Спутник навигационных систем. GPS 2R-10. [Редактировать]

GPS-2R (Global Positioning System) или Navstar-2R (Navigation System using Timing And Ranging) – третье поколение космических аппаратов системы GPS. GPS-IIR должны по контракту от 19989 года осуществить замену второго поколения аппаратов группировки. Производителем аппаратов выступает Lockheed Martin, которая использует для производства космический аппаратов свою коммерческую платформу AS-4000. Космические аппараты имеют трех-осевую стабилизацию и работают на 1572.42 MHz, 1227.6 MHz и 2227.5 MHz. Lockheed также отвечает за запуски аппаратов и их эксплуатацию. По сравнению с предшествующими аппаратами новое поколение спутников позволяет значительно улучшить точность определения координат на Земле.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1USA 175НайтиНайти
2SVN-47НайтиНайти
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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - военно-коммерческие
3Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2032
2Платформа, AS-40001

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град52.9
2Апогей, км20384.2
3Перигей, км19995.8
4Период, минут718.0
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км26560

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2003-058A

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2003-12-21 at 07:50:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xGPS 2R-10
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2

Найдено 721 документов по запросу «GPS 2R-10». [Перейти к поиску]


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..., once your simulation is working. 10 Modeling • Why Models? • A model is...) Confidence on LLEGO Baseline $ 341M 10.0% Total Contractor Costs (50%) Total... vs Number of Launches for 10 years 560 532 504 476... 19 20 21 22 23 10 Year Flight Rate Left/Dow n Annual contractor costs: $409.4M 10 year flight rate: 17.7 Right... Engine NREC $ 810 Unknown GEO GPS, 55 deg GEO Polar LEO LEO 41 deg GPS, 55 deg GEO LEO, 58 deg Polar LEO GEO LEO GPS, 55 deg GEO LEO, 123...



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... employees 50 40 30 20 10 0 1-10 11-100 101-500 501.... & Associates, 2002. 23 ASPRS Forecast. GPS GEO-REFERENCED INFORMATION GIS & Visualization... a business perspective, the increased accuracy • GPS-enabled timing devices, used to... U.S. State Intelligence released a report entitled “GPS World by U.S. suppliers (see particular... satellite navigation systems (GPS, an increasing role for GPS in what they... the post 9/11 market realities. GPS Markets” (© 2002). Department indicates a weakening... important emerging GPS initiatives is marketplace: in 1998, the GPS receiver market... Attacks Accelerate Interest in GPS Applications”, ibid. August 10, 1990 and SATELLITE... the pack with 10 close to 75% of total GPS market share... CHARACTERISTICS MARKET CHARACTERISTICS FIGURE C FIGURE D GPS MARKET TRENDS: 1996-2002 GLOBAL...”, 17 see “GPS and Aviation Safety” in GPS North American GPS Market Share... < 1% Land 72% Timing 6% Space Transportation 8% GPS 9% Aviation 7% Military 8% Marine 7% Source: U.S. Dept... motorists have trouble • Miniaturization of GPS technologies getting lost. So they... terrestrial or satellite transmitters) board GPS-based autolanding system17. SATELLITE NAVIGATION... spur growth development • Demand for GPS technologies to address aviation particularly... expansion ensures availability and accuracy • GPS-enabled navigation initiatives spur product... recreational marine markets that use GPS technologies • Hydrographic survey/mapping in... our • Falling prices Restraints: • Gradual GPS data integration into avionic support... time. GPS-enabled navigational initiatives GPS General Aviation market grew nearly 10% in... of state-of-the-art GPS receivers. GPS World, July 2002, The... 23 A comprehensive Current and future GPS-related applications 23 • Synchronization/orientation of communication/ GPS satellites continuously communicate position Drivers... increasingly require precise overview of GPS include : relative navigation networks (EPLRS.... Positions military products and • Assisted-GPS for tactical indoor applications, JTIDS... Observatory’s Master • Escalating reliance on GPS-enabled technologies Clock which is... • Increased rate of integration of GPS into battlefield managemenflt systems Block... glide- signals from a formation of GPS satellites (ideally Restraints: the precise... options for timing: GPS-aided timing operating GPS data not always the... of the Transportation Infrastructure. Canadian GPS community. Global Space Sector Market..., U.S. Congress approves US$173 M for GPS satellite PriceWaterhouseCooper release business case... Communication & Surveillance Systems) to supply GPS CSI Wireless unveils Asset-Link...- services for the U.S. Nationwide Differential GPS, Shenzhen Shenyuan Trading Company for...$1.3 M. (UWB) yet protects GPS signals from intentional GPS 2F Modernization program. version....redherring and specialized GPS. radio companies, and the GPS community, reiterate CSI... to Mobile Knowledge. the entire GPS infrastructure. cranes manipulating shipping containers... disruption, U.S. Depar- new, cost-effective GPS technology to monitor the generation... planning, execution, and analysis of GPS surveys. other. Standard mechanisms currently..., the operational GPS constellation consists of 28 Block 2/2A/2R satellites. Replenish... OPPORTUNITIES MARKET TRENDS AND OPPORTUNITIES GPS Modernization be upgraded by 2006... the GPS-2R satellites may reach modernization, World, September 2001; of the GPS... funding from the GPS-3 budget to cover non-GPS to bring the... building the satellites, modifying the GPS resistance31. Ground controllers will also... dubbed 2R/M for Modernized. Under power surges ten fold. Under GPS-3, the... fold. SATELLITE NAVIGATION GPS-3, see FIGURE F FIGURE E GPS Modernization Opportunities for Canada... OPPORTUNITIES FIGURE E FIGURE F EVOLUTION OF GPS GPS DEPLOYMENT: 2002-2015+ 32 Further... phase Boeing and LM GPS-2RM Launch GPS-2F Launch L2 L2... GPS 2015 and GLONASS network specifications. GPS-3 Planned launch GPS-3 Contract to begin GPS... three orbital planes Block 1 and 2 GPS satellites became fully operational. Conceived..., resulting in a replenishing of GPS funding rcial GPS equipment manufacturers are in.../backup to the GPS system yet continually Block 2R and 2F modernization... inclination 64.8° 55° Spacecraft”, GPS World, augmenting GPS. GLONASS is monitored by... sats 7-8 28 GPS World, July 1997, Developments of 10-12 operational satellites... hand, EU officials maintained a cautious GPS 2001 Conference, energy_transport/library/ some... its own internal wrangling, the U.S. GPS/military lobby maintained a less-thansubtle... service and manufacturing industry as GPS technologies encounter more acute integration... Deployment and Long-term Operations GPS to improve intelligence, surveillance, deployment... utilities). Ongoing Turbulence: FAA’s dual GPS-based navigational systems: WAAS and... monitoring and atmospheric science. Securing GPS Modernization Funding: Despite the The...- and the role of GPS therein, GPS modernization sing developments over the...



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............................................................................................................ 7 1. Введение ..................................................................................................... 10 1.1. Роль спутниковых технологий в геодезическом производстве ...... 10 1.2. Развитие методов GPS/ГЛОНАСС измерений... 4.2. Система GPS NAVSTAR ..................................................................... 91 4.2.1. Космический сегмент GPS ........................................................... 91 4.2.2. Контрольный сегмент GPS........................................................... 95 4.2.3. Сигналы GPS ................................................................................. 97 4.2.4. Объединение передаваемой информации................................. 104 4.2.5. Модернизация GPS ..................................................................... 106... неоднозначности GPS измерений можно разрешать в глобальном масштабе, обеспечивая ежесуточную повторяемость порядка 10 -9. Была доказана возможность регулярного получения точных орбит спутников GPS. С 1 января... 15 станций слежения GPS: 5 из них поддерживаются ВВС, а 10 – NIMA (см. рис... GPS дается в навигационном сообщении по модулю 1024, поскольку для него отводится 10 бит. Первый цикл из 1024 недель GPS начался в полночь... 5 – 10 нс. Чтобы обеспечить оценку времени UTC, передаваемое каждым спутником GPS навигационное... – вектором a: r ( x, y, z )T ; (3.1) V dr dt a r r dV dt ( x , y , z )T d 2r dt 2 (Vx , V y , Vz )T ; ( x, y, z) T . (3.2) (3.3) Точками над..., что для спутников GPS для получения точности около 10-8 достаточно 30-минутных..., 2000]. 4.2. Система GPS NAVSTAR 4.2.1. Космический сегмент GPS В космический сегмент GPS входят созвездие спутников... 7.5 * $43M 10 * $30M 15 * $28M * * Проектные данные. Проектное созвездие спутников GPS состояло... спутники GPS – достаточно надежные, и срок их жизни значительно превышает расчетный. Из 10... отсчета. 4.2.3. Сигналы GPS Сигналы, передаваемые спутниками GPS, – исключительно сложные. Система GPS предназначена работать... GPS. Долговременная нестабильность бортовых генераторов частоты составляет несколько единиц 10 -13 и даже 10... 10 -14 – 10-15 на интервале в одни сутки. Сигналы времени, передаваемые спутниками GPS... Межведомственного исполнительного совета GPS (Interagency GPS Executive Board, IGEB) управлять GPS и усиливать программы... менее $10 000. В конце 1980-х гг. только надеялись, что производители GPS приемников... среди сообщества гражданских пользователей GPS; проводить изучение GPS информации по нуждам гражданских... более 10 лет. Для налогоплательщиков это хорошая новость. Однако для пользователей GPS... 3 10-17 s 1 10-15 Cs 5 10-11 s 1 10-13 3 10-17 s 1 10-15 7 10-12 s 5 10-14 3 10-17 s 1 10-15 – 10... мазер Относительная погрешность 10-6 10-7 – 10-8 10-8 – 10-9 10-11 – 10-12 10-11 – 10-13 10-15 – 10-16 5.3. Спутниковая... фирм-производителей GPS приемников (а их почти 70), геодезическую аппаратуру выпускают 10 фирм... Navigation, Topcon, Trimble Navigation [GPS World, 2003а; GPS World, 2004]. Конечно, с одной... 1.6 10+1 10-6D 300 0.2 GPS+GLO GPS, 12 , 1996 GLO ProMark- 12/12 0.14 10+10.... GPS Total 24/12 3.8 5+1 10-6D Station 5700, 2001 4600LS, 12/12 1.4 (5 10)+106 1995 D GPS 5800, 24/12 2002 1.21 5+1 10-6D Вре..., 16 1.8 (5 10)+10-6 1 2003 D КБ «НАВИС» СН-3601 14 4.5 (GLO, GPS,L1 ) 2-3 см... компаниях дается по журналу GPS World [GPS World, 2003a; GPS World, 2004]. Данные... последующих геодезических GPS приемника – это Trimble Total Station 4700 (рис. 5.10) и Trimble..., базирующейся в Torrance, Калифорния, и была GPS «пионером» GPS технологий. В начале 1990-х гг. компания... для геодезических измерений с использованием GPS. Процессор сверхточных GPS измерений с быстрыми алгоритмами для... геодезической аппаратуры. Thales Navigation выпускает GPS и GPS+GLONASSTM аппаратуру, а также наборы чипов... одно- и двухчастотных приемников, работающих по GPS или GPS и ГЛОНАСС (рис. 5.17). Приведем...-Op tracking) улучшает возможности GPS/ГЛОНАСС приемника примерно в 10 раз. Улучшение основано... описано в главе 10. Программа для предварительного анализа внешней точности GPS измерений является.... Фундаментальная частота fo часов спутников GPS равна 10.23 МГц. На не... технологий с применением систем GPS/ГЛОНАСС [Текст] / К.М. Антонович // Геопрофи. – 2003. –№ 2. – С. 6 – 10. 5. Базлов, Ю.А. Параметры... Interference and GPS. [Text] / F.A. Butsch // GPS World, Vol. 13, No. 10. – 2002. – P. 40... GPS and gravity data [Text] / T. Engelis, R. Rapp, Y. Bock // Manuscripta Geodaetica, Vol. 10.... 100. Interface Control Document ICD-GPS-200C. 10 Oct. 1993 – 14 Jan... [Text] / Q. Ladetto, B. Merminod // GPS World, Vol. 13, No. 10, 2002. – P. 30-38...] / M. Shaw, K. Sandhoo, D. Turner // GPS World, Vol. 11, No. 10. – 2000. – P. 40-49...



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... the main problem in GPS based techniques. Since, GPS receiver measures only... the GPS based techniques, a realistic GPS emulator is implemented. GPS emulator provides typical GPS... ambiguity, integer search, Kalman Filter, GPS Emulator, Coriolis Effect, accelerometer, gyroscope...ını ele almaktadır. Bunlar GPS tabanlı tamsayı aramaya dayanan, GPS tabanlı Kalman filtreye...ı ve AÖB (Ataletsel Ölçüm Birimi) tabanlı tekniklerdir. GPS tabanlı tekniklerde kuzeyle yapılan...şıyıcı fazlarının farklarının işlenmesi ile belirlenir. GPS tabanlı tekniklerdeki temel problem ta...çekçi bir GPS benzetimcisi gerçeklenmiştir. GPS benzetimcisi GPS’in uydu pozisyonu... Systems .................................................. 4 1.4 Thesis Outline ................................................................................................... 5 2. GPS SIGNAL AND GPS EMULATOR...................................................... 7 2.1 GPS .................................................................................................................... 8 2.2 GPS Emulator................................................................................................. 10 2.2.1 Coordinate Systems .......................................................................11... Position Calculation ..............................................................25 2.3 Summary ......................................................................................................... 27 3. GPS BASED NORTHFINDING TECHNIQUE WITH EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH .........................................................................................................29 3.1 Concept of GPS Based Northfinding Technique ......................................... 30 3.1.1 Set... 3.5.2 Simulation Results 2......................................................................45 3.6 Summary ......................................................................................................... 49 4. GPS BASED NORTHFINDING TECHNIQUE WITH KALMAN FILTER...........................................................................................................52 4.1 Concept of GPS Based Northfinding Algorithm with Kalman... LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. GPS Satellite Constellation ................................................................. 8 Figure 2. GPS Satellite Signals .......................................................................... 9 Figure... Frame............................................................18 Figure 10. Elevation and Azimuth Angles of GPS Satellites..............................19... Carrier Phase in GPS Emulator ...............................25 Figure 16. GPS Based Northfinding with... thesis includes detailed information about GPS structure. 2. Attitude determination or northfinding... using signals from GPS satellites. The role of a GPS receiver as an...]. Let us classify the GPS literature according to GPS based northfinding algorithms.... Chapter-2 presents GPS and GPS signal structure, implementation of a GPS emulator to test.... 6 CHAPTER 2 GPS SIGNAL AND GPS EMULATOR The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been... navigation systems or attitude determination. GPS emulator calculates pseudoranges, carrier-phases... about GPS Signal and the GPS Emulator. Firstly, overview of GPS and GPS signals are presented. Afterwards, the GPS... and errors on GPS Emulator, are given. 2.1 GPS The GPS is a space-based... vehicle and the GPS receiver. The Precise P(Y)-Code is a 10.23 MHz..., 38]. 2.2 GPS Emulator In this section, a realistic GPS emulator is developed. GPS emulator... measurement to get realistic measurements. 10 GPS Emulator finds out the visible... Ω er cos i sin(v + ω )   0    r sin i sin(v + ω )  (2.4) GPS emulator operates in ECEF frame... in Figure 10. 18 Figure 10. Elevation and Azimuth Angles of GPS Satellites..., ( xu , y u , z u ) : Receiver (user) position. In GPS emulator, pseudorange measurement output is... + ∆t satellite + ∆t user (2.16) Where: ρ output : GPS emulator pseudorange output, τ ion ,τ tro... troposphere errors, ∆t satellite : GPS satellite clock error, ∆t user : GPS user clock error... error model used in GPS emulator is the GPS ionosphere model. According... in GPS Emulator 2.2.7 User Position Calculation GPS based northfinding techniques use GPS emulator... the unknown number of GPS signal cycles received. GPS receiver senses only... and Algorithm In GPS based northfinding algorithm, two GPS receivers or antennas... unknown 36 number of GPS signal cycles received. GPS receiver measures only... antennas are given to the GPS emulator. GPS emulator calculates the pseudorange... GPS based northfinding algorithm, GPS emulator is used. Azimuth finding system gets GPS... matrix, X AB : Baseline vector (meter), λ : GPS carrier wavelength. 4.2 Phase Ambiguity Resolution... invariant and is given by:  2r R = − r  0 −r 0  2r − r  − r 2r  (4.21) Where: r: Variance of single... 0.0560 3 1 (0.2)2 10.9168 0.0832 77 4.6 Summary In this chapter, GPS based nortfinding...



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... Harita Gösterim ve Bilgi Sistemi) ............................................................................. 10 2.3 Konumlandırma .............................................................................................. 14 2.3.1 GNSS-Global... (Küresel Uydu Seyir Sistemi) ..................................................................................................... 14 2.3.1.1 GPS-Global Positioning System (Küresel Konumland... System................................................ 25 2.3.1.6 GAGAN- GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GPS Destekli Yer Takviyeli... GNSS : Global Navigation Satellite System GPS : Global Positioning System IALA : International... öneme göre derecelendirilmesi ............................................................ 55 Çizelge 3.10: Seyir ekranlarında gösterilen bilginin... Şekil 2.9: GPS uyduları, yer istasyonu ve alıcısı...................................................... 21 Şekil 2.10: GLONASS al... percepted by the user.  Recently GPS has vital important for the..., %4’ünün batma ve diğer sebeplerin %10 olduğu tespit edilmiştir (La... IMO gereklerini karşıladığını gösterir. 10 Şekil 2.7 : ECDIS konsolu. Bulunulan mevkinin.... GNSS-1 mevcut sistemlere (GPS, GLONASS) verilen isimdir. GPS Yer Tabanlı Takviye Sistemleri... düzeltmelerle kullanıldığında Diferansiyel GPS (Differential GPS-DGPS) olarak bilinir. GNSS... Uydu Sistemi (IRNSS) vb.) içerecektir. GPS’in geliştirilmesi 1973 yılında... “Uzay Yarışı” Sovyet sistemi GLONASS’ın GPS’e paralel olarak gelişmesi ile... az uydunun yerleştirilmesi nedeniyle GPS’e nazaran 1980 ve 1990’larda...ıştır. Kullanım kolaylığı ve doğruluğu GPS’i dünya çapında her türden... Avrupa Birliği ülkeleri konsept olarak GPS’e benzeyen fakat öncelikle sivil kullan....8% 30 günün üstünde Uygulan maz <10 s <2 s* Liman giriş yaklaşması ve... ≥99.97% 3 saatin üstünde <10 s <10 s <2 s* Okyanus <10 s <2 s* *Hesaplanan konum verisi geminin... 10 25 10 25 Liman yaklaş -ması ve tahditli sular Liman 10 25 10...şına ) 10 10-5 99.8 NA Küre ** sel -5 10 10 99.8 NA Küre ** sel 10 10-5 99.8 99.97 Bölg esel 10 10-5 99.8 99.97 Yere l İçsu 10 25 10 10-5 99.8 99... değildir. Sabit aralık* (s) 1 1 1 1 1 Mevcut GPS ve GLONASS Sistemleri gibi birinci... bir hedef haline gelmiştir. 2.3.1.1 GPS-Global Positioning System (Küresel Konumlandırma Sistemi) GPS’in tarihsel gelişimine bak... NAVSTAR Küresel Konumlandırma Sistemi (GPS-Global Positioning System) adını alm... 1 uyduları olarak bilinmekte olup, ilk GPS uydu sinyali 1977 yılında al... düşürülmesi olayından sonra ABD GPS’i sivil kullanıma da açmıştır. Ancak...ştir. Haziran 1989’da Blok 2R uyduları General Electric’e (daha sonra... sistemini hemen kabul etmemiştir. GPS’in askerî kullanımı, 1990 yılında...ım ihtilaf süresince kapatılmıştır. 19 GPS 8 Aralık 1993’te, 6 yörüngesel düzlemde... ücretsiz ve Seçici Kullanımın 10 yıl içinde durdurulacağı” duyurulmuştur. 8 Aral... almış olup, söz konusu politika ile; a. GPS’in ve ABD tarafından... güvenlik için ABD ve müttefiklerinin GPS’e erişimini korumak ve has... 2 roketi ile birinci Lockheed Martin GPS 2R-M uydusu yörüngeye atılmıştır. Modernize... ikinci sivil sinyale sahip olup, GPS’i sadece müdahaleye karşı güçlü kılmamış, ayn... atılmıştır. GPS 2F-1 61’inci GPS uydusu olup, GPS 2F-2 16 Temmuz... atılmıştır. 20 Bununla beraber GPS 3A olarak bilinen gelecek nesil GPS bakım programı 2006 yılında Lockheed Martin’e ihale edilmiştir. Planlı 8 GPS 3A uydularından ilkinin 2014 yılında atılması planlanmaktadır.[9] Şekil 2.9 : GPS uyduları, yer istasyonu ve al... noktası gibi kullanılmaktadır. Herbir GPS uydusu hassas konum ve zaman... kullanıcılardan oluşmaktadır. Şekil 2.10 : GLONASS alıcısı ve uyduları. GLONASS...-7/saat 7 /150s Devamlılık riski 10-5/15s 10-4/saat10-8/saat Sertifikasyon/ Evet Sorumluluk...ır. Sistemin uzun vadeli hedefi ise GPS ve GLONASS gibi küresel bir...ı verilmiştir. 2.3.1.6 GAGAN- GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GPS Destekli Yer Takviyeli...şten kaynaklı çevresel etkilerin de GPS alıcılarını etkilediği bilinmektedir. 26...çli müdahalenin bir yolu zayıf GPS sinyalini karıştırma iken, di... örnek Royal Majesty adlı geminin 10 Haziran 1995 tarihinde Nantucket’in... Bilgiler; Cayro Pusuladan gelen pruva, GPS’ten gelen konum, yere göre...ıcılara uygun hale getirilmiş ve 10 sayfa olarak hazırlanmıştır. (EK... 4. Zabit 6 29 Kılavuz 2 10 Liman Başkanı 2 10 VTS Operatörü 3 13 Kıyıdaki... Yok (%) 38 24 15 19 10 10 10 14 Fikir Yok (%) 29 33... 24 5 14 28 5 10 38 28 14 10 10 19 33 33 14...’i mevcut Küresel Konumlandırma Sistemi (GPS)’nin yedeği olarak farklı bir...ı sisteme olan güveni artıracaktır. (5) GPS halihazırda gemiler için hayati... RADAR tercih edilmekte ve konum GPS’ten teyit edilmektedir. 3.3.4.2 Gemi trafik... kullanıcı tarafından seçilebilmelidir. (8) GPS halihazırda gemiler için hayati...ın sıfirlanmasına ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. 72 (10) Amaç, iş yükünü ve karışıklığı azaltma... Navigation Satellite System-GNSS) GPS’tir. GNSS (GPS)’in yedeği olarak hangi...



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... одной и той же величины .............................................................................................................................26 1.5.10. Практическое применение приемов теории погрешностей..., принятые в геодезии ........................................................................57 1.10. Государственная геодезическая сеть ........................................................................57 1.10.1 Исторический очерк создания ГГС в России .........................................................59 1.10.2. Структура и характеристика ГГС по состоянию на 1995 год. ............................63 1.10.3. Современная структура Государственной геодезической сети ....................63 1.10.4. Опорные межевые сети ........................................................................................64 1.11... десятичные кратные (образованные умножением на 10, 100, 1000 и т.д.) и десятичные дольные (образованные... будет можно вычислить по формуле m   n . 1.5.10. Практическое применение приемов теории погрешностей...   a sin   mb  2 2 m    ab cos    2   .  Задача 10 В четырехугольнике измерены все стороны a, b, c и d и углы... , md , m 1 и m 2 . Найти площадь четырехугольника и с 2 d Рис. 1.10. Определение площади четырехугольника Решение Площадь... Величину называют относительным искажением линии. 2R 2 Тогда линия АВ на плане...  2350  22 cos2  cos2  cos2    1010 sin  cos  ";   X" / 6367558,4969; N x  6399698... обозначают латинской буквой Н без индекса  . 1.10. Государственная геодезическая сеть Государственная геодезическая... позволяет контролировать качество угловых измерений. 1.10.1 Исторический очерк создания ГГС в России... геодезических измерений получают спутниковые системы GPS. В это же время производится переуравнивание... глобальных навигационных спутниковых систем ГЛОНАСС и GPS. Государственная геодезическая сеть, создаваемая по... символа. Измерение дальности (псевдодальность в системах GPS, ГЛОНАСС) производиться, как показано ранее... с частотой f r  511кГц, длительность импульса  u  1/ f r  (1/ 511)  10 3 сек  2 мксек. Инструментальная погрешность измерения... эфемеридным данным с большей точностью. В системе GPS псевдошумовой дальномерный код формируется по... системы. Т.е. схема генератора дальномерных кодов GPS способна формировать большое число кодов... кода объясняется тем, что в системе GPS принято кодовое разделение сигналов, а в системе... одну и ту же структуру. В системе GPS все КА излучают навигационный сигнал... свой. В генераторе псевдошумовых кодов системы GPS содержится 10 разрядов, т.е. число символов последовательности... псевдослучайная последовательность сверхбольшой длительности. В системе GPS тактовая частота fT  1,023 МГц... параметров несущего высокочастотного сигнала. В системах GPS и ГЛОНАСС передача информации осуществляется посредством... является исходным для высокоточных геодезических GPS измерений и для точных измерений в режиме... она решена в существующих методиках применения GPS-ГЛОНАСС технологий для решения геодезических... три глобальные системы: ГЛОНАСС (Россия), GPS или Navstar (США) и Galileo (Европейский... (должно быть 24 функционирующих ИСЗ). GPS (Global Positioning System) – глобальная система... время это ограничение снято, т.о. система GPS доступна для всего мира в режиме.... 1.29. Искусственный спутник Земли системы GPS Размеры и форма эллиптической орбиты определяются... на каждой орбите (рис. 1.31). В GPS ИСЗ размещены на круговых орбитах...°. Рис. 1.31. Созвездие ИСЗ систем GPS и ГЛОНАСС Пространственное положение ИСЗ закладывается... пунктов не превышает для ГЛОНАСС и GPS – нескольких метров (при т.н. абсолютных определениях... для каждого региона законодательным порядком. В GPS используют шкалу времени, привязанную к шкале..., что позволяет выполнять обработку совместных GPS-ГЛОНАСС измерений в единой шкале времени...). Рис. 1.32. Структура радиосигнала системы GPS Система радиосигналов содержит псевдослучайную последовательность.... В радиолинии частотного диапазона L1 спутники GPS одновременно излучают кодовые последовательности стандартной... правило,   15 ). Количество спутников в системах GPS и ГЛОНАСС и параметры их орбит обеспечивают... расстояний необходимо измерять момент с точностью 10-10-10-12 с. Главной трудностью при измерении... – ГФY; и ГФV – по высоте. Применительно к GPS понятию ГФ соответствует понятие ухудшение... распространения радиоволн дециметрового диапазона, используемого в GPS. Радикальный способ учета этой задержки... влияние ионосферы уменьшается и составляет примерно 1*10-6 длины базовой линии. Влияние отражения... к ее к высоте, что примерно составляет 5*10-6. Для определения пространственного положения точек... работах кинематического способа достигается в процессе GPS-съемки объектов в режиме кинематики реального... в дифференциальном режиме. Так, например, система GPS , дополненная дифференциальной подсистемой, получила название..., всех «видимых» НИСЗ (системы ГЛОНАСС и GPS), вместе со служебной информацией передается...



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... MISSIONS……………………………………………………… 17 Early NAVSTAR II GPS Missions……………………………………………….……. 17 Completing the Initial... II Constellation…………………………….……. 20 The NAVSTAR GPS IIR-1 Mission, 17 January 1997………………………………. 24 Later NAVSTAR GPS IIR Missions………………………………………………….. 27 U.S. Military Technology...), the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS), and various ground surveillance, satellite... the NAVSTAR Global Positioning Satellite (GPS II-1) mission. It was launched..., satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS). The technology necessary to field the GPS was confirmed, and a total of... successful. Following up on the GPS‟ initial success, the Air Force... a constellation of 24 Block II GPS satellites via the Space Shuttle... disaster in January 1986, the GPS Program Office diverted the first... as a launch vehicle for later GPS missions, but its prospects dwindled... increased pressure to replenish the GPS constellation to meet user needs... for the upcoming NAVSTAR II GPS mission. Following final prelaunch tests... the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) missions that placed spacecraft in... Typically, the DELTA IIs carrying GPS payloads lifted off the launch... the launch vehicle. For GPS II and early GPS IIR (Replenishment) satellite... for about 90 seconds. For GPS IIR Modernized payloads, the vehicle... – 48 – featured Global Positioning System (GPS) payloads. Three military DELTA II... flights were successful. Only one GPS IIR satellite mission failed, just... the various missions. The first GPS mission was summarized in Chapter... NAVSTAR II GPS Missions Following the first NAVSTAR II GPS launch on... were used for the GPS II-1 through GPS II-9 orbital missions. Later... placed the first GPS IIA spacecraft (NAVSTAR II-10) in the prescribed... missions for the NAVSTAR II GPS program.10 The DELTA II/NAVSTAR... GPS constellation in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Of the 10... original plan of a 24-satellite GPS constellation. On 27 February 1989... Command to establish and maintain a GPS constellation of 21 primary satellites... be needed to give the GPS constellation its first worldwide twodimensional... finally removed from the operational GPS constellation in August 1989. 12..., 1971 – 1992,” p 172. 13 The GPS constellation consisted of six Block... 1990. With II-10 in operation, the GPS network provided two-dimensional... accuracy averaged about 10 meters during the war. The GPS Program Office... 1994, McDonnell Douglas launched seven GPS missions (NAVSTAR II-18 through... more Block IIA missions (GPS II-25 through GPS II-28) were... the spacecraft except GPS IIR-1 were boosted into 10,898-nautical-mile... become part of the existing GPS navigational satellite network. The first... next NAVSTAR GPS II flight on 24 January 1994 and 10 February 1994 respectively. Reminiscent of the DELTA II GPS mission... successful launch.39 The NAVSTAR GPS IIR-1 Mission, 17 January 1997... satellites were fully compatible with GPS satellites already on-orbit. In... spacecraft to replenish the aging GPS constellation between 1997 and 2006... 001A, DELTA Launch Vehicle with GPS 2R Exploded In Flight,” 172215Z Jan... the rain shield protecting the GPS IIR-3 spacecraft. The rain shield... spacecraft, and the original GPS IIR-3 satellite (SV-10) had to be... and engineers separated the original GPS IIR-3 spacecraft from the launch... their wheels for stability. The GPS IIR-3 spacecraft was stored in.... Technicians and engineers mated the GPS IIR-3 spacecraft to the vehicle... eventually as intended – to place a GPS spacecraft on-orbit. 54 45... them – GPS IIR-4 – was mated to its launch vehicle on 10 April... for the GPS IIR-5 mission between 17 May and 10 June 2000... suspend all its GPS IIR-8, IIR-9, and IIR-10 launch processing activities... SMC Commander approved resumption of GPS IIR-8 processing a few days later... GPS IIR-21 spin Laboratory (AFRL), the $100 million XSS-10 was... GPS IIR-8 mission. The GPS IIR-8 Star 48 motor was recertified on 10... The seventh in the series – GPS IIR-20 (M) – was launched successfully... Martin and ITT built 21 GPS IIR spacecraft, they subsequently modified... Mar 2009; “Wing launches 20th GPS satellite,” 45th Space Wing Missileer, 27 Mar 2009; “Seventh Modernized GPS Satellite Built by Lockheed Martin...; Lockheed Martin, “Global Positioning System (GPS) – from Improved Accuracy to Knowing...; 2) the DELTA II carrying the GPS IIR-1 spacecraft explodes seconds after... launched within weeks of the GPS IIR-21 mission. 7 Discussion, M. Cleary... Pad 17A NAVSTAR GPS II-1 – 1ST GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) SATELLITE LAUNCH FROM THE EASTERN RANGE 10 June 1989 DELTA II Pad 17A NAVSTAR GPS II... DELTA II Pad 17A NAVSTAR GPS II-10 8 January 1991 DELTA II... GALAXY I-R 10 March 1994 DELTA II Pad 17A NAVSTAR GPS II-24... 17A NAVSTAR GPS II-28 88 Date Vehicle Site Payload 10 January... PAYLOAD) 10 November 2000 DELTA II Pad 17A NAVSTAR GPS IIR-6 30... GPS IIR-8 31 March 2003 DELTA II Pad 17A NAVSTAR GPS IIR-9 10... NAVSTAR GPS IIR-10 20 March 2004 DELTA II Pad 17B NAVSTAR GPS...



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... .........................................................................................................A-9 A.6.2 Method and Assumptions ..............................................................................A-9 A.6.3 Results ........................................................................................................A-10 A.7 References ............................................................................................................ A-10 APPENDIX B – 1998-2000 NEAR-TERM... 20 Range of Lowest Inputs 10 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006... Average 30 1997 Average 20 10 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006...) 20 Intermediate (4,000-9,000 lb) 10 0 1998 Medium (2,000-4,000 lb... 40 Heavy 30 20 Medium 10 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002... Actual Number of Vehicles Launched 10 5 Launch Year Figure 4.0. COMSTAC Launch... obtain overall averages. 0198266.doc 10 Table 3.0 COMSTAC Launch Demand Forecast... 429 33 Assumed Dual Launches 6 6 6 6 6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 110 8 27 23 27 29... from 1998 – 2002, and ten (10) per year from 2003 – 2010.... Annual forecast demand averaged about 10.5 payloads per year. 1994: Beginning... would occur through 2002, and 10 per year from 2003 – 2010..., an attrition rate factor of 10% of annual launch demand was... constant at about 2-3 a year (or 10% of the market) as small... are: − Pushing satellites into the 10-20 kW range, thus increasing...-manifested commercial payloads, or about 10 dual commercial launches per year... of Transportation, Washington, D.C. 0198266.doc A-10 A4. COMSTAC Report, “Commercial Spacecraft... 35 11.7 1 US-PAS Galaxy 10 1 US-Loral Orion 3 AP 1 Norway... 1 Philippine-Mabuhay 1 ILV 1 China-APStar 2R 1 China-Chinasat 8 MLV Proton 4 HLV...-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-28 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-01 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-02 1 US... ICO 05 US-AF-GPS 2R-03 US-AF-GPS 2R-04 US-AF... 10 ICO 12 US-AF-GPS 2R-05 US-AF-GPS 2R-06 US-AF-GPS 2R-07 US-AF-GPS 2R-08 US-AF-GPS 2R... 8 5 US-AF-Call UP MLV-10 US-AF-DSCS 3-07 US... - 05 Iridium 09 - 05 Iridium 10 - 03 US-AF-Argos P91... - 2 1 1 1 1 Brazil-CBERS 2 Iridium 09 - 2 Iridium 10 - 2 Iridium 11 - 2 Russia-Baikonur Molniya... 166 16.6 9 14 15 100 10.0 25 2.5 18 1.8 0 0 0.0 2 13 1.3 6 0.6 1991 1992... 1994 1995 9 8 18 14 17 10 18 9 7 9 8 9 8 12 1 Intelsat 602 1 Japan... 1A 1 China-Chinasat 7 1 China-APStar 2R 1 China-APStar 2 1 China-Asiasat 2 1 US... 25.2 3 3 2 4 2 2 0 4 5 1 26 2.6 20 2.0 44 4.4 13 1.3 10 1.0 139 13.9 1 ESA-Meteosat 3 1 France...-AF GPS Navstar 01 US-AF GPS Navstar 02 US-AF GPS Navstar 03 US-AF GPS Navstar 04 US-AF GPS Navstar... Raduga 11 Russia-Cosmos/Glonass 10 Russia-Mil/Science Legend: 16... Raduga 1-1 Raduga 23 Raduga 24 10 Russia-Mil/Science Ekran Gorizont...-AF GPS Navstar 12 US-AF GPS Navstar 13 US-AF GPS Navstar 14 US-AF GPS Navstar 15 US-AF GPS Navstar 16 US-AF GPS Navstar...-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 01 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 02 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 03 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 04 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 05 US-AF GPS Navstar.../Science 3 0 1 NASA-Wind 1 US-AF GPS 2 Block 2 06 1 US-AF SEDS...-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-07 1 US-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-28 1 1 1 1 US-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-08 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-01 US-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-10 1 US-AF-GPS 2R...-X Ray 1 US-AF GPS-Navstar 11 US-AF GPS Navstar 06 1 US-AF LOSAT (SDI) US-AF GPS Navstar 07 US-AF GPS Navstar 08 US-AF GPS Navstar 09 US-AF GPS Navstar 10... 22 61 251 25.1 8 100 10.0 0 0 0.0 10 14 1.4 United States Ranges TOTAL... Columbia US-STS-060 Discovery 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 US-STS-060 Discovery... Columbia US-STS-074 Atlantis 0 0 0 2 0 0 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 US-STS-072 Endeavour US...-Cosmos 2082 1 Russia-Cosmos xxxx 10 2 Russia-MIR Manned 5 Russia-MIR... 7 7 Russia-Domestic 10 10 Russia-Domestic 1 Russia-Domestic Molniya 10 MLV 10 Russia-Domestic... 1 Russia-Cosmos 2342 1 Russia-Molniya 10 9 Russia-Cosmos 2337-9/3 Gonets 1 Russia...



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... International Institute of Space Law 8-10 rue Mario Nikis 75735 Paris... of other navigational satellite systems GPS, Glonass, and the future Galileo... and NASA Ames Research Center’s 10-kg GeneSat-1 biology experiment. The... payload, was conducted successfully on 10 October. Space Exploration Technologies’ (SpaceX... test-vehicle development, completed on 10 November 2006, and on the... Orion crew exploration vehicle. On 10 August NASA signed a $1.8-billion contract.... Although the testing will be 10 supervised by NASA’s Dryden Flight... burn 90% hydrogen peroxide with 10% ROP grade kerosene. The test... 110 degrees east longitude. DirecTV-10 was launched from the Baikonur... geostationary orbit. The 5.9-tonne DirecTV-10, built by Boeing Satellite Systems... from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on 10 April by an International Launch... Dongfanghong-4 (DFH-4) satellite bus, with 10 kW end-of-life power... to their operating orbits at 10,390 km altitude. Pending resolution... data-linked Global Positioning System (GPS) position reports from aircraft. Other... from the Global Positioning System (GPS). This feature, if implemented, would... the U.S. military to degrade civil GPS signals. The U.S. had stopped using... incorporated into the next-generation GPS-3 system. The Air Force completed... 14 September of the new GPS ground segment, which controls the..., which will apply to the U.S. GPS-3 L1C and Galileo L1F satellites... begin operations in 2012; the GPS-3 L1C spacecraft in 2013. Satamatics... Tracker, a device that uses the GPS navigation signal, relayed by Inmarsat... signals providing position accuracies of 10 m, speed accuracies of 0.2 m/second, and... of other navigational satellite systems GPS, Glonass, and the future Galileo... quasi-polar orbits during their 10-year design lifetime, providing over..., before the earthquake, and on 10 April, after it. Cartosat-2, the... launched aboard a Russian Soyuz TMA-10 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome.... Prior to its arrival on 10 June, the orbiter’s thermal protection..., occupied the Aquarius Laboratory for 10 days beginning 6 August to simulate... the telescope is scheduled for 10 September 2008, when Space Shuttle... Alaska and instrument stations in 10 rural U.S. schools, are aimed at.... Following course correction maneuvers on 10 August and in October (the...-X (USA) has offered competing teams a 10% discount on a Falcon rocket launch.... (USA) and L-3 Communications (USA). The 10-kW solar arrays, which span... “tiger stripes” was estimated at 10 - 1,000 years. Several theories as... the Guiana Space Center. The 10.5-m long filament-wound composite motor... seconds after ignition of the 10-tonne propellant grain, and remained... Alliant Techsystems (USA) under Alliant’s $10.4-million contract from NASA Glenn... terrestrial use was released on 10 October by the U.S. National Security.../hour at altitudes between 6 and 10 km, under cloud-free conditions...’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle on 10 January, along with India’s Cartosat... a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, stereo cameras, a three-dimensional.... G. Guidance, Navigation, and Control NASA’s $10-million Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC... years. Spacehab (USA) announced on 10 April the creation of a new... its evolution over time. On 10 January India’s Polar Satellite Launch..., nuclear standoff explosions would be 10 – 100 times more effective than..., and especially Global Positioning System (GPS) applications. Space News’ annual “Launch.... Launch service revenue dropped by 10% to $2.7 billion. United Launch Alliance... $1 per minute. Inmarsat is targeting a 10 percent share of the satellite... the launch of its latest GPS-based vehicle security and tracking... owners. Based on the latest GPS, global information system (GIS), global... initial satellite of an augmented GPS system, the Quazi Zenith Satellite... launched in 2010, will provide GPS signals and broadcasting from a highly..., recently announced plans to offer 10 megabits per second high-speed... Spanish carrier Telefonica's acquisition of a 10 percent stake in Italian rival... Defense plans to stop procuring GPS satellites that provide Pentagon with... halted the intentional degradation of GPS satellite signals in May 2000... no longer be present in GPS 3 satellites, the Pentagon said. According... strong commitment to users of GPS that this free global utility... enhance the operation of the GPS constellation. The distributed server-based..., increase efficiency and accommodate future GPS capabilities as they become available... operates the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS provides 3-D position data in longitude... delivered to orbit a replenishment Block 2R satellite for the U.S. Air Force... of the GPS 2R satellites. The launch also marked the second GPS mission aboard a Boeing Delta II in less than two months. GPS 2R-16(M) is the third of the modernized GPS satellites that... growth for satellite radio and GPS positioning and tracking is being...—890 *0788046* International Astronautical Federation 8-10 rue Mario Nikis 75735 Paris... International Institute of Space Law 8-10 rue Mario Nikis 75735 Paris...



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... determination of individual spacecraft using GPS receivers; • developed simplified equations of... U.S. remote sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS), satellite communications, and launch industries..., scientific, and governmental users of GPS technology during meetings of the... to host the offices Y e a r Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB), representing the... Center. In the area of GPS data services, NOAA acquired and... 2003, NOAA continued to use GPS and remote sensing technologies to... European Community toward cooperation between GPS and Europe’s planned Galileo satellite... and the end users of GPS technology, particularly with respect to... of the U.S. Government regarding the GPS-Galileo relationship. OSC also participated... ongoing bilateral cooperation related to GPS. These talks, held in October... cooperation to ensure interoperability between GPS and Japan’s planned Quasi-Zenith... of time signals received from GPS for the most demanding military... time scale. Using the microwave GPS carrier a n d frequency as the timing source instead of the GPS time code, NIST and its... interference between UWB devices and GPS, radar, and communications systems. NIST... 2003. The spectrum allocations for GPS. 2 0 0 3 results included updating satellite regulations.... These properties include high-precision GPS reference data, complete meteorological microclimate..., 2) the NOAA Forecast Systems a n d Laboratory GPS Surface Observation System Network, 3) the..., most tied to the aircraft GPS navigation log. These images are.... Satellite data were supplemented with GPS and geographic information system (GIS... being used in conjunction with GPS data for endangered species habitat...-resolution satellite remote sensing and GPS to support BIA and tribal... GPS data on high-priority dams under BIA jurisdiction. In for 10 dams during the reporting period. BIA used commercial GPS receivers... addition, digital aerial photographs with GPS coordinates were collected for all... the data using high-accuracy GPS ground control. They also generated.... AML specialists and contractors used GPS receivers to map subsidence complaints... use both the DOD Navstar GPS Precise Positioning Service (PPS) and augmented differential GPS for real-time positioning in... available. Over 1,500 Precise Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) units have been... events. The demand for trained GPS technical specialists to conduct fire... the United States. In response, GPS training courses were taught in... NPS staff used approximately 400 GPS receivers for mapping and navigation... A c t i v i t i e s mation designs. Mine inspectors employed GPS to verify jurisdictional boundaries of... to expand its use of GPS for surface mine reclamation Y e a r a coal... a camera. The instrument 71 with GPS databases to provide a visual presentation... for New England wildlife species. GPS was invasive plant species at... at a scale of 1:12000, with GPS center points, then digitally scanned... area. All plots have associated GPS coordinates, and most have detailed... Lakes Science Center regularly used GPS technologies to supplement scientific research conducted in 2003. GPS receivers and aerial photographs were... in the Detroit River required GPS technology to locate sample sites... studies in Lake Erie used GPS to guide sampling procedures and simplify navigation in open water. GPS was also used during native... parks in Michigan. A mapping-grade GPS receiver was used to determine... included helicopters for aerial and GPS equipment, food caterers, and showers... of Nationwide Differential GPS (NDGPS) receivers from a USDA GPS contract. At the... the fiscal year, over 4,100 GPS receivers were being used in... represented on Federal remote sensing, GPS, and geodata coordinating committees. NRCS... would not directly overlay the U.S. GPS military code. Other issues remained... U.S. leadership in geospatial technologies, including GPS, remote sensing, and Web-based... GPS Executive Board, the GPS outreach team developed an exhibit to promote GPS... Beyond b 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 3 2 2 3 1 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 2 4 3 2 5 1 3 1 5 2 3 6 6 4 5 1 4 1 59 70 1 1 2 2 4 3 2 2 7 7 5 9 7 7 6 12 10 11 11 10 12 8 12 4 b d 1 1 154 1 1 1 b 1 2 b b 2 b 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14... known as USA 166 and GPS 2R-8. Geosynchronous 20,228.8 km 187... known as USA 168 and GPS 2R-9. Also known as Milstar 6. Carries....cfm on the Web. A c t i v i t i e s DOD GPS satellite 2 0 0 3 Jan. 29, 2003 Navstar... First dual rendezvous (Gemini 10 with Agena 10, then Agena 8). First initial...** John E. Blaha*** 10:4:56 10:2:30 16:21:48 * 10:3:19 17:15... 575 577 644 649 DOI 0.2 0.2 1 2 6 10 9 8 10 3 10 10 10 12 12 12 5 3 2 2 8 14 17... 10,287 10,210 10,172 2,494 9,905 10,107 10,707 11,291 10,920 10... 9,389 10,084 9,879 9,973 10,668 11,075 10,786 10,803 14... and Land Elevation Satellite Interagency GPS Executive Board Integrated Global Observing... HST 2 0 0 3 H Y e a r GloVis GNSS GOES GP GPS GRACE GRC GSFC GSO GTE... Crop Assessment Division Precise Lightweight GPS Receiver Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory...