Спутник ФКИ. Chandrayaan 1 Lunar Orbiter. [Редактировать]

Чандраян-1» (Лунный корабль) — космический зонд, искусственный спутник Луны. Проект Индийской организации космических исследований (ISRO). Аппарат состоит из орбитального модуля и ударного зонда. Был выведен на орбиту с помощью модернизированной версии индийской ракеты-носителя PSLV-XL. Масса станции вместе с топливом составляет 1380 кг, по форме аппарат похож на куб со стороной 1,5 метра. Станция несёт 12 приборов, из них 6 индийских, а шесть других принадлежат ЕКА, НАСА и Болгарскому аэрокосмическому агентству. В число основных целей запуска «Чандраян-1» входит поиск полезных ископаемых и запасов льда в полярных регионах Луны, а также составление трёхмерной карты поверхности.Часть программы «Чандраян-1» — запуск ударного зонда (moon impact probe), оснащённого тремя инструментами: масс-спектрометром, альтиметром и видеокамерой. Он был запущен с окололунной орбиты (14 ноября 2008 года в 14:36 UTC) и в течение 25 минут достиг поверхности Луны, совершив жёсткую посадку. Выбросы лунной породы на месте падения модуля будут проанализированы орбитальным аппаратом. Данные полученные при жёсткой посадке ударного зонда будут использованы для мягкой посадки будущего индийского лунохода, доставка которого на Луну запланирована в ходе полёта следующего зонда «Чандраян-2».

Приборы

  • спектрометр Moon Mineralogy Mapper (США)
  • радар Mini-SAR (США)
  • дозиметр Radiation Dose Monitor (Болгария)
  • ИК-спектрометр SIR-2 (ЕКА), аналогичен установленному на АМС Смарт-1
  • атомный анализатор SARA (The Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer) (ЕКА)
  • фотокамера TMC (The Terrain Mapping Camera)
  • HySI (The Hyper Spectral Imager)
  • прибор для определения рельефа поверхности LLRI (The Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument)
  • рентгенофлуоресцентный спектрометр C1XS
  • рентгеновский спектрометр XSM (Solar X-ray Monitor)
  • гамма-спектрометр HEX
  • ударный зонд

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - Индия
3Страна производитель - Индия

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12009-08-28. Потеря связиТэги: Chandrayaan 1 Lunar Orbiter

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг1380

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС (планируемый ), год2

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2008-052A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор Космическое агентство Индии

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2008-10-22 at 00:52:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xChandrayaan 1 Lunar Orbiter
3Ракета-носитель 1xPSLV-XL

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.... Space Exploration. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), launched in August 2005... its return to Earth. Shuttle orbiter Atlantis, launched on 9 September, docked... Shuttle fleet stand-down following orbiter Columbia’s failure. In a 6-1/2-hour spacewalk... of the four sensors inside orbiter Discovery’s liquid hydrogen fuel tank... should they have struck the orbiter. Subsequent observation by a camera mounted... the orbiter’s thermal protection system, and 350 digital photos of the orbiter... the next Shuttle flight of orbiter Atlantis. On 16 August NASA... to the mission’s primary Shuttle orbiter. On 7 July NASA downgraded its... 2007, and NASA’s Solar Dynamics Orbiter, planned for 2008. On 17... Vehicle, Ares-5. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), launched on 12 August... window; a Mars science and communications orbiter to be launched in 2013... on 13 April that the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), planned for launch..., along with the LRO, India’s Chandrayaan lunar orbiter and other spacecraft. The LRO... highly successful mission, ESA’s Smart-1 lunar orbiter was guided to a controlled crash... fly on India’s $85-million Chandrayaan-1 Moon mission, planned for launch... outlined China’s multi-step lunar -81- exploration programme: a lunar orbiter mission in 2007... (Chang’ E3). The Japanese (JAXA) orbiter mission SELENE (Selenological and Engineering... future lunar exploration) is under discussion. The Indian ISRO mission Chandrayaan-1 is... programme. A new mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), is being developed by... launched the Messenger mission, a Mercury orbiter, as a part of its Discovery... mission consists of a Mercury Planetary Orbiter (for high resolution multi-wavelength... physics studies), and a Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (dedicated to a study of particles... Programme. Principal goals for the orbiter's latest mission extension include continued... observations with NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter; imaging of possible landing sites... to wind and ice. The orbiter’s current mission extension was planned... achieve a low Mars orbit. The orbiter carries three science instruments (THEMIS.... Mars Express consists of an orbiter with eight experiments. These are... separation from the Mars Express orbiter and nominal injection, entered the... early 2004, the Mars Express orbiter delivered new science results related... as with NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission during the extended mission... past water. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched in August 2005, arrived... future missions. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter carries six science instruments, three... one metre. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter carries the most powerful camera... and rovers. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter also carries a sounder to find...-resolution instruments. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also serve as the... to use the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in coming years. -122- The... for the development of a Mars orbiter, a descent module and a Mars rover... Rosetta project consists of an orbiter with eleven experiments and a lander... the major objectives of the orbiter is to study the development... scheduled for November 2007. The orbiter will deploy the lander after... redundant radio channels to the orbiter due to a commanding error. One... Titan’s formation. -127- The Cassini orbiter also made extensive studies of... had been successfully achieved. The orbiter carries out remote visual, infrared... to observing Titan, the Cassini orbiter is making extensive measurements of... first one, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), will study the surface... second one, the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), will investigate the magnetic... by the NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). MRO was inserted into... assessment phase is ESA’s Solar Orbiter, to be launched in 2015... size. Over extended periods, Solar Orbiter will deliver images and data... will be explored by a magnetospheric orbiter (MMO), that is an element... complementary to the ESA Solar Orbiter and would fit well with... comet. The NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Category III), successfully launched from... an Atlas-5 launch vehicle. The orbiter (MRO) contains a high resolution camera... Mars Odyssey. ESA’s Mars Express orbiter (Category III) continues its mission... CERF CERN CFE CHAMP Chandra Chandrayaan-1 Chang'E1 Chang'E2 Chang... Aparatus Proposed ESA/JAXA Mercury orbiter (2012) Balloon-borne Experiment with... X-Ray Observatory (NASA) Lunar mission (India) Lunar orbiter (China) Lunar rover (China) Sample return... Space Weather Modelling Chandrayaan-1 Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer US Lunar orbiter NASA/CSA satellite... Orbiter Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer Monitor Experimental (Russia) Mercury Planetary Orbiter Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mesospheric Summer Echoes Meteosat... and Atmospheric Administration Japanese Mars orbiter (US) National Polar-orbiting Operational... SOHO Sojourner Solar A Solar B Solar Orbiter SOLAR-2000 SORCE SOXS Soyuz... SunRISE Selenological and Engineering Explorer orbiter mission (JAXA) Space Environment Monitor...



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... recent extraordinary success in the Lunar unmanned missions and putting a satellite... famous payloads like Mars Orbiter Mission and Chandrayaan (Lunar Orbiter). We have learnt a great... to have missions like Mars Orbiter Mission and Mangalayaan beyond Mars... Maven of NASA and Mars Orbiter Mission of ISRO, it must....wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandrayaan-1 • http://www.isro.gov.in/Chandrayaan/htmls/home...



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... of these NASA missions, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, is already in implementation... (Japan), Chang’e (China), Chandrayaan-1 (India), and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (United States). Scientific... two recommended efforts—a Lunar Fundamental Research Program and a Lunar Data Analysis Program... of the formation of lunar rocks following lunar formation, and suggests that... 1994, was the Clementine polar lunar orbiter, a joint NASA/Department of Defense... the lunar nearside, with profound implications for lunar thermal evolution. While the lunar... terminal cataclysm hypothesis. THE LUNAR ATMOSPHERE The lunar atmosphere links the Sun... against extended large-scale lunar activities. The lunar atmosphere may actually be... their likely effects on lunar exploration and lunar-based astronomy. 8c. Use... of lunar volcanism and its evolution through space and time. Lunar Environment 5. Lunar... provide a window to the lunar mantle. Lunar pyroclastic flows may bring deep... lunar polar regions. Orbital neutron data from Lunar Prospector indicate that the lunar... of the lunar polar volatile deposits. For example, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO... the Indian Space Research Organization’s Chandrayaan-1, could potentially detect water or... from the impact. SOURCE: NASA Lunar Orbiter 2. Science Goal 6c—Quantify the... their likely effects on lunar exploration and lunar-based astronomy. During the... and Engineering Explorer������������������������������� ], Chang’e, Chandrayaan-1, LRO [Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter]—see below), column (a) of... lunar exploration will be provided by data from SMART-1, SELENE, Chang’e, Chandrayaan... desirable from priority targets. Relay orbiter for farside stations (e.g., relay of... from 10 km orbit. Relay orbiter for farside stations (e.g., relay of... implementation, Lunar A and SELENE. Lunar A is designed to study the lunar interior using... cancelled. SELENE, however, is a mature orbiter prepared for launch in 2007... announced its Chang’e lunar program in March 2003. Chang’e 1, a lunar orbiter with a broad... Research Organization will launch its Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft in 2008 on a 2-year... the remote sensing experiments, the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft will also carry an... the black background NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is scheduled for launch in..., and study the lunar radiation environment. A secondary payload, Lunar Crater Observation and... fall of 2008 of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). In identifying prioritized...-2022, the period after the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission but with...-up lunar orbiter mission. 2. Conduct a robotic landed mission to explore the lunar polar... near one of the lunar poles, assess lunar polar atmospheric properties, and... lunar exploration will be provided by data from SMART-1, SELENE, Chang’e, ­Chandrayaan... lunar exploration will be provided by data from SMART-1, SELENE, Chang’e, ­Chandrayaan... likely effects on lunar exploration and lunar-based astronomy. Lunar dust is an important constituent of the lunar... (Japan), Chang’e (China), Chandrayaan-1 (India), and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (United States). Scientific... two recommended efforts—a Lunar Fundamental Research Program and a Lunar Data Analysis Program... first LPRP mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, is already in implementation and... Chang’e—a Chinese National Space Administration lunar orbiter Chesapeake—an ancient subsurface impact... launched with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LEAG—the NASA Lunar Exploration Analysis Group... operational issues associated with lunar exploration LPRP—the Lunar Precursor and Robotic...’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LSAM—NASA’s Lunar Surface Access Module Lunar A—a Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency lunar mission lunar dynamo—for the ancient Moon, the possibility that a lunar... Explorer, a Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency lunar orbiter SIM—the Apollo Scientific Instrument... 3:15 p.m. Science Opportunities from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Gordon Chin, NASA Goddard Space... independent spacecraft (SELENE, Chang’e 1, Chandrayaan 1 and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) will orbit the Moon...-1, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, SELENE RSAT, and VSAT) and subsequent impacts of lunar crafts..., and VLBI support for future orbiter, lander and rover missions. We... Paulikas, Carlé Pieters   October 3-4 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Team Meeting Phoenix, Arizona... Mapper to be flown on ­ Chandrayaan-1, India’s mission to the Moon... a participating scientist for the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Investigation on the... is co-investigator on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, scheduled for launch in... three international space missions—the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the European Mars Express... Global Surveyor, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the Stardust and Genesis... Department of Defense/NASA Clementine lunar orbiter and a participating scientist for NASA...



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... (Chinese Lunar Exploration Program). However, China also developed a small Mars orbiter, Yinghuo1... report 2003 Launched SMART-1 ESA Lunar orbiter to test technologies DNV Reliability... past space exploration programs (Smart1 lunar mission, Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter). Other contributing universities include... provision of European instruments for Chandrayaan-1 India Renewed in January 2007..., NASA's Dawn asteroid mission, ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 Moon mission and JAXA's Planet... and possibly GEMS) and India (Chandrayaan-1) and has cooperation opportunities with... reputation. The robotic exploration program Chandrayaan is considered as a way to... the development and launch for CHandrayaan-1. However funding almost stopped entirely..., with one orbiter launched in 2008 (Chandrayaan-1) and a mission in preparation, Chandrayaan-2, in cooperation with Russia. Chandrayaan-1 was... provide a lunar orbiter The objective of the mission is to deploy a lunar rover... recently announced that the lunar lander for Chandrayaan-2 incorporated technologies that had... experience Significant partial experience Comments Chandrayaan 1 and 2, demonstration of re-entry... collaborating on the development of Chandrayaan-2 and have reached an agreement... scientific payload into its first lunar spacecraft, Chandrayaan-1. Euroconsult for the European... provision of European instruments for Chandrayaan-1 Framework agreement General cooperation agreement... NASA scientific instruments on India’s Chandrayaan mission. Euroconsult for the European... / ESA Lunar orbiter to study the origins of the Moon Venus orbiter to... unknown. Chandrayaan-2 (Lunar-Resurs) Russia and India signed an agreement on Lunar exploration... to develop a joint mission involving a lunar orbiter, a lander and a rover. The configuration... Mars orbiter IKI HEND (High-energy neutron detector) 2009 Launched Lunar Reconnaissanc e Orbiter NASA Moon orbiter IKI LEND ( Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector... Roscosmos LASMA (Laser mass-spectrometer) Lunar orbiter and lander ADRON ( Active neutron...-D, Russian participations in BepiColombo and Chandrayaan-2). RKK Energia Krunichev NPO Energomash... the cooperation framework for the Chandrayaan-2 mission Multilateral January 29, 1998... a lunar exploration plan with the objective of launching a lunar orbiter in 2020 and a lunar... of scientific instruments (SMART-1, Rosetta, Chandrayaan-1 notably), but it also allowed... a standalone UK Lunar mission, which would consist of a Lunar orbiter and four penetrator...-1 ESA Lunar orbiter to test technologies 2004 Launched Rosetta ESA Comet orbiter and Lander 2008 Launched 2018 Planned Chandrayaan-1 ISRO Lunar orbiter Exomars... Commission – July 2012 - 112 - C1XS (Chandrayaan-1 Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) PanCam (Panoramic... College London, …etc) Smart-1 and Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter instruments electric propulsion, Beagle-2 communication... the prime contractor for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL... M3 instrument for the Indian Chandrayaan lunar mission or the STROFIO instrument... Opportunity mission n.a. M3 (fitted in Chandrayaan-1) 2008 Opportunity mission n.a Grail 2011... Two identical Mars rovers Lunar orbiter to test technologies Orbiter to study the... 2012 Lunar orbiter dedicated to high-resolution remote sensing of the lunar surface... Flight Center 2009 Launched Lunar Reconnaissanc e Orbiter NASA Lunar orbiter to prepare for future..., designs the spacecraft bus LOLA ( Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter) University of New...) Arizona State University LROC ( Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera) Johns Hopkins University Applied... Surveyor, mini-SAR for Chandrayaan 1 and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, THEMIS on Mars Odyssey... mission table above) prime of Lunar reconnaissance orbiter, supplier of instruments electric... NASA scientific instruments on India’s Chandrayaan mission. Euroconsult for the European... LADEE Luna Glob Moon Moon Chandrayaan-2 Lunar Lander (not approved) Lunokhod-3 (not...’e-4 (not approved) Chang’e-6 Selene-X Selene-2 Chandrayaan-2 GEMS (not approved, in competition... Activities Moon Orbiter LADEE, 2013: measure the atmosphere and lunar dust environment... survey and living conditions assessment Chandrayaan-2, 2016: Lander which will release...: Demonstrate robotic sample collecting - 160 - Chandrayaan-2, 2016: pick up samples, perform... of the lunar mission Chandrayaan-2 are unclear. The launch of Chandrayaan-2 was recently... before being used to launch Chandrayaan-2. India therefore changed its strategy... ISRO had with Russia for Chandrayaan-2: a joint capability-driven mission where... be dismissed. Moreover, following the Chandrayaan-1 experience, where Indian scientists felt... intended to develop a Lunar orbiter by 2020 and a Lunar lander by 2025. These... Russia.  However, current issues around Chandrayaan-2 and the refocus of Russia... rover, which was planned for Chandrayaan-2.  Short term: Develop participation of...



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...) instrument aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft [6], ~19 m/pixel imagery from... link cut. The Cassini Saturn orbiter completed these measurenents on the...-Glob and Luna-Resource, an orbiter and two landers, which are... was on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (1978), which carried out radar... (MEX) and US Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions. Mars Express has... some of these grooves. Recent Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) images of...’s Mars Express mission and Viking Orbiter images were used as initial..., China has launched her 1st lunar orbiter Chang’E-1 successfully, and has got... from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft were used for hydrogen mapping of the lunar... the Cometary Origin of Lunar Polar Ice. Lunar and Planet. Sci. XXX... lunar exploration with the world: Examples from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper/Chandrayaan...-derived 3 data (e.g., Moon 3Mineralogy Mapper (M )/Chandrayaan-1) into science and fine art... and mathematics) Moon Mineralogy Mapper / Chandrayaan-1: India’s ChanMoon Mineralogy Mapper (M3... educational materials and programs. Fig1.Chandrayaan-1 launch.(J.Boardman). M3 Education & Public... excitement of the success of Chandrayaan-1 and the discoveries of M3... spatial da­ta from M3/ Chandrayaan-1, we can now better ex... mission EPO programs such as Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), LADDIE, the NLSI... to be part of ISRO’s Chandrayaan-1 mission and thank the NASA... and Depth of Sampling from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Spectroscopy... WIND INTERACTION WITH THE LUNAR SURFACE: SARA/CHANDRAYAAN-1 RESULTS. P. Wurz1, A. Schaufelberger1, S. Barabash2... interact with the lunar surface, actually with the lunar regolith, which is..., and in lunar orbit by the SARA instrument on Chandrayaan-1 (Wieser et... we will report on the Chandrayaan-1 observations of backscattered solar wind... served with SARA / Chandrayaan-1 from an altitude from lunar prospector with contours... with low fluxes of lunar ENAs. The lunar ENA flux is reduced... 91 2MS3-LS-07 Lunar Navigation Almanac The Lunar navigational almanac is... from Chandrayaan-1 Mission J. N. Goswami, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad – 380009, India Chandrayaan-1, India... also probed the tenuous lunar exosphere and identified lunar mini-magnetosphere as... of returned lunar samples and lunar meteorites. VNIR spectra of major lunar minerals... the Moon on the ISRO Chandrayaan-1 space­craft. It covers the... Lunar surface in high-resolution images obtained by the LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... the values obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). Both coordinate... the photogrammetric processing of LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) NAC (Narrow Angle Camera... investigations on the Luna-Glob orbiter A.A. Petrukovich1, L.M.Zelenyi1, I.G.Mitrofanov1, O.I.Korablev1, 1Space... includes an orbiter to be deployed at the circum-lunar orbit simulataneously with the lander. The orbiter includes a science... 116 2MS3-LM-03 Chandrayaan-2 mission: The orbiter and Rover payloads J. N. Goswami, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad – 380009, India Chandrayaan-2 mission to moon will have a Orbiter-Lander-Rover configuration... exploration. India will provide the Orbiter and the Rover, along with... to be carried in the Orbiter and Rover that are being...-04b radioscience Experiments with “MoonGlob” Orbiter Receiver and Beacons on Moon... and Receiver on “Moon-Glob” Orbiter. The experiments chart is shown... the beacons signals and the orbiter’s receiver local oscillator signal. Such... standard used in beacons and orbiter’s receiver. The stability of the... band will be used for orbiter navigation goal and gravitation field... be received by orbiter’s receiver. Investigation of Nonuniformity of Lunar Gravitation field... the Earth and from lunar orbiter. Last investigation from lunar orbiter ChangE-1 [1] determined regolith... and implications of large lunar basin-forming objects // Lunar and Planet. Sci... of NASA Lunar Atmosphere And Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbiter to be... board of Russian Luna-Globe orbiter LEVUS instrument is an adapted... variations in the lunar impact rate during the lunar night. The measured... themes to the lander and orbiter payload. Lunar science and impact hazard...), and a small telecommunication and science orbiter (395 kg), launched by the... could be conducted from the orbiter and during the cruise. The...-04 System Description of a Europa Orbiter/ Lander Mission. John R Casani1, Kevin... last decades have focused on Orbiter missions (sometimes including a modest lander... be delivered by an independent Orbiter/Cruise Stage that would remain... dose experienced by a long term orbiter. This paper provides an overview... the Lander and the Cruise/Orbiter Stage elements of the mission... influence of the moon. The orbiter in a 100 km circular orbit... less radiation dose than a Europa orbiter mission. This concept was motivated...



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... the operational part of the Chandrayaan-1 mission is over, the analysis... Part of the India-Russia Chandrayaan-II Mission http://www.spacetravel... sent proposals for instruments aboard Chandrayaan-2 and its two rovers. An... require. And looking at the Chandrayaan-I accomplishments, what are all the... India, the significance of the Chandrayaan-1 mission becomes ever greater. It... – Peter Kokh Mini-SAR on Chandrayaan-1 makes find Even more exciting... by a NASA instrument aboard India’s Chandrayaan-1 orbiter. The Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar... that moment, the main spacecraft, Chandrayaan-1 appeared over the Earth-facing... transmitted through the main spacecraft, Chandrayaan-1. At one point it flew... space scientists, seated at the Chandrayaan mission operations control room in... Chandrayaan-1, which was at that moment orbiting 98 kms above the lunar... being prepared for launch aboard Chandrayaan-1. Note worker to left for... added. M3IQ Another Chandrayaan-1 instrument detects subsurface lunar lava tubes In this same report (on the 6th Chandrayaan... imagery of Chandrayaan-1’s indigenous terrain mapping camera (TMC) has identified "lunar tubes... tube skylight” by their Kaguya orbiter. M3IQ had reported on that... Commentary If this find by Chandrayaan-2’s TMC instrument is confirmed, it... Rocks Found by Chandrayaan-1 http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Chandrayaan-1-alsofound-new... NASA instrument on board India’s Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter had found new types of... to making presentations on the Chandrayaan-I missions at the conference Dr... Moon including members of the Chandrayaan Science team including Dr. Carle... AMES LCROSS mission. Data-Mining, a Chandrayaan-1 “after mission” It is good... in the Lunar Science Institute. The information provided by Chandrayaan-I will be... for Chandrayaan-I’s data lode. Even as excitement about the forthcoming Chandrayaan-II... from the information provided by Chandrayaan-I. Even though the M3IQ is... ready to launch Venus Climate Orbiter www.nature.com/news/2010... its Akatsuki (Dawn) Venus Climate Orbiter to the Tanegashima Island spaceport... an atlas and the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images, Phil Stooke, a professor... Door #3 – Nuclear Resources Lunar Prospector mapped the lunar globe by tracking a number..., instruments aboard ISRO’s Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter and NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS probes have... reserves of water ice. Indeed, Chandrayaan-1 found water and hydroxyl radicals... was discovered by Japan’s Kaguya lunar orbiter in 2009. This 13 round... enthusiasm after the launch of Chandrayaan-1 lunar arbiter and the announcement that... provides for the operation of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which switches from the... as noted above • Lunar Polar Volatiles from APL • Lunar Network Mission from... ILEWG (International Lunar Exploration Working Group) partners should support lunar program approaches... Project Development Google Lunar X-Prize www.googlelunarxprize.org/lunar/about-theprize/introductory....googlelunarxprize.org/lunar/about-the-prize www.googlelunarxprize.org/lunar/about-the.../lunar/teams Opportunities, Incentives, and Tools For New Lunar Science Missions Google Lunar... Model of a Lunar Mission Development A Tool for Facilitating a Lunar Market place Last...-10 (SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'e-I, Chandrayaan-I, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The 2010s may see... in Interest in Lunar Surface Investigations A second wave of lunar exploration missions... even one permanently occupied lunar base on the lunar surface would increase... Solving The Moon’s Water Puzzles Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper Photoset As... the results of the LRO [Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter] Diviner instrument has shown... inner solar system. Three spacecraft, Chandrayaan-I (M3 Moon Mineralogy Mapper), VIMS... observed excess lunar hydrogen, as had Lunar Prospector in 1998-9. The Chandrayaan-1 Moon... LRO orbiter mini RF Instrument was similar to that flown of Chandrayaan... the understanding of lunar water. Water from the Lunar Interior At the.... Engineering Challenges for Lunar Sample Missions Operations in lunar cold traps for... 2010 Annual Science Conference, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Results, Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment: Early... 2010 Annual Science Conference, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Results, LEND Experiment on board... the Lunar Poles, (#2250) 6 Bussey, D.B. J., LPI 2010 annual Science Conference, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Results, Initial Results from Mini-RF: A Synthetic Aperture Radar on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, (#2319) 7 McCubbin, F.M. , LPI 2010... Session: A New Moon: Lunar Volcanism and Impact Chronology, Lunar Pyroclastic Volcanism at...! Moon Specific Events Visionary India: Chandrayaan-2 Student Payloads Jayashree Sridhar This... own ideas for a payload for Chandrayaan-2. With Chandrayaan-1 completing 95% of its... fruit in the form of Chandrayaan-2 (two landers based on a Russian... will be coming): Lunar Building Materials, The Lunar Economy, The Lunar Homestead, Modular...



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... Lunar Orbits . . 1.3.5 Summary: Low-Energy Transfers to the Lunar Surface . . . 1.4 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 The Lunar Transfer Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Historical Missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Missions Implementing Direct Lunar... and Low Lunar Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Transfers Between Lunar Libration Orbits and Low Lunar Orbits . 4.6 Transfers Between Low Lunar Orbits and the Lunar Surface... to the Lunar Surface 5.6 Transfers Between Lunar Libration Orbits and the Lunar Surface . . 5.7 Transfers Between Low Lunar Orbits and the Lunar Surface . . . . 5.8 Conclusions Regarding Transfers to the Lunar... Moon, including lunar libration orbits, low lunar orbits, and the lunar surface. These... low-energy ballistic lunar transfers. He supported India’s Chandrayaan-1 mission to the... Earth and lunar libration orbits, low lunar mapping orbits, and the lunar surface... a Missions referred to include Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Chandrayaan-1 (CH-1), Small Missions for... the transfers’ fuel requirements. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) followed a slightly more... window each month. Clementine and Chandrayaan-1 implemented phasing orbits about the... to the Moon, such as Chandrayaan-1 [3]. Drawbacks of Earth phasing orbits... the Luna, Zond, Ranger, Surveyor, Lunar Orbiter, and Apollo programs. A few of... W) 78.8 hr (3.29 days) First orbiter 101.6 hr (4.23 days) First... Lunar Orbiter missions; examples include: 10 Aug. 1966 Lunar Orbiter 1 6 Nov. 1966 Lunar Orbiter 2 5 Feb. 1967 Lunar Orbiter... days) 92.6 hr (3.86 days) Orbiter Orbiter Orbiter There were 9 American Apollo missions....0 hr (3.46 days) First manned lunar orbiter Orbit and return First manned...’e 1 Japan China 22 Oct. 2008 Chandrayaan-1 India 18 June 2009 1 Oct... Orbiter 113.1 hr (4.71 days) Orbiter ∼4 days Orbiter + 12 days phasing ∼4.5 days 2 lunar flybys en route to GEO 105 hr (4.38 days) Orbiter 85 hr (3.54 days) 1 lunar flyby + 47 days... days) 2 lunar flybys + 47 days phasing 127 hr (5.29 days) Orbiter ∼120 hr (∼5 days) Orbiter + 7 days phasing 107.9 hr (4.50 days) Orbiter/impactor + 13 days phasing 108 hr (4.5 days) Orbiter/impactor 112.1 hr (4.7 days) Orbiter Figure 1-8 The trajectory...]. Trans-Lunar Cruise. A spacecraft’s trans-lunar cruise on its low-energy lunar transfer... Period Transfer Duration (days) Outbound Lunar Flyby Lunar Orbit Insertion ΔV (m/s) Direct Transfer... historical lunar missions, including Lunar Prospector [56], Kaguya/SELENE [187], Chang’e 1 [58], Chandrayaan-1 (CH-1) [3], the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... AND LOW LUNAR ORBIT 233 properly. The Clementine and Chandrayaan-1 missions implemented Earth phasing orbits, which extended the launch periods. Chandrayaan... spacecraft, including Lunar Prospector [56], Kaguya/SELENE [187], Chang’e 1 [58], Chandrayaan-1 [3], the... the lunar surface and TRANSFERS BETWEEN LOW LUNAR ORBITS AND THE LUNAR SURFACE 259 returned to lunar orbit... TO THE LUNAR SURFACE 5.7 TRANSFERS BETWEEN LOW LUNAR ORBITS AND THE LUNAR SURFACE Information about transfers from low lunar orbits to the lunar...) was used to launch the Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon, though... lunar orbit. Arriving at a low lunar orbit typically involves a time-critical lunar-orbit... lunar orbit. The dates and times of the trans-lunar injection and lunar... lunar surface may first target an intermediate lunar orbit, such as a low lunar orbit or a lunar libration orbit... accommodate a lander instead of an orbiter. A lander may be able to...–2480, 2011. 3. J. N. Goswami and M. Annadurai, “Chandrayaan-1: India’s First Planetary Science Mission... Moon,” Current Science; Special Section: Chandrayaan-1, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 486... D. Richardson, “Mission Design for a Halo Orbiter of the Earth,” Journal of..., “Mission Design for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter,” Proceedings of the 29th Annual... Flybys and Approach: Planar Europa Orbiter,” Journal of Guidance, Control, and.../s CRTBP launch injection energy parameter Chandrayaan-1 centimeter per second circular restricted... Earth–Moon lunar Lagrange point 1 / 2 low-lunar orbit lunar-orbit insertion lunar principal-axis... LPO LSP LST LTool LTST Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter libration-point orbit Launch...



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... Lunar Exploration Analysis Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.3. ILN International Lunar Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.4. NLSI – The NASA Lunar Science... been identified. The Uranus Orbiter and Probe mission was selected... four different spacecraft (Lunar Prospector, Chandrayaan-1, Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite... Exploration Institute. and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LRO). Investigating the distribution of... Bills and Ferrari (1977) from Lunar Orbiter and Apollo 15 and 16...., 2005; Huixian et al., 2005); Chandrayaan-1 launched by India (ISRO) on...). The dual launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO: Chin et al...) has been documented by the Chandrayaan-1 mission (e.g., Pieters et al., 2009... Research Organization’s (ISRO) Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft shows a very young lunar crater on the... al., 2010). China’s Chang’E-2 Moon orbiter has been launched on 1 October... an orbiter and landing probe. Contact in situ investigations in the lunar... a Russian lunar lander and an Indian orbiter and mini-rover. A lunar multielement mission... structure. Lunar crustal rocks. Lunar poles. Lunar volcanism. Impact processes. Lunar regolith. Lunar dust and atmosphere environment. 3.3. International Lunar... international lunar exploration, from the analysis and integration of current lunar orbiter data, to the development of lunar landers and...), Mars Express (MEx), Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and Phoenix, have added.... Observations from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed possible flowing water... ESA intends to provide a Mars Orbiter and an Entry, Descent and... Module (EDM). The Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) will accommodate scientific instruments... with the Chinese Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) orbiter. However, due to an engine...) into orbit. A Mars Sample Return Orbiter (Sample capture and Earth Entry... rendezvous with a Mars Sample Return Orbiter that returns the collected samples... ascent vehicle, and Earth-return orbiter. Planning for sample handling and... interpreting and validating information from orbiter and rover missions on extraterrestrial... to provide data to an orbiter directly. Also, the challenge of..., plasma and radiation. China’s Yinghuo-1 orbiter hitchhiked on the Russian Phobos... will send the Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) orbiter piggyback on the Russian mission... LER Lunar Exploration Roadmap LHB Late Heavy Bombardment LRO Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter MA... Exploration Rover MEx Mars Express Orbiter MGB Microgravity Glove Box MISSE... Logistics Module MRO Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter MSL Mars Science Laboratory MSR... and near-future lunar missions include the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in orbit... on Oceanic Research European Moon Orbiter NASA Science Mission Directorate Space... Engineering and Mathematics Trace Gas Orbiter Europlanet Trans National Access United... Outer Space Affairs Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) orbiter piggyback on the Russian Phobos...-1, European instruments on Chandrayaan-1). SMART-1, Europe first lunar mission demonstrated technologies for... and SARA) for the Indian lunar Chandrayaan-1 mission and a ground station control... Chang’E2 GRAIL LADEE ESMO Chandrayaan-2 Selene 2 Moon Landers and/or... Martian Landers MAVEN Trace Gas Orbiter MSL Martian Rovers Mars Sample... ESA and ASI. Trace Gas Orbiter EDM ExoMars planned Launch 2010.... The Russian lunar program encompasses Luna-Glob (a Moon orbiter and landing probe... Luna Resource/1 (a lunar lander in combination with the Indian Chandrayaan-2 orbiter and minirover... and data collection. The Chang’E-2 orbiter was the first mission within... their lunar-focused activities, the Chinese will send the Yinghou-1 (YH-1) orbiter... new scientific programs and launched Chandrayaan-1 in 2008 to the Moon... 2012. ISRO would contribute an orbiterChandrayaan-2 – and a mini-rover to the... with the recent fleet of orbiter precursors for science, technology and... 26, 185–188, 2010. Bhandari, N. Chandrayaan-1: science goals. J. Earth Syst. Sci... aperture radar on lunar reconnaissance orbiter, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference..., G., Brylow, S., Foote, M., et al. Lunar reconnaissance orbiter overview: the instrument suite and... on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter (LRO) mission, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary Science... overview of the Chandrayaan-1 mission. in: 41st Lunar and planetary science conference... observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. J. Geophys. Res. 114 (53), E00D06... CRISM instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Nature 354, 305–309, 2008..., M.C., Greenhagen, B.T., et al. The lunar reconnaissance orbiter diviner lunar radiometer experiment. Space Sci... Moon Seen by M3 on Chandrayaan-1. Science 326, 568–572, 2009... LROC Team. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera: first results, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary... of radiation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary Science... the Moon from Mini-SAR, Chandrayaan-1 mission. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37..., R., Keller, J., Chin, G., Garvin, J. Lunar reconnaissance orbiter (LRO): Observations for lunar exploration and science...



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... near the Earth to lunar orbit or the lunar surface. It then... low-energy lunar transfers within the context of historical lunar 1 2 INTRODUCTION AND... lunar surface, including discussions and surveys of transfers that intersect the lunar... operational aspects of implementing a lowenergy lunar transfer. The section begins with... Earth and lunar libration orbits, low lunar mapping orbits, and the lunar surface... a Missions referred to include Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Chandrayaan-1 (CH-1), Small Missions for... the transfers’ fuel requirements. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) followed a slightly more... window each month. Clementine and Chandrayaan-1 implemented phasing orbits about the.... A spacecraft launched on a low-energy lunar transfer travels beyond the orbit... book. 1.3.1 Direct, Conventional Transfers A direct lunar transfer is a trajectory between the... 100 km above the mean lunar surface, requiring a hypothetical, impulsive ΔV of... to the Moon, such as Chandrayaan-1 [3]. Drawbacks of Earth phasing orbits... than required by a conventional, direct lunar transfer. Figure 1-2 illustrates an example... or more lunar flybys on their outbound segment. The lunar flybys may.... 1.3.3 Summary: Low-Energy Transfers to Lunar Libration Orbits Low-energy transfers...-day low-energy lunar transfer to a low, polar lunar orbit [2]. c 2011 by... have demonstrated practical applications of lunar libration orbits, including locations for... performance of lowenergy transfers to lunar libration orbits. The results demonstrate... to conventional, direct transfers to lunar libration orbits. The typical transfers... two example lowenergy transfers to lunar libration orbits, respectively. One can... nature: they require a standard trans-lunar injection maneuver, a few TCMs, and... transfer to a low lunar orbit or to the lunar surface. 1.3.4 Summary: Low-Energy Transfers to Low Lunar Orbits... to a low lunar orbit, such as GRAIL’s target lunar orbit. The transfer... operational complexity when implementing direct lunar transfers. Low-energy transfers may... into very similar orbits, including Lunar Prospector, Kaguya/ Selenological and Engineering... used a direct lunar transfer. The examination shows that the lunar-orbit insertion... that these target low lunar orbits instead of lunar libration orbits. 1.3.5 Summary: Low-Energy Transfers to the Lunar Surface... are useful for lunar impactors, such as the Lunar Crater Observatory and... period. The lunar surface may also be accessed from a lunar libration orbit or from a low lunar orbit. Hence... target the lunar surface. 1.4 BACKGROUND This section reviews historical lunar missions as... the discussions about designing future lunar missions, including future missions that... will become common among lunar missions. 1.5 THE LUNAR TRANSFER PROBLEM Soon after... began developing a method to construct lunar transfers using a new technique, which... spacecraft missions that implemented direct lunar transfers to modern analyses that... the Luna, Zond, Ranger, Surveyor, Lunar Orbiter, and Apollo programs. A few of... Lunar Transfers Table 1-2 summarizes many historical missions that have taken direct lunar... a series of lunar flybys. Its fifth and final lunar flyby was performed... 120 km of the lunar surface. The lunar flyby ejected the spacecraft...) First lunar flyby (5995 km) 33.5 hr (1.40 days) First lunar impact... W) 78.8 hr (3.29 days) First orbiter 101.6 hr (4.23 days) First... Lunar Orbiter missions; examples include: 10 Aug. 1966 Lunar Orbiter 1 6 Nov. 1966 Lunar Orbiter 2 5 Feb. 1967 Lunar Orbiter... days) 92.6 hr (3.86 days) Orbiter Orbiter Orbiter There were 9 American Apollo missions....0 hr (3.46 days) First manned lunar orbiter Orbit and return First manned...’e 1 Japan China 22 Oct. 2008 Chandrayaan-1 India 18 June 2009 1 Oct... Orbiter 113.1 hr (4.71 days) Orbiter ∼4 days Orbiter + 12 days phasing ∼4.5 days 2 lunar flybys en route to GEO 105 hr (4.38 days) Orbiter 85 hr (3.54 days) 1 lunar flyby + 47 days phasing 83 hr (3.46 days) 2 lunar flybys + 47 days phasing 127 hr (5.29 days) Orbiter ∼120 hr (∼5 days) Orbiter + 7 days phasing 107.9 hr (4.50 days) Orbiter/impactor + 13 days phasing 108 hr (4.5 days) Orbiter/impactor 112.1 hr (4.7 days) Orbiter Figure 1-8 The trajectory... proposals. 1.6.3 Missions Implementing Low-Energy Lunar Transfers Hiten/MUSES-A. In 1991..., performed primarily to separate their lunar orbit insertion dates. Figure 1-13... AAS). LOW-ENERGY LUNAR TRANSFERS 1.7 23 LOW-ENERGY LUNAR TRANSFERS Low-energy... target an outbound lunar flyby. If the trajectory employs a lunar flyby, the... A flowchart illustrating different low-energy lunar transfer itineraries, with approximate C3... amount of fuel. Trans-Lunar Injection. The trans-lunar injection (TLI) is...]. Trans-Lunar Cruise. A spacecraft’s trans-lunar cruise on its low-energy lunar transfer...



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... Lunar cartographic reference system as might be undertaken by the International Lunar... – The Moon and Mars 2.2.1 Moon Lunar scientific exploration will involve three... ‘of the Moon,’ which involves lunar geology, geochemistry and geophysics, will... Kaguya), China’s Chang'e - 1, and India’s Chandrayaan-1. China's Chang'e-1 completed its mission.... And launched in October, 2008 Chandrayaan-1 is a complex spacecraft with eleven...-dimensional topographical map of the lunar surface on both the near... creating a detailed map of the lunar surface scientists can answer questions... launch its Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) with a surface impactor, the Lunar Crater Observation... counterparts mapping and characterizing the lunar surface and geological structure. Following... Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer... to characterize the atmosphere and lunar dust environment. The creation of detailed maps of the lunar surface and subsurface is necessary... inner solar system. Selene II, Chandrayaan II, and Chang’e 2 will join... lunar surface will help identify safe landing locations for the Altair lunar... 2003), and the U.S. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (launched in 2005). In addition... near surface. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has been successfully providing high... <$500m) mission called MAVEN, an orbiter that will provide information about..., like NASA instruments on India’s Chandrayaan I, each can legitimately be thought.... 3.1 Robotic Network Science – The International Lunar Network In March 2008 NASA... International Lunar Network (ILN) to the international community at the Lunar and... to study local or global lunar science. Such experiments might include..., astronomical instruments, electromagnetic profiling of lunar regolith and crust, local geochemistry... launched separately: one carrying an orbiter that includes the Earth return... launch vehicle and the Altair lunar lander. Together, these vehicles will... its first important milestone for lunar exploration, a Lunar Capability Concept Review (LCCR... study that looked at possible lunar mission scenarios and compared them... capability to deliver the Altair lunar lander, four astronauts and cargo... exploration missions. A variant of the lunar lander will serve as an... carrier, taking modular outpost components, lunar rovers, and scientific equipment to... ISWG is preparing a number of lunar surface exploration scenarios and associated... completed their conceptual studies for a, Lunar Surface Architecture. 13 3.4 An Eventual... from lunar and Mars missions (see paras 2.2.1 and 2.2.2) • Chandrayaan orbiter mission • Kaguya orbiter mission (see also JAXA Exploration Highlights in Annex) • Chang’e 1 orbiter mission... (see para 1.2.3) Initiation of International Lunar Network (ILN) initiative by NASA... ESMO orbital Google Lunar Selene-2 X-prize Chang’e-2 (rover) Chandrayaan-2 MoonLITE Manned ambitions... developed mission scenarios for human lunar exploration and derive from the...-board the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and ESA Mars Express missions... an AO for small missions, a lunar orbiter has been selected and the... exploration technologies and preparation for Lunar exploration). o The development of a GIS... mission in competition is the lunar orbiter previously mentioned. The MDS experiment... launch of India’s Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft carried the UK’s Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS... part of ESA’s contribution to Chandrayaan-1 and is an improved version... with NASA, considering areas of lunar research on which to cooperate... of a Joint Working Group on lunar exploration was published in 2008... human exploration activities. The satellite orbiter would act as a telecommunications station... Sample Return, Mars Science Orbiter, Lunar mobility system, Lunar ISRU system and a robotic... high-resolution data with global lunar coverage for a broad variety of...-A achieved so far, are secured. Lunar Soft-Landing Demonstrator – first steps... studies on the definition of a Lunar Lander. The ELIPS-Period 3 Programme... the Advanced Re-entry Vehicle, Lunar Lander activities and scenario studies... to which NASA and ESA’s lunar exploration architecture concepts could complement... I and V space transportation systems and lunar surface exploration architecture concepts. A similar... ISS lifetime extension and the lunar lander development activities. 28 JAXA... well as impressed images JAXA’s Lunar orbiting explorer “Kaguya” has taken... SELENE-2, aiming to acquire the lunar soft landing and rover technology... Space Station, took part in a lunar science mission with India and... country's first lunar explorer, Chandrayaan-1. The Indian Space Research Organization launched Chandrayaan-1 on October 22 from Sriharikota, India, entering lunar orbit... NASA's increased understanding of the lunar environment as we prepare for.... Finally, NASA completed the important Lunar Capability Concept Review milestone in... supporting widespread exploration of the lunar surface. 31 Ukraine/NSAU Exploration...