Спутник ДЗЗ. Cryosat. [Редактировать]

Программа Европейского космического агентства по мониторингу состояния толщины и площади покрытия полярных льдов. Это позволит предсказать повышение уровня мирового океана. Для этого используются одноименные спутники на низких околоземных орбитах. Аппарат был потерян во время неудачного запуска в 2005 году.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1CryoSat-1НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - Европа
3Страна производитель - Европа
4Все спутники ДЗЗ

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12014-12-15. CryoSat закончил съемку осенней толщины морского льда в Арктике, показав малое уменьшение в ледяного объема. В настоящее время данные с аппарата доступны в открытом доступе для решения задач мореходства.Тэги: Cryosat

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг.670
2Масса (сухая), кг.634
3Полезная нагрузка 1xDORIS (CryoSat)
4Полезная нагрузка 1xLRR (ESA)
5Полезная нагрузка 1xSIRAL
6Мощность, Вт1600

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (аппарат), млн. долл.188

Информация о неудачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром Плесецк
2Дата пуска2005-10-8
3Полезная нагрузка 1xCryosat
4Ракета-носитель 1xРокот

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Cryosat». [Перейти к поиску]


Дата загрузки: 2017-05-20
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0.09/5
... Contact: ESA Publications Division – The CryoSat Mission european space agency The... politique industrielle cohérente. Cover: CryoSat at the moment of separation... CryoSat: A Mission to the Ice Fields of Earth 19 The CryoSat System The CryoSat Data Products – The satellite... ESA Payloads for Columbus The CryoSat Data Products – Their generation, in...) • SWARM (Earth magnetic-field survey). CryoSat is scheduled for launch this... PM Page 11 Cryosat Mission Prof. Duncan Wingham CryoSat Lead Investigator University... winter weather of Western Europe. CryoSat is ESA’s first mission dedicated..., when I came to specify the CryoSat mission, I could find no information.../05 3:42 PM Page 15 Cryosat Mission Residual uncertainty Measurement requirement.../yr 0.12 cm/yr Table 1. CryoSat performance and measurement accuracy for... (in the Antarctic). CryoSat – Starting with a Clean Sheet CryoSat is ESA’s first... limit allowed by natural variability. CryoSat has been designed to ensure... 1. Clearly, the scientific importance of CryoSat would be even greater if... 1 are sufficient to ensure that CryoSat, during its lifetime, will both... too complicated to interpret. The CryoSat radar, ‘SIRAL’, meets this demand.... The real practical challenge of CryoSat was its implementation within the... (and implicitly compressed schedule) of CryoSat has undoubtedly made higher-than... natural variation that CryoSat will make its particular contribution. CryoSat aims at.... Here, however, the value of Cryosat measurements will be greatly increased..., more reliable predictions will result. CryoSat is also a technical experiment. Its... 2 Cryosat System The CryoSat System Guy Ratier, Richard Francis & Constantin Mavrocordatos CryoSat Project... cycle with a stringent cost ceiling. CryoSat is a fully integrated system in... surfaces, this was a natural choice. CryoSat’s radar altimeter is called SIRAL... Page 4 Earth Observation Cryosat System Artist’s impression of CryoSat in orbit, flying... further payload items are needed. CryoSat includes a DORIS Receiver, a special radio... definition of a specific orbit for CryoSat. The orbital inclination is 92... factors led inevitably to the CryoSat design (indeed during the competitive... of a rather ponderous deduction of CryoSat’s design from the mission’s requirements... the solar cells themselves. Thus CryoSat, as a lowcost mission, has ended... 1:08 PM Page 6 Earth Observation Cryosat System Parameter LRM SAR SARIn... and innovation Like all of CryoSat’s equipment, the SIRAL radar altimeter... between successive wideband measurement bursts. CryoSat’s DORIS receiver is part of... in processing the SIRAL data. CryoSat includes a set of three identical... allocation originally given to EnviSat. CryoSat is an unusual satellite in... usually commonplace. Attitude control for CryoSat is innovative since it principally...-pointing within the required tolerance. CryoSat’s main means of generating such... building- www.esa.int CryoSat in a Nutshell CryoSat Mission To determine fluctuations... during flight. In between times, CryoSat is constantly being probed and... of ‘torture’ for the satellite. CryoSat had its mass properties (centre... stations and slightly thereafter the CryoSat ground station at Kiruna. Then... PM Page 2 Cryosat Products An outline of the CryoSat system showing the... The CryoSat Data Products: Richard Francis, Pierre Viau & Robert Cullen CryoSat Project... Earthobservation missions, the planning of CryoSat operations is very static, and... the conceptual design of the CryoSat dataprocessing system. How the System... data reproduction costs. However, with CryoSat’s principally electronic transfers this distinction... proposals will exploit data from CryoSat’s baseline mission, but others led... of the uncertainties in the CryoSat products. Recognising that this would... the CryoSat data processors. As a direct result, we set up the CryoSat...-ordinated ground and aircraft experiments CryoSat traces its ground track at... validation activities Several of the CryoSat validation experiments, in particular those... we have adopted. After the CryoSat launch, the subsequent validation activities... the retrieval errors in the CryoSat products, through comparison with the.... Applications of CryoSat Data As mentioned earlier, the two CryoSat AOs have...-balance which originally prompted the CryoSat mission, others plan to use... additional user community joining the CryoSat team, with the introduction of..., such as meteorological services. The CryoSat mission will provide useful information... 2005 GALILEOSAT PROG. TECHNOL. METOP CRYOSAT ADM-AEOLUS FIRST LAUNCH 2005... launch date of August 2012. CryoSat NIRSpec The procurement activities for... vibration tested in January. The CryoSat satellite ready to undergo a thermal... on the development of the CryoSat satellite, particularly with the testing... launch. Activities associated with the CryoSat ground segment are progressing nominally... campaigns have demonstrated that the CryoSat ground segment is in a healthy... Progress To prepare for the CryoSat level-2 productvalidation activities, a complementary scientific...



Дата загрузки: 2017-06-14
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0.08/5
53 Analysis of CryoSat’s radar altimeter waveforms over different ... analyze signal waveforms from ESA’s CryoSat-2 satellite, to test the possibility... retrievals of sea ice type. CryoSat waveform parameters have values typical...., 1992). With the launch of CryoSat-2 in 2010 (Drinkwater et al.../Interferometric Radar ALtimeter (SIRAL) onboard CryoSat-2 enhances the resolution along track... the SAR technique used for CryoSat-2, Zygmuntowska et al. (2013a) presented... current algorithms for Envisat and CryoSat-2 use the waveform shape only... from CryoSat’s radar altimeter SIRAL. We analyze one winter of CryoSat-2 data... follows: First we describe the CryoSat-2 data, and the parameters used..., and sea ice drift. 2 55 1. CryoSat-2 waveform parameters The primary data... this study is from ESA’s CryoSat-2 satellite. CryoSat-2 was launched in 2010... a regular grid on a monthly basis. CryoSat’s payload instrument, the SAR/Interferometric... 3: Spatial distribution of the different CryoSat-2 SIRAL parameters in December 2012... spatial distributions of the six CryoSat-2 parameters for December 2012 are... values of Pulse Peakiness from CryoSat-2 are lower in the swath... analyzed different waveform characteristics from CryoSat’s synthetic aperture radar altimeter SIRAL... values of Pulse Peakiness from CryoSat-2 are lower along the swath...). The radar signal waveform from CryoSat-2 is dependent on the properties... Multi-Year-Ice for the CryoSat-2 parameters over regions with First... that the waveform characteristics from CryoSat’s radar altimeter SIRAL are dependent... provides a simplified picture, while CryoSat-2 parameters provide more details about... the spatial distribution of the CryoSat-2 parameters. Thus we can refute... different surface regimes found from CryoSat-2 parameters (comparison not shown). As... Multi-Year-ice for the CryoSat-2 parameters shown in Figure 3. In... shape of altimeter waveform from CryoSat-2 and find them to be... Agency for processing and providing CryoSat-2 data, the National Snow and... the Interferometric Capabilities of ESA CryoSat-2 Mission to Improve the Accuracy... Space Agency’s earth explorer mission CryoSat: measuring variability in the cryosphere..., S., Ricker, R., and Helm, V. (2013). AWI CryoSat-2 Sea Ice Thickness Data Product..., N., and Studinger, M. (2014). An improved CryoSat-2 sea ice freeboard and thickness..., R., Kurtz, N., Farrell, S., and Davidson, M. (2013). CryoSat-2 estimates of Arctic sea ice..., S., Mallow, U., Mavrocordatos, C., et al. (2006). CryoSat: A mission to determine the fluctuations...



Дата загрузки: 2016-11-03
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0.13/5
... © Author(s) 2015. CC Attribution 3.0 License. CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual... Abstract. We show that the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter can provide useful... the frequent coverage provided by CryoSat-2. For example, the average summer... surface elevation change estimates from CryoSat for both ice caps are... in 2017, but until then CryoSat-2 (CS2), launched by the European... Union. 1896 L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual... during field campaigns under the CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVex) at selected.../9/1895/2015/ L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual..., 2015 1898 L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual... the unit vector in the “CryoSat-2 reference frame” (Wingham et al.../9/1895/2015/ L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual..., 2015 1900 L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual.../9/1895/2015/ L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual..., 2015 1902 L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual.../9/1895/2015/ L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual..., 2015 1904 L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual.../9/1895/2015/ L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual..., 2015 1906 L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual.../9/1895/2015/ L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual... 3, which has surged during the CryoSat-2 time period, have been removed..., 2015 1908 L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual.../9/1895/2015/ L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual... and the heights derived from CryoSat-2. This has been confirmed with..., 2015 1910 L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual... elevation since mid-2010 when CryoSat-2 was commissioned. However, all the... elevations. For the first time, CryoSat-2 has provided credible monthly height.../9/1895/2015/ L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual... of the SARIn mode of Cryosat allows the user to identify... Agency through the provision of CryoSat-2 data and the support for...., 48, 159–170, 2008. Bouzinac, C.: CryoSat-2 Product Handbook, Tech. Report, European....int/ emits-doc/ESRIN/7158/CryoSat-PHB-17apr2012.pdf (last access..., 2015 1912 L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual..., W. H. F., and Abdall, S.: Calibration of the CryoSat-2 Interferometer and Measurement of Across... Helm, V.: Interferometric swath processing of CryoSat-2 data for glacial ice topography... losses from Antarctica detected by CryoSat-2, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 3899... 2012 melt event effects on CryoSat-2 radar altimetry, Geophys. Res. Lett..., R.: Impact of snow accumulation on CryoSat-2 range retrievals over Arctic sea.../9/1895/2015/ L. Gray et al.: CryoSat-2 delivers monthly and inter-annual..., G., Rey, L., Rostan, F., Viau, P., and Wallis, D.: CryoSat-2: a mission to determine the fluctuations...



Дата загрузки: 2017-09-24
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0.45/5
..., Icesat and GRACE – a reference for Cryosat sea-ice mapping R. Forsberg and... = N + MDT F: Free-board (ICESat: snow, CryoSat: ice interface) h: Ellipsoidal height of... F S Snow T Ice h Geoid N Water Ellipsoid Cryosat Mar 2005 Example of MDT... / NPS (Maslowski) (provided by S: Laxon) Cryosat Mar 2005 ICESAT track example... Details in Baffin Bay (Greenland) Cryosat Mar 2005 GREENLAND Sources of... and satellite gravity measurements: ARCGICE Cryosat Mar 2005 New satellite missions... and MSS ICESAT GRACE GOCE CRYOSAT Cryosat Mar 2005 GRACE geoid: mm...) Real mission: ~1-2 cm r.m.s.? Cryosat Mar 2005 GRACE and CryoSat symbiosis: Changing gravity.../yr global sea level rise Cryosat Mar 2005 Source of geoid... submarine data into 5’ grid mgal Cryosat Mar 2005 ARCGP data sources.../McAdoo) Cryosat Mar 2005 ArcGP data sources New Russian Data Cryosat Mar... of reduction of gravity data Cryosat Mar 2005 Unit: mgal mean... local data (non-GRACE/EGM) Cryosat Mar 2005 ArcGP-GRACE geoid... geoid Unit: meter (scale –1 to 2) Cryosat Mar 2005 ICESAT minus new... 2003 ICESAT residual mean heights: h - N (m) Cryosat Mar 2005 QUICKSCAT and 40...-range airborne gravity in ArcGP Cryosat Mar 2005 Thickness estimation (freeboard... lowest level filtering MARCH 2003 Cryosat Mar 2005 OCTOBER 2003 ICESAT... estimation (freeboard x 6.0) - filtered MARCH 2003 Cryosat Mar 2005 OCTOBER 2003 ICESAT... in 2° latitude bands with overlap Cryosat Mar 2005 Improved ICESAT gravity.../Nov data draped to March) Cryosat Mar 2005 ArcGP free-air... gravity anomalies – differences Gravity (mgal) Cryosat Mar 2005 Geoid effect (meter... 5-6 km Accuracy < 2 mgal (x-over errror/√2) Cryosat Mar 2005 RMS x-over error... (Laxon/McAdoo 97W) – KMS airborne 1.5 7.2 Cryosat Mar 2005 Conclusions - Geoid and... sea-ice free-board heights .. Cryosat will be too (might be... ICESat .. New MSS model for Cryosat .. ArcGICE project .. Cryosat Mar 2005



Дата загрузки: 2017-10-09
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0.02/5
... Solar Dynamics Observatory. The European Cryosat-2 was launched and the Japanese... Cryosat, which was destroyed during a launcher anomaly in September 2005, with Cryosat-2, launched for ESA. CryoSat-2 is an environmental... monitoring climate change. Cryosat 2 was an advanced replacement for Cryosat, with software... open water. CryoSat-2 is operated as part of the CryoSat programme to... the Living Planet programme. The CryoSat-2 spacecraft was constructed by EADS... 2010. On 22 October 2010, CryoSat-2 was declared operational following six... week after the launch of Cryosat-2, India’s bid to launch an... an aircraft flying directly under CryoSat-2's orbital path. These measurements offered... quality of the newly launched CryoSat-2 satellite data over sea ice... angles of the platform. >> ESA’s CryoSat-2 has delivered its first data.... - 109 - Europe’s Ice research satellite CryoSat-2, which was built by Europe... kilogram spacecraft into a polar orbit. CryoSat-2 will measure the ice coverage... - CryoSat-1 - was lost in 2005 due to a failure of the launcher. CryoSat... accurately monitor climate change. The CryoSat mission is intended to measure... been the prime contractor for CryoSat-2 with responsibility for an industrial... in geodesy and surveying. CryoSat-2 ESA’s Earth Explorer CryoSat-2 mission, launched on... this challenge, data from the CryoSat-2 mission will lead to a better..., Swarm), altimetry missions (Jason-1/2, ICESAT, CryoSat-2), multi-disciplinary (e.g. altimetry and SAR... with a very advanced gradiometer, and CryoSat-2 (8 April 2010), carrying a sophisticated radar.... All instruments on board of CryoSat-2 have been switched on successfully... C2 COST CRISM COTS CREAM CRYOSAT-2 CSA CSBF CTIM CTIP CTX...



Дата загрузки: 2017-06-15
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0.11/5
cryosat → ESA’S ICE MISSION ESA’s earth ... management. cryosat swarm CRYOSAT The first mission to be selected, CryoSat will determine... climate change. The CryoSat-2 satellite replaces the original CryoSat, which was lost....esa.int/livingplanet CRYOSAT: ESA’s ICE mission Contents CryoSat: ESA’s ice mission... is Earth’s ice changing?......................................................... 6 How CryoSat will detect change............................................. 8 The mission..................................................................................................... 12 The essential groundwork................................................................ 14 CryoSat overview.............................................................................................. 16 The marginal ice... planet programme → CryoSat ESA’s ice mission ESA’s Earth Explorer CryoSat mission is..., the data delivered by the CryoSat mission will complete the picture... Earth system. The CryoSat-2 satellite replaces the original CryoSat, which was lost... new CryoSat-2, with a number of improvements, was ready for launch. CryoSat’s original... needed – which is what CryoSat will measure. CryoSat has been developed to... sheets on land. In particular, CryoSat carries sophisticated technologies to measure... in both types of ice, CryoSat will provide clear information to.... 7 esa’s living planet programme → How CryoSat will detect change The challenge.../S. Laxon) The challenge facing the CryoSat mission falls into two areas... changes. To meet these challenges, CryoSat-2 carries a precise radar altimeter. It... flown in such an orbit. CryoSat-2 travels even further than ICESat... nearest point to the satellite. CryoSat-2 can measure the angle from... with the altimeter designed for CryoSat-2, which exploits sophisticated radar techniques... volume of ice is changing. CryoSat-2 is able to measure the... known. The radar altimeter on Cryosat-2 is based on heritage from... precise measurement of icy surfaces. CryoSat-2 determines the thickness of floating... a position and elevation to it. CryoSat-2 is able to pin down...’s living planet programme → The mission CryoSat-2 was taken into orbit on... Kazakhstan. (ESA/P. Carril) The overall CryoSat mission combines many interdependent parts... went wrong for the first CryoSat satellite. This time, a different launcher... the vehicle used previously. So CryoSat-2 was launched by a Dnepr, adapted... single ground station for the CryoSat mission is at Kiruna in... is located at a midlatitude, the CryoSat orbit passes within range only... often enough. earth explorer missions CryoSat-2 is in ground contact via.... (ESA/R. Francis) Data Processing (Kiruna) CryoSat-2 at IABG in Ottobrunn, Germany... products have to wait. The CryoSat-2 Mission Control Team in the.../R. Francis) Every user of the CryoSat mission can access the final... → The instruments Startrackers SIRAL electronics CryoSat-2’s primary payload is the SAR... is about 500 µs. However, the CryoSat-2 altimeter sends a burst of pulses... two receiving antennas is essential. CryoSat-2 measures this baseline orientation using... a few centimetres. To do this, CryoSat-2 carries two devices: a radio receiver... attached to the underside of CryoSat-2. This little device has seven... fires short laser pulses at CryoSat-2 and times the interval before... of independent reference measurements of CryoSat-2’s position. From the phase difference... that the aim of the CryoSat mission is to measure global... on the measurements taken by CryoSat-2 has to be assessed very... the software that will transform CryoSat-2’s measurements into ice-thickness maps... polar explorers, inspired by the CryoSat mission, have also volunteered to... thickness with time observed by CryoSat-2 so that the best possible... the ‘ASIRAS’ airborne version of CryoSat-2’s radar altimeter. The rectangular antenna..., the basic measurements required for CryoSat-2 validation. (ESA/M. Davidson) Camp in... reflectors are used extensively during CryoSat validation campaigns. Their metallic structures... mass, the main goal of CryoSat over land ice. (Norwegian Polar... esa’s living planet programme → CryoSat-2 overview The CryoSat mission will determine variations... climate change. The CryoSat-2 satellite replaces the original CryoSat, lost in the...



Дата загрузки: 2017-06-15
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0.07/5
... Space Agency’s Earth Explorer Mission CryoSat: Measuring Variability in the Cryosphere... Modelling University College London ABSTRACT CryoSat is currently being prepared for... for calibration and validation of CryoSat data are described. 1 Paper 39A236...’s (ESA’s) first dedicated cryosphere mission CryoSat (ESA, 2003), scheduled for launch.... Firstly, a description is given of CryoSat’s key features and 2 Paper 39A236... and future development prospects. CRYOSAT BACKGROUND CryoSat is the first of the... (see: www.esa.int/livingplanet/cryosat). CryoSat originated as a science-driven mission... (Wingham et al., 1999). The CryoSat mission is designed to determine..., in order to determine trends, CryoSat must repeatedly sample ice elevation... the satellite measurements. Thus, the CryoSat system was designed from the... of (2) in (1) leads to the CryoSat measurement requirements of approximately m ~ 0.5 n in... CryoSat mission requirements document (UCL, 1999). To address these measurement challenges CryoSat... of the sea ice. The CryoSat instrument design that was selected... than existing radar altimeters. Thus, CryoSat has new, unique instrument attributes... the following section. MISSION PROFILE CryoSat (Figure 1) is designed for 3 years... the CryoSat Mission and Data Description document (ESA, 2001c). The CryoSat satellite...-synchronous, drifting, lowearth, polar orbit. CryoSat’s orbital parameters were selected to... East Antarctic ice sheet. Thus, CryoSat will be placed in an... coverage at both poles. The CryoSat satellite bus which will carry..., is the primary payload of CryoSat. SIRAL is a high-resolution Kuband.... These new features will allow CryoSat to generate satellite radar altimetric...: SAR Mode The key to CryoSat’s ability to measure the freeboard... achieve the required measurement accuracy. CryoSat measures the baseline (and thus... satellite must be accurately known. CryoSat has a DORIS (Doppler Orbit and... Supplementary, independent reference measurements of CryoSat’s position are facilitated by a laser... ‘cal/val’). In the initial CryoSat proposal, a relatively simple approach was... requirements. The purpose of the CryoSat cal/val is therefore to... can be found in the CryoSat Calibration and Validation Concept document... order to identify and quantify CryoSat error sources, independent collocated, and... can be scheduled during the CryoSat mission: these include deployment of... activities relevant to meeting the CryoSat cal/val objectives. The Calibration... members of the approved initiatives. A CryoSat Validation Implementation plan is currently... as an essential input to CryoSat data processing software development activities... with those proposed in the CryoSat data processing concept (ESA and... sea ice to simulate the CryoSat SAR mode of operation. An... the CryoSat ice thickness retrieval accuracy. In-Flight Calibration The CryoSat satellite... confirmed in the forthcoming CryoSat calibration plan. SUMMARY CryoSat has recently entered... new SIRAL instrument on board CryoSat promises to revolutionise our capability... masses. Achieving an overlap between CryoSat and RA-2 is essential to... remains in the CryoSat preparations, since overlap between CryoSat, Envisat, and the... thanked for their contribution to CryoSat illustrations. REFERENCES Abdalati, W., and K. Steffen.... European Space Agency (ESA), 2001. CryoSat mission and data description, Noordwijk....) European Space Agency (ESA), 2003. CryoSat science report, Noordwijk, European Space... University College London (UCL), 2001a. CryoSat calibration and validation concept. Noordwijk... University College London (UCL), 2001b. CryoSat data processing concept, Noordwijk, European.... University College London (UCL), 1999. CryoSat mission requirements document, Issue 1, Noordwijk.... Wingham, D.J., and 20 others, 1999. CryoSat: a mission to determine fluctuations in.... 39. Table 1. Overview of the CryoSat science and measurement requirements. The... S-Band Communications Antenna Figure 1. The CryoSat satellite viewed from beneath – with... on this flight, simulating the CryoSat SARIn operating mode (after Raney... to be acquired in the CryoSat SAR operating mode (after Raney...



Дата загрузки: 2017-04-23
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0.15/5
... with hydrologic/hydrodynamic models. Except CryoSat-2, all radar altimetry missions have... reduction through multi-looks. However, CryoSat-2 challenges conventional ways of dealing... for rivers. We review the CryoSat-2 mission characteristics, data products, and... CryoSat-2, and conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions. Keywords: CryoSat... (ESA) there are ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, CryoSat-2, and Sentinel-3. Besides that, some... spatial coverage, see Table 1); moreover, CryoSat-2 has other important advantages, for... with CryoSat-2 observations. Published study results show that performance of CryoSat-2 achieves... the application application of of CryoSat-2 CryoSat-2 altimetry altimetry data dataover overinland... of satellite radar andprovide provideaaCryoSat-2 CryoSat-2mission mission overview. Then, present... of CryoSat-2 in hydrological applications. prospects of potential use of CryoSat-2 in... mode implemented implemented on on CryoSat-2. CryoSat-2. In Ingeneral, general,waveforms waveformsreturned... with a mean altitude, inclination [44]. CryoSat-2’s isisnon-sun-synchronous with a mean... Track 3.3. Ground AsTrack already mentioned, CryoSat-2’s orbit is long-repeat (geodetic... the exception of CryoSat-2, all satellite As already mentioned, CryoSat-2’s orbit is... CryoSat-2 a period of 16 Main: days. Figure 5. Ground Ground tracks of CryoSat... pulse is LRM on onCryoSat-2 CryoSat-2isisthe theconventional conventionalpulse-limited pulse... CryoSat-2. one providing L3 water levels (along-track product) derived from CryoSat... chart of CryoSat-2 data processing. processing. 5. Use of CryoSat-2 over Lakes CryoSat-2, due... and storage variations analysis using CryoSat-2 data. 5.1. Time Series Construction Unlike... of 20 5. Use of CryoSat-2 over Lakes CryoSat-2, due to its special... and storage variations analysis using CryoSat-2 data. 5.1. Time Series Construction Unlike... are contaminated by land. (A) (B) Figure 8. CryoSat-2 ground tracks over Taro Co... on multiple data sources including Cryosat-2 using an iterative reweighted linear... [20]. 6. Use Use of of CryoSat-2 CryoSat-2 over over Rivers Rivers 6. In... driftingground groundtrack trackpattern patternof ofCryoSat-2 CryoSat-2challenges challengescommon commonways waysof ofdealing... a predominantly north–south direction [49]. CryoSat-2 however has a much finer inter... a predominantly north–south direction [49]. CryoSat-2 however has a much finer inter... and quality of the extracted CryoSat-2 water level henceobservations. improve the... of the extracted CryoSat-2 water level observations. Figure 10. CryoSat-2 SARIn data... by CryoSat-2. displaying the river water level profile observed by CryoSat-2. Besides... the spatiotemporally distributed observations of CryoSat-2 onto certain points (e.g., virtual stations... spatio-temporally distributed observations of CryoSat-2 onto certain points (e.g., virtual stations... CryoSat-2 data over the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. They interpolated the CryoSat... a reasonable agreement between Envisat and CryoSat-2 data. However, such simple interpolation...-temporal interpolation of the scattered CryoSat-2 observations to obtain continuous water.... Simple spatio-temporal interpolation of CryoSat-2 water level observations can be... station time series. To assimilate CryoSat-2 data, a flexible modelling-data assimilation... be ingested. 7. Discussion and Perspectives CryoSat-2, with its SIRAL altimetry instrument..., CryoSat-2 shows great advantages over other missions in lake level monitoring. CryoSat... to mean water level. Therefore, CryoSat-2 shows16great Water 2017, 9,precision 211... for allows CryoSat-2, suchhigh-resolution as new approaches densification of CryoSat-2 grounddeveloped... of theassimilation techniquesapproach, developedCryoSat-2 for CryoSat-2 data, as update flexiblehydrodynamic data... applications of CryoSat-2 over lakes and rivers have been summarized. CryoSat-2 can..., L.; Andersen, O.B.; Villadsen, H.; Knudsen, P. Validation of CryoSat-2 SAR mode based lake levels...] Villadsen, H.; Andersen, O.B.; Stenseng, L.; Nielsen, K.; Knudsen, P. CryoSat-2 altimetry for river level monitoring..., R.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.; Gerdes, R. Classification of CryoSat-2 radar echoes. In Towards an..., H.; Madsen, H.; Bauer-Gottwein, P. Application of CryoSat-2 altimetry data for river analysis... Agency. Mullar Space Science Laboratory CryoSat Product Handbook; European Space Agency...–1116. [CrossRef] European Space Agency. CryoSat Level-2 Product Evolutions and Quality..., P.; Laxon, S.W.; Mallow, U.; Mavrocordatos, C.; et al. CryoSat: A mission to determine the fluctuations.... [CrossRef] Kleinherenbrink, M.; Ditmar, P.G.; Lindenbergh, R.C. Retracking Cryosat data in the SARIn mode... Tibetan Plateau from ICESat and CryoSat-2 altimetry and station observations. Sci..., N.; Shepherd, A.; Cullen, R.; Trouvé, E. Evaluation of CryoSat-2 for height retrieval over the..., P.; Boy, F.; Picot, N.; Benveniste, J. Applications of CryoSat-2 SAR & SARIn modes for the...-Gottwein, P. Combining Envisat type and CryoSat-2 altimetry to inform hydrodynamic models...



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... ARTICLE 1 V.09 September, 2011 Title Cryosat-2: Doris Instrument and System Description... Other information (www.cnes.fr) CRYOSAT-2: DORIS INSTRUMENT AND SYSTEM DESCRIPTION... data. Specific characteristics of DORIS / CryoSat-2 are also detailed. The major... data are provided. Then DORIS / CryoSat specifics are detailed. Finally the..., Jason-1, ENVISAT, SPOT5, Jason-2 and Cryosat-2 have driven significant evolutions of... third part is devoted to CryoSat. 2. THE DORIS SYSTEM AND PRODUCTS... AOCS pointing algorithms (e.g. Pléïades, CryoSat),  on-board use of geodetic...) and of the ENVISAT and CryoSat ESA missions for their altimetry... of a few microseconds. On-board CryoSat-2, a J2000 estimate of position/velocity.... 4. CRYOSAT-2 AND DORIS 4.1 ON-BOARD USE OF DORIS : On-board CryoSat-2, DORIS... central time reference on board CryoSat. The accuracy with which DORIS... respect to TAI. For the CryoSat mission, inertial J2000 on-board... Control System (AOCS). This informs Cryosat-2 about its position, in an... altimeter data. 4.2 FIRST MONTHS RESULTS : CryoSat-2 was launched on April 8, 2010...-reinitialisation and a 1 hour unavailability of CryoSat-2 on-board products (not for..., SPOT5, Jason-1, JASON-2, ENVISAT and Cryosat-2, the DORIS system has today...-years on-orbit. On-board CryoSat-2, real-time J2000 estimates and...



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... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.4 Solar radiation pressure model of Cryosat-2 . . . . . . . . 2.1.5 Antenna phase center definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.6 Satellite... Cryosat-2 . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 SLR-only and DORIS-only solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 External Orbit validation of Cryosat... the commissioning phase of the Cryosat-2 mission which was successfully launched... section 2.2 we report on the Cryosat-2 POD results obtained with the.../A&S , worked on the validation of Cryosat-2 orbits which are determined by... orbit determination at DEOS/A&S for Cryosat-2 is performed with the help... section 2.1.2, the attitude model of Cryosat-2 is discussed in section 2.1.3, the... precision orbit determination infrastructure for Cryosat-2 is as follows: 4 WP 310... and SLR information related to Cryosat-2 from public internet sources. The... ESA repositories dedicated to the Cryosat-2 commissioning phase. MOE and POE... ftp to cryo-tudelft@calvalpds.cryosat.esa.int. Spacecraft mass and.... During the development phase for Cryosat-2 we encountered some issues with..., this model is implemented during Cryosat’s commissioning phase for DORIS stations... fixed coordinate frame (SBF) of Cryosat-2 is nominally in a 6 degree pitch... star trackers on board the Cryosat-2 satellite provides quaternions in its... model of Cryosat-2 The solar radiation pressure (SRP) model of Cryosat-2 is... 2.1.1. 2.2 Precision orbit determination results for Cryosat-2 Given the fact that the... 2.2 Precision orbit determination results for Cryosat-2 7 concentrate on the time frame... of the cube corner on Cryosat-2. ILRS tracking station number 1893... consider if for some reason Cryosat-2 would ever lose DORIS tracking... ERS-1. 2.3 External Orbit validation of Cryosat-2 During the commissioning phase the... in the operational phase of Cryosat-2. Our recommendations for further research... or improve accuracy of the Cryosat-2 orbits by means of minimization... Cd of Cryosat-2 which depends on the shape of Cryosat-2. The thermosphere... capture the accelerations seen by Cryosat-2 as a result of thermospheric density... calibration and validation of the CryoSat-2 Ocean product, or Low Resolution... as WP 520 in the ”CryoSat-2 Precise Orbit Determination and Indirect... of systematic errors in the CryoSat-2 LRM observations, first estimation of... with CryoSat-2 included For this we have the following inputs: CryoSat-2 infrastructure... analysis and dual-satellite crossovers, i.e. CryoSat-2 crossings with other satellites). Verification... transferring and by that converting CryoSat-2 LRM Level-2 data to the... of SIRAL - Commissioning Phase Status CryoSat-2 LRM data: data field contents... SIRAL LRM data Figure 3.3 Status CryoSat-2 LRM data continued: remaining data... of SIRAL - Commissioning Phase Figure 3.4 CryoSat-2 LRM geographical data coverage. Left... right panel: the path the CryoSat satellite has followed, starting in...: surface anomaly compared Figure 3.6 27 CryoSat-2 sea surface anomaly comparison with... the sea surface anomaly from CryoSat-2 (CS) with that from Envisat...’t operate at the extreme latitudes CryoSat-2 does. We also introduce 28... Global sea surface anomaly for CryoSat-2 and Envisat with either SSB... a relative bias between Envisat and CryoSat-2 of -3.86m. Notice that the... is found, which translates into a CryoSat-2 range bias of -3.72m. From... we then also edit the CryoSat-2 anomalies and reject measurements for... similar sea level anomalies for CryoSat-2 and Envisat, which encourages us... improvement of the CryoSat-2 data, also for ocean applications. CryoSat-2 could become... measurement for these available on CryoSat, that is no dual-frequency... as WP 530 in the ”CryoSat-2 Precise Orbit Determination and Indirect... used for absolute calibration of CryoSat-2 SIRAL LRM Level-2 data (left... like near Hawaii. Inter-comparing CryoSat-2 with different radar altimetric and... Lakes. Assessing the (detectability of) CryoSat-2’s orbital drift and establishing an..., Jason, Envisat, T/P, ERS-2, and now CryoSat-2. Absolute calibration of altimeters is... gauges Figure 4.2 33 Geometry for CryoSat-2 relative tide gauge calibration with... - Commissioning Phase Direct comparison of CryoSat-2 compressed sea surface anomaly (black.... The black dots represent the CryoSat altimeter results: they are based... concerned but not worried about CryoSat’s usability in ocean applications. As... tide gauge assisted calibration in CryoSat’s Operational Phase. 4.4 Tide gauge calibration... in a new round of investigations. CryoSat-2 comparison with tide gauges near...-calibration with Envisat, viz. ≈ 3.8m. CryoSat-2 comparison with tide gauges near... therefore recommend. Bibliography ACSL1b (2009), Cryosat ground segment instrument processing facility...-gs–5106), ESA. ACSL2 (2009), Cryosat ground segment instrument processing facility..., TER-STRICD-001. Francis, R. (2005), CryoSat reference information, CS-TN-ESA... of the laser retroreflector array cryosat-lrr-02, issue 1.0, c2-dd..., B.A.C. Ambrosius, C.K. Shum, and A. Braun (2009), Cryosat-2 precise orbit determination and indirect...