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... prayers from the book “Duoi dafy gin va dev” (Prayers for...

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Place, Person and Ancestry among the Temanambondro of Southeast Madagascar Philip Thomas Thesis submitted for the Degree of Ph.D. Department of Anthropology London School of Economics and Political Science University of London 1996 UMI Number: U615404 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL U SE R S The quality of this reproduction is d ep endent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not sen d a com plete manuscript and there are m issing p a g es, th e se will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation Publishing UMI U 615404 Published by ProQ uest LLC 2014. Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQ uest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C ode. ProQ uest LLC 789 East Eisenhow er Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346 7 k e s .e s > F 7 2S& ^ 3 \o 7 ^ z g e Abstract This thesis is a study of the Temanambondro of southeast Madagascar and focuses on issues of place, personhood and ancestry. In particular it emphasizes the importance of space and place in Temanambondro concepts of relatedness, as well as arguing that the Temanambondro imagine themselves as a people different from others by emphasizing the importance of place in their conceptualization of self-identity. The thesis begins by outlining a "spatial history" of the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial periods. It then goes on to discuss the theoretical issues addressed in the remainder of the thesis: "kinship", space, and aesthetics. It is suggested that the Temanambondro possess an aesthetics of personhood, an issue explored through an analysis of gender, ideas about "nurture", and how a person's identity is constituted in terms of a "moral self' that is the basis by which people evaluate the actions of others. These aspects of the person and personal performance are supplemented by an account of how a person's identity is constituted in terms of Temanambondro concepts of relatedness, an issue explored through indigenous categories which differentiate between relations traced through men and those traced through women. Relatedness through men is central to the constitution of named Ancestries, and an analysis of local concepts also reveals how Ancestries (and the house-groups of which they are composed) are conceptualized in terms of houses, tombs, and space. The difference that gender makes in terms of relatedness is also central to the discussion of marriage, which is explored through images of the house, notions of fecundity emphasized in the marriage rites, and through ideas about space. Here discussion focuses on what Temanambondro refer to as "close" and "distant" marriages, a difference which is gendered in certain contexts, and this issue forms the basis of a discussion of the significance of gender in the tracing of relatedness among the Temanambondro and other peoples of Madagascar. Finally it is suggested that Temanambondro notions of relatedness make use of a number of concepts -gender, the house, space, images of "roots" - none of which is reducible to the other; and that images of "roots" are not only an idiom by which Temanambondro conceptualize social relations, but also one of the ways in which they conceptualize their "attachment to place". Keywords: aesthetics, gender, house, kinship, Madagascar, personhood, place, space. 2 Contents List of Figures 5 Acknowledgements 6 1. 8 Placing the Temanambondro in Time and Space Place, person and ancestry / 8 A tale of two rivers / I I Questions of origins and arrivals / 12 Hie politics of colonial ethnology /1 4 Migration, polity and society in southeast Madagascar / 17 A landscape of cultivated spaces / 23 The past in places / 29 The creation of a margin / 39 Conclusion / 42 Afterword: Fieldwork / 43 2. The Theory Chapter 48 Problems with language and problems with "kinship" / 48 Space, place and landscape / 53 Anthropologies of aesthetics / 55 Conclusion / 61 3. Personhood and Gender: An Aesthetics of Everyday Life 62 Perspectives on the person in Madagascar / 62 Conception, gestation and birth / 64 Fafiahy, work and nurture / 67 Gender, body and mind / 71 Conclusion: aesthetics and personhood / 76 4. The "Roots" and "Sides" of Ancestry The denial and desire of Kidisomitra / 79 Performativity and relatedness / 80 Tena fototra: the "root” of Ancestry / 82 Placing persons and placing Ancestry / 86 The "sides" of ancestry / 89 Anakapela: children of women / 91 Conclusion: performativity, place and ancestry / 97 3 79 5. House, Tomb and River: The Architectonics of Ancestry 101 Women don't know how to do houses / 101 Perspectives on the house /102 Bush and village / 104 The house: images of relatedness and memory / 107 One root, many branches: images of unity and division / 113 Tranobe and fatrange: house-groups /115 Karazana and kibory: Ancestries and tombs / 126 Ancestries of the ...