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12017-02-07. e2V поставила первые сенсоры для КА Эвклид.
Компания e2v (Англия) осуществила разработку и поставку в Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL) первых четырех новых CCD сенсоров, которые будут использоваться в составе КА Euclid. В дальнейшем планируется, что эти элементы будут являться основой сенсора основного инструмента телескопа. При этом, компания отметила, что поскольку аппарат будет находиться на орбите не менее 6 лет, то производитель особое внимание уделил радиационной стойкости элементов. В сборе поставленные сенсоры позволят осуществлять съемку с разрешением около 610 мегапикселей и обладать полем обзора 0.78 х 07 градусов. Диаметр первичного зеркала аппарата должен будет составить 1.2 метра.
КА Евклид (назван в честь древнегреческого математика Евклида) — космическая миссия, которая в данный момент (январь 2017) разрабатывается Европейским Космическим Агентством (ЕКА). Цель миссии заключается в более лучшем понимании геометрии темной материи и темной энергии посредством очень точного измерения ускорения Вселенной. Для этого аппарат будет измерять красные смещения галактик, находящихся на разном расстоянии от Земли, и исследовать связь красного смещения и расстояния. Евклид является частью научной программы ЕКА "Cosmic Vision". Планируемая дата запуска - 2020 г.Тэги: EuclidКосмическое агентство Великобритании

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Дата загрузки: 2017-03-26
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... in space applications - Phase 2 Euclid Power SCOE Euclid SVM Electrical Simulator 5M... are prepared (MTG, METOP-SG, EUCLID). Certificate QSF-A Certificate ISO14001 Certificate... the robotic telescope test bed • EUCLID SVM electric simulator (AO7613) – together... this “door opener” to the EUCLID project, with consultancy support from...



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... the European selection of the Euclid dark energy mission, which is... WFIRST, the Euclid mission, and the groundbased LSST. Euclid has two instruments..., and a NIR imaging/spectroscopy instrument. Euclid's design was optimized to maximize... Space Telescope (henceforth JWST), ESA's Euclid mission, and the NSF's ground... Cosmic Vision medium class missions. Euclid is also a wide field telescope... US Participation in Euclid recommended a modest contribution to Euclid, saying "This investment... Euclid and is needed June 2012 MOU for US participation in Euclid... of WFIRST (see Figure 1). The Euclid Definition Study Report, better known... higher redshift. The NRC Euclid committee wrote: “Euclid's and WFIRST's measurements are... single measurement. Combining WFIRST with Euclid and groundbased data sets, such... potential of this powerful technique.'' Euclid can, in principle, discover exoplanets... 1: Introduction charged particle damage to Euclid's optical CCDs. Moreover, both exoplanet... with WFIRST. Euclid has no general observer program. Euclid will produce an... survey mode required to achieve Euclid's sky coverage results in a survey... planet parameter uncertainties. Comparison to Euclid WFIRST will detect 2-3 times more... day survey with an extended Euclid mission. Section 2: Science Figure 4: Data... the primary science components of Euclid, and therefore such a survey is... not clear if the final Euclid design (e.g., pointing constraints) will even...) 40 DRM2 (266 days) 27 Euclid-Extended (300 days) 5 Table 4: Predicted... programs, and it will complement Euclid by going two magnitudes deeper....0 40 11 1 - Euclid, wide 15,000 H=24.0 1359 22 Euclid, deep WFIRST... angular resolution is higher. The Euclid IR imaging is two magnitudes... for galaxy shape measurements. The Euclid optical imaging depth is comparable... magnitudes of the WFIRST (blue), Euclid (green), and LSST (red) imaging... required is z<0.01(1+z) 2.5.2.6 Relation to Euclid and LSST We conclude this... qualitative comparison between the WFIRST, Euclid, and LSST weak lensing experiments... the requirements. Where the WFIRST, Euclid and LSST surveys overlap, they... of both LSST and WFIRST. Euclid’s weak lensing strategy, as outlined... weak lensing. This has pushed Euclid to an observing strategy with...-2, with similar statistics to the Euclid survey; much shorter exposures in... measurements from WFIRST, LSST, and Euclid will allow powerful tests of... the lower bias model, the Euclid measurements are dominated by shot... the higher bias model, the Euclid measurements achieve nP > 0.7 out to... WFIRST HLS (black squares) and Euclid (blue triangles). Lower and upper... Hubble parameter H(z) from WFIRST and Euclid. This forecast uses BAO information... noise. At z ≈ 1.5, the WFIRST and Euclid errors are comparable, with WFIRST... fractional H(z) errors comparable to the Euclid errors at z < 1.5, with errors rising... significantly better constraints than either Euclid or BigBOSS over most of... Δz=0.1 for WFIRST (black squares) and Euclid (blue triangles). Upper curves show... computed similar forecasts for the Euclid galaxy redshift survey, with the..., while Euclid adds measurements in six redshift bins from z = 0.7 – 1.3. (The Euclid errors... complementarity of the WFIRST and Euclid redshift surveys. In the overlapping... and space density. Because the Euclid errors are dominated by shot... WFIRST maps a subset of the Euclid volume, so combining the measurements..., and the Subaru PFS; the Euclid measurements will be independent to... made equivalent calculations for the Euclid experiment, with exactly the same... most conservative assumptions, WFIRST outperforms Euclid by more than a factor of... of alternative gravity models. For Euclid we forecast errors of 0.007..., then the RSD constraints from Euclid yield  = 0.027, somewhat stronger than... account the capabilities of ESA's Euclid mission, NASA's JWST mission, and... in Euclid recommended a modest level of US participation in the Euclid project... redshift. The baseline program for Euclid (Laureijs et al. 2011) involves... other projects. Euclid will not have a general observer program. Euclid's infrared imaging... was substantial overlap between the Euclid infrared spectroscopic program and that... acceleration at earlier times than Euclid can reach and emphasizing full... goals of the WFIRST and Euclid weak gravitational lensing programs are... that is not possible with Euclid's single filter. WFIRST's detectors do... accurate. Finally, since WFIRST and Euclid are likely to be affected... eliminate overlap between WFIRST and Euclid per the direction for DRM2... shorter mission Does not duplicate Euclid Scales with pixel size More... the expansion history than does Euclid. The optical block diagram (Figure... program elements is fundamentally different. Euclid maximizes sky coverage at the... survey goes substantially deeper than Euclid's, measuring each Fourier mode near..., 38 (1989) Laureijs, R., et al., "Euclid Definition Study Report", arXiv:1110... of a Plan for U.S. Participation in Euclid”,The National Academies Press, 2012... science proposal for the ESA Euclid mission I. Cold exoplanets”, MNRAS, submitted...



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... Pin 7 1 This kit can re p l a c e Euclid E-2769SHD 1-4 Axles and Components Part... re p l a c e Euclid E-3710SHD Q Standard 700-7-305 This kit can re p l a c e Euclid E-7899 EATON Standard 700-7-304 This kit can re p l a c e Euclid E-5139... p l a c e Euclid E-1887ASHD Heavy Duty 700-7-306 w i t h k n u r l e d rollers This kit can re p l a c e Euclid... w i t h k n u r l e d ro l l e r s This kit can re p l a c e Euclid E-10244 Item Qty Part No... adjustable brake spider can re p l a c e Euclid E-957 Meritor A-3211-A-833 S t a n d a rd...-7-21 1-1/8" Euclid E-545A Meritor 2258-P-354 For standard 'P' style brakes 8" 8-3/8" Euclid E-2768...-7-29 Euclid E-1113 1-7/8" O.D. ; 1-17/64" I.D. Meritor 1229-B-1848 700-7-19 Euclid E-539...-C6400S Euclid E-4717 700-7-176 26" 23-3/4" 2-7/32" R.H. Eaton 125031 Euclid E-4720 700-7-175 26" 23-3/4" 2-7/32" L.H. Eaton 125030 Euclid E-4721 700-7-188 22" 19-1/2" 2-7/32" R.H. Eaton 125035 Euclid E-2694 700-7-187 22" 19-1/2" 2-7/32" L.H. Eaton 125034 Euclid E-2693... Euclid E-685 700-17-243 25-1/8" 23-7/16" 2-5/16" R.H. Meritor R607001 Euclid E-1094 700-17-242 25-1/8" 23-7/16" 2-5/16" L.H. Meritor R607002 Euclid E-1095 700-17-244 13/3/4" 11-1/2" 1-3/4" R.H. Meritor 2210-C-5359 Euclid E-1147B 700-17-245 13/3/4" 11-1/2" 1-3/4" L.H. Meritor 2210-D-5360 Euclid...-L-4328 Euclid E-2442A 19-1/8" 17-5/16" 1-25/32" L.H. Meritor 2210-M-4329 Euclid E-2441A 22-1/4" 20-13/32" 1-25/32" R.H. Meritor 2210-Q-4333 Euclid E-2444A 22-1/4" 20-13/32" 1-25/32" L.H. Meritor 2210-R-4334 Euclid E-2443A 25-7/8" 24-1/16" 1-25/32" R.H. Meritor 2210-N-4330 Euclid E-2446A 25-7/8" 24-1/16" 1-25/32" L.H. Meritor 2210-P-4332 Euclid... Euclid E-5510 700-7-295 22-1/2" 20-7/16" 1-5/8” & 2-7/32” L.H. Spicer M16WKL25-205 Euclid E-9733 700-7-296 22-1/2" 20-7/16" 1-5/8” & 2-7/32” R.H. Spicer M16WKR25-205 Euclid E-9734 700-7-297 25-9/16" 23-1/2" 2-7/32" L.H. Spicer M16WKL25-236 Euclid E-9735 700-7-298 25-9/16" 23-1/2" 2-7/32" R.H. Spicer M16WKR25-236 Euclid E-9736 700-7-299 26" 24" 2-7/32" L.H. Spicer M16WKL25-242 Euclid E-10909 700-7-300 26" 24" 2-7/32" R.H. Spicer M16WKR25-242 Euclid... Euclid E-5526 700-7-283 25-3/8" 23-9/16" 1-5/8" & 2-7/32" R.H. Spicer M16WKR20-236 Euclid E-5527 700-7-289 26-1/8" 24-1/16 1-5/8" & 2-7/32" L.H. Spicer M16WKL20-242 Euclid E-9100 700-7-290 26-1/8" 24-1/16 1-5/8" & 2-7/32" R.H. Spicer M16WKR20-242 Euclid E-9101 700-7-293 22-1/2 20-7/16 1-5/8" & 2-7/32" L.H. Spicer M16WKL20-205 Euclid E-5524 700-7-294 22-1/2 20-7/16 1-5/8" & 2-7/32" R.H. Spicer M16WKR20-205 Euclid...-1 Euclid E-9761 700-7-292 18-1/8 16-1/8 2-5/32" R.H. Fruehauf APA-0998-2 Euclid E-9762...-2 Euclid E-1564 700-17-246 18-1/8" 16-1/8" 2-5/32" L.H. Fruehauf AXA-0420-1 Euclid...-4 Euclid E-2100 700-17-333 22-7/8" 21-1/8" 2-5/32" L.H. Fruehauf AXA-0420-3 Euclid... 700-7-9 This kit can re p l a c e : Euclid E-3520A S i rc o B 8 6 8 3 This kit can... p l a c e : Euclid E-2088AHD This kit can re p l a c e : Euclid E-6078 This kit can re p l a c e : Euclid... 700-7-8 This kit can re p l a c e : Euclid E-2090 S i rc o B 8 6 4 9 This kit can... Components This kit can re p l a c e : Euclid E-2696A 1-12 Dana Spicer 1-5/8” Dia...-7-32 1-7/8" 1-1/2" 1-1/4" Euclid E-536 Used in Kit 700-7-6 700-7-33 1-7/8" 1-1/2" 1-1/2" Euclid E-2291 Used in Kit 700-7-7 700-7-34 1-7/8" 1-1/2" 1-1/4" Euclid E-943 700-7-35 2-3/4" 1-1/2" 2-1/2" Euclid E-535 700-7-37 2-1/8" 1-1/2" 1" Euclid E-2361 Includes..." 2-1/2" Euclid E-1571 Used in Kit 700-7-8 Includes Grease Zerk 700-7-65 1-7/8" 1-1/2" 2" Euclid E-661 700-7-67 215/32" 1-1/2" 1-3/4" Euclid E-2102 700-7-68 2-1/2" 1-19/32" 1-1/2" Euclid E-1577A Used in Kits 700-7-169 & 700-7-245 1-3/16" Euclid E-2690A.... Replaces O.D. I.D. Thickness Note 700-7-40 Euclid E-581 2-1/4" 1-17/32" 0.032 Used... Kits 700-7-144 Euclid E-2411A 2-1/4" 1-5/8" 0.032 700-7-174 Euclid E-3471 2-1/2" 1-5/16" 0.062... Euclid E-656 LOCK RINGS Part No. Replaces I.D. Thickness Note 700-7-38 Euclid...-7-39 Euclid E-1416A I.D. Thickness 1-7/8" 1-1/2" 1/4" Used on 1-1/2" Dia. Cam Shafts 700-7-73 Euclid E-654 700-7-178 Euclid E-2405 1-14 O.D. 2-1/16...-B-7596 Euclid E-572 Replaces: Meritor 1227-C-549 Euclid E-540 3-7/8” O.D. Replaces: Meritor 1229-V- 1 6 6 0 Euclid... 3.480–12 THD x 4-3/4” AF Replaces: Euclid E-3008 R e p l a c e m e n t S e t S c re w : RW- 1 1 9 9 K 3 8 5 9 Axle Nut... Axles RW- K I T S T P N 3-1/2” Spindle Replaces: F ru e h a u f A X A - 0 4 0 8 - 1 Euclid E-1561 SM-447-4743 S t a n d a rd... a i l e r 1-18 Replaces: F ruehauf ACE-8510-1 Euclid E-2550 Spindle Nut Wrench 50...-3 8-Point 3-3/8” & 3-7/8” Openings Replaces: Meritor 325600000 Euclid E-844 Bearings & Races BEARINGS Timken...



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... DEM-SA-Dc0001_1_0_Euclid_SciRD_2008 May15.doc Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... Titre Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 issue author auteur Euclid Science Study... changement page(s)/page(s) paragraph(s)/paragraph(s) Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... A. Refregier paragraph(s)/paragraph(s) All All Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... DARK UNIVERSE WITH EUCLID .................................................................................. 3 2.1 EUCLID SCIENCE CASE ............................................................................................................................................. 3 2.2 EUCLID SCIENTIFIC CONCEPT ................................................................................................................................... 4 2.2.1 Euclid’s Principal Dark Energy..................................................................................................................................... 5 2.2.3 Observing from space.......................................................................................................................................... 5 2.3 MISSION OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................................. 5 3 EUCLID SCIENCE OBJECTIVES AND TOP LEVEL... 3.1.2.1 3.1.2.2 3.1.2.3 3.1.2.4 3.1.3 Dark Energy FoM obtained from Euclid......................................................................................................................9 Adding ground based data to... Visible Image Quality: distortions .............................................................................................................................17 Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... 6 GROUND SEGMENT REQUIREMENTS (TBW) .................................................................................................... 24 Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... requirements for Euclid, ESAs mission to map the dark Universe. Euclid will... concepts have been merged into Euclid, a single medium class (“Class M”) mission... all Science Requirements of the Euclid mission. During the Assessment Phase... Euclid Ground Segment. 1.3 BAO CV Acronyms Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations Cosmic Visions Euclid... reflected in the table of Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... 0/4. 2 2.1 INVESTIGATING THE DARK UNIVERSE WITH EUCLID Euclid Science Case Several independent observations... of the entire extragalactic sky. Euclid will address key fundamental cosmological... probes such as galaxy cluster Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... of galaxies. 2.2 Euclid Scientific Concept 2.2.1 EUCLID’S PRINCIPAL DARK ENERGY PROBES Euclid will measure... bias for galaxy redshift surveys. Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... addressed with the Euclid survey, a list of the Euclid probes is given... background emission from the atmosphere. Euclid will also yield medium resolution... from WMAP and Planck. Table 1: Euclid Primary Science Objectives Issue Target... prime scientific objective of the Euclid wide-field spectroscopic survey is... in synergy with the other EUCLID experiments (e.g. weak lensing). A summary of... parameters, modified gravity scenarios and Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... expansion history and the growth Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... energy probes can provide with Euclid. Table 4: Euclid mission, combining capabilities Category... Energy FoM obtained from Euclid Requirement: The Euclid DE FoM shall be... Euclid DE FoM shall include ground based data for photo-z determination. Euclid... their instrumentation to complement the Euclid legacy. 3.1.2 WEAK LENSING PROBE 3.1.2.1 Survey... at least 1.65 x 108 galaxies Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... SURVEYS LEGACY The possibilty that Euclid performs a deeper imaging/spectroscopic survey... field of a few square degrees. Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... and programmatic boundary conditions The Euclid science concept has been decided... the deconvolution of the PSF. Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... a fraction of the natural background) Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... a later Issue of this document. Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... the PDD for more information. Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... the photo-z redshifts (see Sect 4.5.2). Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision...) while avoiding the galactic bulge. Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... sq degrees, |b| > 30º >20º x 20º Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... a selection of the spectroscopic targets. Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision... the available ground segment infrastructure. Euclid’s data rate will be close... to downlink raw detector samples. Euclid Science Requirements Document issue 1 revision...



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... (The Netherlands) Foreword 1. The Euclid Mission Euclid is an optical/near-infrared... Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The Euclid spacecraft consists of two main... stage from Kourou. 2. Responsibility The Euclid mission has been approved by... the overall responsibility for the Euclid mission design and implementation including... the European industry the overall Euclid mission, the business opportunities, the... the Euclid PLM Industry Day (ESA) b) The Euclid mission (ESA) c) The Euclid System and Space segment (ESA) d) The Euclid programmatics (ESA) e) The Euclid Space... :15 a) The Euclid PLM overall design (Astrium) b) The Euclid product tree and constituents (Astrium) c) The Euclid development logic... 1.  Euclid Science Objectives 2.  Euclid Mission Overview 3.  Euclid Product trees 4.  The Euclid programmatics 5.  The Euclid Space... Racca | Noordwijk | 17 April 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 2 questions that point... Racca | Noordwijk | 17 April 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 3 ESA Cosmic Vision... what is it made of? Euclid Scientific Objectives (1/6)   Investigate the nature... 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 5 The Cosmology Standard Model: ΛCDM Euclid Scientific Objectives... | Euclid Project | Pag. 7 Euclid Science Objectives Summary Issue What is Dark Energy Euclid... expansion history and structure growth. Euclid Scientific Objectives (3/6) Beyond Einstein’s Gravity... Racca | Noordwijk | 17 April 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 8 Concept and Requirements... Lensing:  VIS imager + NIR photometer Euclid Scientific Objectives (4/6)   Shapes and shear... Racca | Noordwijk | 17 April 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 9 Evolution of mass... | Euclid Project | Pag. 12 Outline of the presentation 1.  Euclid Science Objectives 2.  Euclid Mission Overview 3.  Euclid Product trees 4.  The Euclid programmatics 5.  The Euclid Space... April 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 13 Mission facts   Euclid is fundamentally a telescope... stability and extreme telescope quality   Euclid is launched from Kourou with... of Euclid rotates and allow the completion of the coverage. Euclid L2... and attitude control. sunshield PLM (2/8)   Euclid is equipped with chemical propulsion... 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 15 Payload Module facts The Euclid payload module...×0.709 deg2, 0.45deg off-axis 2  Euclid free aperture: 1.2 m mission overview (3/8)   WFS... April 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 16 Payload facts Euclid mission overview (6/8) PLM... Racca | Noordwijk | 17 April 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 17 Spacecraft Electrical... Guidance Sensor Gyro Reaction Wheels Euclid mission overview (7/8) 70 power outlets... Racca | Noordwijk | 17 April 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 19 6.4 6.4 System Definition... and Design Tasksand Design Tasks EUCLID Ground Segment 1.  Mission Operation Centre... | Euclid Project | Pag. 20 Outline of the presentation 1.  Euclid Science Objectives 2.  Euclid Mission Overview 3.  Euclid Product trees 4.  The Euclid programmatics 5.  The Euclid Space... April 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 21 Product Tree (1/3) Euclid Spacecraft Service Module... Product Tree VIS (Astrium France) (Euclid Consortium) PLM Subcontractors NISP Item... | 17 April 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 22 (Euclid Consortium) Detectors VIS Detectors... | Euclid Project | Pag. 24 Collimator Outline of the presentation 1.  Euclid Science Objectives 2.  Euclid Mission Overview 3.  Euclid Product trees 4.  The Euclid programmatics 5.  The Euclid Space... | 17 April 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 25 Euclid Industrial Schedule 2012 Mission... 1.  Euclid Science Objectives 2.  Euclid Mission Overview 3.  Euclid Product trees 4.  The Euclid programmatics 5.  The Euclid Space... April 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 27 Euclid Procurement approach   Euclid procurement approved by...; ✔   second a procurement action covering the Euclid Spacecraft and Prime contractor activities... | Euclid Project | Pag. 28 Outline of the presentation 1.  Euclid Science Objectives 2.  Euclid Mission Overview 3.  Euclid Product trees 4.  The Euclid programmatics 5.  The Euclid Space...&State& & Geo,return&requirements&for&Euclid& & Austria( 2.6( 1.  Payload Module contract only...(Rep.( 1.2( Denmark( 2.1( 2.  For the entire Euclid Industrial contract, i.e. PLM+SVM => Finland... Racca | Noordwijk | 17 April 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 30 France( ( Germany... 1.  Euclid Science Objectives 2.  Euclid Mission Overview 3.  Euclid Product trees 4.  The Euclid programmatics 5.  The Euclid Space... Racca | Noordwijk | 17 April 2013 | Euclid Project | Pag. 31 Procurement Rules... Euclid PLM  Overall design  The PLM product tree and constituents  The Euclid... its stability. PLM Euclid main requirements  A stable large Euclid telescope  Korsch on... signals • Large temperature gradient between Euclid instrument warm electronics (293K) and...



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... Philosophy Behind this Work 11 1.3 Euclid’s Elements 14 5 2 Syntax and Semantics... Appendix A: Euclid’s Postulates vii 89 72 76 45 viii / Euclid and His... Carroll, published a little book entitled Euclid and His Modern Rivals. Dodgson... at heart—the vindication of Euclid’s masterpiece. . . .”1 It is written mostly..., Euclidean geometry in general, and Euclid’s proofs in particular, have mostly... 1 Dodgson (1885) 1 2 / Euclid and His Twentieth Century Rivals FIGURE 1 Euclid’s first proposition... Euclid’s proofs make strong use of geometric diagrams. For example, consider Euclid... its first enduring expression in Euclid’s Elements: that proofs should proceed... then, his axiomatization has replaced Euclid as the commonly accepted foundation..., while Hilbert’s axiomatization has replaced Euclid’s Elements as the theoretical basis... following sections 2 (Forder, 1927, p.42) 4 / Euclid and His Twentieth Century Rivals... down to us is Euclid’s Elements. In fact, Euclid’s Elements was such... this history from a philosophical perspective. 6 / Euclid and His Twentieth Century Rivals..., written about fifty years before Euclid’s Elements. Euclid’s main concern in The... Thomas Heath’s literal translations of Euclid’s Postulates.) Thus, these postulates, as... of Euclid, students of The Elements had been unsatisfied with Euclid’s fifth.... Finally, two thousand years after Euclid wrote, Gauss, Lobachevsky, and Bolyai... of Euclid’s first proposition will have to be very different from Euclid... Euclid’s proofs can be duplicated. We will take the view that Euclid.... 14 / Euclid and His Twentieth Century Rivals TABLE 1 Some of Euclid’s definitions..., give specific defin11 Euclid (1956) Background / 15 TABLE 2 Euclid’s Postulates from The... mathematics. However, while some of Euclid’s Postulates and Common Notions look... logical consequences of these axioms. Euclid’s first three postulates, as written... of the other proposed alternatives, Euclid’s fifth postulate says nothing directly... to look at one of Euclid’s proofs. Euclid’s proof of his first... of 18 / Euclid and His Twentieth Century Rivals TABLE 4 Euclid’s Proposition 1 from...] [Def. 15] [C.N. 1] Background / 19 TABLE 5 Euclid’s Proposition 4 from The Elements. If... proof, and not in Euclid’s original version. Euclid proves this proposition by... will exactly coincide. Commentators on Euclid’s Elements have widely objected to... seen in the previous chapter, Euclid’s proofs are inherently diagrammatic. Therefore... in Euclid’s second proposition. Rules C1, C2, and C3a correspond to Euclid’s first three postulates. Euclid’s Postulates can be found in Appendix A. 35 36 / Euclid and... C A FIGURE 10 A modified construction. 40 / Euclid and His Twentieth Century Rivals... Euclid’s proof of Proposition 1,14 Thomas Heath details several criticisms of Euclid... R2 correspond to Euclid’s Common Notions 1 and 2, 14 Euclid (1956) Diagrammatic Proofs... Appendices A and B.) R3 corresponds to Euclid’s Definition 15. We have already... using the symmetry transformations, and Euclid’s fifth postulate is derivable from... we have already encountered as Euclid’s Proposition 4: SAS. If a diagram contains... Book I of Euclid’s Elements. However, after that point, Euclid starts giving proofs... arguably heterogenous, however, because, like Euclid’s Elements, their arguments include both... R2.5 (subtraction), which corresponds to Euclid’s Common Notion 3. We didn’t need... consistent with Euclid’s use of the word “equals.” For example, Euclid’s Proposition... follows from the fifth by Euclid’s Proposition I.29 about corresponding angles...: solid1763 dot13 dottedseg290 dot289 58 / Euclid and His Twentieth Century Rivals... obtained in the proof of Euclid’s First Proposition. Diagrammatic Proofs / 59..., a complete transcript of a CDEG 62 / Euclid and His Twentieth Century Rivals... on Euclid’s Fourth Proposition.16) Using SAS as a lemma 16 (Euclid, 1956... f , and A ⊢ A∗ via derivation D. Let 70 / Euclid and His Twentieth Century Rivals... b ∈ B + ; so U ⊆ B + ; and so U = B + , which 72 / Euclid and His Twentieth Century Rivals...-dimensional picture of a pyramid 74 / Euclid and His Twentieth Century Rivals... for two millennia. However, restoring Euclid’s reputation is decidedly not the... Thomas Heath’s commentary on Euclid’s Proposition 2,21 21 (Euclid, 1956, pp. 145... those given by Euclid. In fact, many of Euclid’s proofs that have... be considered. Appendix A Euclid’s Postulates For reference, Euclid’s Postulates and Common Notions..., as translated in Euclid (1956). TABLE 10 Some of Euclid’s definitions from... 90 / Euclid and His Twentieth Century Rivals TABLE 11 Euclid’s Postulates from... step in the proof of Euclid’s First Proposition. Appendix D: A CDEG transcript... in the proof of Euclid’s First Proposition. 110 / Euclid and His Twentieth.... Stanford: CSLI Publications. 115 116 / Euclid and His Twentieth Century Rivals..., 30 dtangent, 23 Elements, see Euclid’s Elements Emerson, Ralph Waldo, v equivalent..., John, 10, 48 Euclid and His Modern Rivals, 1, 9, 84 Euclid’s Elements, 1–6, 8, 12...



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... dark energy program specifically — the Euclid mission. In particular, having the... (LSST) and the European-led Euclid telescope and will enable precision... survey (left) and with the Euclid wide field survey (right). At... 8 times finer pixels by area. Euclid’s images are best at optical... selected Euclid as one of two Cosmic Vision medium class missions. Euclid... by going into space. The Euclid prime-mission science is more... US Participation in Euclid recommended a modest contribution to Euclid, saying "This investment... dark energy program specifically — the Euclid mission. In particular, having the... 10 years of operation) and Euclid. In an AB-magnitude sense... resolution is much higher. The Euclid IR imaging is ~2.5 magnitudes shallower... for galaxy shape measurements. The Euclid optical imaging depth is comparable... Sensitivities of LSST, WFIRST, and Euclid pt src threshold (AB mag... source densities for LSST and Euclid (and WFIRST-2.4) depend on assumptions... 35 arcmin-2 for LSST and Euclid, respectively.11 The abundance of... (1.6k deg2/yr, ref zodi) Euclid (15-20k deg2, =45o) J H Y 30... the WFIRST-2.4 highlatitude survey (red), Euclid (green), and LSST (blue) imaging... characteristic of ground-based or Euclid observations, which miss much of...), and much deeper than the Euclid galaxy redshift survey, thus providing... at higher z. Our forecasts for Euclid based on the same luminosity... WFIRST-2.4 at z = 1.1, 1.5, and 1.9, respectively, so Euclid BAO errors will be dominated... sampled at WFIRST-2.4 density and Euclid density, based on slices from... much sparser sampling of the Euclid survey. We note that WFIRST... would be largely redundant with Euclid, while the deeper survey adopted... show our estimate of the Euclid sampling density for the same... space density predicted for the Euclid GRS at this redshift. At... this report, then the LSST, Euclid, and WFIRST-2.4 dark energy experiments... combine WFIRST-2.4 GRS results with Euclid GRS results because of the... a critical difference between WFIRST and Euclid, so it is worth noting... be to cross-check LSST, Euclid, and WFIRST-2.4 measurements to test... higher quality WL maps than Euclid (see Figure 2-3). On cluster scales... JWST/NIRCam’s FOV. Compared to Euclid, WFIRST-2.4 has approximately 4x the... resolution (>6 improvement in PSF area). Euclid’s dark energy surveys will certainly... detected exoplanetary systems. Comparison to Euclid WFIRST will detect 5 times more... day survey with an extended Euclid mission. ⊕ ⊕ Section 2: Science be small... 100 1000 10,000 Total Euclid-Extended (300 days) 10 66... giant sources. Section 2: Science 42 Euclid-Extended (300 days) 5 DRM1 (432... a 300-day microlensing mission with Euclid. WFIRST-2.4 will be substantially more... science return from JWST, LSST, Euclid and the planned ground based... ground-based weak lensing measurements. Euclid. While WFIRST-2.4 produces deep images... the sky at infrared wavelengths, Euclid will produce deep images of... at optical wavelengths (see Figure 2-2). Euclid depth in its single wide..., but the angular resolution of Euclid is higher. Because optical photons... nature of the dark matter. Euclid uses a combination of BAO measurements... it covers less area than Euclid, its redshift survey has an...-2.4 probes deeper into our past, Euclid will map a wider swath of... contemporaneous with the 6.25-year Euclid prime mission, so the two... powerful "dark energy machine" than Euclid, so if important discoveries about... more complementary to LSST and Euclid. In addition, JWST will greatly... LSST and WFIRST Synergies Between Euclid and WFIRST The Shapes of....caltech.edu   Synergies  between  Euclid  and  WFIRST     The   Euclid   and   WFIRST   missions...  below:     1)   A   large   uncertainty   for   both   Euclid   and   WFIRST   are   systematics   and...,   Hirata   &   Eisenstein   2009,   astro2010,127).   Euclid   and   WFIRST   probe   different   optimizations...   resolution   as   those   provided   by   Euclid   in   the   optical   (0.6-­‐1um)   enabling...   Ultra-­‐Violet   (UV)   at   z<~1.8   and   Euclid   has   poor   sensitivity   and   resolution...  of  an  optical  channel,  while  Euclid  will  not  have  the  near...   complement   the   0.9-­‐2um   spectra   from   Euclid.     This   increased   wavelength   coverage   will... the values typically quoted for Euclid and LSST, which are based... needed for interpreting LSST and Euclid weak lensing, the IFU on...-DRM2 designs, as well as Euclid. We expect the relative yields..., and DRM2, as well as Euclid in Table 2-4 and Table 2-5. All... assume a total 266 days. For Euclid, we have assumed a 300 day... be a significant further hit for Euclid number densities, since multiple exposures... (2012) 15 Laureijs, R., et al., "Euclid Definition Study Report", arXiv:1110... could cover the 1.1 < z < 2 range to ~ 1.4× Euclid depth over 12,000 deg2... largely the same galaxies as Euclid. 19 Albrecht, A., et al., "Report... science proposal for the ESA Euclid mission I. Cold exoplanets”, MNRAS, submitted...



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.... The down-selection decision sees Euclid, PLATO, and Solar Orbiter proceed... launch Lisa IXO M-class missions Euclid Plato M1 launch Spica M2...) Jupiter system (Laplace) Dark Energy (EUCLID) Exoplanets / Asteroseismology (PLATO) X-Ray astronomy..., the down-selection decision sees Euclid, PLATO, and Solar Orbiter proceed... focal plane CCD detectors for Euclid or PLATO. As such it... development activities for PLATO and EUCLID previously under national remit become... Orbiter Payload category B Laplace PLATO EUCLID B C C SPICA C IXO C LISA A Member state... imager will also be carried. EUCLID is an ESA mission to... resulted in a single mission concept, EUCLID.   The WL (Weak Lensing) technique... to achieve the scientific goals, EUCLID features three instruments:  VIS: Visible... of the entire extragalactic sky. EUCLID will survey 20 000 deg... Cebreros. Key aspects of the EUCLID mission which are driving technology... and remote-sensing instrument suites EUCLID Communications K-band downlink – spacecraft and... (13) Total 2-04 - M-Mission Candidate: EUCLID CTP (4) TRP (1) 100 Total 100... Modified ESA Activities M-Mission Candidate: EUCLID Prog. CTP IPC Appr. IPC...-002PA Euclid CCD Pre-Development 2000 Total 2-04 - M-Mission Candidate: EUCLID SW... parallel contracts. 3150 M-Mission Candidate: EUCLID Prog. TRP IPC Appr. N/A Budget... Geant-4 Total 2-04 - M-Mission Candidate: EUCLID 250 250 Page 3 of 16... and including 2012 M-Mission Candidate: EUCLID Prog. IPC Appr. ESA Ref... of Cold Gas Propulsion for Euclid CTP Y2009 C207-003EE Two... IPC Euclid CCD Pre-Development C217-002PA Total 2-04 - M-Mission Candidate: EUCLID.../IPC(2010)81 M-Mission Candidate: EUCLID Prog. Member state(s) ESA Ref... applicab. Remarks National N215-070PA EUCLID Cryomechanisms N/A To be revised by... design, manufacturing and testing for EUCLID N/A To be revised by Member... Member States 2-04 - M-Mission Candidate: EUCLID M-Mission Candidate: SPICA Prog. National.../IPC(2010)81 M-Mission Candidate: EUCLID Near Earth Space Research X/X/K-Band... Data Pack 6 Application Need/Date: EUCLID Contract Duration: 24 Operational SW... Euclid Programme: CTP Title: Delta Development of Cold Gas Propulsion for Euclid... thrust range to meet the EUCLID requirements and to remove ITAR... pressure regulator stage. Description The EUCLID CDF study identified the need... the following main tasks: 1. Review EUCLID propulsion requirements, and define detailed... augment thrust range to meet EUCLID requirements. 3. Modify pressure regulator design... abstract. Current TRL: 4 Application Mission: EUCLID Target TRL: 5 Application Need/Date...-axis steerable HGA for the Euclid mission. At present two options... Euclid HGA breadboard Deliverables Study report Euclid HGA breadboard 4 Application Need/Date: Euclid... TRL: s/w (pre-study) Application Mission: EUCLID Target TRL: s/w (beta) Application Need... and conclusion: N/A Euclid CCD Pre-Development Programme: CTP Title: Euclid CCD Pre... design to optimize performance for Euclid Description The detailed geometry of... used in a test activity during Euclid assessment phase). Modifications are envisaged... thermo elastic requirements existing for Euclid. Proposed activities: - Review results of... the injection register on a non-Euclid batch …..) - Procure silicon wafers. Fabricate... concept with respect to the Euclid performances. - Radiation test prototype devices... dedicated package 4-5 Application Need/Date: Euclid Contract Duration: 18 N/A Reference to... mission instruments, for example on EUCLID or exoplanet missions, will make...)81 M-Mission Candidate: EUCLID EUCLID Cryomechanisms Programme: National Title: EUCLID Cryomechanisms Reference: N215.../Date: Target TRL: Application Mission: EUCLID Contract Duration: S/W Clause: N/A Reference to... EUCLID Programme: National Title: Infrared grism design, manufacturing and testing for EUCLID... one of the instruments on EUCLID. It will make use of..., environmental test 5 Application Need/Date: EUCLID Contract Duration: 10 N/A Reference to... irradiation performance are consistent with EUCLID operational modes Description Review operational.../Date: Target TRL: Application Mission: EUCLID Contract Duration: S/W Clause: N/A Reference to...) Proposed Bidder C217-002PA 2000 Euclid CCD Pre-Development E2V (UK... the performance required for the Euclid mission. Justification for Proposed Tendering...



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EUCLID, fl. 300 BCE1 The name Euclid is known to almost every... image of Euclid. 1 Euclid, the mathematician Little is known about Euclid, fl. 300BC... at Alexandria, 1 °2000, c G. Donald Allen Euclid 2 which was founded in about... cent AD. He writes that Euclid collected Eudoxus’ theorems, perfected many... is unfamiliar with this work. Euclid is said to have said... by knowing such proposition, whereupon Euclid called his slave and said... literature that attributes names to Euclid’s father and grandfather, that gives... a very few other details about Euclid, including the admonition placed on... the elements of Euclid. Of the character of Euclid there is only a remark by Pappus that Euclid was... Euclid’s death, can scarcely be considered authoritative. Indeed, by this time Euclid was more legend than person. 2 Sources of The Elements Before Euclid there was geometry. The latest compiler before Euclid was... ancients of the Helenistic period. Euclid 3 probably the one used by... (ruled 786-809) and again Euclid 4 for the caliph al-Ma... of the complete works of Euclid was the Oxford edition of... school that translated works by Euclid, Archimedes, Ptolemy, and Eutocius. Without... books would have been lost. Euclid 5 Note. There is an important... The Elements. 3 Euclid’s Other Works Five works by Euclid have survived to... TAMU library. Three works by Euclid have not survived: 1. Porisms — possibly... 2 12 inch margins in which Euclid 6 were placed the figures. It... argument. The axioms were general Euclid 7 statements, so primitive and so... and distance. This means the Euclid states without proof that a circle... were proved many ways before Euclid locked them into his timeless..., the angle is called rectilinear. .. . Euclid 8 15. A circle is a plane figure... than the to right angles. Euclid 9 m 1 n 2 ² Axioms — 5 1. Things which are equal... as samples of the work. Euclid 10 Proposition I-1. On a given finite... AB. Note that in Proposition I-1, Euclid can appeal only to the... congruent is used here, replacing Euclid’s assertion that “each part of... corresponding part of the other.” Euclid assumes that rigid translation or... correspondence, means they are congruent. Euclid 11 Proposition I-5. In isosceles triangles... another, the exterior angle equal Euclid 12 to the interior and... sides containing the right angle. Euclid 13 See more details and.... There is some debate among Euclid scholars as to whether it... lines forming the right angle. Euclid never multiplies the length and... purely in terms of geometry. Euclid 14 A B G D E K L C H F Proof. Let A and BC... the square on the whole. A C B D F E Euclid 15 Proposition II-4. If a straight... the square on the half. Euclid 16 b A C D B x b/2 L K M H E F G This proposition translates into... F H has square given by µ a+c 2 ¶2 ¡ µ a¡c 2 ¶2 = ac Euclid 4.5 17 The Elements — Book III... segments of circles are given. Euclid begins with the basics. Proposition... on the point of contact. Euclid 18 III-16. The straight... polygons into circles. As ususal, Euclid begins with appropriate definitions. For... basic result is considered by Euclid as we see in the... a given triangle to circumscribe a circle. Euclid 19 Proposition IV-10. To... the p0 s are Fermat primes. Euclid 20 ? Fermat numbers are of... in the next century. 6 Just Euclid 4.7 21 The Elements — Book V — 25... Book V treats ratio and proportion. Euclid begins with 18 definitions about... greater has to the same Euclid 22 a greater ratio than the... the vertex to the base. Euclid 4.8 23 The Elements — Book VI... : AC = PC : AP Golden Section C Euclid 24 The picture says.... 1 (a + b)2 = c2... of three on number theory. Euclid begins with definitions of unit... unit alone as a common measure. Euclid 25 Proposition VII-21. Numbers... as the original numbers. Euclid 26 Euclid concerns himself in several other... asserts that a=a(r ¡ 1) = (a + ar + ¢ ¢ ¢ + arn¡1 )=a(rn ¡ 1): Euclid 27 Proposition 20 Prime numbers... in the following definition how Euclid distinguishes magnitudes and lengths/areas... commensurable in square when the Euclid 28 squares on them are...



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Euclid and WFIRST AFTA Jason Rhodes (... SDT © 2012, government sponsorship acknowledged Euclid Mapping the geometry of the... single Euclid Consortium 2010-2011: Definition phase July 2011: Final Euclid Proposal- Red Book Oct 2011: Cosmic Vision Approval of Euclid June 2012: Official selection of Euclid and start...: launch 2020-2026 :science operations Euclid goals Understand the nature of... are the properties of neutrinos? Euclid concept •  Optimized for two complementary... now! — Possible, but not planned! Euclid Mission Baseline Mission elements: •  L2... Euclid Payload concepts Thales Alenia Space (240K telescope) Astrium (150K telescope) Euclid... and/or µ-lens surveys Ref: Euclid RB arXiv:1110.3193 N+S? Obs... Schedule •  October 4, 2011 •  Spring 2012 : Euclid selected as ESA M2 Cosmic... PDR : Flight Model delivery Euclid Science Reach From Euclid Red Book : sci.../index.cfm?fobjectid=48983 Euclid, WFIRST and NWNH •  Euclid alone can NOT... sufficient survey time! —  Properly complementary Euclid and WFIRST can provide this... maximize progress on NWNH goals! •  Euclid primary mission also allows going... WFIRST to other scientific goals Euclid Goals (Red Book): outlined in... properties of neutrinos?! 4.  Inflation Euclid and WFIRST •  Euclid and WFIRST should be... unique capabilities not duplicated by Euclid or LSST! — Independent, complementary approaches... properly address NWNH goals! — Together Euclid and WFIRST can advance the...! — WFIRST can benefit from early Euclid observations and attack most compelling... based on early data from Euclid! — Longer baseline enhances WFIRST (μlensing... WFIRST data may enhance Euclid science return (WL)! Euclid and WFIRST •  In... possible systematics are necessary! — If Euclid is systematics-limited in WL... go to space ! — WFIRST and Euclid will be sensitive to different... redundant WL shape measurements which Euclid will not do! Ways AFTA... have a wavelength cutoff closer to Euclid’s! — Lower redshift range for BAO... of PSF size and throughput! Euclid/NEW synergy for dark sector... whatever SN Euclid does (if any) as a starting point •  Euclid will NOT... go to somewhat higher z than Euclid •  And IFU would significantly increase...! — vs ~30 with DRM1/2 and Euclid, and even fewer from the... galaxy from CLASH! Microlensing & Exoplanets •  Euclid unlikely to devote significant time...