Спутник ДЗЗ. GOES 13. [Редактировать]

Американский спутник GOES, предназначен для сбора метеорологических данных и наблюдения за космической погодой. Аппарат в качестве полезной нагрузки несет на своем борту два главных прибора: инфракрасную камеру и инструмент для измерения температур атмосферы.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
129155НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Тип орбиты - ГСО
4Страна производитель - США
5Все спутники ДЗЗ

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12006-12. Солнечная вспышка повредила Solar X-ray Imager (SXI).Тэги: GOES 13
22012-09-23. Неизвестная вибрация инструментов аппарата.Тэги: GOES 13
32013-05-22. Неизвестная аномалия (возможно попадание микрометеорита). Аппарат вернулся в режим штатного функционирования.Тэги: GOES 13
42015-12-11. Проблемы с инструментами спутника привели к проблемам с законодателями.
Законодатели США отругали руководителей NOAA за более чем шестимесячное отставание от плана запуска следующего космического аппарата. Также они предостерегли агентство от попыток утаить важную информацию о проблемах с качеством и надежностью космических аппаратов. При этом, законодатели также предупредили NOAA о том, что постоянные переносы запуска аппарата GOES-R приведут к тому, что придется продлевать срок активного существования космического аппарата GOES-13 как минимум до 2017 года, что представляется достаточно рисковым мероприятием. А кроме того, на аппарате уже недоступен 19-канальный радиометр который должен был измерять температуру атмосферы. Со своей стороны NOAA на эти обвинения ответила напоминанием о том, что орбитальная группировка гражданских метеорологических спутников является избыточной, а следовательно ничего страшного не должно произойти.Тэги: GOES 13National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг3133
2Платформа 1xBSS-601

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град0.3
2Апогей, км35811.4
3Перигей, км35775.6
4Период, минут1436.1
5САС, год10
6Длинный диаметр эллипса, км42164

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2006-018A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
2Оператор Космическое агентство США
3Производитель BOEING COMPANY

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2006-05-24 at 22:11:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xGOES 13
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 4

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «GOES 13». [Перейти к поиску]


Дата загрузки: 2017-03-22
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... the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) microburst products are effective in... gust magnitude. Two products, the GOES sounder Microburst Windspeed Potential Index (MWPI) and a new bi-spectral GOES imager brightness temperature difference (BTD... evaluation. A comparison study between the GOES Convective Overshooting Top (OT) Detection... updated assessment of the GOES MWPI and GOES BTD algorithms, presents case... a cross comparison study of the GOES-R overshooting top (OT) detection algorithm... Environmental Satellite (GOES-11 to 13). The existing suite of GOES-sounder (Menzel... (2004) outlined the development of a GOES sounder-derived wet microburst severity... from the inspection of 51 GOES proximity soundings corresponding to downburst... for determining downburst potential using GOES sounder profile data. In addition... brightness temperature difference (“BTD”) between GOES infrared band 3 (water vapor, 6.5μm) and... a “dry-air notch”, identified in GOES infrared imagery as a V- or U-shaped... decade. A comparison study between the GOES Convective Overshooting Top (OT) Detection... temperature (BT) data from the GOES thermal infrared channel. Output OT... an assessment of the GOES MWPI and GOES BTD algorithms, presents case... the intercomparison study of the GOES-R overshooting top (OT) detection algorithm... region. 2. Data collection and methodology a. GOES Microburst Products The main objective...)-X. This program reads and processes GOES sounder data, calculates and collates..., and overlays risk values on GOES imagery. Output images are then... Graphyte Toolkit, reads and processes GOES sounder profile data in binary format available on the GOES sounding profile web page (http....nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/opdb/goes/soundings/html/sndbinary23L.html). The... temperatures from GOESEast (GOES-12, 2009 and before; GOES-13, 2010 and after... are shown graphically in Section 3. b. GOES Overshooting Top Detection Algorithm A comparison study between the GOES Convective Overshooting Top (OT) Detection... temperature (BT) data from the GOES infrared window (IRW) channel. Dworak... a requirement for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) instrument. GOES-R is scheduled... in the 2332 UTC composite GOES-NEXRAD image that displayed concurrent... hours. Figure 5, the 2300 UTC GOES MWPI product image, effectively indicated... New Mexico border. The corresponding GOES sounding profile in Figure 7 displays... to 48 kt). Figure 6, composite GOES-NEXRAD images at 0110 and... were associated with downburst activity. GOES MWPI imagery in Figure 8 indicated... reflected in the Norfolk, Virginia GOES sounding profile in Figure 9 as... overhead. Figure 11a, the composite GOES- NEXRAD image at 2025 UTC... to the August 2009 case, GOES sounding profiles reflected elevated MWPI.... The late afternoon (2100 UTC) GOES MWPI product, shown in Figure... were reflected in Figure 13, the corresponding GOES sounding profile over Patuxent... in the sounding. The composite GOES-NEXRAD images in Figure 14... completed for the MWPI product. GOES sounder-derived MWPI values have.... The comparison study between the GOES-R Convective Overshooting Top (OT) Detection... algorithm on the availability of GOES sounding retrievals, MWPI values are... proven by statistical analysis, the GOES sounder MWPI product has demonstrated... demonstrated the effectiveness of the GOES microburst products. However, as noted... an effective supplement to the GOES sounder MWPI product, especially in... development and evolution of the GOES microburst products. Acknowledgements. The author... Jaime Daniels (NESDIS) for providing GOES sounding retrievals displayed in this..., and W. Feltz, 2011: Comparison between GOES-12 overshooting top detections, WSR..., and D. Gray, 1998: Application of GOES 8/9 soundings to weather forecasting and... of the GOES Microburst Windspeed Potential Index. Preprints, 5th GOES Users' Conf... developments in microburst nowcasting using GOES. Preprints, 17th Conference on Satellite... McIDAS-X environment. a) b) Figure 2. Comparison of GOES MWPI product visualizations on 10... 3. a) Composite image of GOES MWPI at 2200 UTC, GOES channel 3-4 BTD at...; b) Composite image of GOES MWPI at 2200 UTC, GOES channel 3-4 BTD at... Wyoming. 30 a) b) Figure 5. Comparison of GOES MWPI product visualizations on 22... Lubbock GOES sounding is marked with a red square. 32 Figure 7. GOES sounding... 2010. a) 33 a) b) Figure 8. Comparison of GOES MWPI product visualizations on 24... imagery and b) Graphyte. 34 a) b) Figure 9. GOES sounding profiles over Norfolk, Virginia.... a) Composite image of GOES MWPI at 2000 UTC , GOES channel 3-4 BTD at...; b) Composite image of GOES MWPI at 2000 UTC, GOES channel 3-4 BTD at... stations, respectively. 37 a) b) Figure 12. GOES MWPI products, with index values... Point PORTS station. 38 Figure 13. GOES sounding profile over Patuxent River.... a) Composite image of GOES MWPI at 2100 UTC, GOES channel 3-4 BTD at...; b) Composite image of GOES MWPI at 2100 UTC, GOES channel 3-4 BTD at... convective OT minimum BT vs. GOES MWPI values and d) OT minimum...



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... GOES-R series is to replace the current series of satellites (called GOES-13... its Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R) series and made progress in... asked to evaluate GOES-R. GAO’s objectives were to (1) assess GOES-R progress and... program and contractor data, compared GOES-R schedules, requirements changes, and contingency....gov. Potential Gap in GOES Coverage While the GOES-R program has established... 29 GAO-13-597 Geostationary Weather Satellites Abbreviations CDR FOR GOES GOES-R KDP... Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite–R (GOES-R) series. The GOES-R series consists of four... that we review NOAA’s GOES-R series program (GOES-R program). Specifically, our objectives... adequacy of the GOES-R contingency plan, we compared the GOES-R contingency plan... operational geostationary satellite system, called GOES. Geostationary satellites can maintain a constant... GOES 1970-1987 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 GOES I-M 1985-2001 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 GOES N 1998-2010 13, 14, 15, Q GOES-R 2008... satellites and GOES-1, (2) GOES-2 and -3, (3) GOES-4 through -6, and (4) GOES-G (failed on launch) and GOES-7. d NOAA... GOES satellites–GOES-12, GOES-13, GOES-14, and GOES-15– are currently in orbit. Both GOES-13 and GOES-15 are operational satellites with GOES-13 covering the... satellites in the series (called GOES-R and GOES-S) are planned for launch... the launch dates for its GOES-R and GOES-S satellites to the second... Overview of the GOES-R Program NOAA established the GOES-R program to develop... additional satellites in the GOES-R series—GOES-T and GOES-U. The program estimates that... four satellites in the GOES-R series—GOES-R, GOES-S, GOES-T, and GOES-U—is to cost $10... key changes to the GOES-R program. Page 7 GAO-13-597 Geostationary Weather...) GOES-R: September 2012 GOES-S: April 2014 GOES-R: December 2014 GOES-S: April 2016 GOES-R: October 2015 GOES-S: February 2017 Estimated GOES-R: September 2012 launch dates for GOES-S: April 2014 GOES..., GOES-R and GOES-S. The cost for the remaining two satellites— GOES-T and GOES-U—was... the GOES-R instruments and their planned capabilities. Page 8 GAO-13-597 Geostationary... requires its flight projects, including GOES-R, to maintain contingency reserves during... NOAA has ultimate responsibility for GOES-R, NOAA shares program management responsibilities... GAO-13-597 Geostationary Weather Satellites reserve funding for the GOES-T satellite... Potential for a Delayed Launch The GOES-R program established programwide milestones, including... schedules provided by GOES-R, documents and information received from GOES-R officials. Key... a high-risk program like GOES-R. Delays in the GOES-R Launch Date Could... one of its operational satellites (GOES-13) and move its backup satellite... satellites before GOES-R is in orbit and Page 29 GAO-13-597... government and industry practices. The GOES-R program has a change management process... not satisfy one practice. Specifically, GOES-R has established a change management process... users.23 Specifically, table 13 outlines how the GOES-R program performed on... using a standard process Satisfied The GOES-R program has a requirements management plan... changes to requirements Satisfied The GOES-R program documents requirements changes in... to users Partially satisfied The GOES-R program generally communicates requirements changes... rely on GOES-R communication channels to obtain this data. GOES-R program officials... users may receive information about GOES-R requirements changes from publically available.... Page 33 GAO-13-597 Geostationary Weather Satellites GOES-R Program Has Undergone... multiple system requirements on the GOES-R program. These changes involved strengthening... a product depicting lightning detection. The GOES-R program also documented NOAA’s earlier... 38 GAO-13-597 Geostationary Weather Satellites NOAA Developed GOES-R Contingency Plans... its operational satellites. Specifically, when GOES-13 experienced problems in September and... position to provide observations until GOES-13 was once again operational. While... occur, including the problems with GOES-13, others were either not informed... System were affected by the GOES-13 outage in late 2012. As... GAO-13-597 Geostationary Weather Satellites officials explained that if GOES were... reserves to complete the GOES-R series. However, the GOES-R program does not... Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R series (GOES-R) program and in addressing key... changes in requirements, we compared GOES-R practices for managing requirements changes... Technology governance framework. We assessed GOES-R practices as having satisfied, partially... and procedures for both GOES satellites and the GOES ground system against...



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... main directory GOES Channel E data revised as follows: Data goes to summer... GOES 13 ........................................................................................................................... 12 A2. Tables for GOES 14 ........................................................................................................................... 12 A3. Tables for GOES 15 ........................................................................................................................... 13 A4. Background counts as a function of temperature ............................................................................ 13 A5... D. GOES EUVS hardware ............................................................................................................. 27 8 November 2016 2 1. Summary The geostationary orbiting GOES 13-15... three satellites. Times of available GOES EUVS measurements are shown in.... Figure 1. Wavelength responses of the GOES EUV sensors for the A-E bands. Figure 2. Available EUV measurements from GOES satellites. So far, only Channel... Channel A of GOES-13, -14 and 15. Irradiances for GOES-14 Channel A' are... SORCE SOLSTICE Lyman-α band for GOES-13, 14 and -15 for version... Channel B of GOES-13, -14 and 15. Irradiances for GOES-14 Channel B' are... daily averages for 2011 for GOES-13 Channel E data. Plots like these.../satellite/goes/doc/ GOES_NOP_EUV_readme.pdf GOES EUVS readme file GOES_XRS_readme.pdf GOES XRS... 6 Table 1. Latest versions for processed GOES EUVS data. sat ch version....0 3.2 Channel E degradation and Lyman-α The GOES Channel E data is converted to... on GOES 14 to get cleaner data.  Process Channels C and D on GOES 13 and 15.  Improve correction for GOES-13 Channel E data.  Create... extreme ultraviolet irradiance observations from GOES: design characteristics and initial performance.... A1. Tables for GOES 13 Table 6. Correction factors for GOES 13. Gain and background....8 Table 7. Flux conversion factors, C, for GOES-13 channels for solar minimum and... A2. Tables for GOES 14 Table 8. Correction factors for GOES 14. Gain... Table 9. Flux conversion factors, C, for GOES-14 channels for solar minimum.... Tables for GOES 15 Table 10. Correction factors for GOES 15. Gain... 11. Flux conversion factors, C, for GOES-15 channels for solar minimum... range of 4-6 C. Linear functions for GOES 13 and 15 are found by... B1. Channel A temperature correction The GOES NOP EUV-A Channel data has... were done for GOES 13 and 15 only, because on GOES-14, there... E for GOES-15 are shown in Figure 9 through Figure 13 along with... to SORCE SOLSTICE for GOES 15. For GOES 14, there are temperature... also a very small effect. For GOES 13, which is misaligned to the... compare the irradiance for the GOES Channels A and B with irradiance from... estimated the fraction of the GOES channel irradiance that would fall... vary with solar activity. C.1 Channel A C.1.1 GOES-15 Figure 14. Comparison of... GOES-15 Channel A. Figure 15. Ratio of GOES-15 EUV-A to EVE GOES-A band. C.1.2 GOES-14 Channels A and A' Figure 16. Comparison of the EVE GOES... of GOES-14 EUV-A to EVE GOES-A band. Figure 19. Ratio of GOES-14 EUV-A' to EVE GOES-A band. C.1.3 GOES-13 Channel A Figure 20. Comparison of the EVE GOES-A band... the GOES-13 Channel A data from 5-15 nm. Figure 21. Ratio of GOES-13 EUV-A to EVE GOES-A band. 8 November 2016 20 C.2 Channel B C.2.1 GOES-15... of the GOES-15 Channel B data with the EVE 'GOES-B' band. Figure... SOHO SEM 8 November 2016 21 C.2.2 GOES-14 Channels B and B' Figure 25... of the EVE GOES-B' band with subset of the GOES-14 Channel... the EVE 'GOES-B' band with subset of the GOES-14 Channel B' data... GOES 14 EUVS-B', SDO EVE, and SOHO SEM. 8 November 2016 22 C.2.3 GOES-13 Channel B Figure 31. Comparison of the EVE 'GOES-B' band with subset of the GOES-13 Channel B data... of the GOES-13 Channel B data. Figure 33. Ratios between GOES 13 EUVS-B, SDO... 1 nm band over Lyman-alpha. C.3.2 GOES-15 Channel E Figure 35. Comparison of the scaled and degradationcorrected GOES-15 Channel E data from 121.... The residual (green dots) is <±2%. C.3.3 GOES-14 Channel E The Channel E measurements... C.3.4 GOES-13 Channel E More work needs to be done to correct the GOES-13... the scaled and degradation-corrected GOES-13 Channel E data from 121.0-121... Lyman-α. Figure 41. Ratio of GOES-13 EUVS-E to the SOLSTICE elements... 26 Appendix D. GOES EUVS hardware The EUVS on GOES-13-15 were all... in the grating spacing, For GOES 13 and 15, the first unit... angular effects. For all three GOES satellites, Channel E is measured on... for EUVS on GOES 13-15. Note that on GOES-14, the C and..., E: 118-127 AXUV photodiode On GOES-14,channels B, B' and E are nitrided...



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...  activities,  primarily  for Himawari‐8 and GOES‐R. Preliminary content is available for...  generation  of  geostationary satellites, including GOES‐R.  ‐ 15 ‐  CGMS‐43 | Boulder, USA...  of  its  next  generation  satellite,  GOES‐R.  NOAA's  polar‐orbiting  constellation  was... the transition from GOES Variable (GVAR) to the  GOES‐ReBroadcast (GRB).  GRB...  posted on the GOES‐R web site: http://www.goes‐r.gov/.   F.3  Global data... WGIV/6.2 discussions)  HLPP ref HLPP #  2.5  GOES‐R global data exchange  In  CGMS...  for  Product  Distribution  and  Acquisition.  GOES‐R  data  will be available on...  replace GOES13 imagery on GEONETCast Americas with roughly equivalent amounts GOES‐ R imagery... explore the effective  transition  to  GOES‐R,  including  efforts  to  make  Lightning...  products  from  the  next‐generation  GOES‐R+ series, and the recently launched... “How Satellite Observations Impact NWP”,  “GOES‐R ABI:  Next  Generation  Satellite  Imaging...  of  Environmental  Monitoring  Satellites”,  and “GOES‐R  Geostationary Lightning  Mapper”.  In  collaboration...://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/cspp/.  GOES and GOES‐R software:  http://cimss.ssec...  zones,  coordination  portal,  monitoring  capability,  GOES‐R  frequency shift down by 3.5 MHz...  without harmful interference to GOES and GOES‐R operations in the band 1675... COORDINATION EFFORTS VERSUS GOES‐R FILINGS  NOAA successfully coordinated several GOES satellite networks beginning in the 1970s with GOES‐ EAST  and  GOES‐WEST,  continuing  with  GOES‐EAST‐1  and  GOES‐WEST‐1  (GOES  I‐M),  GOES‐EAST‐2  and  GOES‐WEST‐2  (GOES  N‐P).  The  frequencies  filed  for  GOES‐R  under  GOES‐EAST‐4  and  GOES... frequency bands coordinated for prior GOES satellite networks  with additional frequencies...  systems”.  Specifically, for the GOES‐R series, GOES‐R will comply with recommendation 2, viz...  allocated  in  this  band,  the  GOES‐R  downlinks  will  employ  a  spread  spectrum... those from the current  operational  GOES  satellites,  viz.  Data  Collection  Program....    The  GRB  replaces  the  existing  GOES  Variable  (GVAR)  service,  requiring  a  larger... advanced sensors on‐board the GOES‐R spacecraft.    All  of  these  replacements...  similar  expected  operations  of  NOAA’s  GOES‐R  satellites to those currently in... advanced sensors on‐board the GOES‐R satellites,  the  geostationary  MetSat  L‐band... these X‐band  frequencies planned by GOES‐R satellites, NOAA  seeks the coordination...  NOAA  requests  that  CGMS  examine  GOES‐R  frequency  bands  and  provide  appropriate...  this  coordination  for  GOES‐R.  The  launch  of  GOES‐R  is  expected  in  March...  Direct  Readout  Systems  for  GOES‐R  &  JPSS.  The  GOES  Re‐Broadcast  (GRB)  service...  GVAR  transmission  on  the  current GOES spacecraft.  NOAA’s current direct broadcast... data products for hemispheric retransmission:     “GOES Rebroadcast” (GRB)  Faster full disk... data from six GOES‐R instruments including all ABI channels  GOES‐R data reception...  Specification  Document  for  Users  Provides  GOES  Rebroadcast  radio  frequency  downlink characteristics... receivers      http://www.goes‐r.gov/resources/docs.html   GOES‐R Product Users Guide...  recovering  data  from  the  remaining   GOES‐R instruments: SUVI, EXIS, MAG and...  Transitioning HRIT/EMWIN from GOES NOP to GOES‐R:   NOAA  NWS  Emergency  Managers...  reduced  resolution GOES and MTSAT imagery and products  ‐ GOES Visible, Infrared and... Storm Information  ‐ Copy of GOES Data Collection Service (GOES‐DCS)   HRIT/EMWIN... Storm Information  ‐ Copy of GOES Data Collection System  (GOES DCS)  ‐ Requires new... on the GOES‐R web site:  ‐ http://www.goes‐r.gov/ ‐‐ http://www.goes‐r.gov... Data Distribution System  (DADDS,  serving  GOES  DCS  users)  now  has  approximately...  newest  satellite  series  (Himawari  8/9  or  GOES‐R),  with  higher  spatial  resolution,  higher...  generation  geostationary  imagery,  including  the  GOES‐R  ABI.      At  the  same  time... available GOES‐R  for the retrieval of cloud parameters.  WGII/10  R43.13...  of pre‐operational  dissemination of GOES‐R  data via e.g. GEONETCast‐ Americas both...  data  from  the  next‐generation  GOES‐R/S,  and  uncertainty  with  the  timing  of  operational data availability from GOES‐R/S.  The Group recognized the efforts...  of  GOES‐R  series  imagery  if  GOES‐R  is  placed  at  the  GOES  East  position... particles and magnetospheric particles, with GOES‐E, GOES‐W  and  other  spacecraft  such  as... space weather satellite missions including (GOES‐R, DSCOVR, CCOR and COSMIC‐2). A wealth...



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... Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) acquisition and development effort. Our... necessary to maintain the first GOES-R satellite's launch readiness date. • Program... the geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES)—which orbit approximately 22,300... of GOES satellites known as the GOES-R Series of four satellites (GOES-R, -S, -T and... necessary to maintain the first GOES-R satellite’s launch readiness date. Schedule... Testing Activities Raise Concerns About GOES-R Readiness to Launch........................................................................................................................................... 6 B. Cost Increases and Budget Shortfalls May Delay GOES-R Development and Launch ...................... 6 C. Scope Reductions and Delays Are Diminishing GOES-R Operational Capabilities ........................... 7 D. A Comprehensive Set of..., Scope, and Methodology ................................................................................................. 28 Appendix B: GOES-R Suite of Instruments ............................................................................................................... 29 Appendix... States: geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES) and polar-orbiting operational environmental satellites (POES). GOES satellites are in geosynchronous orbit... simultaneously operates two primary GOES satellites, GOES-East and GOES-West. As part... GOES Fleet Source: NOAA, GOES-R program documentation On September 23, 2012, the GOES-East satellite (GOES-13)2 was... by numbers. For example, GOES-R will be GOES-16 once it is launched. FINAL REPORT NO. OIG-13-024-A 1   DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE U.S. OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL GOES-East... of GOES-14 was stopped at 89.5 degrees west because GOES-13 was... of GOES satellites known as the GOES-R Series of four satellites (GOES-R, -S, -T and..., and auxiliary communication payloads. The GOES-R series will deploy advanced instruments...                                                              3 The spacecraft, the platform for GOES-R’s instruments, is designed for 10... April 4, 2013. GOES-R. Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) [Online]. www.goes-r.gov/spacesegment... operations acquisition experts that assess GOES-R (and other NOAA satellite programs... the highest potential for maintaining GOES constellation availability.                                                                7 In its FY... 2 satellites (GOES-T and -U) to the program’s existing two GOES-R satellites (GOES-R and -S), which... about a potential GOES-R launch delay, increasing the likelihood of a GOES two-imager10....11 If GOES-R launches on time, the GOES constellation (currently GOES-13, -14, -15...-13-024-A 4   DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE U.S. OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL projects that GOES... in operation. However, even if GOES-R and GOES-S launch as planned, there...-launch testing (based on GOES-13 and GOES-15 operational design lives; see..., NOAA had to place the GOES-13 satellite on standby due to... activated the GOES-14 on-orbit spare satellite to replace GOES-13, but...-day test period was completed. GOES-13 service was restored on October... Budget Shortfalls May Delay GOES-R Development and Launch GOES-R funding stability is.... OIG-13-024-A 6   DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE U.S. OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL GOES-R annual...,860 Source: OIG, adapted from GOES-R program documentation C. Scope Reductions and Delays Are Diminishing GOES-R Operational Capabilities Due to development... GOES-13, -14, and -15. 19 The partial set of products that GOES... the current orbiting GOES satellites. FINAL REPORT NO. OIG-13-024-A 7   DEPARTMENT... alleviate schedule pressure—consulting the GOES-R user community about relaxing operational... data in the event of a GOES coverage gap.                                                              20 Examples of... resolving project conflicts. Initially, the GOES-R program systems engineering organization only... headquarters—which, according to the GOES-R Management Control Plan, should provide... for the GOES-R and -S flight models; b includes instruments for GOES-R and -S flight models; c includes instruments for GOES-R, -S, and -T flight...) Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) GOES-R Spacecraft Totals GOES-R Program Office Estimate (POE... estimates for GOES-R through GOES-U flight models; b includes bids for GOES-R through GOES-U flight... rather than operational missions like GOES-R. Thus, the contractor underestimated the... findings and recommendations. However, the GOES-R program focused these discussions only... program. However, later that month, GOES-R program management presented a briefing slide...-13-024-A 28   DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE U.S. OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Appendix B: GOES... adapted from GOES-R program documentation   FINAL REPORT NO. OIG-13-024-A 29... Geostationary Operational Environmental Satcllitc-R Series (GOES-R) acquisit ion and dcvelor>ment...



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... (NOAA)’s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R) program has made major progress... delays to the GOES-R launch date. As the GOES-R program approaches its... in Backup Satellite Coverage, the GOES-R Program Has Improved Contingency Plans... ABI CDR EVM FOR GLM GOES GOES-R MDR MOR NASA NOAA ORR... Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite–R (GOES-R) series. The GOES-R series consists of four... request that we review NOAA’s GOES-R program. Specifically, our objectives were...-15-60 Geostationary Weather Satellites GOES-R program with respect to planned... assess NOAA’s progress in developing GOES-R with respect to cost, schedule.... 3 We also interviewed NOAA and GOES-R program officials regarding program status... operational geostationary satellite system, called GOES. Geostationary satellites can maintain a constant... Original GOES 1970-1987 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 GOES I-M 1985-2001 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 GOES-N 1998-2010 13, 14, 15, Q GOES-R 2008... satellites and GOES-1, (2) GOES-2 and -3, (3) GOES-4 through -6, and (4) GOES-G (failed on launch) and GOES-7. d NOAA... GOES satellites—GOES-13, GOES-14, and GOES-15—are currently in orbit. 4 Both GOES-13 and GOES-15 are operational satellites, with GOES-13 covering the eastern United States (GOES-East in Figure 1) and GOES-15... commercial terminals. 4 There are older GOES satellites in orbit, but they... Overview of the GOES-R Program NOAA established the GOES-R program to develop... of geostationary satellite observations. The GOES-R satellite series is designed to... improvements. NOAA expects that the GOES-R series will significantly increase the... quickly. Since its inception, the GOES-R program has undergone several changes... and scope. As originally envisioned, GOES-R was to encompass four satellites... satellites in the series (called GOES-R and GOES-S) were expected to launch...-15-60 Geostationary Weather Satellites GOES-R program because of expectations that... to the program’s baseline, making GOES-R a four-satellite program once again... additional satellites in the GOES-R series—GOES-T and GOES-U. The program estimated that... four satellites in the GOES-R series—GOES-R, GOES-S, GOES-T, and GOES-U—would cost $10.86.... Specifically, the launch of the GOES-R satellite was delayed from October... for GOES-R and GOES-S GOES-R: September 2012 GOES-S: April 2014 GOES-R: December 2014 GOES-S: April 2016 GOES-R: by March 2016 GOES...) Hyperspectral Environmental Suite • • • • • • 81 GOES-R: September 2012 GOES-S: April 2014 Source: GAO... data. | GAO-15-60 GOES-R: October 2015 GOES-S: February 2017 a Based on..., GOES-R and GOES-S. The cost for the remaining two satellites— GOES-T and GOES-U—was... structure, while table 3 summarizes the GOES-R instruments and their planned capabilities... reported on issues related to GOES technical challenges and requirements. In... changes to several of the GOES-R requirements—including decreasing the accuracy... with users on changes in GOES-R requirements by assessing impacts, seeking... all planned products for the GOES-R satellite; • replacing and successfully demonstrating... inadequate and behind schedule. The GOES-R program cited multiple reasons for... experienced during development. Specifically, the GOES-R program is considering deferring functionality... system. In doing so, the GOES-R program identified “offramps,” or decision.... ◐ NOAA established a schedule for the GOES-R program’s integration and testing phase... managing and reporting metrics: The GOES-R program affords its contractors and... and other guidance documents, the GOES-R program did not establish specific... schedule is “unrealistically aggressive.” The GOES-R program has chosen to compress... of resolving defects. Although the GOES program has defect management policies... a sound system testing approach, the GOES-R program has not efficiently closed... were unresolved. Defect totals on GOES instruments declined as the program... in Backup Satellite Coverage, the GOES-R Program Has Improved Contingency Plans Though Shortfalls Remain GOES satellite data are considered a mission... operational satellites (GOES-13) and to move its backup satellite (GOES-14) into... of April 2014 a The GOES-R and GOES-S launch dates reflect the end... their expected lifespans, the current GOES satellites are operating with reduced.... Without a full complement of operational GOES satellites, the nation’s ability to... encountered during testing and integration. GOES-R Satellite Contingency Plan Shows Improvement... organization’s essential functions—such as GOES satellite data—in the case... solutions or timelines for preventing a GOES-R launch delay. In February 2014... Trends for Key GOES-R Components As noted earlier, the GOES-R program does... system of a magnitude similar to GOES. Contractor officials reported that none...



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... for users Scaling factors: For GOES 8-15, the archived fluxes have... of major changes 3 s data for GOES 8-12 added to archive. Revised.... original author Machol Machol Contents 1. GOES X-ray Sensor (XRS) ........................................................................................................................... 3 2. Data issues... of GOES satellites with XRS sensors ................................................................................................ 7 5. Contacts .................................................................................................................................................... 9 6. Status flags for GOES 8-12 ...................................................................................................................... 10 7. Calibration tables for GOES 13-15 .......................................................................................................... 11 References .................................................................................................................................................. 14 Acknowledgements..................................................................................................................................... 14 1. GOES X-ray Sensor (XRS) On each GOES satellite there are...). Figure 1 shows primary and secondary GOES satellites for XRS data since... (thin lines) GOES satellites for XRS data since 1986. GOES-13 measurements were... been stable since 2014. However GOES 13 is not considered a primary or... thought to degrade. GOES 8-12 (GOES I-M series) and 13-15 (GOES NOP series) have... XRS detectors). A description of the GOES-8 instrument is given by Hanser... get GOES-8 to agree with GOES-7. GOES 7 was the last of the spinning GOES satellites while GOES 8 was.... The next generation of satellites, GOES-R (to launch in 2016) will... al. [2006]. 2.2. Time stamps For GOES XRS, the data sampling rate... on the satellite generation. For GOES 13-15, the data accumulation time... delayed timestamp are indicated. For GOES 13-15, one minute averages are... data. For satellites prior to GOES-13, the data accumulation time was... the same way as for GOES 13-15. 2.3 Digitization As described by... most extreme flare events, the GOES XRS channels can saturate. As... short channel saturated at X-5. On GOES 13-15, there has not been... long (a) and short (b) channels on GOES-12 during a flare on 4 November... onward and is available for GOES 6-15 satellites. The data includes...: GOES 6-7 xl(long) xs(short) GOES 8-12 xs(short) xl(long) GOES 13-15 A(short) B(long) 4. Dates of GOES... is the secondary. Secondary satellite GOES XRS Data Readme 10 June... chronology of primary and secondary GOES satellites for XRS measurements since... 1min new 2s 1min GOES-13 GOES-12 GOES-11 GOES-10 GOES-9 GOES-8 GOES-7 2006-05-24... 1994 old, new* 3s 1, 5 min** GOES-5 GOES-4 GOES-3 GOES-2 GOES-1 SMS-2 SMS-1 1981-05-22... data for GOES 5 and 6 available beginning in 1986. *** GOES-13 data for the... 12 10 8 8 7 7 6 Secondary 13 15 13 14 13 13 13 None 15 GOES-14 None 15... 10 7 8 6 5 Remarks GOES-10 decommissioned GOES-11 XRS failure GOES-10 not tracked due to antenna problems GOES-10 not tracked due to antenna problems sem.goes@noaa... for updates on the GOES XRS data set. GOES XRS Data Readme... June 2016 9 6. Status flags for GOES 8-12 The definitions for the... GOES XRS Data Readme 10 June 2016 x 10 7. Calibration tables for GOES 13-15 For GOES 13-15, the NOAA SWPC... a cadence of 2.048 s from the GOES satellites. The counts are converted... the G and C come from the GOES Data and Calibration Handbooks. The... for GOES 14 and 15 XRS. GOES sat 15 15 14 14 13 13... spectral response calibration data for GOES-13. The tables and figures are...(SN003). Table 6. Calibration data for GOES-13 Channel A. Wavelength (nm) 0.01 0.02...) Figure 7. Calibrated response for GOES-13 Channel A. GOES XRS Data Readme 10 June... 12 Table 7. Calibration data for GOES-13 Channel B. Wavelength (nm) 0.02 0.04... response for GOES-13 Channel B. GOES XRS Data Readme 10 June 2016 13 References... NCEI GOES documentation webpage (http://ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/satellite/goes/documentation...), Temperature and emission measure from goes soft X-ray measurements, Solar Phys..., 275-308. GOES I-M DataBook, Revision 1, 31 August 1996. GOES P SEM Data and...), Design and calibration of the GOES-8 solar x-ray sensor: the XRS... band measurements for SOLRAD9 through GOES-12, Solar Phys. 272, 319... providing data and historical information. GOES XRS Data Readme 10 June...



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... WES case. In addition, the GOES-R Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Proxy... high quality simulated data. The GOES-R Imagery Team is also thanked.... Finally, the support from the GOES-R Program Office, via the Proving... band) ..................................................................................... 28 Improvements of GOES-R over Current GOES .................................................................. 29 ABI Spectral Improvements... ................................................................................................................. 39 Select Links ........................................................................................................................... 41 GOES-R .............................................................................................................................. 41 GOES .................................................................................................................................. 41 UW/SSEC/CIMSS/ASPB... A – ABI Spectral Bands ....................................................................................... 42 Appendix B – GOES-R Product Suite.................................................................................. 43 Appendix C – Details... resolution observations than the current GOES imagers. The MODIS data are... relative to current GOES Compared to the current GOES, the ABI has... example, GOES-R should become GOES-16. GOES-O was in 2009 and GOES-P was launched in 2010, becoming GOES... of the current GOES Imager (red) and the GOES-R ABI (yellow) are... every product from the current GOES Imager and will introduce a host... spatial resolution than the current GOES imager. GOES Imager Band Wavelength Range... 7.3 10.2 to 11.2 3.9 6.75 (GOES-8/11) 6.48 (GOES-12/15) 10.7 5 11.5 to 12.5 12.0 (GOES-8/11) 6 12.9 to 13.7 13.3 (GOES... spectral bands on the current GOES Imagers. The wavelength values are... Hillger and Schmit, 2007). 5 Future GOES Imager (ABI) Band Wavelength Range... configured to represent the anticipated GOES-R scanning regions (i.e., full disk, CONUS... 4-5 June 2005 for generating simulated GOES-R ABI radiances was the large... training and preparing for the GOES-R ABI. 8 Figure 2. Storm reports from... how the advanced imager on GOES-R/S will monitor rapidly changing convection... to the images. The expected GOES-R product generation algorithms would be... developed as part of the GOES-R proving ground concept to prepare.... 10 GOES-13 Sounder Band Wavelength 18 3.75 17 3.98 16 GOES-8+ Imager 20 3.8 21 22 4.0 4.0 4.13 23 4.1 15 4.45... 3.9 Band 2 3 3 Wavelength MODIS Wavelength 2 Wavelength GOES-12+ Imager Band 9 Band 3.9 6.5 6.8 9.70... 4 6 10.7 13.3 Table of the IR bands of the GOES Sounder, Imagers...,” then “Individual bands,” and then “GOES-R ABI Band 01”; click on.... A similar band on the current GOES imager has demonstrated many of... studying ocean characteristics. The current GOES lone visible channel does not... window (3.9 μm) band (on the current GOES imagers) has been demonstrated to... to those on heritage GOES imagers. Figure 13. Simulated ABI band 8 (6.19... using the 13.3 μm band are being demonstrated with the GOES-12, -13, -O, and -P imagers, as well as the current GOES sounders. Figure 21. Simulated ABI band 16 (13.3 µm) for... windows. 28 Improvements of GOES-R over Current GOES ABI Spectral Improvements Compared to the current GOES imager, the improved spectral resolution of the GOES-R ABI bands can be noted... relative to the current GOES. Figure 22. Current GOES imager (5 bands) for... bands that correspond to the GOES-12 Imager. Figure 23. Simulated... 24. Example of the current GOES spatial resolution (left panel) and... current GOES to GOES-R Figure 33. Shows comparison between current GOES and simulated GOES... left shows current GOES images from the 3.9 µm and the 13.3 µm. The images... exactly corresponding to the actual GOES images, although similar features have.... Using MODIS to learn about GOES-R ABI To familiarize yourself with...: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/visit/modis.html  Information on..., J. and Pavolonis, M., 2008: Using the GOES sounder to monitor upper level.... Hillger, D.W., and T. J. Schmit, 2007: The GOES-13 Science Test: Imager and Sounder... Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES-R, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Vol.... Rev, 136, 5095-5115. Introductory GOES-R ABI Videos We have also... Select Links GOES-R http://www.goes-r.gov http://www.goes-r.gov/education/index....html GOES http://goespoes.gsfc.nasa.gov/goes/index.html http://goes.gsfc.nasa.gov/text/goes.databookn....edu/projects/goes-n/ http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/projects/goes-o/ UW/SSEC....wisc.edu/goes/abi/ http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/abi/wf...: 42 Appendix B – GOES-R Product Suite While the exact GOES-R product suite is...? A: 30 sec. Q: Can the current GOES imager detect upper-level SO2...



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... (10/12/11/N/O/P) to Future (GOES-R+) Timothy J. Schmit NOAA/NESDIS/STAR... Walsh Don Hillger Tony Schreiner GOES-N,O,P Booklet Jun Li Paul Menzel..., Heymann, Roger, … Topics GOES-12/11/10 GOES-N GOES-O/P GOES-R+ ABI HES Data Compression... etc. GIFTS More information Current GOES GOES-12 Imager 4 um band just... Cloud-top pressure product affected… A GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) Incident.... From D. Han GOES-11 • The current plan is for GOES-11 to... GOES-11 view from 105 West GOES-11 During PLT in 2000 GOES... 69), SOCC Engineers changed the GOES-10 Sounder patch temperature from...-term GOES GOES-N Spacecraft Star Trackers GOES-N Spacecraft Images from NASA GOES Schedules • GOES-N is...-2008. GOES-N will be called GOES-13 when it reaches geostationary orbit. • GOES-O is... and operational in late 2009. GOES-8/12 GOES-N/P Position of the boom... less instrument noise GOES-N/O/P will have similar instruments to GOES-8-12, but... the radiometrics. Limitations of Current GOES Imagers – Regional/Hemispheric scan conflicts... related outages GOES-R (2012+) addresses the first 3 limitations, but GOES-N addresses the... satellite outage during landfall Note: GOES-10 was taking images during... satellite outage during landfall Note: GOES-10 was taking images during... satellite outage during landfall Note: GOES-10 was taking images during... satellite outage during landfall Note: GOES-10 was taking images during... satellite outage during landfall Note: GOES-10 was taking images during... satellite outage during landfall Note: GOES-10 was taking images during... satellite outage during landfall Note: GOES-10 was taking images during... satellite outage during landfall Note: GOES-10 was taking images during... satellite outage during landfall Note: GOES-10 was taking images during... satellite outage during landfall Note: GOES-10 was taking images during... satellite outage during landfall Note: GOES-10 was taking images during... satellite outage during landfall Note: GOES-10 was taking images during... been defined for GOES-N operations Improved radiometrics on GOES-N+ The GOES-N+ instruments will... GOES-N (Sounder) noise compared to GOES-12 longwave shortwave Improved calibration on GOES... with striping: Improved navigation on GOES-N+ • The GOES-N navigation will be improved... trackers • GOES-N performance will be verified on-orbit GOES-I/M Performance & GOES-N Expected Performance Navigation at Nadir Daytime (Visible) Nighttime (IR) GOES-I/M GOES... urad = 6 km 85 urad (~3 km) GOES-N Imager and Sounder spectral response... band selection is similar to GOES-12. GOES-12 Imager and Sounder... similar to GOES-12. Pressure GOES-N Imager Weighting Functions CIMSS Pressure GOES-12 Imager Weighting Functions CIMSS Pressure GOES-N Sounder Weighting Functions Pressure GOES-12 Sounder Weighting Functions GOES-O – improved spatial resolution of the 13.3 um band. 1 km 2 km “GOES-R” 4 km “GOES-O/P” 8 km “GOES-M” Future GOES GOES R Baseline... µm) Simulated ABI (8.5-11 µm) UW/CIMSS GOES-R ABI will detect SO2 plumes... Current GOES Imager can not detect SO2 ABI 7.34 µm – 13.3 µm GOES-R and GOES-I/M Simulations of Southern California Fires GOES-12 Simulated..., 1815 UTC Simulated ABI Actual GOES-8 Mountain waves over Colorado and... are shown in GOES projection. UW/CIMSS “ABI” GOES Using MODIS, MET....35µm” “11.2µm” “12.3µm” “13.3µm” Similar bands on the GOES-12 Imager “0.47... 30 minutes with the current GOES the routine mode. “Franklin” Mesoscale... (thunderstorms, hurricanes, fires, etc). Current GOES can not offer these rapid... other important regions GOES-West view from 135 GOES-West view from... Advanced Baseline Sounder (ABS) Current GOES, GIFTS and possible HES spectral... data. Beginning ABI data compression. GOES R series large data volumes at... ratios from current standards. Fourth GOES-R Users’ Conference: • May 1-3, 2006: – Location... is exceeding specification. Summary: GOES-N/O/P instrument changes - GOES-N post-launch check-out...) - better resolution of the 13.3 um on GOES-O/P GOES-N/O/P bus change - no spring... tracker) GOES-8/12 GOES-N/P Approximate spectral and spatial resolutions of US GOES Imagers Visible ~ Band Center (um) GOES-6/7 GOES-8/11 GOES-12/N GOES-O/P GOES-R+ 0.47... amount of information from the GOES-R will offer a continuation of current... ABI improves over the current GOES Imager the spectral, temporal, spatial... Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) on GOES-R will enable much improved monitoring... capabilities. More information • GOES-11 PLT NOAA Tech Memo • GOES-I/M Databook • http://www.osd.noaa.gov/GOES/GOES_NQ Booklet.pdf • GOES-N Databook....wisc.edu/goes/abi/ NOAA GOES-R page: • https://osd.goes.noaa.gov/ GOES and MODIS Galleries: • http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes...



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....31 An Overview of the GOES-13 Science Test Donald W. Hillger* NOAA... latest Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), GOES-N, was launched on 24 May... to become GOES-13. GOES-13 has instruments similar to the instruments on GOES-8/12... for GOES-13 not to become operational until it would replace either GOES-12 or GOES-11, whichever fails or... first. GOES-12 is currently in the GOES-east position, and GOES-11 is in the GOES-west... the navigation and registration on GOES-N+. The navigation will be improved... 2 km with those on the GOES-N/O/P satellites. Both within-frame and... previous GOES check-outs, there are several goals for the GOES-13 Science Test. First, the quality of the GOES-13 data... to generate products from the GOES-13 data stream and compare to... data through the eclipse, the GOES-N/O/P system addresses one of the... be radiometric improvements, since the GOES-13 instruments (Imager and * Corresponding author... GOES-R Risk Reduction activities. for GOES-11 (Daniels et al. 2001) and GOES... the satellite. Similar to previous GOES checkouts following launch, there will... the emulation of current GOES operations, either GOES-east or GOESwest, with... generated from GOES-13 to be compared to products from current GOES. The..., nor may be until the GOES-13 Science Tests begin. This paper... several months after launch of GOES-13. Since the engineering tests are..., but some preliminary analysis of GOES-13 imagery and data have already... networks. 3. PREPARATIONS In preparation for GOES-N, the detectoraveraged spectral coverage of the four GOES-N Imager infrared bands and the eighteen GOES-N Sounder bands... the GOES-12 spectral bands, where the Imager has a 13.3 µm band. The GOES...-6 (13.3 µm). Because GOES-13 data have been sent to ground stations in GVAR (GOES...-to-detector striping in the GOES-13 infrared images were also made... striping analysis for GOES-13 were comparable to those from GOES-12 (not shown). On 22 June 2006 the first GOES-13... on first viewing. In September, GOES-13 went into eclipse operations, when... GOES were not able to collect imagery in these circumstances. However GOES-13... sequences of images from GOES-13 and from GOES-12, showing the gaps... the current GOES imagery, as shown by the GOES-12 example on... two shorter gaps in the GOES-13 imagery as shown in the... 2006 the first preliminary, uncalibrated GOES-13 full-disk infrared images were..., on 20 July the first GOES-13 calibrated full-disk infrared images... 7. Figure 8 shows a composite of the GOES-13 Sounder images for all 19... those from the GOES-11 Sounder (not shown). The GOES-13 radiance images are also visually less noisy than either GOES-11 or GOES-10 Sounder data. For... example of solar contamination in a GOES-13 image collected in an otherwise... sun may be found. With GOES-13 data continuing to arrive, it... the data. Both GOES-13 and current operational GOES data were analyzed for... is a comparison of GOES-13 noise to current GOES. The improvements are given..., Figure 12 shows a preliminary GOES-13 and GOES-12 Sounder cloud-top pressure... from 6 October 2006. 5. SUMMARY The GOES-13 NOAA Science Tests will take..., as well as the preliminary 3 GOES-11 Imager and Sounder Radiance...: Validation of GOES-N Imager Data and Products During the GOES-N Science Test... and Product Validations for the GOES-12 Science Test, NOAA Technical... NOAA Grant NA67RJ0152. The entire GOES-N/13 team is thanked as well..., 2006: An overview of the GOES-N Science Test, 14th Conf. Sat..., J. Daniels, and D.W. Hillger, 2006, The GOES-N Sounder Data and Products, 14th..., 2001: GOES-11 Science Test: 4 Figure 1: GOES-8/12 (left) and GOES-N (right) spacecraft. (Images courtesy of NASA.) Figure 2: Current GOES-13 NOAA... GOES-12 Science Test 6 Table 1: Suggested NOAA Science Tests for the GOES-13... at Huntsville) P 3 Similar to previous GOES Sounder scans during the check...: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/g11_report/GOES11_SNDR_NOISE.GIF P P TU UT... spectral coverage of the four GOES-N Imager infrared bands (dashed-red) and the eighteen GOES-N Sounder bands (solid-green) plotted... of Mat Gunshor/CIMSS.) 8 Figure 5: GOES-N Imager (top) and Sounder (bottom... of Mat Gunshor/CIMSS.) 9 Figure 6: GOES-13 visible (0.7 µm) image at 1801 UTC...’s satellite ground station. 10 Figure 7: GOES-13 band-4 (10.7 µm) longwave window image.... 11 Figure 8: Composite of the GOES-13 Sounder images for all 19... the GOES-13 Imager, as compared to the operational GOES-12 Imager. 13 14 Figure 10: Sequences of images comparing GOES-13 to GOES..." of GOES-13. 16 Figure 12: Preliminary comparison of GOES-13 (top) and GOES-12... have been remapped into a common GOES-12 projection. (Figure courtesy of...