CloudSat and CALIPSO Satellites 17 17 18 2. A-Train 2.1 CALIPSO 2.1.1 CALIOP 2.1.2 Data... 12 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 HDF-EOS2 4.2.1 Dimension Mapping CALIPSO Products CloudSat Products Aqua MODIS... 39 39 5. Visualising CloudSat and CALIPSO Data 5.1 Introducing ccplot 5.2 Components of... 6.1.2 Getting Information 6.1.3 Plotting Atmosphere Profiles 6.1.4 CALIPSO 6.2 How to Create Your Own.... 15 Chapter 1 Introduction CloudSat and CALIPSO are Earth observation satellites launched.... Support several data sets, especially: – CALIPSO: Total Attenuated Backscatter 532 nm... scripts. 1.2 CloudSat and CALIPSO Satellites The CloudSat and CALIPSO missions are build... of the measurements CloudSat and CALIPSO provide a great potential for advancement... suitable for visualisation. 1.2 CloudSat and CALIPSO Satellites ∎ ∎ ∎ ∎ ∎ ∎ 19 Chapter 4. HDF4 Data... chapter. Chapter 5. Visualising CloudSat and CALIPSO Data strives to document the... on-board of Aqua. 2.1 CALIPSO The satellite CALIPSO (Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and... 30 pm, and polarisation purity 2.1 CALIPSO 23 a) b) Boresight Mechanics Detectors and... is calculated by ccplot (Chapter 5). 2.1 CALIPSO 25 Depolarization Ratio The Depolarization... made and obvious artifacts fixed’ (CALIPSO Quality Statements, 2010). Integrated Attenuated...://www.cloudsat.cira.colostate.edu ∎ CALIPSO. CALIPSO products can be ordered from...). 100.0 0.0 -9999 CALIPSO products denote valid_range as ‘ .... ’. In CALIPSO products, this attribute... is illustrated in Fig. 4.1. 4.3 CALIPSO Products CALIPSO mission deploys HDF4 format for... Files a) b) c) Figure 4.3 | File naming conventions. a, CALIPSO, b, CloudSat, c, MODIS (based on http...) ∎ HDF 4.2r4 User’s Guide (2009) ∎ CALIPSO Data Products Catalog (2007) ∎ CloudSat..., ... Figure 4.4 | CALIPSO HDF4 diagram. This is the structure of a typical CALIPSO Level... product. Chapter 5 Visualising CloudSat and CALIPSO Data 5.1 Introducing ccplot ccplot is... Depolarization Ratio calipso532 calipso532p calipso1064 calipso-cratio calipso-dratio Integrated Attenuated Backscatter... Temperature calipso532-layer calipso1064-layer calipso-cratio-layer Aqua MODIS MODIS..., and CALIPSO trajectory CALIPSO orbit, orbit-clipped CALIPSO Lidar L1B Profiles CALIPSO Lidar L2 Cloud Layer Products (333m, 1km, 5km) calipso-dratio-layer calipso... equally when plotting CloudSat and CALIPSO products, the appearance of atmospheric... m h × DPI⌉ y m − y0 Visualising CloudSat and CALIPSO Data 48 Table 5.2 | Default values... mapping algorithm. Visualising CloudSat and CALIPSO Data 50 # Implementation of the... $HDF/2006224184641_01550_CS_2B-GEOPROF_GRANULE_P_R03_E01.hdf 6.1.4 CALIPSO Plotting CALIPSO products is almost identical to.... Prepare one CALIPSO L1B Profile product, and one CALIPSO L2 Layer product.....+3:30 -c /usr/share/ccplot/cmap/calipso-backscatter.cmap calipso532 $HDF/CAL_LID_L1...:00 -c /usr/share/ccplot/cmap/calipso-backscatter.cmap calipso532 $HDF/CAL_LID_L1...=1.2,cbspacing=0.1 -c /usr/share/ccplot/cmap/calipso-backscatter.cmap calipso532-layer $HDF... Manual 56 a) b) cloudsat­reflectivity.cmap calipso­temperature.cmap modis­temperature.cmap...-reflec BOUNDS -20 32 2 Suitability: calipso-temperaturelayer, orbit, orbit-clipped TICKS... 0 0 196 0 0 208 0 0 220 0 0 231 0 0 245 0 0 ... c) calipso­backscatter.cmap Suitability: calipso532, calipso532p... 86 ... d) e) calipso­cratio.cmap calipso­dratio.cmap modis­reflectance.cmap Suitability: calipso-cratio, calipsocratio-layer Suitability: calipso... Products Handbook, April 25th, 2008. CALIPSO Data Products Catalog Release 2.4, December.... CALIPSO Data Products Catalog (2007). CALIPSO Data Products Catalog. http:// www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/products/CALIPSO_DPC_Rev2x4.pdf. CALIPSO Quality Statements (2010, February). CALIPSO Quality Statements. http:// eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/PRODOCS/calipso/Quality_Summaries/. CALIPSO Quality... Aerosol Profile Products (2009, July). CALIPSO Quality Statements: Lidar Level 2 Cloud...://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/PRODOCS/calipso/Quality_Summaries/CALIOP_ L2LayerProducts_2.01.html...



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... comparisons of AIRS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO cloud height and amount B. H. Kahn1... and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), are compared to AIRS for... all cloud types. Likewise, the CALIPSO-AIRS biases range from 0.6–3.0±1.2–3.6 km... and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) (Winker et al., 2003), CloudSat... profiling lidar on CALIPSO. Aqua leads CloudSat and CALIPSO by ∼55 and... et al.: AIRS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO clouds Howard (Gedzelman, 1989). Although... is quantified using CloudSat and CALIPSO. In Sect. 2 the observations and... et al.: AIRS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO clouds revealed and probable causes... et al.: AIRS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO clouds Fig. 1. An illustrative AIRS...-based cloud retrieval comparisons. 2.3 CALIPSO The CALIPSO payload consists of three nadir..., and CALIPSO clouds 1235 Fig. 2. Vertical cross-sections of CloudSat, CALIPSO, and... files (Wang and Sassen, 2007). (d) CALIPSO 532 nm total attenuated backscatter...://eosweb.larc. nasa.gov/PRODOCS/calipso/table calipso.html). Relatively weak backscatter... the crosscomparisons with CloudSat and CALIPSO. The days shown below are... thick and multilayered cloud structure, CALIPSO’s ability to accurately determine cloud... height retrievals. 3 3.1 AIRS, CloudSat and CALIPSO cloud frequency Methodology In this... approach between AIRS, CloudSat and CALIPSO is outlined for a five-day... spatial variability of CloudSat and CALIPSO within the AIRS FOV. Results... describe collocated AIRS and CloudSat/CALIPSO observations. Large gray (white) circles... either cloudy (clear) CloudSat or CALIPSO profiles. The number and relative... substantially between FOVs. CloudSat or CALIPSO profiles with rows of partly... shown separately for CloudSat and CALIPSO (in parentheses) for the five... between CloudSat and CALIPSO. Although the CloudSat and CALIPSO data products have... the smallest values of fA . CALIPSO cloud frequency statistics may depend....1%) of the time for CloudSat (CALIPSO) comparisons. Some cases are explained....6 CloudSat profiles containing cloud (6.0 and 4.3 CALIPSO 5 km profiles) are located within... regard to thin Ci, the CALIPSO comparison in Scenario C demonstrates a significant... and cloudy occurrences for CloudSat, CALIPSO, and AIRS. CloudSat cloud frequency... biases. Instrument % Clear % Cloudy CloudSat CALIPSO (5 km) AIRS (fA ≥0.01) AIRS... for collocated AIRS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO observations are illustrated in Fig.... 6d. As with CloudSat, the CALIPSO cloud top climatology qualitatively agrees... observations between AIRS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO are differenced to quantify the... and CALIPSO is not degraded to AIRS, instead each CloudSat and CALIPSO... -40 0 40 20 0.20 (D) 0.4 0.3 10 0.2 5 0.1 CALIPSO Frequency 0.5 15 0.0 0 -40 0 15 0.15... 0.10 0.05 5 0.00 0 40 -40 0 CALIPSO Cloud Top Frequency 0.6 (B) Height (km... cloud confidence mask values ≥40, (b) CALIPSO cloud frequency using feature base... detected cloud top sensed by CALIPSO (cloud top), and (e) a combined AIRS... et al.: AIRS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO clouds 1.0 1.0 (A) 0.8 0.8 fAU x104 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 -20 -10... et al.: AIRS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO clouds 1.0 3500 0.8 x104 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 (A) All Clds... et al.: AIRS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO clouds 1243 1.0 (A) 0.8 6000 (B) 1400 (C) Ac...-chem-phys.net/8/1231/2008/ 4.2 CALIPSO-AIRS Given the known differences... AIRS FOVs are comparable to CALIPSO, following Scenarios A and B presented in....: AIRS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO clouds 1.0 Table 5. Summary of CALIPSO-AIRS cloud top... bias V4 ± 1σ V5 bias V5 ± 1σ 0.4 CALIPSO ZCLD AIRS Layer Bias ±1 σ Variability..., CloudSat, and CALIPSO clouds 1245 1.0 1000 600 (A) 0.8 (B) 500 CALIPSO 7 km 800 CALIPSO < 7 km... -10 CALIPSO – ZAU (km) 0 10 20 CALIPSO – ZAL (km) 1.0 350 (C) 350 (D) 300 0.8 CALIPSO 7 km 300 250 CALIPSO < 7 km... CALIPSO – ZAL (km) 0 -20 -10 0 10 20 CALIPSO – ZAL (km) Fig. 11. CALIPSO-AIRS Z. Cloud top height derived from CALIPSO... cases when AIRS and CloudSat/CALIPSO simultaneously observe cloud; it should... and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) determine the precision of AIRS... et al.: AIRS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO clouds mulus, and Stratocumulus are... the subtropics compared to V4. CALIPSO-AIRS differences qualitatively agree with... ZA biases is increased using CALIPSO (rather than CloudSat), consistent with... boundary layer clouds compared to CALIPSO. The large negative ZA biases... are increased (decreased) in the CALIPSO comparisons for clouds <7 km (>7 km... cloud climatology from CloudSat and CALIPSO. Furthermore, since the biases and..., and CALIPSO clouds (http://www.cloudsat.cira.colostate.edu/). CALIPSO data were... et al.: AIRS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO clouds Tobin, D. C., Revercomb, H. E., Knuteson, R. O., Lesht...://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/PRODOCS/calipso/ table calipso.html, 2005. Wang, Z. and... of AIRS, MODIS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO cloud top height retrievals, Geophys.... Winker, D. M., Pelon, J., and McCormick, M. P.: The CALIPSO mission: Spaceborne lidar for observation...



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... and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO). Использование излучения с длиной волны 355... заметить, что лазерный сканер спутника CALIPSO излучает мощные импульсы, энергия которых... не хуже, чем работу спутника CALIPSO. Международная космическая станция является идеальным...



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... stratosphere as seen by the CALIPSO lidar. ACP, Vol.11, pp... the TTL as observed by CALIPSO and Aura/MLS, Atmos. Chem... the tropical tropopause layer from CALIPSO and MLS data: A water perspective...



Дата загрузки: 2016-11-11
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... Polarization (CALIOP) on board the CALIPSO satellite and the Advanced Microwave... remotely sensed optical properties the CALIPSO algorithm is capable of discriminating... constant lidar ratio used for CALIPSO-derived AOD532 . Nevertheless, active satellite... and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite. Due to its unique... Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard the CALIPSO satellite and the surface wind... speed. 2.1 Remotely sensed data/instruments CALIPSO provides aerosol and cloud optical...; Hunt et al., 2009). The CALIPSO retrieval algorithm considers scattering properties... marine” aerosol layer properties from CALIPSO derived at 5 km horizontal www... clean marine aerosol resolution. The CALIPSO marine aerosol layer products were... as CALIPSO flies about 75 s behind the Aqua satellite. Both CALIPSO lidar... study AMSR-E wind speed and CALIPSO layer optical properties from ascending... time) passes were used. The CALIPSO algorithm is distinctive from other... al., 2011). Level 2 version 3.01 CALIPSO aerosol subtypes are defined with...). In Level 2 aerosol layer products, CALIPSO provides vertically resolved aerosol properties... the aerosol types used in CALIPSO retrieval algorithm, the size distributions... aerosol properties used in the CALIPSO aerosol-type identification algorithm are...). Therefore, the Sa value for CALIPSO clean marine aerosol was derived... the caveats and uncertainties in CALIPSO sea spray AOD calculations related... aerosol-cloud feature classification. The CALIPSO aerosol optical depths are provided...://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/PRODOCS/calipso/ Quality Summaries/CALIOP L2LayerProducts 3.01... Table S1 in Supplement). Although CALIPSO can distinguish different aerosol species... marine aerosol layers The available CALIPSO data products can be analyzed... 1 shows global seasonal maps of CALIPSO-derived marine aerosol extensive property...., 2009). The frequency distribution of CALIPSO lidar marine aerosol layer AOD532... entire study period, virtually all CALIPSO-retrieved marine aerosol layer bases.... 1. Global distribution of 1◦ × 1◦ degree averaged CALIPSO level 2 version 3.01 mean AOD532... S1 in Supplement. Fig. 2. The CALIPSO lidar marine AOD532 histogram for... clean marine aerosol Fig. 3. The CALIPSO lidar frequency histogram of marine..., 2004). Although, based on the CALIPSO data analysis alone the reason... depth. Some potential differences between CALIPSO-retrieved “clean marine” aerosols and.../11401/2011/ 11407 Fig. 4. The CALIPSO lidar relationships for (a) β1064 –β532... relationships The relationship between collocated CALIPSO-AOD532 and AMSR-E wind speed... developed a logistic function for the CALIPSO-derived AOD532 and AMSR-E wind..., 2011 Fig. 5. The relationship between CALIPSO AOD532 and AMSR-E wind speed... Fig. 6 the logistic relationship for CALIPSO-AOD532 and AMSR-E wind speed... Table 1. For U10 ≤ 4 m s−1 , the mean CALIPSO derived AOD532 of marine aerosols...). However, Fig. 6 also shows that CALIPSO-AOD532 is roughly a factor of... clean marine aerosol used in CALIPSO retrievals could lead to significant... speed of ∼ 12 m s−1 the current CALIPSO-derived AOD532 values are lower... 20 m s−1 . Nevertheless, according to Fig. 6 CALIPSO-derived AOD532 tends to level... an increased probability that the CALIPSO lidar signal can be contaminated... between AMSR-E wind speed and CALIPSO lidar backscatter when they applied... aerosol AOD532 was calculated using CALIPSO derived “clean marine” aerosol subtype... April 2011. A logistic relationship between CALIPSO-retrieved AOD532 and AMSR-E wind..., respectively. Derived logistic regression between CALIPSO-retrieved AOD532 and AMSR-E wind... under such low wind conditions CALIPSO-derived AOD532 is roughly a factor... of sub-micron aerosol by CALIPSO and/or contribution from terrestrial... fraction of all available data, CALIPSO-derived AOD532 dependence on U10... power-law relationships. Analysis of CALIPSO-retrieved AOD532 and AMSR-E wind... influenced by potential contamination of CALIPSO lidar signal by whitecaps. Further.... The authors gratefully acknowledge the CALIPSO and AMSR-E Teams for their..., D., Vaughan, M., Powell, K., Lucker, P., and Weimer, C.: CALIPSO lidar description and performance assessment... over ocean derived from combined CALIPSO and MODIS measurements, Atmos. Chem... column aerosol optical depths from CALIPSO and MODIS-Aqua, Atmos. Meas..., available online at: http://www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/resources/pdfs..., A. H., Powell, K., Trepte, C. R., and Hostetler, C. A.: The CALIPSO Lidar Cloud and Aerosol Discrimination... marine aerosol and Liu, Z.: The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar... data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products... and aerosol layers in the CALIPSO lidar measurements, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol..., 2003. Winker, D. M. and Pelon, J.: The CALIPSO mission, Geoscience and Remote Sensing..., W. H., and Young, S. A.: Overview of the CALIPSO Mission and CALIOP Data Processing... Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data: Algorithm description, J. Atmos. Ocean...



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... 3.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations: second... Polarization) lidar system onboard the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared... optical calculations, we define four CALIPSO-based composition classes which we... the unique attributes of the CALIPSO PSC database. These analyses show... the Antarctic and Arctic. The CALIPSO data also reveal seasonal and... Union. 7578 M. C. Pitts et al.: CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations formation... Observations (CALIPSO) spaceborne mission (Winker et al., 2007). In addition, CALIPSO has... formation mechanisms. The lidar on CALIPSO, CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with...) analyses were based on a preliminary CALIPSO PSC detection algorithm that was... depolarization data to define new CALIPSO-based PSC composition classes. We... to illustrate the capabilities of CALIPSO for characterizing PSCs. 2 Second-generation.../9/7577/2009/ M. C. Pitts et al.: CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations coefficient..., 2009 7580 M. C. Pitts et al.: CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations we... scales 2.60, vidual orbit of CALIPSO data on August 2006. black... from an 1individual orbit ofThe CALIPSO data on 1 August lines indicate... in the analysis of the CALIPSO PSC observations, we incorporate ancillary... identical orbits, the MLS and CALIPSO ground tracks are close to... information are interpolated to the CALIPSO profile locations at 5-km horizontal... mixing ratio measurements to the CALIPSO profile locations and include them... Scale (km) M. C. Pitts et al.: CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations Fig..., 2009 7582 M. C. Pitts et al.: CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations of..., the general shape of the CALIPSO data contours does not conform..., we chose to define new CALIPSO-based composition classes guided by... of the Figure 4. 2-D histograms of CALIPSO PSC observations for the (a) 2006... all constituents. Fig. 4. 2-D histograms of CALIPSO PSC observations for the (a) and... with future enhancements of the CALIPSO PSC algorithm. composite 2-D histograms of.../9/7577/2009/ M. C. Pitts et al.: CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations 3 2 3 4 7583... line at lower temperatures (T 1/R532 >0. 3.2 CALIPSO PSC composition classes Based on... al.: CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations Figure 7. Composite histogram of CALIPSO PSC... boundaries. Fig. 7. andComposite histogram ofwith CALIPSO PSC observations for Antarctic 2006... fact that contours in the CALIPSO data histogram broaden to larger... the CALIPSO cloud-aerosol discrimination algorithm (Liu et al.. 2004). The 1-D CALIPSO... CALIPSO PSC aerosol probability distributions functions (PDFs) for a Fig. 8.ofNormalized CALIPSO PSC... comparison between PSC observations by CALIPSO and the infrared limb emission..., about 90% of all coincident CALIPSO data were identified as Mix... 2. Furthermore, the distinction between the CALIPSO Mix 1 and Mix 2 classes was... have produced a new database of CALIPSO PSC observations covering to date... (x 1.e6 km^2) M. C. Pitts et al.: CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations Antarctic... above the local tropopause. With CALIPSO’s extensive measurement coverage over the...–7589, 2009 1 0 4 1 1 3 2 3 3 2 15 1 0 Feb Mar CALIPSO PSC Volume (c) 0.4 0.200 0.2 0.0 May Jun.... This is a unique capability of CALIPSO and provides the first observation..., km 30 M. C. Pitts et al.: CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations PSC... evolution of PSC occurrence, the CALIPSO database also provides the opportunity... H 2O (ppmv) M. C. Pitts et al.: CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations Fig... differences ( T ) between ambient temperature at CALIPSO PSC locations and TNAT calculated... Antarctic PSC composition observed by CALIPSO agrees qualitatively with the findings... interpolating MLS data to the CALIPSO ground tracks (as described in... where PSCs were observed by CALIPSO. These time series are not... ambient temperature (from GEOS5) at CALIPSO PSC locations and TNAT , with... stratospheric denitrification through analysis of CALIPSO and ancillary (e.g., MLS) data is... have implemented our second-generation CALIPSO PSC detection algorithm which incorporates... an algorithm to partition the CALIPSO PSC observations into four composition..., 2009 7588 M. C. Pitts et al.: CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations STS... stratospheric denitrification through analysis of CALIPSO and ancillary (e.g., MLS) data is..., online available at: http://www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/resources/ project..., M., Pitts, M. C., and Poole, L. R.: Comparison between CALIPSO and MIPAS observations of polar.../9/7577/2009/ M. C. Pitts et al.: CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations Hu..., W. H., D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, et al.: CALIPSO lidar description and performance assessment... spatial properties measured by the CALIPSO lidar, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D20201... stratospheric clouds with spaceborne lidar: CALIPSO and the 2006 Antarctic season..., K. A., C. A. Hostetler, Z. Liu, M. A. Vaughan, et al.: CALIPSO lidar calibration algorithms: Part I- Nighttime...



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... and Physics Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter... and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) spacecraft has provided global, high... of 86 underflights of the CALIPSO satellite to provide validation measurements... and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite was launched in April...). The main objective of the CALIPSO mission is to provide a global..., the primary payload on the CALIPSO satellite is a twowavelength and polarization... (HSRL). Since the launch of CALIPSO, several studies have been conducted... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter.... The first mission was the CALIPSO-CloudSat Validation EXperiment (CC-VEX... (Berg et al., 2009); the CALIPSO and Twilight Zone (CATZ) field... CALIPSO satellite through 2009, acquiring 116 flight hours of data along CALIPSO orbit tracks. The average time that HSRL spent along each CALIPSO... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter... flights and hours along the CALIPSO track for the field missions.../ Fig. 1. HSRL flight tracks of CALIPSO underpasses flown from June 2006... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter... calibration error. Uncertainties in the CALIPSO calibration are discussed by Powell... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter... of ∼270 km along the CALIPSO track indicated in the flight... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter... due the background signal of CALIPSO for these flights, calculated following... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter... of the HSRL underflights of CALIPSO between January and April 2009... examined on flights that flew a CALIPSO track and then back tracked... extensive systematic study of the CALIPSO 532 nm total attenuated backscatter... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter... the ground station and the CALIPSO track or temporal averaging of... (also assuming directly between the CALIPSO track and the lidar), the... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter.... Nadirviewing observations made along the CALIPSO ground track via the self... B-200 flight operations and the CALIPSO team and data center for... Science Mission Directorate, the NASA CALIPSO project, and the Office of... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter..., available online at http://www-calipso.larc. nasa.gov/resources/project..., D. M., Vaughan, M. A., Powell, K. A., Lucker, P. L., and Weimer, C.: CALIPSO Lidar Description and Performance Assessmentm..., E., Tsaknakis, G., and Balis, D. S.: Validation of CALIPSO spaceborne-derived attenuated backscatter coefficient... spatial properties measured by the CALIPSO lidar, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D20201... lidar measurements in coincidence with CALIPSO overpasses: Level 1 products com- Atmos... Wiegner, M.: EARLINET correlative measurements for CALIPSO: first intercomparison results, J. Geophys. Res..., K. Trepte, C. R., Rogers, R. R., Young, S. A., and Winker, D. M.: CALIPSO Lidar Calibration Algorithms: Part I - Nighttime... et al.: Assessment of the CALIPSO Lidar 532 nm attenuated backscatter... data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products..., I. S.: Tropical stratospheric aerosol layer from CALIPSO lidar observations, J. Geophys. Res., 114..., W. H., and Young, S. A.: Overview of the CALIPSO Mission and CALIOP Data Processing..., K., Trepte, C., Vaughan, M. A., and Wielicki, B. A.: The CALIPSO Mission: A Global 3D View of...



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... the Problem................................................................................ 22 3.4.1.1 Use of CALIPSO Data in Determining Cloud Mask... Datasets ........................................................................ 62 4.1.1 SEVIRI Data ............................................................................................... 63 4.1.2 CALIPSO Data ........................................................................................... 64 4.2 Output from Simulated... 4.2.1 Precisions and Accuracy Estimates ............................................................ 67 4.2.1.1 CALIPSO Analysis.............................................................................. 67 4.2.1.2 MODIS Analysis ................................................................................. 70... reflectance as a function of the CALIPSO cloud fraction. Results are separated... array as a function of the CALIPSO cloud fraction. Results are separated.... ............................................................................................................... 63 Figure 32 Illustration of CALIPSO data used in this study... pixels determined by CALIPSO displayed as a function of CALIPSO-derived cloud height... observed during simultaneous SEVIRI and CALIPSO periods over 8 weeks from 4 seasons... and 2007................................................................................................................................... 68 Figure 35 CALIPSO-derived height and emissivity distribution... is not available) ........................................................................................................................... 14 Table 3. CALIPSO-derived Thresholds from ACM. Thresholds... document A-Train – Afternoon Train (Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat, etc.) APOLLO – AVHRR Processing... Radiometer AWG - Algorithm Working Group CALIPSO - Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared... types and illumination conditions, the CALIPSO/CALIOP (a space-borne LIDAR) data... use of CALIPSO observations to help define the thresholds. Because CALIPSO provides... observationally based approach (collocation of CALIPSO and geostationary test data) to... layer product from the standard CALIPSO processing (Vaughan et al., 2005... from the SEVIRI instrument. The CALIPSO product, developed by NASA Langley... this study, a cloud mask from CALIPSO was determined noting the number.... In addition, a cloud fraction from CALIPSO was computed using results from... CALIPSO emissivity. As a lidar with an inherent vertical resolution of 30 m, CALIPSO... to attempt to make the CALIPSO detection comparable to the performance... this analysis, we ignored all CALIPSO results which had cloud fractions... references to CALIPSO results refer to data from the SEVIRI/CALIPSO collocations... for the collocated SEVIRI/CALIPSO observations. The CALIPSO cloud mask, described above... cloudy conditions as determined by CALIPSO for oceanic pixels. Figure 12... cloudy pixels as determined by CALIPSO. As expected, the cloudy distributions... unambiguous cloud detection. However, the CALIPSO cloudy distributions do indicate that... as a variation of the collocated CALIPSO cloud fraction. As stated above... reflectance as a function of the CALIPSO cloud fraction. Results are separated... temperature standarddeviation as a function of CALIPSO cloud fraction. Based on the... array as a function of the CALIPSO cloud fraction. Results are separated... thresholds for each test. Table 3. CALIPSO-derived Thresholds from ACM. Thresholds... included SEVIRI observations collocated with CALIPSO data and with MODIS granules..., 2006. 63 2.1.2 CALIPSO Data With the launch of CALIPSO and CloudSat into... product validation increased significantly. Currently, CALIPSO cloud detection results are used... Michael Pavolonis/NOAA) The individual CALIPSO results within each SEVIRI pixel... the next sections. Using the CALIPSO cloud fraction product, only pixels... outside the following ranges of CALIPSO cloud fraction: the requirements state... were considered clear pixels by CALIPSO. 2.2 Output from Simulated/Proxy Inputs... specifications. 2.2.1.1 CALIPSO Analysis The CALIPSO/CALIOP data (hereafter referred to as CALIPSO) provides... the relevant information provided by CALIPSO for each collocated SEVIRI pixel... pixel that is collocated with CALIPSO data, the following information is... SEVIRI and CALIPSO Number of cloud layers observed by CALIPSO Cloud fraction... at the CALIPSO cloud temperature. The results of comparing the CALIPSO cloud... is important to note the CALIPSO emissivity calculation is very uncertain... pixels determined by CALIPSO displayed as a function of CALIPSO-derived cloud height... observed during simultaneous SEVIRI and CALIPSO periods over 8 weeks from 4 seasons... and 2007. 68 Figure 35 CALIPSO-derived height and emissivity distribution... 2.2.1.2 MODIS Analysis As stated above, CALIPSO provides our source of cloudiness... helps explain our reliance on CALIPSO for quantitative validation. 2.2.2 Error Budget... day. Therefore, to complement the CALIPSO analysis, a comparison was made between...