Спутник навигационных систем. GPS 2R-10. [Редактировать]

GPS-2R (Global Positioning System) или Navstar-2R (Navigation System using Timing And Ranging) – третье поколение космических аппаратов системы GPS. GPS-IIR должны по контракту от 19989 года осуществить замену второго поколения аппаратов группировки. Производителем аппаратов выступает Lockheed Martin, которая использует для производства космический аппаратов свою коммерческую платформу AS-4000. Космические аппараты имеют трех-осевую стабилизацию и работают на 1572.42 MHz, 1227.6 MHz и 2227.5 MHz. Lockheed также отвечает за запуски аппаратов и их эксплуатацию. По сравнению с предшествующими аппаратами новое поколение спутников позволяет значительно улучшить точность определения координат на Земле.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1USA 175НайтиНайти
2SVN-47НайтиНайти
328129НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - военно-коммерческие
3Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2032
2Платформа, AS-40001

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град52.9
2Апогей, км20384.2
3Перигей, км19995.8
4Период, минут718.0
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км26560

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2003-058A

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2003-12-21 at 07:50:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xGPS 2R-10
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2

Найдено 859 документов по запросу «GPS 2R-10». [Перейти к поиску]


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..., once your simulation is working. 10 Modeling • Why Models? • A model is...) Confidence on LLEGO Baseline $ 341M 10.0% Total Contractor Costs (50%) Total... vs Number of Launches for 10 years 560 532 504 476... 19 20 21 22 23 10 Year Flight Rate Left/Dow n Annual contractor costs: $409.4M 10 year flight rate: 17.7 Right... Engine NREC $ 810 Unknown GEO GPS, 55 deg GEO Polar LEO LEO 41 deg GPS, 55 deg GEO LEO, 58 deg Polar LEO GEO LEO GPS, 55 deg GEO LEO, 123...



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... employees 50 40 30 20 10 0 1-10 11-100 101-500 501.... & Associates, 2002. 23 ASPRS Forecast. GPS GEO-REFERENCED INFORMATION GIS & Visualization... a business perspective, the increased accuracy • GPS-enabled timing devices, used to... U.S. State Intelligence released a report entitled “GPS World by U.S. suppliers (see particular... satellite navigation systems (GPS, an increasing role for GPS in what they... the post 9/11 market realities. GPS Markets” (© 2002). Department indicates a weakening... important emerging GPS initiatives is marketplace: in 1998, the GPS receiver market... Attacks Accelerate Interest in GPS Applications”, ibid. August 10, 1990 and SATELLITE... the pack with 10 close to 75% of total GPS market share... CHARACTERISTICS MARKET CHARACTERISTICS FIGURE C FIGURE D GPS MARKET TRENDS: 1996-2002 GLOBAL...”, 17 see “GPS and Aviation Safety” in GPS North American GPS Market Share... < 1% Land 72% Timing 6% Space Transportation 8% GPS 9% Aviation 7% Military 8% Marine 7% Source: U.S. Dept... motorists have trouble • Miniaturization of GPS technologies getting lost. So they... terrestrial or satellite transmitters) board GPS-based autolanding system17. SATELLITE NAVIGATION... spur growth development • Demand for GPS technologies to address aviation particularly... expansion ensures availability and accuracy • GPS-enabled navigation initiatives spur product... recreational marine markets that use GPS technologies • Hydrographic survey/mapping in... our • Falling prices Restraints: • Gradual GPS data integration into avionic support... time. GPS-enabled navigational initiatives GPS General Aviation market grew nearly 10% in... of state-of-the-art GPS receivers. GPS World, July 2002, The... 23 A comprehensive Current and future GPS-related applications 23 • Synchronization/orientation of communication/ GPS satellites continuously communicate position Drivers... increasingly require precise overview of GPS include : relative navigation networks (EPLRS.... Positions military products and • Assisted-GPS for tactical indoor applications, JTIDS... Observatory’s Master • Escalating reliance on GPS-enabled technologies Clock which is... • Increased rate of integration of GPS into battlefield managemenflt systems Block... glide- signals from a formation of GPS satellites (ideally Restraints: the precise... options for timing: GPS-aided timing operating GPS data not always the... of the Transportation Infrastructure. Canadian GPS community. Global Space Sector Market..., U.S. Congress approves US$173 M for GPS satellite PriceWaterhouseCooper release business case... Communication & Surveillance Systems) to supply GPS CSI Wireless unveils Asset-Link...- services for the U.S. Nationwide Differential GPS, Shenzhen Shenyuan Trading Company for...$1.3 M. (UWB) yet protects GPS signals from intentional GPS 2F Modernization program. version....redherring and specialized GPS. radio companies, and the GPS community, reiterate CSI... to Mobile Knowledge. the entire GPS infrastructure. cranes manipulating shipping containers... disruption, U.S. Depar- new, cost-effective GPS technology to monitor the generation... planning, execution, and analysis of GPS surveys. other. Standard mechanisms currently..., the operational GPS constellation consists of 28 Block 2/2A/2R satellites. Replenish... OPPORTUNITIES MARKET TRENDS AND OPPORTUNITIES GPS Modernization be upgraded by 2006... the GPS-2R satellites may reach modernization, World, September 2001; of the GPS... funding from the GPS-3 budget to cover non-GPS to bring the... building the satellites, modifying the GPS resistance31. Ground controllers will also... dubbed 2R/M for Modernized. Under power surges ten fold. Under GPS-3, the... fold. SATELLITE NAVIGATION GPS-3, see FIGURE F FIGURE E GPS Modernization Opportunities for Canada... OPPORTUNITIES FIGURE E FIGURE F EVOLUTION OF GPS GPS DEPLOYMENT: 2002-2015+ 32 Further... phase Boeing and LM GPS-2RM Launch GPS-2F Launch L2 L2... GPS 2015 and GLONASS network specifications. GPS-3 Planned launch GPS-3 Contract to begin GPS... three orbital planes Block 1 and 2 GPS satellites became fully operational. Conceived..., resulting in a replenishing of GPS funding rcial GPS equipment manufacturers are in.../backup to the GPS system yet continually Block 2R and 2F modernization... inclination 64.8° 55° Spacecraft”, GPS World, augmenting GPS. GLONASS is monitored by... sats 7-8 28 GPS World, July 1997, Developments of 10-12 operational satellites... hand, EU officials maintained a cautious GPS 2001 Conference, energy_transport/library/ some... its own internal wrangling, the U.S. GPS/military lobby maintained a less-thansubtle... service and manufacturing industry as GPS technologies encounter more acute integration... Deployment and Long-term Operations GPS to improve intelligence, surveillance, deployment... utilities). Ongoing Turbulence: FAA’s dual GPS-based navigational systems: WAAS and... monitoring and atmospheric science. Securing GPS Modernization Funding: Despite the The...- and the role of GPS therein, GPS modernization sing developments over the...



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... …………………………………………………….. 7 1 ВВЕДЕНИЕ ……………………………………………………….. 10 1.1 Роль спутниковых технологий в геодезическом производстве 10 1.2 Развитие методов GPS/ГЛОНАСС измерений... 4.2 СИСТЕМА GPS NAVSTAR ……………………………………. 110 4.2.1 Космический сегмент GPS ……………………………………. 110 4.2.2 Контрольный сегмент GPS …………………………………… 115 4.2.3 Сигналы GPS …………………………………………………. 117 4.2.4 Объединение передаваемой информации …………………. 126 4.2.5 Модернизация GPS ………………………………………….. 128... аппаратурой (1997 г.) 10 Введение Термин GPS-технологии (или ГЛОНАСС/GPS технологии) применяется для... неоднозначности GPS-измерений можно разрешать в глобальном масштабе, обеспечивая ежесуточную повторяемость порядка 10-9. Была доказана возможность регулярного получении точных орбит спутников GPS. С 1 января... 15 станций слежения GPS: 5 из них поддерживаются ВВС, а 10 – NIMA (рис. 4.6 в главе... GPS дается в навигационном сообщении по модулю 1024, поскольку для него отводится 10 бит. Первый цикл из 1024 недель GPS начался в полночь... 20 μ a E2 W= 3C 20 μ a E2 2r 4 2r 4 (3 sin 2 u sin 2 i − 1), sin u cos u sin..., что для спутников GPS для получения точности около 10-8 достаточно 30-минутных... 2000]. 4.2 СИСТЕМА GPS NAVSTAR 4.2.1 Космический сегмент GPS В космический сегмент GPS входит созвездие спутников... спутники GPS достаточно надежные, и срок их жизни значительно превышает расчетный. Из 10... отсчета. 4.2.3 Сигналы GPS Сигналы, передаваемые спутниками GPS, исключительно сложные. Система GPS предназначена работать... 10-14 – 10-15 на интервале в одни сутки. Сигналы времени, передаваемые спутниками GPS... Межведомственного исполнительного совета GPS (Interagency GPS Executive Board, IGEB), управлять GPS и усиливать программы... время Эфемериды спутников GPS 10 5 <5 (см) Поправки часов спутников 5 0.2 0.1 GPS (нс) 0.3 0.1 <0.1 Координаты полюса... среди сообщества гражданских пользователей GPS. • проводить изучение GPS информации по нуждам гражданских... более 10 лет. Для налогоплательщиков это хорошая новость. Однако для пользователей GPS... 1 ⋅ 10-12 1 ⋅ 10-14 3 ⋅ 10-17 s −1 10-15 5 ⋅ 10-11 s 3 ⋅ 10-17 s −1 7 ⋅ 10-12 s 1 ⋅ 10-13 5 ⋅ 10-14 3 ⋅ 10-17 s −1 10-15 10-15 - 10-14 Rb 5 ⋅ 10-12 s 5 ⋅ 10-13 3 ⋅ 10-15 s −1 10-12 Кварц 1 ⋅ 10-12s 5 ⋅ 10-13 3 ⋅ 10-15 s −1 10-10... мазер Относительная точность 10-6 10-7 – 10-8 10-8 – 10-9 10-11 – 10-12 10-11 – 10-13 10-15 – 10-16 194... производителей GPS приемников почти из 70 названий, геодезическую аппаратуру выпускают 10 фирм... - 10 <1.2 <1.0 3 8.5 -40/+55 12/12 0.55 5+1⋅10-6D - 1 2.0 0.7 3 <1 -40/+65 24/12 GPS, 12 GLO 12/12 1.6 10+1⋅10-6D 300 0.2 0.7 0.5 2 3.2 -30/+55 0.14 10+10... -10/+60 36 1.7 5+1⋅10-6D 3.9 5+1⋅10-6D 1.37 5 Thales Navigation/Professional Products GG24 GPS... <10 <1 15/3 -40/+55 40/20 1.96 (1÷2)+ 10-6 D 2+1⋅10-6D 10 0.05 <1 <0.2 1 4.3 -10/+50 GPS Total 24/12 3.8 5+1⋅10-6D <0.5 <15... 4600LS, 1995 GPS 5800, 2002 12/12 1.4 24/12 1.21 (5÷10)+10-6 D 5+1⋅10-6D...-161, 2003 16 1.8 (5÷10)+10-6 D СН-3601 14 (GLO, GPS,L1) 4.5 2 ) 2-3 см 1 КБ... компаниях дается по журналу GPS World [GPS World, 2003a; GPS World, 2004]. Данные... последующих геодезических GPS приемника – это Trimble Total Station 4700 (рис. 5.10) и Trimble..., базирующейся в Torrance, Калифорния, и была GPS «пионером» GPS технологий. В начале 1990-х компания Magnavox... геодезической аппаратуры. Thales Navigation выпускает GPS и GPS+GLONASSTM аппаратуру, а также наборы чипов...-Op tracking) улучшает возможности GPS/ГЛОНАСС приемника примерно в 10 раз. Улучшение основано... описано в главе 10. Программа для предварительного анализа внешней точности GPS измерений является.... Фундаментальная частота fo часов спутников GPS равна 10.23 МГц. Все сигналы... технологий с применением систем GPS /ГЛОНАСС [текст] / К.М. Антонович // Геопрофи, № 2, 2003. – С. 6-10. Базлов, Ю.А. Параметры... Interference and GPS. [text] / F. A. Butsch. // GPS World, Vol. 13, No. 10. – 2002. – P. 40... GPS and gravity data [text] / T. Engelis, R. Rapp, Y. Bock // Manuscripta Geodaetica, Vol. 10... p. - Англ. Interface Control Document ICD-GPS-200C. 10 Oct. 1993 - 14 Jan... [text] / Q. Ladetto, B. Merminod // GPS World, Vol. 13, No. 10, 2002. – P. 30-38...] / M. Shaw, K. Sandhoo, D. Turner // GPS World, Vol. 11, No. 10. – 2000. – P. 40-49...



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... in the process of modernizing GPS (Global Positioning System) with two... the US and Russian-administered GPS and GLONASS navigation systems. These... the satellites by specially designed GPS receivers. The data from these... with the latest information on GPS modernization, GLONASS constellation improvements, and... outline the use of modernized GPS signals and GLONASS signals, review the Trimble GPS+GLONASS1 construction solutions, and demonstrate... Center A SHORT HISTORY OF THE GPS, GLONASS, GLONASS satellites in orbits... the Russian Federation. As with GPS, the GLONASS constellation is used... than is currently available through GPS MODERNIZATION GPS or GLONASS, to improve... construction industry often refer to “GPS positioning system upon which European... rely Modernization”. So what is GPS Modernization? And even in times... the construction contractor’s perspective, GPS Unlike GPS and GLONASS, Galileo is controlled..., and L5 signal to the GPS satellite constellation. But with the... constellation (27 continuing development of GPS. plus three spares), as well... successful launches of GPS 2R-M1-satellites, higher altitudes than GPS, but the.... significant first step in the GPS Modernization Program The proposed constellation... the scenes for the construction GPS satellites transmitted two carrier frequencies—L1 contractor using GPS. But since the introduction of...-random codes advanced positioning instruments, GPS technology has that provide positioning... how information. These codes enable GPS receivers to track contractors carry..., 2006, there are currently 10 operational reliable GPS guidance or control of.... The DoD GPS Modernization program also includes With only 10 satellites currently... independent positioning “monitoring” segment. Six GPS monitoring stations solution for high... the which made up the GPS monitoring network. This Trimble RTK... throughout the tracking of all GPS satellites, resulting in more thorough... level, which will greatly expand GPS capabilities for nonmilitary use. Broadcast... will be significantly boosted, providing 10 GLN GPS 5 0 2006 2007 2008 2009... Illustration 1: the projected availability of GPS and GLONASS satellites over time... Trimble integrated circuit inside the GPS that contractors working in tough... measurements are more robust, making GPS This new integrated circuit enables... more reliable. In open environments, GPS-only solutions will generally L1... each new development in the GPS, GLONASS, the constellation becomes more.... US DoD first announced the GPS Modernization Program in 1999, Trimble... on receiver www.trimble.com 6 GPS+GLONASS = PRODUCTIVITY BENEFITS ON This... satellites from both GLONASS and GPS, the minimum number of satellites... most open environment construction work, a GPS- as a high wall or bridge... for accurate positioning and Trimble GPS+GLONASS solutions will help machine... may not be enough usable GPS satellites to fully sometimes experienced with GPS-only solutions. meet the demands... work day and 4 2 GLN GPS 0 more productivity. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30... number of satellites available through GPS and GLONASS in 2009. www... 7 The Trimble RTK Engine TRIMBLE GPS+GLONASS CAPABLE PRODUCTS FOR CONSTRUCTION... construction contractor. TRIMBLE MS990 SMART GPS ANTENNA The Trimble MS990 Smart... only commercially available integrated smart GPS antenna that offers the performance... the newest GPS and GLONASS signals. Each unit contains a GPS+GLONASS receiver.... The Trimble MS990 replaces traditional GPS receiver and antennas and the.... The elimination of cables improves GPS and GLONASS signal strength, reliability... of the TRIMBLE SPS850 MODULAR GPS RECEIVERS construction jobsite, where tree... other The Trimble SPS850 Modular GPS Receiver is ideal for obstructions... rover applications. The antennas modernized GPS signals, improving performance of the.... baseline lengths. Combined signals from GPS and The SPS850 receivers combine the radio and GPS receiver GLONASS reduce system downtime.... TRIMBLE SPS880 SMART GPS ANTENNAS Versatile Trimble SPS850 GPS receivers are a futureA... System, the Trimble SPS880 Smart GPS Antenna uses satellite signals to... signals that are part of GPS Modernization operations. will present contractors... it ideal for contractors civilian GPS users worldwide, of whom the... represents an ever growing percentage. GPS antennas are also ready to... system has a renewed sources of GPS corrections, for reduced downtime and... satellites provide beneficial augmentation to GPS in difficult environments. The Trimble MS990 Smart GPS Antenna, the Trimble SPS880 Smart... SPS850 www.trimble.com 9 Modular GPS Receiver have been developed to... solutions available in the marketplace. “GPS+GLONASS” to describe products that... take the changes available in GPS+GLONASS products into consideration. Modernized... • More robust performance in tough GPS conditions such as under tree... satellite geometry By choosing a Trimble GPS+GLONASS solution, customers can rest...



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............................................................................................................ 7 1. Введение ..................................................................................................... 10 1.1. Роль спутниковых технологий в геодезическом производстве ...... 10 1.2. Развитие методов GPS/ГЛОНАСС измерений... 4.2. Система GPS NAVSTAR ..................................................................... 91 4.2.1. Космический сегмент GPS ........................................................... 91 4.2.2. Контрольный сегмент GPS........................................................... 95 4.2.3. Сигналы GPS ................................................................................. 97 4.2.4. Объединение передаваемой информации................................. 104 4.2.5. Модернизация GPS ..................................................................... 106... неоднозначности GPS измерений можно разрешать в глобальном масштабе, обеспечивая ежесуточную повторяемость порядка 10 -9. Была доказана возможность регулярного получения точных орбит спутников GPS. С 1 января... 15 станций слежения GPS: 5 из них поддерживаются ВВС, а 10 – NIMA (см. рис... GPS дается в навигационном сообщении по модулю 1024, поскольку для него отводится 10 бит. Первый цикл из 1024 недель GPS начался в полночь... 5 – 10 нс. Чтобы обеспечить оценку времени UTC, передаваемое каждым спутником GPS навигационное... – вектором a: r ( x, y, z )T ; (3.1) V dr dt a r r dV dt ( x , y , z )T d 2r dt 2 (Vx , V y , Vz )T ; ( x, y, z) T . (3.2) (3.3) Точками над..., что для спутников GPS для получения точности около 10-8 достаточно 30-минутных..., 2000]. 4.2. Система GPS NAVSTAR 4.2.1. Космический сегмент GPS В космический сегмент GPS входят созвездие спутников... 7.5 * $43M 10 * $30M 15 * $28M * * Проектные данные. Проектное созвездие спутников GPS состояло... спутники GPS – достаточно надежные, и срок их жизни значительно превышает расчетный. Из 10... отсчета. 4.2.3. Сигналы GPS Сигналы, передаваемые спутниками GPS, – исключительно сложные. Система GPS предназначена работать... GPS. Долговременная нестабильность бортовых генераторов частоты составляет несколько единиц 10 -13 и даже 10... 10 -14 – 10-15 на интервале в одни сутки. Сигналы времени, передаваемые спутниками GPS... Межведомственного исполнительного совета GPS (Interagency GPS Executive Board, IGEB) управлять GPS и усиливать программы... менее $10 000. В конце 1980-х гг. только надеялись, что производители GPS приемников... среди сообщества гражданских пользователей GPS; проводить изучение GPS информации по нуждам гражданских... более 10 лет. Для налогоплательщиков это хорошая новость. Однако для пользователей GPS... 3 10-17 s 1 10-15 Cs 5 10-11 s 1 10-13 3 10-17 s 1 10-15 7 10-12 s 5 10-14 3 10-17 s 1 10-15 – 10... мазер Относительная погрешность 10-6 10-7 – 10-8 10-8 – 10-9 10-11 – 10-12 10-11 – 10-13 10-15 – 10-16 5.3. Спутниковая... фирм-производителей GPS приемников (а их почти 70), геодезическую аппаратуру выпускают 10 фирм... Navigation, Topcon, Trimble Navigation [GPS World, 2003а; GPS World, 2004]. Конечно, с одной... 1.6 10+1 10-6D 300 0.2 GPS+GLO GPS, 12 , 1996 GLO ProMark- 12/12 0.14 10+10.... GPS Total 24/12 3.8 5+1 10-6D Station 5700, 2001 4600LS, 12/12 1.4 (5 10)+106 1995 D GPS 5800, 24/12 2002 1.21 5+1 10-6D Вре..., 16 1.8 (5 10)+10-6 1 2003 D КБ «НАВИС» СН-3601 14 4.5 (GLO, GPS,L1 ) 2-3 см... компаниях дается по журналу GPS World [GPS World, 2003a; GPS World, 2004]. Данные... последующих геодезических GPS приемника – это Trimble Total Station 4700 (рис. 5.10) и Trimble..., базирующейся в Torrance, Калифорния, и была GPS «пионером» GPS технологий. В начале 1990-х гг. компания... для геодезических измерений с использованием GPS. Процессор сверхточных GPS измерений с быстрыми алгоритмами для... геодезической аппаратуры. Thales Navigation выпускает GPS и GPS+GLONASSTM аппаратуру, а также наборы чипов... одно- и двухчастотных приемников, работающих по GPS или GPS и ГЛОНАСС (рис. 5.17). Приведем...-Op tracking) улучшает возможности GPS/ГЛОНАСС приемника примерно в 10 раз. Улучшение основано... описано в главе 10. Программа для предварительного анализа внешней точности GPS измерений является.... Фундаментальная частота fo часов спутников GPS равна 10.23 МГц. На не... технологий с применением систем GPS/ГЛОНАСС [Текст] / К.М. Антонович // Геопрофи. – 2003. –№ 2. – С. 6 – 10. 5. Базлов, Ю.А. Параметры... Interference and GPS. [Text] / F.A. Butsch // GPS World, Vol. 13, No. 10. – 2002. – P. 40... GPS and gravity data [Text] / T. Engelis, R. Rapp, Y. Bock // Manuscripta Geodaetica, Vol. 10.... 100. Interface Control Document ICD-GPS-200C. 10 Oct. 1993 – 14 Jan... [Text] / Q. Ladetto, B. Merminod // GPS World, Vol. 13, No. 10, 2002. – P. 30-38...] / M. Shaw, K. Sandhoo, D. Turner // GPS World, Vol. 11, No. 10. – 2000. – P. 40-49...



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... the main problem in GPS based techniques. Since, GPS receiver measures only... the GPS based techniques, a realistic GPS emulator is implemented. GPS emulator provides typical GPS... ambiguity, integer search, Kalman Filter, GPS Emulator, Coriolis Effect, accelerometer, gyroscope...ını ele almaktadır. Bunlar GPS tabanlı tamsayı aramaya dayanan, GPS tabanlı Kalman filtreye...ı ve AÖB (Ataletsel Ölçüm Birimi) tabanlı tekniklerdir. GPS tabanlı tekniklerde kuzeyle yapılan...şıyıcı fazlarının farklarının işlenmesi ile belirlenir. GPS tabanlı tekniklerdeki temel problem ta...çekçi bir GPS benzetimcisi gerçeklenmiştir. GPS benzetimcisi GPS’in uydu pozisyonu... Systems .................................................. 4 1.4 Thesis Outline ................................................................................................... 5 2. GPS SIGNAL AND GPS EMULATOR...................................................... 7 2.1 GPS .................................................................................................................... 8 2.2 GPS Emulator................................................................................................. 10 2.2.1 Coordinate Systems .......................................................................11... Position Calculation ..............................................................25 2.3 Summary ......................................................................................................... 27 3. GPS BASED NORTHFINDING TECHNIQUE WITH EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH .........................................................................................................29 3.1 Concept of GPS Based Northfinding Technique ......................................... 30 3.1.1 Set... 3.5.2 Simulation Results 2......................................................................45 3.6 Summary ......................................................................................................... 49 4. GPS BASED NORTHFINDING TECHNIQUE WITH KALMAN FILTER...........................................................................................................52 4.1 Concept of GPS Based Northfinding Algorithm with Kalman... LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. GPS Satellite Constellation ................................................................. 8 Figure 2. GPS Satellite Signals .......................................................................... 9 Figure... Frame............................................................18 Figure 10. Elevation and Azimuth Angles of GPS Satellites..............................19... Carrier Phase in GPS Emulator ...............................25 Figure 16. GPS Based Northfinding with... thesis includes detailed information about GPS structure. 2. Attitude determination or northfinding... using signals from GPS satellites. The role of a GPS receiver as an...]. Let us classify the GPS literature according to GPS based northfinding algorithms.... Chapter-2 presents GPS and GPS signal structure, implementation of a GPS emulator to test.... 6 CHAPTER 2 GPS SIGNAL AND GPS EMULATOR The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been... navigation systems or attitude determination. GPS emulator calculates pseudoranges, carrier-phases... about GPS Signal and the GPS Emulator. Firstly, overview of GPS and GPS signals are presented. Afterwards, the GPS... and errors on GPS Emulator, are given. 2.1 GPS The GPS is a space-based... vehicle and the GPS receiver. The Precise P(Y)-Code is a 10.23 MHz..., 38]. 2.2 GPS Emulator In this section, a realistic GPS emulator is developed. GPS emulator... measurement to get realistic measurements. 10 GPS Emulator finds out the visible... Ω er cos i sin(v + ω )   0    r sin i sin(v + ω )  (2.4) GPS emulator operates in ECEF frame... in Figure 10. 18 Figure 10. Elevation and Azimuth Angles of GPS Satellites..., ( xu , y u , z u ) : Receiver (user) position. In GPS emulator, pseudorange measurement output is... + ∆t satellite + ∆t user (2.16) Where: ρ output : GPS emulator pseudorange output, τ ion ,τ tro... troposphere errors, ∆t satellite : GPS satellite clock error, ∆t user : GPS user clock error... error model used in GPS emulator is the GPS ionosphere model. According... in GPS Emulator 2.2.7 User Position Calculation GPS based northfinding techniques use GPS emulator... the unknown number of GPS signal cycles received. GPS receiver senses only... and Algorithm In GPS based northfinding algorithm, two GPS receivers or antennas... unknown 36 number of GPS signal cycles received. GPS receiver measures only... antennas are given to the GPS emulator. GPS emulator calculates the pseudorange... GPS based northfinding algorithm, GPS emulator is used. Azimuth finding system gets GPS... matrix, X AB : Baseline vector (meter), λ : GPS carrier wavelength. 4.2 Phase Ambiguity Resolution... invariant and is given by:  2r R = − r  0 −r 0  2r − r  − r 2r  (4.21) Where: r: Variance of single... 0.0560 3 1 (0.2)2 10.9168 0.0832 77 4.6 Summary In this chapter, GPS based nortfinding...



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... Harita Gösterim ve Bilgi Sistemi) ............................................................................. 10 2.3 Konumlandırma .............................................................................................. 14 2.3.1 GNSS-Global... (Küresel Uydu Seyir Sistemi) ..................................................................................................... 14 2.3.1.1 GPS-Global Positioning System (Küresel Konumland... System................................................ 25 2.3.1.6 GAGAN- GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GPS Destekli Yer Takviyeli... GNSS : Global Navigation Satellite System GPS : Global Positioning System IALA : International... öneme göre derecelendirilmesi ............................................................ 55 Çizelge 3.10: Seyir ekranlarında gösterilen bilginin... Şekil 2.9: GPS uyduları, yer istasyonu ve alıcısı...................................................... 21 Şekil 2.10: GLONASS al... percepted by the user.  Recently GPS has vital important for the..., %4’ünün batma ve diğer sebeplerin %10 olduğu tespit edilmiştir (La... IMO gereklerini karşıladığını gösterir. 10 Şekil 2.7 : ECDIS konsolu. Bulunulan mevkinin.... GNSS-1 mevcut sistemlere (GPS, GLONASS) verilen isimdir. GPS Yer Tabanlı Takviye Sistemleri... düzeltmelerle kullanıldığında Diferansiyel GPS (Differential GPS-DGPS) olarak bilinir. GNSS... Uydu Sistemi (IRNSS) vb.) içerecektir. GPS’in geliştirilmesi 1973 yılında... “Uzay Yarışı” Sovyet sistemi GLONASS’ın GPS’e paralel olarak gelişmesi ile... az uydunun yerleştirilmesi nedeniyle GPS’e nazaran 1980 ve 1990’larda...ıştır. Kullanım kolaylığı ve doğruluğu GPS’i dünya çapında her türden... Avrupa Birliği ülkeleri konsept olarak GPS’e benzeyen fakat öncelikle sivil kullan....8% 30 günün üstünde Uygulan maz <10 s <2 s* Liman giriş yaklaşması ve... ≥99.97% 3 saatin üstünde <10 s <10 s <2 s* Okyanus <10 s <2 s* *Hesaplanan konum verisi geminin... 10 25 10 25 Liman yaklaş -ması ve tahditli sular Liman 10 25 10...şına ) 10 10-5 99.8 NA Küre ** sel -5 10 10 99.8 NA Küre ** sel 10 10-5 99.8 99.97 Bölg esel 10 10-5 99.8 99.97 Yere l İçsu 10 25 10 10-5 99.8 99... değildir. Sabit aralık* (s) 1 1 1 1 1 Mevcut GPS ve GLONASS Sistemleri gibi birinci... bir hedef haline gelmiştir. 2.3.1.1 GPS-Global Positioning System (Küresel Konumlandırma Sistemi) GPS’in tarihsel gelişimine bak... NAVSTAR Küresel Konumlandırma Sistemi (GPS-Global Positioning System) adını alm... 1 uyduları olarak bilinmekte olup, ilk GPS uydu sinyali 1977 yılında al... düşürülmesi olayından sonra ABD GPS’i sivil kullanıma da açmıştır. Ancak...ştir. Haziran 1989’da Blok 2R uyduları General Electric’e (daha sonra... sistemini hemen kabul etmemiştir. GPS’in askerî kullanımı, 1990 yılında...ım ihtilaf süresince kapatılmıştır. 19 GPS 8 Aralık 1993’te, 6 yörüngesel düzlemde... ücretsiz ve Seçici Kullanımın 10 yıl içinde durdurulacağı” duyurulmuştur. 8 Aral... almış olup, söz konusu politika ile; a. GPS’in ve ABD tarafından... güvenlik için ABD ve müttefiklerinin GPS’e erişimini korumak ve has... 2 roketi ile birinci Lockheed Martin GPS 2R-M uydusu yörüngeye atılmıştır. Modernize... ikinci sivil sinyale sahip olup, GPS’i sadece müdahaleye karşı güçlü kılmamış, ayn... atılmıştır. GPS 2F-1 61’inci GPS uydusu olup, GPS 2F-2 16 Temmuz... atılmıştır. 20 Bununla beraber GPS 3A olarak bilinen gelecek nesil GPS bakım programı 2006 yılında Lockheed Martin’e ihale edilmiştir. Planlı 8 GPS 3A uydularından ilkinin 2014 yılında atılması planlanmaktadır.[9] Şekil 2.9 : GPS uyduları, yer istasyonu ve al... noktası gibi kullanılmaktadır. Herbir GPS uydusu hassas konum ve zaman... kullanıcılardan oluşmaktadır. Şekil 2.10 : GLONASS alıcısı ve uyduları. GLONASS...-7/saat 7 /150s Devamlılık riski 10-5/15s 10-4/saat10-8/saat Sertifikasyon/ Evet Sorumluluk...ır. Sistemin uzun vadeli hedefi ise GPS ve GLONASS gibi küresel bir...ı verilmiştir. 2.3.1.6 GAGAN- GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GPS Destekli Yer Takviyeli...şten kaynaklı çevresel etkilerin de GPS alıcılarını etkilediği bilinmektedir. 26...çli müdahalenin bir yolu zayıf GPS sinyalini karıştırma iken, di... örnek Royal Majesty adlı geminin 10 Haziran 1995 tarihinde Nantucket’in... Bilgiler; Cayro Pusuladan gelen pruva, GPS’ten gelen konum, yere göre...ıcılara uygun hale getirilmiş ve 10 sayfa olarak hazırlanmıştır. (EK... 4. Zabit 6 29 Kılavuz 2 10 Liman Başkanı 2 10 VTS Operatörü 3 13 Kıyıdaki... Yok (%) 38 24 15 19 10 10 10 14 Fikir Yok (%) 29 33... 24 5 14 28 5 10 38 28 14 10 10 19 33 33 14...’i mevcut Küresel Konumlandırma Sistemi (GPS)’nin yedeği olarak farklı bir...ı sisteme olan güveni artıracaktır. (5) GPS halihazırda gemiler için hayati... RADAR tercih edilmekte ve konum GPS’ten teyit edilmektedir. 3.3.4.2 Gemi trafik... kullanıcı tarafından seçilebilmelidir. (8) GPS halihazırda gemiler için hayati...ın sıfirlanmasına ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. 72 (10) Amaç, iş yükünü ve karışıklığı azaltma... Navigation Satellite System-GNSS) GPS’tir. GNSS (GPS)’in yedeği olarak hangi...



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... Navigation Features ION NTM 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 GPS Satellites Help Outdoor Hobbyists Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 First Modernized GPS Satellite Delivered for May Launch..., Section News, Launches, and more . . . . . . . . .8-10 RTCA Corner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 From the... Executive Vice President: Len Jacobson, GPS Consultant; John Lavrakas, Overlook Systems... satellite navigation systems now operating, GPS and GLONASS, making them more...



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... THE GOVERNMENT: 4 KIMBERLY FRANKS (Cont'd) 5 6 7 10 By Mr. Weinreb By Mr... Norfolk St. 57 7 1152-06 GPS plots 96 8 1159 Excel spreadsheet... 9 1152-07 Map of GPS plots 107 5 10 11 12 13 14... 1113. 8 recognize that item? 9 A. Yes. 10 Q. Was this taken during the... in Cambridge, Massachusetts? 9 A. Yes, I did. 10 Q. Did you have lawful authority... morning. 7 Q. 8 apartment? 9 A. No, we weren't. 10 Q. Was there specific types of... speaking directly into it, 9 please? 10 THE WITNESS: My apologies. 11... a laptop computer; it's a desktop computer? 10 A. Correct. 11 Q. Is that the... found on the shelves? 9 A. Yes. 10 Q. Is this a document addressed to... PTFE? 9 A. Yes, Teflon tape, I believe. 10 Q. Now, when you conducted the... I'm sorry. Can I just inquire whether 10 these are separately marked as... 7 that into evidence. 8 THE COURT: 10 Okay. (Government's Exhibit No. 1186... morning recess.) 4 (Recess taken at 10:34 a.m.) 5 (After the recess:) 6 THE... -Not much. There's four notebooks -- 10 I'm sorry? 11 (Counsel confer off...'t think I would adopt that characterization. 10 11 MS. CLARKE: Judge, can.... CONRAD: Q. Drawing your attention to 2R-023. 3 A. Yes. 4 Q. Was that a travel...'s 8 recollection, and the attorney is -- 9 10 MS. CONRAD: I was about to.... Previously the defense had offered 10 Defendant's Exhibit 1, which was the... marked for identification.) 9 MS. CONRAD: 10 Okay. Nothing further. MR. CHAKRAVARTY... aware that numerous documents bearing 10 belonging to Katherine Tsarnaev were.... 7 THE COURT: 8 (Pause.) 9 MR. WEINREB: 10 Okay. Your Honor, the United... the Boston Marathon bombing 9 investigation? 10 A. Yes. 11 Q. Are you familiar... the United States? 9 A. Approximately 4,000. 10 Q. And approximately how many four...? 24 A. Yes. 25 Q. Now, was a GPS device recovered from a Mercedes abandoned..., 2013? 2 A. Yes. 3 Q. What kind of GPS was it? 4 A. It was a Garmin... what's a Garmin nuvi? 6 A. It's a portable GPS device. 7 Q. Approximately what size? 8 A. Handheld... car? 10 A. Yes. 11 Q. What was done with that GPS after it... compare that data from the GPS with the dates 15 and... Q. What is that? 23 A. The GPS plots. 24 MR. WEINREB: The.... 9 03:12 Okay. evidence.) 5 6 It's a GPS device; In the vehicle that... this was the Mercedes-Benz's GPS. 15 MR. WEINREB: I That's why..., I believe, that Tamerlan Tsarnaev had a GPS device 24 in his hands... it. 2 Frankly, it's a Garmin nuvi GPS that was found in the.... 8 that it was Tamerlan Tsarnaev's GPS and I think they're 9 entitled... have identified all the portable GPS devices based on where 23... recovered. If it just says "GPS" on it -- 24 THE COURT... clarify with you: 7 So this GPS device was recovered from the... recovered. 11 Q. 12 built-in GPS device? 13 A. No. 14 Q. It... to highlight. So could you "GPS stops at 8:13 p.m. near 1201... GPS, 10 correct? 11 A. Correct. 12 Q. But there was data in the GPS... data reveal about where the GPS stopped It shows it stopped... they were purchased? 9 A. Square One. 10 Q. And the -- they were purchased... that compare to when that GPS that was found 3 in the... is a few minutes before the GPS Okay. Does this data tell you what car the GPS was in at I cannot be... purchased where? 9 A. The Square One. 10 Q. Okay. 11 purchase? 12 A. No... bombing? 21 A. No. 22 Q. Were GPS devices also found in a Honda... A. Yes. 25 Q. What types of GPS devices were those? Now, is there any GPS data corresponding to that Case... 10/16/15 Page 107 of 193 1 A. They were also handheld GPS...'s a map of GPS plots. 9 Q. From one of those GPS devices? 10 A. Yes. 11... the data on 17 the GPS plot, does that correspond to... stops made by 18 the GPS device on that date? 19... of the stops that the GPS I highlighted the wrong one. Here... tell you what car the GPS 5 was in at the time... email address associated with Tamerlan 10 Tsarnaev? 11 A. Yes. 12 Q. And... a purchase? 8 A. Yes. 9 Q. What was purchased? 10 A. It was one Duratrax electronic... a holster? MR. WATKINS: 9 THE COURT: 10 BY MR. WEINREB: 11 Q. I'm going... Honda Civic that was identified -- I'm 10 sorry -- the Honda CR-V with... indeed successful in obtaining surveillance 10 video? 11 A. Yes. 12 Q. Did...-V registered to Tamerlan Tsarnaev? 9 A. Yes. 10 Q. And the exhibits and data... of 2013 at 9 approximately 1:45 p.m.? 10 A. That's correct. 11 Q. Okay. 12... publish. 8 MS. CONRAD: 9 THE COURT: 10 No objection. Okay. (Government Exhibit... main 8 the defendant? 9 A. That's correct. 10 Q. Okay. 11 A. After I pulled that... the Federal Bureau of 9 Investigation? 10 A. That's correct. 11 Q. And are... a completely different thing. So that 10 about, verifying the terminology, making... if that 9 refreshes your memory. 10 A. I remember the Russian original. 11... on November 6, 2012, at 6 approximately 10:30 p.m. and 59 seconds? 8 Agent... purposes of these 8 exhibits? 9 A. I do. 10 MR. CHAKRAVARTY: Go to Exhibit... conversations. 8 fair to say? 9 A. Correct. 10 Q. And do these portions of... further. 8 THE COURT: 9 MR. CHAKRAVARTY: 10 12 Or don't. Okay. Anything.... 9 was the prosecution's selected excerpt? 10 MR. CHAKRAVARTY: 11 THE COURT...



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... С УЧЕТОМ МАГНИТНОГО ПОЛЯ И АТМОСФЕРЫ ЗЕМЛИ ....................... 10 Якимов А. Н. К ПРОБЛЕМЕ ДИСКРЕТНОГО ПРЕДСТАВЛЕНИЯ ИЗЛУЧЕНИЯ... Междунар. симп. Надежность и качество. – 2012. – Т. 1. – С. 8–10. 9. Лысенко, А. В. Способ снижения величины вибрационных... сложных систем. – 2013. – № 4. – С. 41–44. 10. Дедков, В. К. Компьютерное моделирование характеристик надежности... j ,к  c х1ек,1 , 2 j 1 3 1 орб М 2 a   а VGjорб j ,к  c х2 ек,2 , 2 j 1 (10) М 2а  0. Искусственные спутники Земли, двигаясь... суммированием получить компоненты общего поля [8–10]: E    E i   E  j , E    E  i   E  j . i j i (6) j Представление в MATLAB информации об излучающей... , H i y  cos Hy i  H i y / Hi , H i z  cos Hz i  0. (10) Полученных данных оказывается достаточно, чтобы.... Надежность и качество. – 2013. – Т. 1. – С. 86–89. 10. Якимов, А. Н. Исследование геометрической модели параболической...   2GN  2  u  u exp  1 J (u, T )  1 1 4 GN  GN T   ; ( , ) J u T   exp() X (u, )d ;  0 (10) 1  (1  exp( T )) / ; b  12 / 4; d  1 / 2. Решение предложенной системы... Стефана–Больцмана  Вт  4 М е  (Т 4  Т СР )  0,9  5,67  108 (7134  2494 )  12996  2  . м  (13) 2. Определяем... лучистый поток, равный Ф e ПИ  0,13  1010 (Вт), т.е. объектив прибора ОЭЛС усиливает..., А. В. Интеграции сигналов когерентной системы ГЛОНАСС/GPS / А. В. Полтавский // Надежность и качество сложных систем... // Информационно-измерительные и управляющие системы. – 2009. – № 10. – С. 73–77. 8. Когерентный контроль координат... технологию обеспечения надежности радиоэлектронной аппаратуры [10]. Схема информационных потоков (схема взаимодействия... в проектировании и производстве. – 2014. – № 4. – С. 17–23. 10. Абрамешин, А. Е. Информационная технология обеспечения надежности..., основанный на методе «жесткого» ранжирования. В [7–10] сформулированы и доказаны теоремы, позволяющие подтвердить... 10…30 0,03…0,04 0,05…2 1,2…2 2 2 2 2 10 2 2 1 1 2 2…12 22…29 10…30 0,05…0,3 0,05…2 1,2…2 3 3 3 3 10 1 2 3 1 2 Система S3 2,5…15 10…14 10…30 0,01…0,2 0,1…2,5 1,2…2 3 2 2 5 10 2 2 2 2 3 S4 S5 2,5…15 10…14 10…30 0,01…0,2 0,1…2,5 1,2…2 3 3 3 3 10 1 2 2 2 3 1,2…5 30…35 50…60 0,03…0, 1 0,05…0, 15 3…4 3 2 2 4 10...…0,1 0,05…0,15 3…4 3 2 2 4 10 2 2 2 2 2 7…15 65…75 80…100 7…10 1…2,5 1,2…2 1 3 1 4 10 2 2 1 1 1 Система S7 7…15 17…18 10…30 0,1…2 1…2,5 1,2…2 3 1 2 5 10 2 2 2 3 3 48 S8 S9 7…65 17…18 10…30 0,1…2 1…2,5 1,2…2 3 1 2 5 10 2 2 2 3 3 7…27 17…18 10…30 0,1…2 1…2,5 1,2…2 3 1 2 5 10 2 2 1 3 3 Фундаментальные основы...…180 17…180 K13 8…100 10…30 10…30 K14 0,07…0,1 0,2…0,3 0, 1…0, 2 K15... / В. В. Сафронов // Информационные технологии. – 2011. – № 7. – С. 8–13. 10. Сафронов, В. В. Построение истинных кортежей Парето... Ом1  см1, константа обменного взаимодействия  0 q  2,2  109 Э  см 2 , параметр диссипации r  0,0023 H 0 α = 0,0023... симальное значение при H 0 = 800 Э для 2r = 10 нм. Однако оптимальное значение внешнего... , b  1, 25l , c  2r ; l  300 нм ): 1 – 2r10 нм ; 2 – 2r  15 нм ; 3 – 2r  20 нм ; 4 – 2r  25 нм... металла тухания k  ~ 12 (толщиной 2r  1 ). При 1   / ef  2r коэффициент прохождения R11 увеличивается... доминирующую роль. При малом диаметре 2r10 нм и расстояниях a = 17,5 нм двумерная...: 1 – 2r10 нм, H 0  450 Э ; 2 – 2r  15 нм, H0  105 Э ; 3 – 2r  20 нм, H 0  75 Э ; 4 – 2r  25...: 1 – 2r10 нм, H 0  450 Э ; 2 – 2r  15 нм, H0  105 Э ; 3 – 2r  20 нм, H0  75 Э ; 4 – 2r... температуры 9, соединенным с источником стабилизированного напряжения 10. Выход блока сравнения 8 соединен через... для автоматизированного производства в XXI веке [9, 10]. Список литературы 1. Перевертов, В. П. Технологии конструкционных..., Ю. Н. Фадеев // Открытия. Изобретения. – 1987. – № 26. 10. Перевертов, В. П. Инновационные технологии обработки материалов... p12 N  x  2l ; x  0, 1, ,2 N .  l  max(0, N  x )  x  l  N ! l !  2 N  x  2l !  (10) Полученное распределение (10) можно отнести к классу одномерных... A с вероятностью p . При этом распределение вероятностей (10) в результате предельного перехода преобразуется в биномиальное... дефектов с учетом их вероятностных характеристик [10]. Список литературы 1. Боровиков, В. П. STATISTICA. Искусство... // Информационно-измерительные и управляющие системы. – 2009. – № 10. – С. 73–77. 7. Игошин, А. В. Снижение инфракрасной.... – № 1 (5). – С. 65–70 10. Полтавский, А. В. Интеграции сигналов когерентной системы ГЛОНАСС/GPS / А. В. Полтавский // Надежность...