Спутник ФКИ. Chandrayaan 1 Lunar Orbiter. [Редактировать]

Чандраян-1» (Лунный корабль) — космический зонд, искусственный спутник Луны. Проект Индийской организации космических исследований (ISRO). Аппарат состоит из орбитального модуля и ударного зонда. Был выведен на орбиту с помощью модернизированной версии индийской ракеты-носителя PSLV-XL. Масса станции вместе с топливом составляет 1380 кг, по форме аппарат похож на куб со стороной 1,5 метра. Станция несёт 12 приборов, из них 6 индийских, а шесть других принадлежат ЕКА, НАСА и Болгарскому аэрокосмическому агентству. В число основных целей запуска «Чандраян-1» входит поиск полезных ископаемых и запасов льда в полярных регионах Луны, а также составление трёхмерной карты поверхности.Часть программы «Чандраян-1» — запуск ударного зонда (moon impact probe), оснащённого тремя инструментами: масс-спектрометром, альтиметром и видеокамерой. Он был запущен с окололунной орбиты (14 ноября 2008 года в 14:36 UTC) и в течение 25 минут достиг поверхности Луны, совершив жёсткую посадку. Выбросы лунной породы на месте падения модуля будут проанализированы орбитальным аппаратом. Данные полученные при жёсткой посадке ударного зонда будут использованы для мягкой посадки будущего индийского лунохода, доставка которого на Луну запланирована в ходе полёта следующего зонда «Чандраян-2».

Приборы

  • спектрометр Moon Mineralogy Mapper (США)
  • радар Mini-SAR (США)
  • дозиметр Radiation Dose Monitor (Болгария)
  • ИК-спектрометр SIR-2 (ЕКА), аналогичен установленному на АМС Смарт-1
  • атомный анализатор SARA (The Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer) (ЕКА)
  • фотокамера TMC (The Terrain Mapping Camera)
  • HySI (The Hyper Spectral Imager)
  • прибор для определения рельефа поверхности LLRI (The Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument)
  • рентгенофлуоресцентный спектрометр C1XS
  • рентгеновский спектрометр XSM (Solar X-ray Monitor)
  • гамма-спектрометр HEX
  • ударный зонд

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - Индия
3Страна производитель - Индия

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12009-08-28. Потеря связиТэги: Chandrayaan 1 Lunar Orbiter

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг1380

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС (планируемый ), год2

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2008-052A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор Космическое агентство Индии

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2008-10-22 at 00:52:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xChandrayaan 1 Lunar Orbiter
3Ракета-носитель 1xPSLV-XL

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.... Space Exploration. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), launched in August 2005... its return to Earth. Shuttle orbiter Atlantis, launched on 9 September, docked... Shuttle fleet stand-down following orbiter Columbia’s failure. In a 6-1/2-hour spacewalk... of the four sensors inside orbiter Discovery’s liquid hydrogen fuel tank... should they have struck the orbiter. Subsequent observation by a camera mounted... the orbiter’s thermal protection system, and 350 digital photos of the orbiter... the next Shuttle flight of orbiter Atlantis. On 16 August NASA... to the mission’s primary Shuttle orbiter. On 7 July NASA downgraded its... 2007, and NASA’s Solar Dynamics Orbiter, planned for 2008. On 17... Vehicle, Ares-5. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), launched on 12 August... window; a Mars science and communications orbiter to be launched in 2013... on 13 April that the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), planned for launch..., along with the LRO, India’s Chandrayaan lunar orbiter and other spacecraft. The LRO... highly successful mission, ESA’s Smart-1 lunar orbiter was guided to a controlled crash... fly on India’s $85-million Chandrayaan-1 Moon mission, planned for launch... outlined China’s multi-step lunar -81- exploration programme: a lunar orbiter mission in 2007... (Chang’ E3). The Japanese (JAXA) orbiter mission SELENE (Selenological and Engineering... future lunar exploration) is under discussion. The Indian ISRO mission Chandrayaan-1 is... programme. A new mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), is being developed by... launched the Messenger mission, a Mercury orbiter, as a part of its Discovery... mission consists of a Mercury Planetary Orbiter (for high resolution multi-wavelength... physics studies), and a Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (dedicated to a study of particles... Programme. Principal goals for the orbiter's latest mission extension include continued... observations with NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter; imaging of possible landing sites... to wind and ice. The orbiter’s current mission extension was planned... achieve a low Mars orbit. The orbiter carries three science instruments (THEMIS.... Mars Express consists of an orbiter with eight experiments. These are... separation from the Mars Express orbiter and nominal injection, entered the... early 2004, the Mars Express orbiter delivered new science results related... as with NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission during the extended mission... past water. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched in August 2005, arrived... future missions. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter carries six science instruments, three... one metre. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter carries the most powerful camera... and rovers. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter also carries a sounder to find...-resolution instruments. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also serve as the... to use the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in coming years. -122- The... for the development of a Mars orbiter, a descent module and a Mars rover... Rosetta project consists of an orbiter with eleven experiments and a lander... the major objectives of the orbiter is to study the development... scheduled for November 2007. The orbiter will deploy the lander after... redundant radio channels to the orbiter due to a commanding error. One... Titan’s formation. -127- The Cassini orbiter also made extensive studies of... had been successfully achieved. The orbiter carries out remote visual, infrared... to observing Titan, the Cassini orbiter is making extensive measurements of... first one, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), will study the surface... second one, the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), will investigate the magnetic... by the NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). MRO was inserted into... assessment phase is ESA’s Solar Orbiter, to be launched in 2015... size. Over extended periods, Solar Orbiter will deliver images and data... will be explored by a magnetospheric orbiter (MMO), that is an element... complementary to the ESA Solar Orbiter and would fit well with... comet. The NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Category III), successfully launched from... an Atlas-5 launch vehicle. The orbiter (MRO) contains a high resolution camera... Mars Odyssey. ESA’s Mars Express orbiter (Category III) continues its mission... CERF CERN CFE CHAMP Chandra Chandrayaan-1 Chang'E1 Chang'E2 Chang... Aparatus Proposed ESA/JAXA Mercury orbiter (2012) Balloon-borne Experiment with... X-Ray Observatory (NASA) Lunar mission (India) Lunar orbiter (China) Lunar rover (China) Sample return... Space Weather Modelling Chandrayaan-1 Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer US Lunar orbiter NASA/CSA satellite... Orbiter Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer Monitor Experimental (Russia) Mercury Planetary Orbiter Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mesospheric Summer Echoes Meteosat... and Atmospheric Administration Japanese Mars orbiter (US) National Polar-orbiting Operational... SOHO Sojourner Solar A Solar B Solar Orbiter SOLAR-2000 SORCE SOXS Soyuz... SunRISE Selenological and Engineering Explorer orbiter mission (JAXA) Space Environment Monitor...



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... (Chinese Lunar Exploration Program). However, China also developed a small Mars orbiter, Yinghuo1... report 2003 Launched SMART-1 ESA Lunar orbiter to test technologies DNV Reliability... past space exploration programs (Smart1 lunar mission, Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter). Other contributing universities include... provision of European instruments for Chandrayaan-1 India Renewed in January 2007..., NASA's Dawn asteroid mission, ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 Moon mission and JAXA's Planet... and possibly GEMS) and India (Chandrayaan-1) and has cooperation opportunities with... reputation. The robotic exploration program Chandrayaan is considered as a way to... the development and launch for CHandrayaan-1. However funding almost stopped entirely..., with one orbiter launched in 2008 (Chandrayaan-1) and a mission in preparation, Chandrayaan-2, in cooperation with Russia. Chandrayaan-1 was... provide a lunar orbiter The objective of the mission is to deploy a lunar rover... recently announced that the lunar lander for Chandrayaan-2 incorporated technologies that had... experience Significant partial experience Comments Chandrayaan 1 and 2, demonstration of re-entry... collaborating on the development of Chandrayaan-2 and have reached an agreement... scientific payload into its first lunar spacecraft, Chandrayaan-1. Euroconsult for the European... provision of European instruments for Chandrayaan-1 Framework agreement General cooperation agreement... NASA scientific instruments on India’s Chandrayaan mission. Euroconsult for the European... / ESA Lunar orbiter to study the origins of the Moon Venus orbiter to... unknown. Chandrayaan-2 (Lunar-Resurs) Russia and India signed an agreement on Lunar exploration... to develop a joint mission involving a lunar orbiter, a lander and a rover. The configuration... Mars orbiter IKI HEND (High-energy neutron detector) 2009 Launched Lunar Reconnaissanc e Orbiter NASA Moon orbiter IKI LEND ( Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector... Roscosmos LASMA (Laser mass-spectrometer) Lunar orbiter and lander ADRON ( Active neutron...-D, Russian participations in BepiColombo and Chandrayaan-2). RKK Energia Krunichev NPO Energomash... the cooperation framework for the Chandrayaan-2 mission Multilateral January 29, 1998... a lunar exploration plan with the objective of launching a lunar orbiter in 2020 and a lunar... of scientific instruments (SMART-1, Rosetta, Chandrayaan-1 notably), but it also allowed... a standalone UK Lunar mission, which would consist of a Lunar orbiter and four penetrator...-1 ESA Lunar orbiter to test technologies 2004 Launched Rosetta ESA Comet orbiter and Lander 2008 Launched 2018 Planned Chandrayaan-1 ISRO Lunar orbiter Exomars... Commission – July 2012 - 112 - C1XS (Chandrayaan-1 Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) PanCam (Panoramic... College London, …etc) Smart-1 and Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter instruments electric propulsion, Beagle-2 communication... the prime contractor for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL... M3 instrument for the Indian Chandrayaan lunar mission or the STROFIO instrument... Opportunity mission n.a. M3 (fitted in Chandrayaan-1) 2008 Opportunity mission n.a Grail 2011... Two identical Mars rovers Lunar orbiter to test technologies Orbiter to study the... 2012 Lunar orbiter dedicated to high-resolution remote sensing of the lunar surface... Flight Center 2009 Launched Lunar Reconnaissanc e Orbiter NASA Lunar orbiter to prepare for future..., designs the spacecraft bus LOLA ( Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter) University of New...) Arizona State University LROC ( Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera) Johns Hopkins University Applied... Surveyor, mini-SAR for Chandrayaan 1 and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, THEMIS on Mars Odyssey... mission table above) prime of Lunar reconnaissance orbiter, supplier of instruments electric... NASA scientific instruments on India’s Chandrayaan mission. Euroconsult for the European... LADEE Luna Glob Moon Moon Chandrayaan-2 Lunar Lander (not approved) Lunokhod-3 (not...’e-4 (not approved) Chang’e-6 Selene-X Selene-2 Chandrayaan-2 GEMS (not approved, in competition... Activities Moon Orbiter LADEE, 2013: measure the atmosphere and lunar dust environment... survey and living conditions assessment Chandrayaan-2, 2016: Lander which will release...: Demonstrate robotic sample collecting - 160 - Chandrayaan-2, 2016: pick up samples, perform... of the lunar mission Chandrayaan-2 are unclear. The launch of Chandrayaan-2 was recently... before being used to launch Chandrayaan-2. India therefore changed its strategy... ISRO had with Russia for Chandrayaan-2: a joint capability-driven mission where... be dismissed. Moreover, following the Chandrayaan-1 experience, where Indian scientists felt... intended to develop a Lunar orbiter by 2020 and a Lunar lander by 2025. These... Russia.  However, current issues around Chandrayaan-2 and the refocus of Russia... rover, which was planned for Chandrayaan-2.  Short term: Develop participation of...



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... 3.1 Robotic Network Science – The International Lunar Network ……………………… 16 3.2 Joint Development for... Lunar cartographic reference system as might be undertaken by the International Lunar... – The Moon and Mars 2.2.1 Moon Lunar scientific exploration will involve three... ‘of the Moon,’ which involves lunar geology, geochemistry and geophysics, will... Kaguya), China’s Chang'e - 1, and India’s Chandrayaan-1. China's Chang'e-1 completed its mission.... And launched in October, 2008 Chandrayaan-1 is a complex spacecraft with eleven... creating a detailed map of the lunar surface scientists can answer questions... launch its Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) with a surface impactor, the Lunar Crater Observation... counterparts mapping and characterizing the lunar surface and geological structure. Following... Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer... to characterize the atmosphere and lunar dust environment. The creation of... inner solar system. Selene II, Chandrayaan II, and Chang’e 2 will join... lunar surface will help identify safe landing locations for the Altair lunar... 2003), and the U.S. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (launched in 2005). In addition... near surface. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has been successfully providing high... <$500m) mission called MAVEN, an orbiter that will provide information about..., like NASA instruments on India’s Chandrayaan I, each can legitimately be thought.... 3.1 Robotic Network Science – The International Lunar Network In March 2008 NASA... International Lunar Network (ILN) to the international community at the Lunar and... to study local or global lunar science. Such experiments might include..., astronomical instruments, electromagnetic profiling of lunar regolith and crust, local geochemistry... launched separately: one carrying an orbiter that includes the Earth return... launch vehicle and the Altair lunar lander. Together, these vehicles will... its first important milestone for lunar exploration, a Lunar Capability Concept Review (LCCR... study that looked at possible lunar mission scenarios and compared them... capability to deliver the Altair lunar lander, four astronauts and cargo... exploration missions. A variant of the lunar lander will serve as an... carrier, taking modular outpost components, lunar rovers, and scientific equipment to... ISWG is preparing a number of lunar surface exploration scenarios and associated... completed their conceptual studies for a Lunar Surface Architecture. Space Law: Selected... from lunar and Mars missions (see paras 2.2.1 and 2.2.2) • Chandrayaan orbiter mission • Kaguya orbiter mission (see also JAXA Exploration Highlights in Annex) • Chang’e 1 orbiter mission... (see para 1.2.3) Initiation of International Lunar Network (ILN) initiative by NASA... ESMO orbital Google Lunar Selene-2 X-prize Chang’e-2 (rover) Chandrayaan-2 MoonLITE Manned ambitions... developed mission scenarios for human lunar exploration and derive from the...-board the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and ESA Mars Express missions... an AO for small missions, a lunar orbiter has been selected and the... exploration technologies and preparation for Lunar exploration). o The development of a GIS... mission in competition is the lunar orbiter previously mentioned. The MDS experiment... launch of India’s Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft carried the UK’s Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS... part of ESA’s contribution to Chandrayaan-1 and is an improved version... human exploration activities. The MoonLITE orbiter would act as a telecommunications station... Sample Return, Mars Science Orbiter, Lunar mobility system, Lunar ISRU system and a robotic... facility in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. Lunar Exploration Orbiter The German Space Agency DLR... high-resolution data with global lunar coverage for a broad variety of...-A achieved so far, are secured. Lunar Soft-Landing Demonstrator – first steps... studies on the definition of a Lunar Lander. The ELIPS-Period 3 P rogramme... the Advanced Re-entry Vehicle, Lunar Lander activities and scenario studies... to which NASA and ESA’s lunar exploration architecture concepts could complement... I and V space transportation systems and lunar surface exploration architecture concepts. A similar... ISS lifetime extension and the lunar lander development activities. Space Law... well as impressed images JAXA’s Lunar orbiting explorer “Kaguya” has taken... SELENE-2, aiming to acquire the lunar soft landing and rover technology... country's first lunar explorer, Chandrayaan-1. The Indian Space Research Organization launched Chandrayaan-1 on October 22 from Sriharikota, India, entering lunar orbit... NASA's increased understanding of the lunar environment as we prepare for.... Finally, NASA completed the important Lunar Capability Concept Review milestone in... supporting widespread exploration of the lunar surface. Space Law: Selected Documents... a presentation entitled “Findings from Japan’s lunar explorer ‘Kaguya’”, given by the... of Intent Regarding the International Lunar Network • Hiroshi Kiyohara - Chief Attorney...



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... A5.1 Near Term Strategies for Lunar Surface Infrastructure B1.1 International Cooperation....2 Long Term Scenarios for Human Lunar Presence B1.4 Earth Observation Data... History 18:30 Highlight Lecture 4 – Chandrayaan-1 and Water on the Moon... Strategies for Lunar Surface Infrastructure Long Term Scenarios for Human Lunar Presence... - Disaster Management / Natural Hazards - Planetary/Lunar Exploration - Human Spaceflight 15:00..., NASA, United States Managing Director, Lunar and Planetary Exploration Programme Group... Navigation Satellite Systems. Highlight Lecture 4: Chandrayaan-1 and Water on the Moon..., Stanford University, United States The Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon, launched... water molecule and hydroxyl in lunar surface material. J. N. Goswami ISRO-DOS... in the European Student Earth Orbiter project of ESA Balazs Zabori...-10.A1.4.5 Lunar Radiation Environment: a Comparison between Models and the CHANDRAYAAN-1 RADOM....6.8 application of jet packs for lunar extravehicular activities /explorations Ehsan Taheri....2 Technology development under simulated lunar environment for lunar surface exploration Takeshi Hoshino... Results and Lessons for Future Lunar Exploration Bernard Foing, European Space... Instrumented Micro-landers and a Relay Orbiter Trevor Sorensen, University of Hawaii... States IAC-10.A3.2A.2 chandrayaan-1 Mission: Significant Science Results Jitendra... IAC-10.A3.2A.3 The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Beginning the Science Mission....2A.6 Update on the Google Lunar X PRIZE William Pomerantz, X PRIZE Foundation....11 Integrating Advanced Mobility into Lunar Surface Exploration Juergen Schlutz, University....6 conceptual design study on korean lunar orbiter/ lander prototype Gwanghyeok Ju, Korea... Lunar Surface Exploration A. S. Laxmi Prasad, India IAC-10.A3.1.4 Odyssey Moon “M-1” Lunar... MISSION STUDY FOR THE ITALIAN LUNAR ROVER. Claudia Facchinetti, Italian Space....2C.14 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LUNAR MISSION REQUIREMENT AND ONBOARD PROPULSION....2C.6 DYNAMIC MODELLING OF A WHEELED LUNAR MICROROVER Giancarlo Genta, Politecnico di... performance evaluation of compliant lunar wheels in lunar soils Michele Faragalli, McGill... Displays for Safe and Precise Lunar Landing Laurence R. Young, Massachussets Institute....A3.3B.1 The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Status Of The Primary Mission... IAC-10.A3.3B.3 EXOMARS Orbiter Module: looking for trace gas.../NASA 2016 ExoMars/Trace Gas Orbiter (ExoMars/TGO) Mission Ramon P. De..., Italy IAC-10.A3.4.7 INTERNATIONAL LUNAR OBSERVATORY ASSOCIATION (ILOA), HAWAII, UPDATE... A5.1. Near Term Strategies for Lunar Surface Infrastructure September 28 2010... Global Point of Departure (GPoD) Lunar Architecture Larry Toups, National Aeronautics... control and mitigation technology for lunar and Martian exploration Carlos Calle... (ISECG) Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration Kathleen Laurini, National Aeronautics... ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration Marc Haese, European Space....A5.1.7 LUNAR IN-SITU RESOURCE UTILIZATION IN THE ISECG HUMAN LUNAR EXPLORATION... IAC-10.A5.2.10 Human Lunar Exploration: International Campaign Development Chris... ISECG REFERENCE ARCHITECTURE FOR HUMAN LUNAR EXPLORATION William Carey, European Space... System Architecture Model for the Lunar Surface System Arthur Guest, Massachussets... Orbital Debris Shannon Ryan, The Lunar and Planetary Institute, United States....4.9 A Novel Integrated Navigation System for Lunar Lander based on Computer Vision... OPTIMIZATION METHODOLOGY WITH APPLICATION TO LUNAR ROBOTIC EXPLORATION Alessandra Babuscia, Massachussets... Folded Linear Turbo Decoder for Lunar Communication Ying Zhang, Beijing Aerospace... DEVELOPING A COMMON SET OF HUMAN LUNAR EXPLORATION GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Jennifer... EARLY IN THE ISECG HUMAN LUNAR EXPLORATION REFERENCE ARCHITECTURE Gerald Sanders... Kingdom) IAC-10.B4.8.1 Accommodating lunar hitchhikers -- lessons learned and prospects... Determine the Chemical Reactivity of Lunar Dust David Loftus, National Aeronautics...-Class Lunette Mission Concept for a Lunar Geophysical Network John Elliott, Jet... Segment and Operational Concept for Lunar and Planetary Robotic Mission Chiara... Sail Spacecraft in an Offset Lunar Orbit Geoff Wawrzyniak, Purdue University... Based Navigation for Autonomous Pinpoint Lunar Landing Junhua Feng, Harbin Institute... Resistance of Composite Materials to Lunar Dust Abrasion Mathieu Lalumiere Boucher...-IE, Austria IAC-10.D3.3.2 Lunar Habitat Construction – a composite enclosure system... LATERAL DYNAMICS OF A LARGE PRESSURIZED LUNAR ROVER: COMPARISON BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL AND... Technology for a Moon Outpost Exploiting Lunar Soil Fabio Ceccanti, Alta S.p.A., Italy..., Fabrication and Testing of a Simulated Lunar Roving Vehicle Henrique Casagrande, University... for the European Student Moon Orbiter Federico Zuiani, University of Glasgow... parameters for traction system of lunar roving vehicle prototype wheels Nasim...ät München, Germany IAC-10.E2.2.9 Lunar Regolith in Situ Resource Utilization... an Architectural Design Element in Lunar Habitats James Burke, The Planetary...



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... Institute of Space Commerce International Lunar Observatory Association International Space Center... Mineral Resources, Asteroid Mining and Lunar/Mars insitu Mueble 2 D5.3 Prediction... GROWTH EXPERIMENT MODULE ON THE LUNAR SURFACE Mikalojus Brazdziunas, Vilnius University... Exploration Agency (JAXA), Japan INTERNATIONAL LUNAR OBSERVATORY ASSOCIATION 4 MISSION REALIZATION, SEPTEMBER 2016 Steve Durst, International Lunar Observatory Association, United States IAC...) MOONRIDERS: NASA AND HAWAII’S INNOVATIVE LUNAR SURFACE FLIGHT EXPERIMENT FOR LANDING... ARCHITECTURE OF HAKUTO'S LUNAR MICROROVER FOR THE GOOGLE LUNAR XPRIZE John Walker... TECHNOLOGICAL IMPLEMENTATION SCHEMATIC FOR KOREAN LUNAR LANDER Gwanghyeok Ju, Korea Aerospace...-I), Italy LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN CANADIAN LUNAR ROVER PROTOTYPES Peter Visscher, Ontario....2B.8 THE LIBS INSTRUMENT FOR CHANDRAYAAN-2 ROVER: ENGINEERING MODEL DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS... ORGANIZATIONS TO DEVELOP AN INTERNATIONAL LUNAR DECADE CAMPAIGN David Dunlop, National... (withdrawn) LUNAR MISSION PLANNING AND DATA DISSEMINATION WITH NASA’S LUNAR MAPPING AND....A3.5.1 THE FIRST JAPAN’S PLANETARY ORBITER AKATSUKI AND ITS SCIENTIFIC RESULTS... DYNAMICS MODELING, SIMULATION & VALIDATION OF LUNAR LANDER MOTIONS REKHACHANDRA R, ISRO Satellite... STUDY OF PLUME EFFECTS FOR CHANDRAYAAN-2 MISSION Abhishek Sharma, Indian Space... EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT SCENARIO FOR LUNAR EXPLORATION BY MANNED AND AUTOMATIC... SOLAR WIND HELIUM IMPLANTATION INTO LUNAR REGOLITH SIMULANT Aaron Olson, University... EFFECTS OF SPATIAL DISORIENTATION IN LUNAR GRAVITY Poonampreet Kaur Josan, University... SYSTEM DESIGN FOR LUNAR HORIZON GLOW IMAGING IN A FUTURE LUNAR MISSION Necmi... A LEO MISSION APPLICABLE TO A FUTURE LUNAR MISSION Jose Rodrigo Cordova Alarcon... OF POLARIMETRIC CAMERA FOR KOREAN LUNAR ORBITER Kyungin Kang, Korea Advanced Institute... EARTH ORBIT(MALEO) STRATEGY FOR LUNAR BASE DEVELOPMENT Madhu Thangavelu, University... COMMUNICATION RELAY SMALL SATELLITE FOR LUNAR FARSIDE LANDING EXPLORATION MISSION Lihua... THE ISPACE 5 PHASED APPROACH TO LUNAR RESOURCE EXPLORATION Kyle Acierno, , Japan....1.4 THE OPENING OF THE CIS-LUNAR COMMERCIAL FRONTIER: A CRITICAL PATH DEVELOPMENT... ORBITS AND CISLUNAR INFRASTRUCTURES: THE LUNAR SPACE TUG Martina Mammarella, Politecnico... EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT SCENARIO FOR LUNAR EXPLORATION Oleg Saprykin, TSNIIMASH, Russian..., VERTICAL LANDING PAD PROTOTYPE FOR LUNAR/MARS OPERATIONS Rodrigo Romo, Pacific... TRANSFER ARCHITECTURE RESEARCH BASED ON LUNAR SPACE ELEVATOR Xiaohui Wang, Beihang... MODELING AND EVALUATION OF MANNED LUNAR EXPLORATION MISSION Zilong Cheng, National... States IAC-16.A7.2.2 A NOVEL ORBITER MISSION CONCEPT FOR VENUS WITH... EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT SCENARIO FOR LUNAR EXPLORATION Oleg Saprykin, TSNIIMASH, Russian..., VERTICAL LANDING PAD PROTOTYPE FOR LUNAR/MARS OPERATIONS Rodrigo Romo, Pacific... DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LUNAR SPACESUIT DUST MITIGATION Kavya K. Manyapu... AND NAVIGATION REQUIREMENTS FOR SMALL LUNAR MISSIONS Jonathan Friend, Surrey Satellite...: OPTICAL STATE ACQUISITION SYSTEMS FOR LUNAR AND INTERPLANETARY SMALL SATELLITES Amin... OF ORBIT DETERMINATION FOR MARS ORBITER MISSION Anatta Sonney, ISRO Satellite... ORBIT MODEL ACCURACY STUDY FOR CHANDRAYAAN-2 LANDER-CRAFT NAVIGATION Surya Prakash... ORBIT SELECTION FOR ISRO MARS ORBITER MISSION Kiran B S, ISRO Satellite Centre... SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE ON SOLAR ORBITER GRAVITY ASSIST MANEUVERS Dusan Marceta....D1.1.9 (withdrawn) AN ASSESSMENT OF LUNAR SETTLEMENT REQUIREMENTS AND TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS... TECHNOLOGIES AND MANAGERIAL COMPETENCIES FOR LUNAR LANDING Benjamin Davis, Dulles University... TRANSFER ARCHITECTURE RESEARCH BASED ON LUNAR SPACE ELEVATOR Xiaohui Wang, Beihang... MODELING AND EVALUATION OF MANNED LUNAR EXPLORATION MISSION Zilong Cheng, National... OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS NECESSARY FOR ESA’S LUNAR EXPLORATION GOALS Vinita Marwaha Madill....1.6 A FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON LUNAR MISSIONS Peter Thoreau, International Space... MOON EXPLOITATION – A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON LUNAR MASSIVE IN-SITU RESOURCE UTILIZATION....8.2 (withdrawn) PUBLIC OUTREACH WITH NASA LUNAR AND PLANETARY MAPPING AND MODELING... THE INTEGRATIVE DESIGN APPROACH TO LUNAR SETTLEMENT Tomoya Mori, , United States... VITAE PROJECT - AN INTERACTIVE, LIVING LUNAR SCULPTURE Shaun Whitehead, Scoutek Ltd... FOR EARTH-TOMOON TRANSFER AND LUNAR OPERATION Edoardo Cucchetti, Student, France... States IAC-16.E3.2.4 CHINA'S LUNAR EXPLORATION ACTIVITIES AND RELEVANT POLICIES....2.8 THE OPENING OF THE CIS-LUNAR COMMERCIAL FRONTIER: A CRITICAL PATH DEVELOPMENT... and the European Student Moon Orbiter of the European Space Agency... NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory; simulating lunar and planetary surfaces through NASA... technologies for dust mitigation of lunar spacesuits. Kavya enjoys educating and... as a research assistant, focusing on lunar resource acquisition, processing and storage... satellite orbit. Following that was LUNAR ORBITER, the precursor to the APOLLO... Mission Design Manager in the LUNAR ORBITER Project Office. With 5 launches planned...



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... was a night launch of the orbiter Endeavour, delivering the Tranquillity node...-131, a predawn launch of the orbiter Discovery, delivered supplies and equipment... final scheduled mission for the orbiter Atlantis, delivering a Russian-built module... Japanese launched the Venus Planet Orbiter (Akatsuki). A Dnepr-1 rocket lofted the.... It launched the Venus Climate Orbiter (Planet-C, AKATSUKI) together with IKAROS...-1) for the Venus Climate Orbiter. The orbiter was not injected into the... as part of the Indian Chandrayaan-II mission, slated for launch... 2013, the project director of Chandrayaan said. >> >> India’s space scientists are... Space Station (ISS), using the orbiter Atlantis, including two important external... was a night launch of the orbiter Endeavour, delivering the Tranquillity node..., a pre-dawn launch of the orbiter Discovery, delivered supplies and equipment... final scheduled mission for the orbiter Atlantis, delivering a Russian-built module... site. >> That same month, ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 discovered and confirmed for the... the Moon. >> A radar experiment aboard Chandrayaan-1 had identified thick deposits of... Aperture Radar (Mini-SAR) onboard Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft provided evidence for the... million years ago. >> NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, completed the exploration...’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. >> During January 2010, NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter started to... transmissions from Phoenix. >> >> Mars Odyssey orbiter completed some 30 overflights without... orbital operations. >> >> NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter put itself into a precautionary standby... seven instruments on board NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. >> PDS serves as NASA..., a Moscow newspaper reported. >> NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is allowing researchers to create... 10 June 2009. Chandrayaan-1, the first ISRO lunar mission was launched aboard... onto the lunar surface. Current missions LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter), NASA’s latest lunar mission... lunar programme. The launch of Chang’e 3 is being considered for 2013. Chandrayaan-2/Luna Resource mission is planned by ISRO as an orbiter and... pole) and an orbiter, for launch after Chandrayaan-2. LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust... impact experiment and lunar spectral data from three spacecraft, Chandrayaan-1, Deep Impact..., GEochemistry, and Ranging), NASA’s Mercury orbiter mission was launched on 3 August..., consisting of ESA’s Mercury Planetary Orbiter (for high resolution multi-wavelength... studies), and JAXA’s Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (dedicated to studying particles and... one Earth year. Venus Climate Orbiter, a Japanese mission designed to focus... the spacecraft from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter showed evidence of severe ice... achieve a low Mars orbit. The orbiter carries three science instruments (THEMIS... as with NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission during its extended mission... Martian journeys. MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) was launched by NASA in... had been successfully achieved. The Orbiter carries out remote visual, infrared... - 184 - orbiter and a Jupiter system exploration ending with a Ganymede orbiter, and a Saturn system mission including a Titan orbiter and descent... Jupiter Europa Orbiter and the ESA Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter, currently in competition... travelling at its fastest, Solar Orbiter will remain roughly positioned over... atmosphere over several days. Solar Orbiter will exploit new technologies being... techniques). The NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) reached lunar orbit on 23 June... technology for future lunar exploration. Kaguya consists of the orbiter at about... the lunar surface and investigated characteristics of the lunar regolith. • ISRO’s Chandrayaan I spacecraft... Probe separated from the Chandrayaan orbiter and struck the lunar south pole near... contain water ice. • NASA’s Lunar Reconaissance Orbiter (LRO) was launched in February... Phoenix data. ESA’s Mars Express orbiter (Category III) continues is mission.... - 253 - The NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) continues its science mission... Indian space agencies, Chang’e-1 and Chandrayaan-1, respectively. The workshop offered an... from the asteroid Itokawa. Several lunar orbiter or lander missions are planned... decade, including China’s Chang’e-2, India’s Chandrayaan-2 (as a part of Russia’s Luna...’s Luna Resource-1 (Russian lunar lander with Indian orbiter) and Luna Resource-2 (Russian... Telescope Proposed ESA/JAXA Mercury orbiter (2013) Balloon-borne Experiment with... (NASA) Lunar orbiter (China) Lunar rover (China) Lunar soft lander and rover (China) Lunar sample... for Integrated Space Weather Modelling Chandrayaan-1 Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer Centro Latinoamericano... Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter Limb Profile Monitor of the Atmosphere Laser Ranging Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Living With a Star Lyman... and Lower Thermosphere Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Microgravity Science Glovebox Mass Spectrometer... (JAXA) Selenological and Engineering Explorer orbiter mission (JAXA) Space Environment Monitor...



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... of Lunar Exploration & Lunar ISRU Research in Japan” by Kai Matsui 18 “Chandrayaan... 23 24 25 Lunar Outpost Buildup 7th Human Lunar Landing Science Robotic... Early Design Activity Lunar Lunar Lander Lander Development Development Lunar Lunar Heavy Heavy Launch... Lift Launch Vehicle Lunar Lander Crew Launch Vehicle Typical Lunar Reference Mission... resources and validate critical processes ) • Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (2008) • Future landed missions... ♦ Lunar regolith excavation and handling ♦ Oxygen production from lunar regolith ♦ RESOLVE Project - Lunar... lunar simulant ♦Important Capabilities For • Lunar In-Situ resource utilization • Lunar radiation shielding • Lunar... Exploration Vehicle ♦ LSAM: Lunar surface Access Module ♦ LOI: Lunar Orbit Insertion ♦ EDS... of Lunar Exploration & Lunar ISRU Research in Japan” by Kai Matsui (JAXA Lunar... state of Lunar Exploration & Lunar ISRU research in Japan JAXA Lunar Exploration Technology... research - Lunar Resources Utilization Study Group - Lunar Resources Utilization Workshop * Proposed Lunar ISRU Roadmap * Proposed Lunar ISRU Technology... state of Lunar Exploration Programmatic Solar system exploration Lunar exploration 2015 Bottom... 6 Lunar Exploration Technology Office Kai Matsui 1. Present state of Lunar Exploration Lunar/planetary exploration team Lunar/planetary exploration team secretary Post SELENE: Robotic Lunar... Members (May 2005) Lunar Resources Utilization Workshop Lunar Resources Utilization Workshop was... System parameter 11 Lunar Outpost • Outpost infrastructure • System Integration Lunar Exploration Technology... SELENE mission outline Observation Main Orbiter Instrument Chemical elements distribution X-Ray... be prioritized Lunar resource extraction demo or Sample return Lunar Exploration Technology Office Kai Matsui Chandrayaan-1 and Future... Research Organisation, namely Astrosat and Chandrayaan-1 space missions. In 2004, Indian... Canadian astronomers. Chandrayaan-1 (First Indian Mission to Moon) Chandrayaan in the ancient..., geological and geochronological aspects of lunar exploration. CHANDRAYAAN-1 will address some of... instruments that will be on CHANDRAYAAN-1 and their characteristics. Payload Function...) USA As regards scientific objectives, CHANDRAYAAN-1 (Figure-2) will provide new information... launch of Chandrayaan-1, the planetary exploration group has proposed Chandrayaan-2 and a special mission to Mars. The expertise developed for Chandrayaan... missions. A. Chandrayaan-2 (Exploration of the Moon as a Follow-up of Chandrayaan-1, during 2009-2011): Chandrayaan-2 will carry out further studies of lunar origin and evolution with improved version of Chandrayaan-1 instruments... addition to mass spectrometers. B. Mars Orbiter (2010-2012): The main aim... particles in Martian space. C. Asteroid Orbiter & Comet Flyby: (2010-2015): On... proposes the launch of Asteroid orbiter and Comet Flyby (AOCF) to... the first Indian lunar mission, Chandrayaan-1. 3.1 International Cooperation Promoted by Chandrayaan: Chandrayaan-1 will be... from Europe will fly on Chandrayaan namely Radiation Dose Monitor from.... Also, scientific data obtained by Chandrayaan mission will be released to... H-IIA rocket ・ Spacecraft configuration: Main Orbiter, Relay, and VRAD Subsatellites ・ Mission... : Polar Orbit i= 90 [deg] Main Orbiter : 100 km x 100 km Vstar... Total Mass: Size: Main Orbiter: Rstar: Vstar: Main orbiter↑ 2885[kg] (at... (XRS, GRS) Lunar Chemical Constituents Mineral Composition (MI, SP) Lunar Interior Structure... Magma Ocean Origin of Lunar Magnetic Field Lunar Tectonics Origin of the... 4-way Doppler measurement between Main orbiter and UDSC station via Rstar.... The Present State of Lunar Exploration and Lunar ISRU Research in Japan.... The SELENE mission comprises a main orbiter equipped with a number of instruments... by the Canadian Space Agency. Chandrayaan-1, India’s first mission to the... planetary missions in the future. Chandrayaan-1 is equipped with 12 scientific... x 100 km lunar polar orbit. The instrument complement of Chandrayaan-1 has been.... Chandrayaan-1 is scheduled to launch in 2008. Following the launch of Chandrayaan... India has proposed a second lunar mission Chandrayaan-2 in the timeframe 2009-2011... confined to its lunar programme. Building on the Chandrayaan-1 experience, India is also considering the 50 possibility of a Mars orbiter... is also considering an asteroid orbiter and comet fly-by mission... about ISRO’s plans for the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft at the end of... launch in late 2006. This lunar orbiter will map the Moon in... plans for lunar exploration. Current missions include the SELENE orbiter for lunar global mapping and the LUNAR-A mission, which...



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... the history of lunar mapping and described the lunar missions planned for... coming decade. Four missions of lunar orbital reconnaissance were launched and...’e-1 (China), and Chandrayaan-1 (India). In addition, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter or LRO (USA... altimeters. Chang’e-1, Chang’e-2, Kaguya, and Chandrayaan-1 carried pushbroom stereo cameras intended... its Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). Chandrayaan-1 and LRO carried polarimetric synthetic... correlative scientific studies. Only a few lunar orbital missions performing remote sensing... from other missions, and the Chandrayaan-2/Luna Resurs mission planned by... the lander/rover component of Chandrayaan-2/Luna Resurs, Chang’e-3 (China), SELENE... inspired by the Google Lunar X-Prize. The US Lunar Precursor Robotic Program... and increasingly multinational analysis of lunar data from 2011 onward. 1. INTRODUCTION... Impact Probe (MIP) deployed by Chandrayaan-1, and the Okina (V*) subsatellite of... SMART-1 Kaguya (SELENE) Chang’e-1 Chandrayaan-1 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Chang’e-2 Country Agency Europe... affected Chandrayaan-1, which experienced difficulties with thermal control in the lunar orbital... images. Two of the missions (Chandrayaan-1 and LRO) carried polarimetric synthetic... topographic modeling (Araki, 2012). The Lunar Imager/Spectrometer System (LISM; Haruyama...:8080/CE2release/cesMain.jsp) 2.2.4 Chandrayaan-1: The Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI) and... the primary cartographic instruments on Chandrayaan-1 (Goswami and Annadurai 2009). The... primary cartographic instruments are the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), LROC, and... lower resolution include the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) and Lyman... substantially more capable than the Chandrayaan-1 Forerunner, adding a second wavelength (X band... made. These include DTMs from Chandrayaan-1 TMC images (Radhadevi et al...). Radargrammetric analysis of LRO and Chandrayaan-1 Mini-RF images has yielded... unification of these high-value lunar data products. Topographic, imaging, and... such processing, recommending that all lunar datasets be geodetically controlled (NAC... SP, LRO WAC and DLRE, Chandrayaan-1 M3). Correction of slope based... the best lunar reference frames are those derived from Lunar Laser Ranging... earlier missions such as Lunar Orbiter, Apollo, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector. 3.5 Processing Principles... planning an ambitious joint mission Chandrayaan-2/Luna Resurs that will conduct... orbiter and a Russian lander carrying an Indian rover. Instruments on the orbiter... the lander/rover component of Chandrayaan-2/Luna Resurs and the Chinese..., would reward private organizations for lunar landing and operations, and has... announced entrants). The inclusion of lunar laser ranging retroreflectors (LLRR) on... increasingly international analysis of existing lunar remote sensing data rather than... geodetic control of lunar data. Sci. Associated with the Lunar Exp. Arch... overview of the spatial properties, lunar coverage, selenolocation, and related Level.... Chin, G., et al. 2007. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Overview: The Instrument Suite and...). Delory, G.T., et al., 2009. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer... press. Goswami, J.N., and Annadurai, M., 2009. Chandrayaan-1: India’s first planetary science mission.... Goswami, J.N., and Annadurai, M., 2011. The Chandrayaan-2 mission. LPS XLII, 2042. Grieger...., 2008. Global lunar-surface mapping experiment using the Lunar Imager/Spectrometer on... XLIII, 1200. The Hindu, 2011. Chandrayaan-1 Mission Terminated. http://www.hindu..., L.R., and Rosiek, M.R., 2006. Cartography for lunar exploration: 2006 status and planned..., L.R., and Rosiek, M.R., 2007. Cartography for lunar exploration: Current status and planned..., L.R., and Rosiek, M.R., 2008. Cartography for lunar exploration: 2008 status and mission.... The Terrain Mapping Camera on Chandrayaan-1 and initial results. LPS XL... the Lunar Poles and Application to Geodesy with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. LPS... on Science Associated with the Lunar Exploration Architecture Crosscutting Recommendation. Tracking..., S., et al., 2010. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF... processing of Chandrayaan-1 Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) images for lunar topographic mapping. LPS XLII, 1384. Raney, R.K. et al., 2011. The lunar.... Robinson, M.S., et al., 2010. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Instrument Overview. SSR..., 2046. Shum, C.K., et al., 2012. Lunar topography model determined by integrating...., 2010. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter Investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission. SSR... the Moon from Mini-SAR, Chandrayaan-1 mission. GRL 37, L06204 Su..., 2008. A standardized lunar coordinate system for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and lunar datasets. LRO... Paper, Version 5, 2008 October 1. http://lunar.gsfc.nasa.gov/library/ LunCoordWhite...). Xinhua, 2011. China’s second moon orbiter Chang’e-2 goes to outer space.... China to launch moon-landing orbiter in 2013. http://news.xinhuanet...



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... Korean Space Launch Vehicle LCROSS Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... due to contentious issues surrounding lunar exploration.19 States continue to... technology was the US Clementine lunar mission in 1994. The ongoing... Mars thereafter. A new strategy for lunar exploration was announced in 2006... a permanent human presence on the lunar surface.45 These plans were... Japan and China launched robotic lunar missions: Kaguya and Change’e-1.49... South Korea are also planning lunar missions.50 New directions for... to join.58 The Chinese orbiter Change’e-1 impacted the Moon on... more detailed data about the lunar surface,60 is planned for... launch of Change’e-3, China’s first lunar lander and rover (in the... A similar mission conducted by India, Chandrayaan-1, was considered successful, and it....62 ISRO plans to launch Chandrayaan-2 by 2013.63 The new... completed in 2009, includes an orbiter, a lander, and a rover,64 and... $90-million).66 The US Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... conducted as part of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission70 that aims to... used for the creation of a lunar outpost.71 91 Space Security... Moon in June 2009. The orbiter, together with two small satellites... Moon,73 by mapping the lunar surface and measuring its magnetic... the success of the first Chandrayaan moon mission from October 2008... place an unmanned probe in lunar orbit. 92 Civil Space Programs... The second mission, with a Chinese orbiter aboard, 104 was not launched... as the Mars Lander and Lunar Rover, and for the further... for both China’s Change’e-1 lunar orbiter and India’s Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter. However, export controls remain... technologies was the 1994 Clementine lunar mission to test lightweight spacecraft...-Earth-Orbit (IEO) Asteroids,” 38 Lunar and Planetary Science (2007), at....space/; “NASA Set to Launch Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in 2008,” NASA, Release... Unveils Global Exploration Strategy and Lunar Architecture,” NASA, Release 06-361... (10 November 2006). 49 “Japan’s Lunar Explorer Enters Observation Orbit,” Moon... Moon: Space Craft to Enter Lunar Orbit,” Deutsche Welle (7 November 2007....html; “South Korea Eyes Moon Orbiter in 2020, Lander in 2025... 2010 “China to Launch Second Lunar Probe in 2010: Report,” Chinaview... “Chandrayaan-1 mission completed one year,” Chandrayaan (26 November 2009), online: http:// www.chandrayaan-i.com/index.php/chandrayaan-1-updates/114-chandrayaan-i-mission-completedone-year.html. “Chandrayaan...-tech/chandrayaan-i-a-110-percent-successasserts-isro-chief_100252425.html. See also “Q&A: ‘Chandrayaan-2 Will.../home/opinion/edit-page/QA-Chandrayaan-2-will-try-to-get-details... is Chandrayaan-2?” Chandrayaan (11 September 2009), online: http://www.chandrayaan-i. com/index.php/chandrayaan-2.html. “Design of Chandrayaan-2 Ready,” PTI..., Russia Giving Final Shape to Chandrayaan-2,” Hindustan Times (30 October 2009...-to-Chandrayaan-2/ Article1-347980.aspx. 66 67 “LCROSS Successfully Completes Lunar Maneuver....com/reports/LCROSS_Successfully_Completes_Lunar_Maneuver_999.html. 68 Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite.../images/LRO_ LCROSS_presskit.pdf. 70 “Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter,” Factsheet, NASA (October 2008....pdf. 71 John Matson, “Japanese Lunar Mission Provides a Glimpse on How... also Shino Yuasa, “Japan’s First Lunar Probe Ends Mission,” Associated Press...



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... every new Moon day, or lunar eclipse on every full Moon... Mars, returned by the Mariner 9 orbiter in 1972, revealed that the... rovers. The Mars Express – Mars orbiter and lander - launched by European.... The shuttle – also called the orbiter – can fly hundreds of times... rest of the world, and Chandrayaan, India’s mission to Moon to... to send its unmanned mission Chandrayaan to orbit Moon. However, as... that appear very different from lunar craters. One particularly curious crater... mountains and craters on the lunar surface. The era of space... first probe to reach the lunar surface in September 1959, though... significant differences between the two lunar hemispheres. * Chandrayaan-1: India’s first mission to... Moon missions, the importance of Chandrayaan-1 and its goal. Destination Moon... and transmitted pictures of the lunar surface. The United States launched... December 1972. The first robotic lunar rover to land on the... which was forced to abort lunar landing. It was during this... India. The studies also included lunar surface processes based on direct... Moon and also on-board lunar orbiting spacecraft. After a lull for... has been a renewed interest in lunar science. Imaging system on board... of the Moon. Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions of USA carried... mission photographed most of the lunar surface in ultraviolet, visible, near... first global data sets for lunar gravity, topography and multi spectral... editorials from DREAM 2047 lunar surface. The Lunar Prospector carried a number of... September 2003 to survey the lunar environment and create an X-ray... of the Moon. Japan has a lunar orbiter Kaguya (Selene) in flight, launched... has Chang’e 1 orbiter launched in October 2007. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter of USA... is all set to launch Chandrayaan 1 on 22 October 2008 for... study of the lunar surface. What is the Chandrayaan 1 mission aimed at...-resolution remote sensing of the lunar surface in visible, near Infrared... mineralogical mapping of the entire lunar surface for distribution of elements... ESA instruments have Indian collaboration. Chandrayaan 1 will be launched by the... to get to the Moon. Chandrayaan 1 will weigh 1,034 kg at... and 590 kg in the lunar orbit. Surely, there are advantages... missions, say, orbiter, lander and sample return missions. Orbiter missions have the... hence desirable that after the Chandrayaan 1 mission, the future missions land... laboratory studies. This is why Chandrayaan 2, to be launched in 2011... determining the nature of the lunar crust. The hypothesis for the... is a possibility of water on lunar surface in the polar regions... be able to rely on lunar ice, and there will be.... This is important for a costeffective lunar habitation. We may even look..., India’s Moon probe Chandrayaan-1 has already entered the lunar orbit with an... mountains and craters on the lunar surface. The era of space... understanding of the cosmos. India’s Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mission, before dying an...), the NASA payload, on board Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft (launched on 22 October... Moon. However, when samples of lunar rock and soil brought back... ruled out, since they are * Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft was launched by ISRO... one year of its launch, Chandrayaan-1 detected signals from the moon.... Radar data collected from the lunar North Pole and other regions... have the ice signature. The Lunar Prospector (launched in 1998) was... with wet lunar soil as compared to the dry lunar soil. Neutrons... along with positively charged protons. Lunar soil containing water significantly slows.... On 31 July 1999 the Lunar Prospector impacted the Moon into... water by the Chandrayaan-1 is of huge scientific interest. Chandrayaan’s observations are... Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on board Chandrayaan-1 detected light reflected off the... the top few millimetres of lunar soil, the newly observed water... be at or near the lunar surface. M3’s observations also showed... (and low in the lunar maria, that is, “lunar seas”). Finally, the... at different times of the lunar day. At noon, when the... on the lunar surface, but also revealed that the entire lunar surface is hydrated during at least some portion of the lunar day. Data from Chandrayaan show that although... system as observed by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in September 2009... rocks and lunar soil that make up the lunar surface are about... the solar wind hit the lunar surface with enough force, they... dehydration and rehydration of the lunar surface by this trace water... constantly generated all over the lunar surface. Much of it may... based on the observations of Chandrayaan-1, Cassini, and Deep Impact spacecraft... evidence of lunar polar water ice by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Just two... the top layer of the lunar surface would hold only about... layer of moisture on the lunar surface is still a long, long...