Спутник ФКИ. Europa Clipper. [Редактировать]

Europa Clipper (с середины 2015 года — неофициальное название) — проект автоматической межпланетной станции НАСА, предназначенной для изучения шестого спутника Юпитера - Европы, на предмет её способности к поддержанию жизни. Наиболее вероятная дата запуска зонда — середина 2020-х гг. Миссия Europa Clipper обеспечит номинальный гарантированный период работоспособности зонда в районе Европы не менее 109 дней. Общее время исследований Европы составит 3,5 года, за которые зонд совершит 45 облетов спутника на высоте от 2700 до 25 км. Стоимость реализации проекта по состоянию на начало 2015 года составляет от $1.8 до $2.3 млрд. (без учета стоимости ракеты-носителя и запуска). Разработка спускаемого аппарата может дополнительно обойтись в 700 млн долларов и может на один год сдвинуть предполагаемую дату запуска в 2022 году.
История проекта

  • До 2009 года проект являлся частью международной программы Europa Jupiter System Mission (НАСА/ЕКА/Роскосмос/JAXA), запланированной к запуску на 2020 год, и назывался Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO).
  • В начале 2011 года миссия JEO была отменена в связи с её дороговизной ($4,7 млрд), сокращением некоторых исследовательских программ в пользу изучения Марса и сложностью посадки спускаемого аппарата на поверхность Европы (детализация изображений, полученных «Галилео», не позволяет судить о характере поверхности спутника).
  • В апреле 2011 года был представлен удешевленный наследник миссии JEO — проект Europa Clipper, орбитальный зонд стоимостью $2 млрд (без учёта стоимости ракеты-носителя Atlas V 551 и запуска).
  • Март 2012 года — презентация проекта Europa Clipper на ежегодной конференции OPAG (Outer Planets Assassemet Group).
  • 10 апреля 2013 года — Администрации президента США опубликовала предложение к НАСА на 2014 бюджетный год по сокращению на 200 млн долларов финансирование программ, связанных с изучением дальних планет Солнечной системы. Таким образом, финансирование и разработка программы миссии к Европе начнется не ранее 2015—2016 гг., после принятия бюджета на 2015 финансовый год.
  • Июль 2013 года — научные команды Europa Science Definition Team, JPL и лаборатории прикладной физики Университета Джона Хопкинса представили на конференции OPAG совместный доклад, развивающий идеи проекта Europa Clipper, положенные в апреле 2011 года.
  • В начале сентябре 2013 года стало известно, что команда, прорабатывающая концепцию миссии Europa Clipper, отказалась от использования разрабатываемого НАСА радиоизотопного генератора энергии нового поколения (Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator, ASRG). Причиной отказа стали проблемы с надежностью ASRG и экстремальные радиационные условия системы Юпитера. В качестве источника энергии для Europa Clipper прорабатываются только MMRTG (Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, подобный источник установлен в MSL, а гарантированный срок его службы составляет не менее 14 лет) и солнечные панели (панели размером 2×9 м, установленные в зонде Юнона (КА), вырабатывают 150 Ватт энергии, что эквивалентно вырабатываемой энергии от MMRTG).
  • 13 января 2014 — на конференции OPAG были представлены обновленные данные по проекту миссии.
  • 4 марта 2014 года НАСА объявило о планах отправки миссии к Европе: в проекте американского бюджета на 2015 год для этой цели целенаправленно выделено 15 млн долларов (всего за последние годы на проработку различных аспектов миссии потрачено более 150 млн). Фаворитом среди предложенных проектов является проект миссии Europa Clipper. Предполагаемая дата запуска была сдвинута с 2021 на 2024 год с прибытием в систему Юпитера в 2031 году.
  • 28 апреля 2014 года НАСА выпустило пресс-релиз, согласно которому агентство в состоянии профинансировать лишь такую миссию к Европе, чья стоимость не превысит 1 млрд долларов.
  • В середине июля 2014 года НАСА объявило о готовности выделить 25 млн долларов на разработку инструментов для будущего зонда. Поскольку американское агентство не смогло определиться со списком необходимых приборов, был объявлен конкурс на лучшее предложение по наиболее эффективному изучению Европы. Предложения будут рассмотрены группой экспертов, которая соберется 17 октября, а в апреле 2015 года будут отобраны 20 заявок-победителей. В итоге экспертная группа определит восемь приборов, которые будут установлены на зонде.
  • В октябре 2014 года JPL включила 10 концептов наноспутников формата CubeSat в рамках расширения работ над миссией Europa Clipper.
  • 3 октября 2014 года JPL отказалось от применения в зонде РИТЭГ в пользу солнечных панелей.
  • В декабре 2014 года стало известно, что бюджет НАСА на 2015 финансовый год по сравнению с бюджетом 2014 года будет увеличен, что ползволило в целом увеличить расходы на Planetary Science и напрямую выделить на исследования Европы ассигнования в размере 118 млн долларов. Несмотря на то, что миссии НАСА к Европе официально не существует, данное обстоятельство повышает шансы на ее старт в 2016 году. В этом случае запуск аппарата будет возможен к середине 2022 года.
  • В феврале 2015 был представлен бюджет НАСА на 2016 фискальный год, согласно которому на разработку миссии к Европе планируется выделить 30 млн долларов. Эта сумма будет в дальнейшем пересчитана с учетом поправки, внесенной по результатам предварительного обзора, именуемого Key Decision Point А (KDP-A), проекта миссии перед переходом к этапу формулирования требований, который начнется спустя несколько месяцев. Таким образом, данное обстоятельство можно считать официальным стартом подготовки миссии к Европе. Всего на программу в течение пяти лет с 2016 года НАСА собирается выделить 255 млн долларов. Несмотря на то, что в документах НАСА не указаны ни полные затраты на разработку миссии, ни дата запуска, ученые, занятые в проработке концепта миссии, утверждают, что оценивать затраты не имеет смысла по крайней мере до достижения работ стадии Key Decision Point C (KDP-С), которая при нынешних темпах состоится не ранее мая 2018 года. Запуск аппарата наиболее вероятен в середине 2020-х гг.
  • В конце февраля 2015 года на конференции OPAG были представлены обновленные данные по проекту миссии.
  • 26 мая 2015 года НАСА объявило о выборе 9 научных инструментов из 33 предложенных вариантов, которые будут установлены в зонде.
  • 18 июня 2015 года НАСА объявило о завершении этапа рассмотрения концепции миссии, одобрило ее и тем самым дало ход опытно-конструкторским работам, в ходе которых будут созданы научные приборы и собран сам зонд. Название "Europa Clipper" с этого момента более не является официальным названием миссии.
  • В конце августа 2015 года на конференции OPAG были представлены обновленные данные по проекту миссии.
  • В конце 2015 года Конгресс США принял решение увеличить бюджет НАСА, в результате чего на разработку миссии к Европе будут выделены 175 млн долларов, что в 6 раз превышает сумму, ранее запрошенную НАСА. Столь значительное увеличение бюджета миссии предполагает дополнительно к зонду создание спускаемого на поверхность Европы аппарата. Финансирование разработки РКН SLS, который считается наиболее приемлемым вариантом носителя для зонда, также будет увеличено.
  • 1 февраля 2016 года на встрече Группы по изучению внешних планет представители НАСА обсудили возможные варианты включения в миссию к Европе спускаемого аппарата. Окончательное решение будет принято в течение 2016 года.
  • 01 февраля 2016 года — на конференции OPAG были представлены обновленные данные по проекту миссии. 

Цели и задачи проекта
Перед Europa Clipper стоят две главные цели:

  • исследовать Европу на предмет её способности к поддержанию жизни;
  • собрать достаточное количество информации для определения места посадки спускаемого аппарата в составе следующей миссии.

Для достижения этих целей перед Europa Clipper поставлено три основных задачи:

  • Ледяная оболочка и океан: подтвердить существование подледного океана и полыней и изучить процессы взаимодействия ледяной корки и океана.
  • Структура: определить распределение и химический состав основных соединений и их связи в подледном океане.
  • Геология: охарактеризовать поверхность, включая места недавней и текущей активности.

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12016-02-02. НАСА заставляют делать посадочный модуль.
Столкнувшись с требованиями со стороны конгресса относительно добавления к будущей миссии полета к спутнику Европа посадочного модуля, НАСА все таки решило, что данный аппарат будет запущен отдельно от орбитального спутника. При этом, в качестве основного довода в пользу такого решения в агентстве назвали массу космического аппарата которая составит около 8 тонн, за счет топлива которое надо будет использовать для мягкой посадки на поверхность. Причем, сам орбитальный космический аппарат будет иметь массу около 5-и тонн. Помимо этого, руководство НАСА также подчеркнуло, что для успешного запуска обоих аппаратов им бы пришлось задействовать систему СЛС. Относительно сроков запуска орбитального модуля в НАСА также отметили, что он состоится в 2022 году при помощи ракеты-носителя Атлас-5.Тэги: Europa Clipper
22016-08-18. Проект столкнулся с угрозой секвестирования.
В то время, пока руководство НАСА обнародует данные об очередном превышении фактически требуемых средств над планируемыми над их научными проектам возникла угроза секвестирования. В частности агентству пришлось рассматривать вопросы связанные с урезанием расходов на полет автоматической станции к спутнику Европа, причем, в рамках решения поставленной задачи срок запуска космического аппарата должен остаться прежним (2022 год). При этом, уже на 2017 год объемы финансирования этого проекта будут составлять только 49.6 млн. долл. вместо 175 млн. долл., которые планировались изначально. С другой стороны в агентстве считают, что Конгресс США может пойти им навстречу и выделить до 260 млн. долл., если им удастся убедить законодателей.Тэги: Europa ClipperКосмическое агентство США

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (проекта, предварительная), млрд. долл.2016-02-013-4

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... PROGRAM AND VERIFICATION REQUIREMENTS ...................................................... 2 2.1 GENERAL 2 2.2 EUROPA CLIPPER ENVIRONMENTAL VERIFICATION REQUIREMENTS.............................................................. 2 2.3 ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING... REQUIREMENT LEVELS OF ASSEMBLY .......................................................................................... 15 4.5.2 EUROPA CLIPPER FLIGHT SYSTEM .................................................................................................................. 15 4.5.2.1 Random Vibration...) process for the proposed mission. Europa Clipper Mission Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary... (Atlas V).......................................................................................... 30 4.7.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY REQUIREMENTS, EUROPA CLIPPER SUBSYSTEMS & ASSEMBLIES........................................................................................................................................................ 31 4.7.2.1 Electrical Grounding... 4.7.5 SPACECRAFT LIGHTNING PROTECTION (TBR) ............................................................................................. 44 4.8 EUROPA CLIPPER METEOROID ENVIRONMENT (TBR) ......................................................................................... 44 4.9 HIGH... .......................................................................................................................................... 48 4.9.1.1 Europa Clipper Integral Fluences of Electrons and Protons ................................................................................................ 48 4.9.1.2 Europa Clipper Total Ionizing...) ...................................... 70 LIST OF TABLES Table 2.2-1 Europa Clipper Project Environmental Design and Test... at SLC-41 ................................................................................................... 29 Table 4.7-6 Europa Clipper Subsystem/Assembly EMI/EMC Test... NOVICE (TBR) RDF=1................................................................... 51 Table 4.9-3 Europa Clipper Mission Displacement Damage Dose (DDD... Acceleration Curve for the proposed Europa Clipper Mission (TBR) .................................... 15 Figure 4.6-1 Example... for Europa Flyby E18 in Trajectory 13-F7 ............................................................................ 52 Figure 4.9-3 Europa Clipper Mission...) process for the proposed mission. Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT... verification requirements for the proposed Europa Clipper Mission. Successful definition and implementation...) process for the proposed mission. Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT... with sufficient margins. 2.2 EUROPA CLIPPER ENVIRONMENTAL VERIFICATION REQUIREMENTS The Europa Clipper Flight System, instruments...) process for the proposed mission. Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT.... Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT JPL D-80302 Page 4 Table 2.2-1 Europa Clipper Project...) process for the proposed mission. Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT...) process for the proposed mission. Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT...) process for the proposed mission. Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT...) process for the proposed mission. Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT...) process for the proposed mission. Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT...) process for the proposed mission. Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT...) process for the proposed mission. Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT...) process for the proposed mission. Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT...) process for the proposed mission. Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT...) process for the proposed mission. Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT... proposed Europa Clipper Mission (TBR) Table 4.4-1. Preliminary Spacecraft C.G. Limit Load Factors for Europa Clipper... and assemblies. 4.5.2 EUROPA CLIPPER FLIGHT SYSTEM 4.5.2.1 Random Vibration (TBR) The Europa Clipper Flight System.... Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT JPL D-80302 Page 17 The Europa Clipper... Page 31 4.7.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY REQUIREMENTS, EUROPA CLIPPER SUBSYSTEMS & ASSEMBLIES Assembly EMC test... grounding requirements established by specific Europa Clipper spacecraft requirements for ground referencing... per Europa Clipper design) 4.7.2.11 Power Subsystems Fault Test The Europa Clipper subsystems/assemblies.... Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT JPL D-80302 Page 41 Europa Clipper Project.... Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document – Preliminary DRAFT JPL D-80302 Page 54 Table 4.9-3 Europa Clipper...



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Europa Clipper Enclosure Final Report Date: April .... EUROPA BACKGROUND AND MISSION INTRODUCTION……………………………….5 Mission concept………………………………………………………………………………...5 Mission Goal: Test Europa for... Design and Verification Requirements…………………………….…………..13 Europa Clipper Flight System……………………………………………………….……..……..14 V. CONCEPT GENERATION... this moon through its Europa Clipper Mission. The Clipper Spacecraft will be carrying... will be carried to Europa, by the Clipper Spacecraft. Specifications: The needs... similar to the one the Clipper Spacecraft will follow). The safety.... II. EUROPA BACKGROUND AND MISSION INTRODUCTION The ice-covered world Europa - one... evidence [2] point to remarkable conclusions: Europa likely has a global ocean of... year 2015 proposed budget. NASA’s Europa Clipper mission concept could enable a leap... Jupiter, it is clear that Europa’s youthful surface, potential subsurface ocean.... [3] Models for the formation of Europa’s bizarre surface features are consistently... Europa ever existed or still exists. Mission concept A return mission to Europa... the appropriate next step. The Europa Clipper mission concept [4], currently in formulation... orbiting Jupiter rather than Europa directly, the Europa Clipper (Fig 1 and 2, p. 5) would spend... subsurface while detecting particles from Europa’s tenuous atmosphere and the moon... is that the Clipper would use gravitational perturbations from Europa and from... the Europa Clipper Spacecraft 6 Figure 2. View of the main modules of the Europa Clipper... key science objectives involve investigating Europa’s ice shell and ocean, composition... realistically be performed by the Europa Clipper. These targets, in turn, helped.... Such a payload would enable the Europa Clipper to seek evidence of subsurface... current baseline profile for the Europa Clipper mission concept is a launch aboard...’s in-development Space Launch System, Clipper could arrive at Jupiter on... will be followed by the Clipper Spacecraft Upon arrival at Jupiter... would shape Clipper’s orbit, placing it into a resonant orbit with Europa. Then it would make about 45 flybys of Europa over... estimated cost of the entire Europa Clipper is around $2 billion. III. BENCHMARKS... x-rays in radiation exposure [9]. Like Europa Clipper, Juno will have a larger vault... the same challenges as our Europa Clipper design has to. The proposed... dimensions are defined by the Europa Clipper Proposal Information Package: Science and... requirements were taken from the Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document provided by... requirements are outlined in the Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document (JPL D-80302... requirements are outlined in the Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document (JPL D-80302... requirements are outlined in the Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document (JPL D-80302.... The ionizing radiation exposure of Europa Clipper flight hardware will come primarily.... [17] High Energy Radiation Environments Europa Clipper mission radiation dose is based... environments are outlined in the Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document (JPL D-80302... enclosure are defined by the Europa Clipper Proposal Information Package Science and... proposed Europa Clipper Mission Figure 8: Preliminary Spacecraft C.G. Limit Load Factors for Europa Clipper Launch... the Europa Clipper configuration is evolving. A final MAC curve for Europa Clipper would be... applied. [17] Europa Clipper Flight System Random Vibration The Europa Clipper Flight System must... maximum acoustic environment for the Europa Clipper Flight System would occur during... in 1/3 octave bands [20] The Europa Clipper Flight System design must perform... requirements are outlined in the Europa Clipper Environmental Requirements Document (JPL D-80302... the enclosure, required for the Europa Clipper Spacecraft. Radiation simulation One major... of the enclosure for the Europa Clipper Spacecraft, we did have to... in Pre-Phase A of the Clipper Mission, and we are only... the electronic enclosure of the Europa Clipper Spacecraft. Theoretical Modeling of Radiation..., and R. T. Pappalardo (2004), Geology of Europa, in Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites... K. K. Khurana (2009), Europa: Perspectives on an ocean world, in Europa, edited by..., Tucson. [3] Prockter, L. M., and R. T. Pappalardo (2014), Europa, in Encyclopedia of the Solar.... [4] Pappalardo, R. T., and B. Goldstein (2013), The Europa Clipper: Update to CAPS, report, Comm... States. NASA. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. EUROPA CLIPPER MISSION Environmental Requirements Document (Preliminary... States. NASA. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Europa Clipper Science and Reconnaissance Payload Proposal... and risks of the final Europa Clipper mission. Our team delivers data... overall mission cost for the Europa Clipper is projected at 2 billion dollars... entire design process of the Europa Clipper project. We held paramount the... design the enclosure for the Europa Clipper Spacecraft. We have been honest... thrown into Europa, disintegrating our product. William Falconer: The Europa Clipper electronics enclosure...



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Europa Mission Concept Study Update D. Senske ... Purposes Only 2 Background • The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission concept was... study developed mission options (Orbiter, Clipper (multiple flyby), and Lander) that... The Europa Clipper (Multiple-Flyby in Jupiter Orbit) 10/02/2012 Europa Orbiter Europa... Purposes Only 3 An 18 Member Europa Science Definition Team Continued members... / Geology New members added to Europa SDT: • • • • • Fran Bagenal Amy Barr... Themes, and Objectives • Goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability water... km near polar orbit about Europa - Detailed globally mapping, gravity and... and Discussion Purposes Only 6 Original Clipper in a Nutshell May 2012 Science... Geology Clipper May 2012 X √ √ √ Operations Concept: - 32 low altitude flybys of Europa... of globally distributed regions of Europa - Simple repetitive science operations Ice... Radar Payload: Instrument Floor Baseline Clipper Baseline IPR SWIRS TI INMS... investigation on the surface of Europa - Surface and subsurface composition and... Option Comparison May 2012 Option Europa Orbiter Europa Clipper Europa Lander 10/02/2012... reviews chaired by Scott Hubbard Clipper Mission “could be conducted within... data base.” • OPAG finding “All 3 Europa mission options are highly scientifically... is that the Multiple-Flyby [Clipper] option … offers the greatest science... greatest flow through to future Europa exploration.” 10/02/2012 This... spacecraft architecture. Remaining within the Clipper cost ($2B, $FY15, Phase A-E excl... mission. 10/02/2012 Enhanced Clipper Science Examine the ability to... Ocean science objectives with the Clipper mission option and understand implications... Europa – Science reconnaissance for landing site selection(enabled by the current Clipper model payload) image currently available Galileo Europa 6 m/pixel • Is... addressing the goal of exploring Europa to investigate its habitability – Engineering... 14 Enhanced Europa Orbiter Science A 109-day Mission in Europa Orbit 10... gravitational tides. deeper interior. Determine Europa's magnetic induction response. Determine the... Europa's rotation state. Ice Shell Investigate the deeper interior. Geology Explore Europa... km near polar orbit about Europa - Detailed global mapping, gravity and... Recon Thermal 19 Enhanced Europa Clipper Mission A Multiple-Flyby Europa Mission in Jupiter... and Discussion Purposes Only 20 Clipper Science from May Report • Ice... • Composition: Understand the habitability of Europa's ocean through composition and chemistry... Enhanced Clipper Science • Ocean: Characterize the properties of the ocean - - Determine Europa... and Discussion Purposes Only 22 Clipper Science Traceability Enhanced with Ocean... & Ice Shell Objective Geology Explore Europa to investigate its habitability Goal... of the icy shell. Determine Europa's magnetic induction response to estimate... Europa ocean as expressed on the surface and in the of Europa... materials on Europa. Characterize the chemical and compositional pathways in Europa's ocean... Discussion Purposes Only Theme W C ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ E ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 23 Clipper key science investigations and augmented... New Horizons Ralph/MVIC 24 Clipper Science Ops Concept Simple and... Enhanced Clipper w/ Recon Science: Objective Ocean Ice Shell Composition Geology Recon Clipper Enhanced w Recon √ √ √ √ √ Payload: Instrument Floor Baseline 10/02/2012 Clipper...: - 32 low altitude flybys of Europa from Jupiter orbit over 2.3 years... of globally distributed regions of Europa - Simple repetitive science operations - Addition... power technology options for Clipper and Orbiter Clipper preliminary results are encouraging... Purposes Only 27 Enhanced Solar Clipper w/ Recon Science: Objective Ocean Ice... 10/02/2012 Clipper Enhanced w Recon √ √ √ √ √ Magnetometer (Mag) Clipper Enh w Recon IPR...: - 32 low altitude flybys of Europa from Jupiter orbit over 2.3 years... of globally distributed regions of Europa - Simple repetitive science operations - Addition... robust means to accomplish Europa science with the Clipper ranking above the... to achieve high priority Europa science The enhanced Clipper concept is excellent in meeting the goal of exploring Europa..., geology, and ocean science – The Clipper is deemed of higher ranking... • OPAG finding (May 2012) “All 3 Europa mission options are highly scientifically... is that the Multiple-Flyby [Clipper] option … offers the greatest science... greatest flow through to future Europa exploration • Europa SDT Meeting (Aug 2012... rebalanced Clipper concept is excellent in meeting the goal of exploring Europa... reports by end of December • Europa technical concept is mature and... next Europa-focused orbiter or flyby mission, in preparation for a future Europa surface mission • The notional Clipper payload as conceived... forward Reconnaissance Data sets • The Clipper notional remote sensing payload (SWIRS... a scientifically compelling landing site • Enhanced Clipper reconnaissance capability would include key...



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...), 5:50 to 6:25 PM, p. 8; The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable.... 6:25 to 7:00 PM: The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... icy surface of Jupiter’s moon Europa and that the “ingredients” necessary... mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate... making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing of... for a future landed mission to Europa. Innovative mission design would use... globally distributed regional coverage of Europa’s surface, with nominally 45 close... this concept known as the Europa Clipper. Biography: Robert Pappalardo is a Senior... Pre-Project Scientist for the Europa Clipper mission concept and has served... the outer solar system, especially Europa and the role of its... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... pm to 3:00 pm The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... pm to 1:30 pm The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... (United Kingdom) . . . . . . . [9182-10] The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... pm to 1:20 pm The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Univ. (Taiwan).[9193-19] The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Tung Univ. (Taiwan). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [9200-8] The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable... Livermore National Lab. (USA) The Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring a Potentially Habitable...



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...2013 The Europa Clipper Update to CAPS Sept. 4, 2014 ... 2013. All rights reserved. 1 The Europa Clipper Overview and Science Robert Pappalardo... since April 2011 of the Europa Science Definition Team and a study... on “Enhanced” (including reconnaissance) Europa Orbiter and Europa Clipper (multiple flyby) mission concepts... 2012 Major events in 2013 • Europa Science Advisory Group in place..., Mellon, J. Moore • Barry Goldstein named Europa Clipper Project Manager • Congress directed NASA... continue Europa mission concept development • NASA directed continued evaluation of Clipper concept... and Discussion Purposes Only. 4 2 9/9/2013 Europa: Ingredients for Life? Water: Are... Discussion Purposes Only. 5 Europa Clipper Science Goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability.... shell and any IO.2 Determine Europa's magnetic induction response to estimate... variations. Understand the habitability of Europa's ocean through composition and chemistry... composition and chemistry of the Europa ocean as expressed on the... on Europa. C.3 C 3 Characterize the chemical and compositional pathways in Europa ocean. Europa'ss... “global“global-regional coverage” of Europa while in orbit around Jupiter... low low--altitude flybys of Europa from Jupiter orbit over 3.5 yr... 30 m/pixel Mosaic by P. Schenk Europa high-resolution topography: 10 m vert.... Magnetometry from Flybys • From flybys, Europa Clipper could measure response at the... thickness • 11 2 hr (Europa synodic period); 85 2 hr (Europa orbital period) 11.2 85.2 85.2 hr 11.2 hr Europa Clipper petal... Gravity and Magnetometry from Flybys • Europa Clipper flybys sample a wide range of... from both science and Galileo Europa 6 m/pixel engineering perspectives: i i i ffor llanding... addressing the goal of exploring Europa to investigate its habitability? Pre... Discussion Purposes Only. Highest Resolution Europa image currently available 18 9 9/9/2013... Discussion Purposes Only. 23 The Europa Clipper Mission Update & Path Forward Barry... be resolved are feasible for Europa Clipper Highest mass, lowest cost solution... need resolution for compatibility with Europa Clipper Reliability not yet demonstrated; high... and Discussion Purposes Only. A10 Clipper with Reconnaissance Payload Ice Penetrating... the highest radiation zone near Europa • Shielded vault protects the most... the highest radiation zone near Europa • Shielded vault protects the most... Only. 32 16 9/9/2013 The Europa Clipper 33 17



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Europa Plume Advisory Meeting Report Organizers: ... of the Europa SDT Plume Advisory Meeting • How can Clipper explore Europa plumes... emitted from Europa's surface has exciting implications for what the Europa Clipper mission... motivated discussion of how the Clipper would be able to detect... the Europa SDT Plume Advisory Meeting • To better inform the Europa Science Definition Team (SDT) and the Europa Clipper study team... and reconnaissance measurements for the Clipper. UPDATE: Europa Plume HST Campaign 2014... detection in Dec. 2012 when Europa was near orbital apocenter in... during 23 HST visits to Europa • Comprehensive approach to systematically scan... new UV absorption mode ? 4 UPDATE: Europa Plume HST Campaign 2014/2015... have identified 5 potential variability sources: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Europa plumes on NGM cover July... given site Plume signals in Europa’s aurora are most detectable when... of water vapor emitted from Europa's surface has exciting implications for... Europa Clipper mission would detect and characterize plumes. • On June 2-3, 2014, NASA’s Europa... of potential eruptive plumes at Europa was a key agenda topic. Meeting... four topical areas: 1) Review of Europa datasets illustrating potential evidence for... at Enceladus for application at Europa 3) Plume density and dynamics models... of how Europa plumes could best be explored using the Europa Clipper mission... here: • http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/europa/docs/PlumeAdvisor yMeetingPresentations.zip Main....nasa.gov/europa/sdt2013.cfm SDT Findings Regarding Plumes at Europa • http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/europa/docs/SDTFinding_v 7.1_6... Findings by SDT A. Evidence for Europa eruptive plumes is intriguing but.... C. The mission objectives recommended for Europa by the Planetary Science Decadal..., plume investigations should not drive Europa mission concepts. Plume Forum Key... in addressing plume science. E. The Europa Clipper tour design and operations concept... of plumes with Europa Clipper; moreover the plausible characteristics of Europa plumes should... here upon request) Review of Europa Datasets with Potential Plume Evidence... mosaic (Phillips et al. 2000) Europa Dataset Findings • No showstoppers in... JPL will get these going – Europa torus, neutral clouds, and plasma... at Enceladus for Application at Europa • • • • • • • Chair – Hendrix Postberg (plume particles... (structure and composition), Rhoden+Hurford (Europa plume modeling) Salient Enceladus Lessons... is more appropriate to compare Europa with Io in terms of... Enceladus? – Sporadic activity on both? Europa may be a young Io? • Flexible... out, hop, migrate. Search for Europa cold traps and evidence of... dust/ice formation models to Europa • Enceladus plume model of particle... measurements can we make from “Europa Clipper” in order to understand the...), Hand (astrobiology), Lorenz (astrobiology) Kargel (Europa ocean composition) Astrobiology Session Highpoints... Enceladus – they survived) Conclusions • The Europa Plume Advisory Meeting served its... of plumes to inform the Europa mission definition • Advice was provided... to characterize plume materials • The Europa Instrument Investigation opportunity will follow...-McGrath 08:40 Europa Program Update-Niebur 08:50 Europa Clipper status, and...-Roth 09:10 Review of Europa Datasets with Potential Plume Evidence... at Enceladus for Application at Europa- Hendrix Postberg (plume particles), Waite...), Esposito (structure and composition), Rhoden (Europa plume modeling) 13:00 Plume...), Hand (astrobiology), Lorenz (astrobiology) Kargel (Europa ocean composition) 16:15 General... needs and techniques: How can Clipper explore Europa plumes? • • • • • • • • Day 2 What do... (e.g., Earth-based)? What measurements should Europa Clipper make? 08:30 Reports from...



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NAVIGATIONAL CHALLENGES FOR A EUROPA FLYBY MISSION Tomas J. Martin-Mur(1) (2), ....nasa.gov Abstract: Jupiter’s moon Europa is a prime candidate in the... of the complex surface of Europa, including the Galileo mission, which... of the environment of Europa. A new mission to Europa is needed to... to address the habitability of Europa. In all likelihood the most... and performing multiple flybys of Europa. A number of notional trajectory designs... coverage of different regions of Europa. Navigation analyses are being performed... system. Keywords: Navigation, tour, Europa, flyby. 1. Introduction Europa, the smallest of Jupiter... environments outside of the Earth. Europa is unique among other large... of its surface could provide Europa a rich source to fuel chemical... of the complex surface of Europa. Galileo, a mission that performed an..., included 12 close flybys of Europa, and used its cameras and... of data at Europa, but a new mission to Europa would be needed... and performing multiple flybys of Europa [1]. The mission concept currently being... perform a series of flybys of Europa in order to investigate its... coverage of different regions of Europa. Navigation analyses are being performed... be executed. 2. The Case for Europa Four hundred years ago, Galileo... seen in the surface of Europa [2]. The Galileo orbiter, arriving to... for multiple close flybys of Europa [3]. Magnetic data and detailed images... under the ice surface of Europa. Recent discoveries of many Jupiter... study of icy moons like Europa more important in order to... worlds throughout the universe. As Europa orbits Jupiter, and due to... forces. The tidal forces cause Europa to contract and stretch. This..., which makes Europa's interior warmer. The tidal forces also make Europa's icy... think it is probable that Europa has a salty ocean beneath a relatively... in the outer solar system, Europa is unique because its ocean... be utilized by living things. Europa appears to possess all three... of material within and beneath Europa's icy crust is not well... yet proven. 2 3. The Europa Clipper Mission Concept The Europa Clipper mission concept, being developed... of the giant planet's moon Europa to investigate its potential habitability... spacecraft would collect information on Europa's ice shell thickness, composition and... a high radiation environment [5]. The proposed Europa Clipper mission would minimize the hazards..., only diving in close to Europa for brief periods to collect... of the Europa Clipper mission would include 45 flybys of Europa at altitudes... and align its trajectory with Europa. The Europa flyby campaign would be... coverage of a wide region on Europa with consistent lighting conditions [5]. During... from Europa. 3 Once the nominal mission has been completed – 45 Europa flybys... mission could continue to execute Europa flybys during an extended mission... compromises its electronics. Figure 1. Notional Europa Clipper Spacecraft 3.1 Notional Spacecraft The notional... difficult to navigate. 4.1 Navigation Concept Europa has an orbital period of... 15.9 days for Titan, so a Europa flyby mission could be more... tour navigation concept for the Europa Clipper mission being studied uses coherent... before to 12 hours around Europa flybys after the flyby Un... uncertainties for the first 18 Europa flybys when mapping from the... instruments to their targets on Europa. Table 3. Sample B-Plane and Encounter... the Approach Maneuver DCO for Europa Flybys After the baseline orbit... 2 shows an example for recent Europa Clipper analyses. These cases show the... A particularly challenging requirement for the Europa Clipper mission could be the necessary... the spacecraft with respect to Europa in order to correctly point... process. In the case of Europa Clipper, maneuvers would be executed in... the current design of the Europa Clipper tour, the total deterministic maneuver... the current tour design, consecutive Europa flybys are typically separated by... is in a 4:1 resonant orbit with Europa, providing sufficient time for the... design of a flyby mission to Europa can be more challenging than.... The shorter orbital period of Europa would require a more rapid succession... make the navigation task for Europa Clipper more challenging than that for.... Government sponsorship acknowledged. 7. References [1] Europa Study Team, “Europa Study 2012 Report”, JPL... and Lateral Crustal Movement on Europa: Evidence for a Mobile Ice Shell...



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... ACHIEVED FROM THE EUROPA CLIPPER MISSION CONCEPT: A MEANS TO EXPLORE EUROPA AND INVESTIGATE..., W. Patterson2, S. Vance1, B. Cooke1, and the Europa Study Team. 1Jet Propulsion Laboratory... Voyages” [1] emphasizes the importance of Europa exploration as “the first step... [1].” Although the previously studied Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) concept [2,3] would address.... A Europa Science Definition Team (SDT) and Technical Study Team identified both Europa Orbiter and multiple flyby (called the Europa Clipper) options that could achieve high priority Europa science, albeit... and enhance these reduced-scope Europa missions to better achieve the... could be achieved by the Europa Clipper concept, a spacecraft in orbit around... course of 34 flybys of Europa. The Clipper concept was endorsed by... science relative to a Europa Orbiter concept. Background: Understanding Europa’s habitability is intimately... objectives that any mission to Europa would need to address; (1) Ocean... and Ice Shell: To assess Europa’s habitability, it is necessary to... the dynamic processes that connect Europa’s underlying ocean to the surface... of the internal structure of Europa’s ice is essential. Probing the... oxidants can be transported to Europa’s ocean, providing the chemical nutrients... life. As it orbits Jupiter, Europa is continually flexed, tugged, and... to be observed and inferred. Europa also experiences the magnetic field... to Europa’s internal thermal and chemical properties, create the possibility that Europa... means to constrain models of Europa’s interior include measurements of the... and the rotational state of Europa, each of which includes steady.... Composition: The current understanding of Europa’s bulk density and of solar... likely that the differentiation of Europa resulted in mixing of water... chemistry provides fundamental information about Europa’s history and evolution, the composition... from the surface probably form Europa’s tenuous atmosphere. Low altitude spacecraft... compositional measurements. Geology: By understanding Europa’s varied and complex geology at... area of focus for the Clipper Mission would be to identify... activity. The relative youth of Europa’s surface (60 million years on... achieved by the Clipper would provide a global characterization of Europa. It is... information about the nature of Europa’s surface to enable the design... map thermal inertia) on the Europa Clipper would present the most efficient... needed data. The Clipper mission: To achieve the Europa science objectives, a flight... on the threedimensional structure of Europa. The notional set of 1600... close flybys (32 illuminated) of Europa has been developed. The overall... that makes many flybys of Europa would provide an excellent platform... to conduct measurements to investigate Europa’s ocean and ice shell, composition... accommodated through implementation of the Europa Clipper concept. References: [1] Space Studies Board...., (2010) JPL Internal Document D-67959. [4] Europa Study Team, (2012) JPL Internal...



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EXPLORING EUROPA WITH THE EUROPA CLIPPER. D. Senske1, L. Prockter2, R. Pappalardo1, B. Paczkowski1, S. Vance1, B. ..., 20723. Introduction and Science Goal: Europa is recognized by the Planetary... with the science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. Working... making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to... globally distributed regional coverage of Europa’s surface, with nominally 45 close... Europa Clipper [2]. Science Objectives: To achieve the overarching science goal for exploring Europa, the SDT recommended three science objectives for the Europa Clipper (In...; Composition – Understand the habitability of Europa's ocean through composition and chemistry... high science-interest localities. The Europa SDT also considered implications of... HST detection of plumes at Europa [3], specifically whether any modifications might... global-regional characterization of Europa by the Clipper, a possible subsequent exploration step.... In the process of considering Europa strategic mission options, a stand-alone... to understand whether or where Europa’s surface provides accessible landing sites... has been proposed that the Europa Clipper concept should in- clude the... a potential future landed mission to Europa. Flowing from this goal are... a proof-of-concept for the Europa Clipper during its formulation stage. The...: The Europa Clipper concept provides an efficient means to explore Europa and investigate... also be enabled by the Clipper concept. References: [1] Space Studies Board... Press, Washington, DC. [2] Europa Study Team (2012) Europa Study 2012 Report. JPL...



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... for Europa Exploration Program Dr. Curt Niebur ICEE Discipline Scientist, Europa Clipper Program... of instruments for a potential future Europa mission to the point where... long-standing challenges facing any Europa mission in the areas of... Reconnaissance Imaging for Europa Exploration Thermal IMager for Europa Reconnaissance (TIMER) - "Tech... Mitigation" Thermal Radiometer Development for Europa Clipper mission Extended Range Laser Altimeter... Europa Langmuir Probe Vector/Scalar Magnetometer for Europa Clipper Ice Penetrating Radar for Europa Exploration Maturing the Surface Dust Analyzer (SUDA) for Europa Exploration MASPEX-ICEE ESWIRS-RPM SIRSE: Spectral ImageR/ Spectrometer for Europa CIRIS SWIR/MIR spectrometer for Europa Clipper Mass Analyzer for Real-time Investigation of Neutrals at Europa... to you – NASA and the Europa Formulation Team are ready to... among them explained. 2. Relationship to Europa science objectives. The relationship between... the six overarching goals for Europa exploration provided in the Decadal... the Europa Clipper mission concept as described in Clipper portion of the “Europa Summer... to a similar instrument in the Europa Clipper strawman science payload (if any..., investigations, and measurements of the Europa Clipper mission concept; – The presence of...