Спутник навигационных систем. GPS 2R-11. [Редактировать]

GPS-2R (Global Positioning System) или Navstar-2R (Navigation System using Timing And Ranging) – третье поколение космических аппаратов системы GPS. GPS-IIR должны по контракту от 19989 года осуществить замену второго поколения аппаратов группировки. Производителем аппаратов выступает Lockheed Martin, которая использует для производства космический аппаратов свою коммерческую платформу AS-4000. Космические аппараты имеют трех-осевую стабилизацию и работают на 1572.42 MHz, 1227.6 MHz и 2227.5 MHz. Lockheed также отвечает за запуски аппаратов и их эксплуатацию. По сравнению с предшествующими аппаратами новое поколение спутников позволяет значительно улучшить точность определения координат на Земле.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1USA 177НайтиНайти
228190НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - военно-коммерческие
3Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2032
2Платформа, AS-40001

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град55.3
2Апогей, км20458.4
3Перигей, км19918.9
4Период, минут717.9
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км26559

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2004-009A

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2004-03-20 at 17:39:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xGPS 2R-11
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2

Найдено 508 документов по запросу «GPS 2R-11». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Kennedy Space Center 12/05/11 2011 Joint Army Navy NASA... might behave when acted upon. 11 Model Candidates - Life-Cycle Cost... Engine NREC $ 810 Unknown GEO GPS, 55 deg GEO Polar LEO LEO 41 deg GPS, 55 deg GEO LEO, 58 deg Polar LEO GEO LEO GPS, 55 deg GEO LEO, 123...



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.... & Associates, 2002. 23 ASPRS Forecast. GPS GEO-REFERENCED INFORMATION GIS & Visualization... navigation system). ION Newsletter (Vol. 11, converging applications. MARKET CHARACTERISTICS fleet... a business perspective, the increased accuracy • GPS-enabled timing devices, used to... U.S. State Intelligence released a report entitled “GPS World by U.S. suppliers (see particular... satellite navigation systems (GPS, an increasing role for GPS in what they termed the to the post 9/11 market realities. GPS... important emerging GPS initiatives is marketplace: in 1998, the GPS receiver market.... 7 “Terrorism Attacks Accelerate Interest in GPS Applications”, ibid. August 10, 1990... CHARACTERISTICS MARKET CHARACTERISTICS FIGURE C FIGURE D GPS MARKET TRENDS: 1996-2002 GLOBAL...”, 17 see “GPS and Aviation Safety” in GPS North American GPS Market Share... < 1% Land 72% Timing 6% Space Transportation 8% GPS 9% Aviation 7% Military 8% Marine 7% Source: U.S. Dept... destruction on September 11, 2001 heightened interest in how GPS could support... terrestrial or satellite transmitters) board GPS-based autolanding system17. SATELLITE NAVIGATION... Somalia further underscored the 11% growth in the N.A. GPS Marine market in... spur growth development • Demand for GPS technologies to address aviation particularly... expansion ensures availability and accuracy • GPS-enabled navigation initiatives spur product... recreational marine markets that use GPS technologies • Hydrographic survey/mapping in... our • Falling prices Restraints: • Gradual GPS data integration into avionic support.... tion of time. GPS-enabled navigational initiatives GPS General Aviation market grew... of state-of-the-art GPS receivers. GPS World, July 2002, The... 23 A comprehensive Current and future GPS-related applications 23 • Synchronization/orientation of communication/ GPS satellites continuously communicate position Drivers... increasingly require precise overview of GPS include : relative navigation networks (EPLRS.... Positions military products and • Assisted-GPS for tactical indoor applications, JTIDS... Observatory’s Master • Escalating reliance on GPS-enabled technologies Clock which is... options for timing: GPS-aided timing operating GPS data not always the... of the Transportation Infrastructure. Canadian GPS community. Global Space Sector Market... to the 9/11 that forecasts an increasing role for GPS in the..., U.S. Congress approves US$173 M for GPS satellite PriceWaterhouseCooper release business case... Communication & Surveillance Systems) to supply GPS CSI Wireless unveils Asset-Link...- services for the U.S. Nationwide Differential GPS, Shenzhen Shenyuan Trading Company for...$1.3 M. (UWB) yet protects GPS signals from intentional GPS 2F Modernization program. version....redherring and specialized GPS. radio companies, and the GPS community, reiterate CSI... to Mobile Knowledge. the entire GPS infrastructure. cranes manipulating shipping containers... disruption, U.S. Depar- new, cost-effective GPS technology to monitor the generation... planning, execution, and analysis of GPS surveys. other. Standard mechanisms currently..., the operational GPS constellation consists of 28 Block 2/2A/2R satellites. Replenish... OPPORTUNITIES MARKET TRENDS AND OPPORTUNITIES GPS Modernization be upgraded by 2006... the GPS-2R satellites may reach modernization, World, September 2001; of the GPS... funding from the GPS-3 budget to cover non-GPS to bring the... from the 2010/11 timeframe on series to Block 2R/M (still being... building the satellites, modifying the GPS resistance31. Ground controllers will also... dubbed 2R/M for Modernized. Under power surges ten fold. Under GPS-3, the... fold. SATELLITE NAVIGATION GPS-3, see FIGURE F FIGURE E GPS Modernization Opportunities for Canada... OPPORTUNITIES FIGURE E FIGURE F EVOLUTION OF GPS GPS DEPLOYMENT: 2002-2015+ 32 Further... phase Boeing and LM GPS-2RM Launch GPS-2F Launch L2 L2... GPS 2015 and GLONASS network specifications. GPS-3 Planned launch GPS-3 Contract to begin GPS... three orbital planes Block 1 and 2 GPS satellites became fully operational. Conceived..., resulting in a replenishing of GPS funding rcial GPS equipment manufacturers are in.../backup to the GPS system yet continually Block 2R and 2F modernization... GLONASS AND GPS SPACECRAFT Contributions to Space Geodesy” ibid. p. 11. GLONASS GPS Sat... inclination 64.8° 55° Spacecraft”, GPS World, augmenting GPS. GLONASS is monitored by... hand, EU officials maintained a cautious GPS 2001 Conference, energy_transport/library/ some.../ptech/11/22/ plans tentatively call for Galileo to mesh with GPS... its own internal wrangling, the U.S. GPS/military lobby maintained a less-thansubtle... service and manufacturing industry as GPS technologies encounter more acute integration... Deployment and Long-term Operations GPS to improve intelligence, surveillance, deployment... 9/11 have only expedited these efforts, triggered new ideas using GPS, and... monitoring and atmospheric science. Securing GPS Modernization Funding: Despite the The...- and the role of GPS therein, GPS modernization sing developments over the...



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... 1999. 17 20 15 17 11 10 10 5 0 1996 1997 1998... LEO 1,015 3,300 1,408 7,900 11,220 18,280 GTO (lb... 8,900 13,000 19,000 11,050 The White House Office... (lb.) 21,100 39,600 11,013 5,507 4,851 (polar) 4,000... 2000 35 50 85 Figure 11. Five-Year Summary (1996-2000... Thuraya 1 mobile communications satellite weighing 11,576 pounds at launch. The.../00 3/12/00 DSCS III 3-11 DoD * Galaxy 10R PanAmSat * DFH... 2/3/00 2/8/00 2/9/00 2/10/00 2/11/00 2/12/00 2/17/00... * * Kosmos 2370 DSP 20 Navstar GPS 2R- 4 Simsat 1 Simsat 2 ISS 2A.2a... Agency (ASI) RUBIN Germany Navstar GPS DoD 2R- 5 Salsa ESA Samba ESA...: S = success, P = partial success, F = failure. PAGE 11 2000 YEAR IN REVIEW APPENDIX.../9/00 ü Pegasus XL Kwajalein 10/11/00 Shuttle KSC Discovery 10... 44LP Soyuz Long March 3A 11/10/00 Delta 2 7925 Baikonur... Baikonur Odyssey Kourou Baikonur Xichang 11/15/00 ü Ariane 5 Kourou 10.../31/00 CCAFS 11/16/00 Soyuz Baikonur 11/21/00 Delta... 1 * Europe Star 1 ISS 2R Beidou 1A Navstar GPS 2R- 6 ProSEDS * PAS 1R AMSAT Phase 3-D STRV 1C Kourou Plesetsk KSC 11... Physics Argentina SAC C 11/21/00 ü Ariane 44L 11/21/00 ü Cosmos 11/30/00 Shuttle Endeavour...



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... to 29 payloads, a drop of 11 satellites. The Working Group attributed... crisis (the majority of the 11 payloads removed from the 1997... 222 17.1 52% HLV >9,000 5 7 11 9 12 13 13 15 15... based on the 0198266.doc 11 st per Table 1.0. assumptions of... about 29 payloads (a drop of 11 payloads). The Working Group attributed... economic crisis. A majority of the 11 payloads removed from the forecast... could weigh as much as 11,000 lb by 1998-2000... of Transportation, Washington, D.C. 0198266.doc A-11 Report of the COMSTAC Technology... 95 31.7 15 15 4 33 11.0 8 2.7 TOTAL = Arianespace HLV 1 1 1 1 1 1 Intelsat 801... ASkyB 1 5 1 Spain-Hispasat 1C 0 0 5 1.7 0 0 0 0 0.0 1 0 0 1 0.3 1 11 3.7 1 2 0.7 26 35 11.7 1 US-PAS Galaxy 10... 1 Philippine-Mabuhay 1 ILV 1 China-APStar 2R 1 China-Chinasat 8 MLV Proton 4 HLV... 1 1 1 Intelsat 901 0 1 US-PAS Galaxy 11 1 •US-Unnamed ILV TBD 0 HLV... •Celstar 1 •Celstar 2 • = No concensus 1 Chinasat 9 6/11/98 - Revision 6 Table B.2. 1998-2000...-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-28 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-01 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-02 1 US... ICO 05 US-AF-GPS 2R-03 US-AF-GPS 2R-04 US-AF...-AF-GPS 2R-05 US-AF-GPS 2R-06 US-AF-GPS 2R-07 US-AF-GPS 2R-08 US-AF-GPS 2R... 163 54.3 12 12 0 0 12 4.0 6/11/98 - Revision 6 Table B.3. 1998-2000... 1 US-NASA-Wire 4 1 1 1 1 Titan 2 1 Iridium 11 - 03 1 US-AF-EO-1/SAC... TBD 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 Taurus 1 US-AF-MLV 11 2 1 US-NASA-Deepspace 3 1 US-NASA...-NASA-MAP 1 US-NASA-Genesis 6/11/98 - Revision 6 Table B.4. 1998-2000... 2 Iridium 09 - 2 Iridium 10 - 2 Iridium 11 - 2 Russia-Baikonur Molniya MLV Tskylon... 112 97 99 308 102.7 6/11/98 - Revision 6 Report of the... 1A 1 China-Chinasat 7 1 China-APStar 2R 1 China-APStar 2 1 China-Asiasat 2 1 US...-AF GPS Navstar 01 US-AF GPS Navstar 02 US-AF GPS Navstar 03 US-AF GPS Navstar 04 US-AF GPS Navstar... Gorizont 15 Gorizont 16 Raduga 11 Russia-Cosmos/Glonass 10 Russia...-AF GPS Navstar 12 US-AF GPS Navstar 13 US-AF GPS Navstar 14 US-AF GPS Navstar 15 US-AF GPS Navstar 16 US-AF GPS Navstar...-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 01 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 02 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 03 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 04 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 05 US-AF GPS Navstar.../Science 3 0 1 NASA-Wind 1 US-AF GPS 2 Block 2 06 1 US-AF SEDS...-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-07 1 US-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-28 1 1 1 1 US-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-08 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-01 US-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-10 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-02 US...-X Ray 1 US-AF GPS-Navstar 11 US-AF GPS Navstar 06 1 US-AF LOSAT (SDI) US-AF GPS Navstar 07 US-AF GPS Navstar 08 US-AF GPS Navstar 09 US-AF GPS Navstar...-Fen Yun 2 13 1 GALS 2 1 Luch 1-1 11 Russia-Mil/Science 8 Russia-Express...-027 Atlantis US-DoD (Lacrosse) 11 11 11 1 US-STS-029 Discovery 1 US...-DoD (Jumpseat) US-DoD (DSP) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 US-STS-054 Endeavour US... US-STS-060 Discovery 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 US-STS-060 Discovery 1 US...-AF DMSP F09 1 US-NOAA 11 0 MLV Pegasus 1 0 0 1 1 US-NOAA 13... 3 HLV 2 US-AF T34D (KH-11) MLV 1 US-AF T2 (Ferrett... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Russia-Domestic 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.1 2 0 0 4 0.4 0 0 1 0.1 8 113 11.3 20 2.0 0 2 0.2 1 17 1.7 111 11.1 62 6.2 121 12.1 1 Russia... 5 Russia-MIR Supply 5 Russia-Domestic 0 11 2 Russia-MIR Manned 5 Russia-MIR... 5 Russia-MIR Supply 3 Russia-Domestic 11 3 Russia-MIR Manned 5 Russia-MIR... Russia-Domestic 5 5 Russia-Domestic 12 11 Russia-Domestic 4 4 Russia-Domestic 8 8 Russia...



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... of other navigational satellite systems GPS, Glonass, and the future Galileo... the entire planet with water 11 m deep. NASA’s Phoenix lander was... fourth stages and the JCSAT-11 payload, impacted about 50 km...) for a mid-2009 launch. JCSAT-11 and its launch were insured... low Earth orbit missions at 11 km/s, are significantly more stringent.... NASA then cancelled RpK’s COTS 11 agreement on 18 October, and... launch of two satellites, PAS-11 and Horizons-2, from Sea Launch... (OSC, USA): the 2.5-tonne Intelsat-11 (Bermuda) and the 2.35-tonne Optus D2 (Australia). Intelsat-11, covering the Americas and part... Satellites (France) on the company’s 11-kW Eurostar E3000 platform, carries... ESA’s Guiana Space Center on 11 March, along with the 4.7-tonne... Launch Services Proton-M rocket on 11 December 2006. The 4.7-tonne spacecraft... carry 24 standard C-band transponders, 11 extended C-band transponders, and 5 Ku... customers in the region. On 11 March, the Indian Space Research... their installation and use. On 11 June Telstra Corporation, an Australian... data-linked Global Positioning System (GPS) position reports from aircraft. Other... from the Global Positioning System (GPS). This feature, if implemented, would... the U.S. military to degrade civil GPS signals. The U.S. had stopped using... incorporated into the next-generation GPS-3 system. The Air Force completed... 14 September of the new GPS ground segment, which controls the..., which will apply to the U.S. GPS-3 L1C and Galileo L1F satellites... begin operations in 2012; the GPS-3 L1C spacecraft in 2013. Satamatics... Tracker, a device that uses the GPS navigation signal, relayed by Inmarsat... of other navigational satellite systems GPS, Glonass, and the future Galileo... Olympic Games in Beijing. On 11 April China launched its new... International Space Station (ISS) on 11 December 2006 following its night... 10 October aboard a Soyuz TMA-11 spacecraft, and arrived uneventfully on... Khalid, were selected from among 11,000 applicants. He returned safely... an upcoming Shuttle mission. On 11 April Bigelow Aerospace (USA) released...), announced on 28 February, is $11.3 million for “developing a fully autonomous... repairs and upgrades during an 11-day mission. That mission should... solar observations. NASA announced on 11 July that the agency’s Spitzer... 128-kg satellites, each carrying 11 instruments, 3 propellant tanks, and 8 deployable... Cosmos International (Germany), was for $11 million; it was ISRO’s first... previous GSLV missions. B. Power On 11 March a team led by General... conducted by the U.S. However, on 11 May a second attempt at rendezvous...) signed a Space Act agreement on 11 July covering development of a Kevlar... as the space elevator. On 11 April Japan’s Kobe Steel company... a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, stereo cameras, a three-dimensional... in orbit for years. On 11 January a medium-range ballistic missile...-1C debris fragment. Despite the 11 January weapons test, China is... for manned space stations. On 11 February Khrunichev invested over $190..., and especially Global Positioning System (GPS) applications. Space News’ annual “Launch...-10, and AAP-1, renamed NSS-11. Both are in a geostationary-orbit... $5.03 billion plus assumption of $11.4 billion of Intelsat’s debt. Former... intent to merge into a single $11.4-billion entity. Although they face... of $4.9 billion and a fleet of 11 satellites, with five more on... Ministry. Analex’s 1,100 employees at 11 U.S. locations provide high-technology professional... action delayed completion of Alcatel’s $11.8-billion merger with Lucent Technologies... in Washington DC, USA, on 11 December 2006. The symposium, held... the launch of its latest GPS-based vehicle security and tracking... owners. Based on the latest GPS, global information system (GIS), global... initial satellite of an augmented GPS system, the Quazi Zenith Satellite... launched in 2010, will provide GPS signals and broadcasting from a highly... 13.2 million Canadian dollars (US $11.2 million). 109 MacDonald, Dettwiler and... Defense plans to stop procuring GPS satellites that provide Pentagon with... halted the intentional degradation of GPS satellite signals in May 2000... no longer be present in GPS 3 satellites, the Pentagon said. According... strong commitment to users of GPS that this free global utility... enhance the operation of the GPS constellation. The distributed server-based..., increase efficiency and accommodate future GPS capabilities as they become available... operates the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS provides 3-D position data in longitude... delivered to orbit a replenishment Block 2R satellite for the U.S. Air Force... of the GPS 2R satellites. The launch also marked the second GPS mission aboard a Boeing Delta II in less than two months. GPS 2R-16(M) is the third of the modernized GPS satellites that... facilities. The Committee consists of 11 representatives, appointed for a term of... growth for satellite radio and GPS positioning and tracking is being... assumption by Serafina of approximately $11.4 billion of debt, is $16...



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... determination of individual spacecraft using GPS receivers; • developed simplified equations of... U.S. remote sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS), satellite communications, and launch industries..., scientific, and governmental users of GPS technology during meetings of the... to host the offices Y e a r Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB), representing the... Center. In the area of GPS data services, NOAA acquired and... 2003, NOAA continued to use GPS and remote sensing technologies to... European Community toward cooperation between GPS and Europe’s planned Galileo satellite... and the end users of GPS technology, particularly with respect to... of the U.S. Government regarding the GPS-Galileo relationship. OSC also participated... ongoing bilateral cooperation related to GPS. These talks, held in October... cooperation to ensure interoperability between GPS and Japan’s planned Quasi-Zenith... of time signals received from GPS for the most demanding military... time scale. Using the microwave GPS carrier a n d frequency as the timing source instead of the GPS time code, NIST and its... interference between UWB devices and GPS, radar, and communications systems. NIST... 2003. The spectrum allocations for GPS. 2 0 0 3 results included updating satellite regulations.... These properties include high-precision GPS reference data, complete meteorological microclimate..., 2) the NOAA Forecast Systems a n d Laboratory GPS Surface Observation System Network, 3) the..., most tied to the aircraft GPS navigation log. These images are.... Satellite data were supplemented with GPS and geographic information system (GIS... being used in conjunction with GPS data for endangered species habitat...-resolution satellite remote sensing and GPS to support BIA and tribal... Action Plans sonnel also collected GPS data on high-priority dams... reporting period. BIA used commercial GPS receivers to collect data for... addition, digital aerial photographs with GPS coordinates were collected for all... the data using high-accuracy GPS ground control. They also generated.... AML specialists and contractors used GPS receivers to map subsidence complaints... use both the DOD Navstar GPS Precise Positioning Service (PPS) and augmented differential GPS for real-time positioning in... available. Over 1,500 Precise Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) units have been... events. The demand for trained GPS technical specialists to conduct fire... the United States. In response, GPS training courses were taught in... NPS staff used approximately 400 GPS receivers for mapping and navigation... A c t i v i t i e s mation designs. Mine inspectors employed GPS to verify jurisdictional boundaries of... to expand its use of GPS for surface mine reclamation Y e a r a coal... a camera. The instrument 71 with GPS databases to provide a visual presentation... for New England wildlife species. GPS was invasive plant species at... at a scale of 1:12000, with GPS center points, then digitally scanned... area. All plots have associated GPS coordinates, and most have detailed... Lakes Science Center regularly used GPS technologies to supplement scientific research conducted in 2003. GPS receivers and aerial photographs were... in the Detroit River required GPS technology to locate sample sites... studies in Lake Erie used GPS to guide sampling procedures and simplify navigation in open water. GPS was also used during native... parks in Michigan. A mapping-grade GPS receiver was used to determine... included helicopters for aerial and GPS equipment, food caterers, and showers... of Nationwide Differential GPS (NDGPS) receivers from a USDA GPS contract. At the... the fiscal year, over 4,100 GPS receivers were being used in... represented on Federal remote sensing, GPS, and geodata coordinating committees. NRCS... would not directly overlay the U.S. GPS military code. Other issues remained... U.S. leadership in geospatial technologies, including GPS, remote sensing, and Web-based... GPS Executive Board, the GPS outreach team developed an exhibit to promote GPS... Beyond b 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 3 2 2 3 1 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 2 4 3 2 5 1 3 1 5 2 3 6 6 4 5 1 4 1 59 70 1 1 2 2 4 3 2 2 7 7 5 9 7 7 6 12 10 11 11 10 12 8 12 4 b d 1 1 154 1 1 1 b 1 2 b b 2 b 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14... known as USA 166 and GPS 2R-8. Geosynchronous 20,228.8 km 187... known as USA 168 and GPS 2R-9. Also known as Milstar 6. Carries....cfm on the Web. A c t i v i t i e s DOD GPS satellite 2 0 0 3 Jan. 29, 2003 Navstar..., and reboost its orbit. 11:19:11 Third logistics/outfitting flight to... (2) (51/2 segments) 1. LR87-AJ-11 (2) 2. LR91-AJ-11 Titan IV 0. Titan IV SRM (2) (7 segments) 1. LR87-AJ-11 (2) 2. LR91-AJ-11 Titan IV 0. Titan IV SRM (2) (7 segments) 1. LR87-AJ-11 (2) 2. LR91-AJ-11(1) 3. Centaur: RL-10A-3-3A...,920 10,903 11,591 12,044 11,795 11,771 16,081... and Land Elevation Satellite Interagency GPS Executive Board Integrated Global Observing... HST 2 0 0 3 H Y e a r GloVis GNSS GOES GP GPS GRACE GRC GSFC GSO GTE... Crop Assessment Division Precise Lightweight GPS Receiver Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory...



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... Conclusions...................................................................................................................... 67 Recommendations............................................................................................................. 69 APPENDIX A: GPS DESCRIPTION .................................................................................... 73 Space Segment ................................................................................................................. 73... ..................................................................................... 82 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. GPS Dependencies ................................................................................................. 36 ii LIST OF... on military strategy [as GPS]. Today, GPS is the glue that binds... Rip, "GPS at War: A Ten-Year Retrospective," ION GPS 2001, 11-14 September... of a fully operational constellation of GPS satellites. The current constellation replenishment.... 4 operating satellites in the GPS constellation. 11 Today, the constellation consists of... Problem Statement Faced with a frail GPS constellation, a launch infrastructure of questionable... provide outstanding performance. U.S. Strategic Command, GPS III Concept of Operations30 The... exceeding performance standards. With the GPS technology successfully proven, the system... lack of financial support for GPS. First, GPS was categorized as a support... Operations, 3-18. Colonel G.B. Green, "The GPS 21 Primary Satellite Constellation," NAVIGATION... W. Poburka, Jr., "Global Positioning System (GPS) Constellation Sustainment Assessment Team (CSAT..., and D. Latterman, "Global Positioning System (GPS) Modernization," 32nd Annual Precise Time..., "Increased Navigation Performance from GPS Block IIR," ION GPS 2002, 24-27...? Controlling Momentum on Aging GPS Satellites," ION GPS '99, 14-17 September... GPS Constellation Sustainment Assessment Team (CSAT)," (2001) memo.; GPS Joint Program Office, GPS... a global utility of GPS’ stature. Probability of Multiple GPS Failures November 2003.... 95 Allied Business Intelligence Research, "GPS World Markets: Opportunities for Equipment... areas. 100 N.W. Rhodus and P.D. Massatt, "GPS Baseline Constellation Update," (1991), 18... of GPS as a Critical Infrastructure for Civilian Transportation Applications," ION GPS 2001, 11...’s infrastructure is to designate the GPS constellation as a critical national infrastructure... the central importance of a functioning GPS constellation to homeland security, national... Foreign Intelligence 120 National Defense GPS Dependencies GPS central to network synchronization... public safety vehicles. GPS timing for telemedicine GPS timing synchronizes electric power..., hyperspectral imaging spacecraft prototype, uses GPS for accurate image geolocation and... industry’s dependence on GPS. The growin g reliance on GPS has some concerned... waterways 129 Charlotte Adams, "GPS: How Vulnerable Is GPS?," Avionics Magazine, [Internet.... 137 Richard E. Schmidt, "GPS Times the Internet," GPS World, February 2000, 44... ability to economically install inexpensive GPS receivers throughout a network has revolutionized... Sally L. Frodge, "GPS: Synchronizing Our Telecommunications Networks," ION GPS 1999, 14-17... of GPS.169 The RC-135 Rivet Joint aircraft and the U-2R Dragon Lady both use precise GPS timing to accurately... Council, 11. 53 Why Modernize? Despite the incredible utility of GPS, the..., “Defending the American Homeland,” recognized GPS’ susceptibility to jamming. It recommended... programs represent significant improvements in GPS capabilities for the joint warfighter... on a reliable and accurate GPS signal. In addition, GPS has spawned a $17... fail. 72 APPENDIX A: GPS DESCRIPTION The mission of GPS is to provide... and timing missions of GPS. Two levels of GPS service are superimposed... BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, Charlotte. "GPS: How Vulnerable Is GPS?" Avionics Magazine, 2001. Accessed... 2000. Allied Business Intelligence Research. "GPS World Markets: Opportunities for Equipment..., 10-11 September 2001. Bucholtz, Chris. "Timing from a Higher Source GPS Could.../telecom_timing_higher_source/index.htm. Butler, Amy. "GPS Spacecraft Lasting Longer Than Expected... Sally L. Frodge. "GPS: Synchronizing Our Telecommunications Networks." ION GPS 1999, 14-17....gov/pubs/gps/gpsfuture/GPSfuture.doc. GPS Joint Program Office. GPS JPO CSAT... Rip. "GPS at War: A Ten-Year Retrospective." ION GPS 2001, 11-14 September... of GPS as a Critical Infrastructure for Civilian Transportation Applications." ION GPS 2001, 11.... "Increased Navigation Performance from GPS Block IIR." ION GPS 2002, 2427 September..., and D. Latterman. "Global Positioning System (GPS) Modernization." 32nd Annual Precise Time.... Henry W., Jr. "Global Positioning System (GPS) Constellation Sustainment Assessment Team (CSAT... Logistics, 2003. Rhodus, N.W., and P.D. Massatt. "GPS Baseline Constellation Update." 1991. Rip....com/. Schmidt, Richard E. "GPS Times the Internet." GPS World, February 2000, 44...? Controlling Momentum on Aging GPS Satellites." ION GPS '99, 14-17 September...



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...: GPS AND GLONASS SYSTEMS........................................................7 2.1 GPS System ...............................................................................................................7 2.2 GLONASS System ....................................................................................................9 2.3 GPS and GLONASS Modernizations......................................................................11 2.3.1 Modernization of GPS.....................................................................................11 2.3.2 Modernization of GLONASS..........................................................................14 2.4 Comparisons between GPS and... Observation Residuals in GPS/GLONASS Processing ...................... 85 Figure 5-11 Elevation Dependence of... ⋅ Φ 2r ) /( f r21 − f r22 ) r r = ρ r + ( cdt r + b IF , avg ) + d trop r r r + ( N IF + δ b IF / Φ ) + ε Φ IF where (4.4.11... − ⋅ (λ1r N1r 2 f 2r + δbLr1) − f 22r f12r − (4.4.32) ⋅ (λr2 N2r 2 f 2r GPS/GLONASS + δbLr... f12r r ′ ⋅ N − ⋅ N2′r + ε Φ′rIF 1 2 2 2 2 f1r − f 2r f1r − f 2r (4.4.38) where cdt ′ g is the...: GPS observations: σ P2IF 1 = 0.25σ P21 + 0.25σ Φ2 1 (4.5.10) σ P2IF 2 = 0.25σ P22 + 0.25σ Φ2 2 (4.5.11... Figure 5-11 and 5-12, respectively. The elevation angles of GPS and GLONASS... (m) East (m) 0 GPS GPS/GLO 0 1 Up (m) 1 0 4:30 5:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 5:30 GPS GPS/GLO... 1 1 Up (m) GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 1 North (m) 0 0 -1 10:00 10:30 11:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) Figure 5-18 Processing Results at CONZ 11:30 12:00 94 1 East (m) East (m) 1 0 -1 -1 GPS GPS/GLO North... 9:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 9:30 10:00 GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 0 0 -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 3:30 1 Up (m) North (m) Up (m) 0 -1 8:00 3:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 -1 4:00 2:30 1 1 Up (m) GPS GPS/GLO 1 Up (m) North (m) 1 Up (m) 0 0 -1 10:00 10:30 11:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) Figure 5-19 Processing Results at RCMN 11:30 12:00 95 1 East (m) East (m) 1 0 -1 -1 GPS GPS/GLO North... (m) East (m) 0 GPS GPS/GLO North (m) 0 1 1 0 4:30 5:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 5:30 GPS GPS/GLO... 9:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 9:30 10:00 GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 0 0 -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 3:30 1 Up (m) Up (m) North (m) 1 -1 8:00 3:00 GPS... (m) GPS GPS/GLO 1 Up (m) North (m) 1 Up (m) 0 0 -1 10:00 10:30 11:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) Figure 5-20 Processing Results at UNBJ 11... GPS Only 0.300 GPS/GLONASS RMS (m) 0.250 0.200 0.150 0.100 0.050 0.000 1 6 11... 0.300 GPS Only 0.250 GPS/GLONASS 0.200 0.150 0.100 0.050 0.000 1 6 11 16... GPS Only 0.300 GPS/GLONASS RMS (m) 0.250 0.200 0.150 0.100 0.050 0.000 1 6 11.... 300 GPS/GLONASS Epochs 250 GPS Only 200 150 100 50 0 1 6 11 16... 300 GPS/GLONASS Epochs 250 GPS Only 200 150 100 50 0 1 6 11 16... 300 GPS/GLONASS Epochs 250 GPS Only 200 150 100 50 0 1 6 11 16..., collected on June 11, 2008 from the 30 GPS/GLONASS stations, are... 9:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 9:30 10:00 GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 0 0 -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 4:00 0 1 Up (m) 3:30 1 North (m) 0 -1 8:00 3:00 GPS... (m) 0 -1 0 GPS GPS/GLO 1 Up (m) North (m) Up (m) -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 0 0 -1 10:00 10:30 11:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) Figure A-1 Processing Results at ANKR 11:30 12:00 126 1 East (m) East (m) 1 0 -1 North (m) 0 0 -1 -1 1 1 0 -1 0:00 0:30 1:00 GPS... 9:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 9:30 10:00 GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 0 0 -1 GPS GPS/GLO... 3:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 -1 4:00 2:30 1 1 Up (m) GPS GPS/GLO 1 Up (m) North (m) Up (m) -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 0 0 -1 10:00 10:30 11:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) Figure A-2 Processing Results at LHAZ 11:30 12:00 127 1 East (m) East (m) 1 0 -1 -1 GPS GPS/GLO North... 3:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 -1 4:00 2:30 1 1 Up (m) GPS GPS/GLO 1 Up (m) North (m) 1 Up (m) 0 0 -1 10:00 10:30 11:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) Figure A-3 Processing Results at NTUS 11... GPS-only with GPS+GLONASS Positioning in a Regional Permanent GNSS Network. GPS Solution, 11:97-106, 2007. Cai, C. and Y. Gao (2008). Estimation of GPS... of ION GPS-2001, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, September 11-14... Optimal Filtering. GPS Solut (2007) 11:61-69. Leick, A. (2004). GPS Satellite Surveying...



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... COMPLETED ON 12 U.S. AIR FORCE GPS BLOCK I SATELLITES ...............................8 4. RESULTS FROM THE... F LAUNCH VEHICLES USED TO LAUNCH GPS BLOCK 1 SATELLITES .............................12 5. RESULTS FROM... not enough. Figure 3 $83M Boeing GPS 2R-1 Satellite Launched in 2010 and... 100% certainty. Figure 3 is the GPS 2R-1 satellite that also failed prematurely... factory acceptance testing. After the GPS 2R-1 satellite payload power-on and... the other on-orbit GPS NUDET subsystems. The GPS 2R-1 satellite successfully completed... AEHF-1 satellite and the first GPS 2R-1 satellite (see Figure 3 and Figure.... The NUDET subsystem on the GPS 2R-1 satellite was not interoperable with... Spacecraft from 1990 to 20015 6 3 1 1 1 11 11 2 3 3 Figure 7 summarizes research conducted by... matches a Gaussian distribution. Six additional GPS Block I satellites were in different... of the six on-orbit GPS satellites. Figure 9 Proprietary Cumulative Distribution... COMPLETED ON 12 U.S. AIR FORCE GPS BLOCK I TEST & EVALUATION SATELLITES [5] 16... 10 An Example of a (Unclassified) GPS-Like SGLS MEO Satellite TT... U.S. Air Force Global Positioning System (GPS) Block I on-orbit satellites between... access to 10 minutes of GPS satellite telemetry, every 6 hours. The... found. The venders of the GPS subsystem equipment with transient behavior... Space Mission s 8 The on-orbit GPS satellites, NAVSTAR 1 through NAVSTAR 6 suffered... to purchase over 100 additional GPS satellites and wanted to ensure... of GPS Block I Satellite TT&C Subsystem Design and Performance Parameters [11] Spacecraft... Orbit Period Orbit Inclination/Shape GPS Satellite 3-Axis 10,1000 miles... Prognostic Analysis Completed on the GPS NAVSTAR 1 using Rubidium Atomic Clock... frequency standards used to generate GPS timing. An NRTE was also... filter data generated from the GPS satellite atomic clocks and other... 1983 (see Figure 14), the GPS NAVSTAR 5 satellite TT&C Motorola SGLS... #1 . Figure 12 $55M Air Force GPS NAVSTAR 1 Satellite in Factory Integration... have occurred. Table 6 Summary of GPS Satellite Subsystem Equipment Premature Failures... Event (TE) on GPS NAVSTAR 1-3 Satellites [17] GPS SATELLITE ONORBIT SUBSYSTEM EQUIPMENT... on the Telemetry from the GPS NAVSTAR 5 Reaction Wheel Assembly [17... did conclude that the Motorola GPS Satellite SGLS RF transmitter would... Prognostic Analysis Completed on the GPS NAVSTAR 5 Motorola SGLS TT&C RF... prognostic analysis completed on the GPS spacecraft subsystem equipment failures in... 7 were 10 completed during the GPS program’s test and evaluation (T&E) phase... information from the six Block 1 GPS satellites in production at the... this paper. Table 7 Summary of GPS Satellite Subsystem Equipment Premature Failures... Exhibited a Transient Event (TE) on GPS NAVSTAR 4-6 Satellites Some of the... of the GPS space segment during test & evaluation (T&E). [17] GPS SATELLITE ONORBIT... changes include: Identify that the GPS satellite thermal blankets were degrading... blankets were added on future GPS satellites; A redesign of the #3 NiCd...; Using four atomic clocks per GPS satellite instead of three. Internal design changes to the GPS space-qualified rubidium and cesium...’S ATLAS E AND F USED TO LAUNCH GPS BLOCK 1 SATELLITES TO MEO N/A: Not... in 1978, ten Air Force GPS Block 1 satellites were launched using... prognostic analysis completed on the GPS program by the contractor’s spacecraft subsystem engineering team on GPS spacecraft equipment failures that occurred... author’s position, he directed the GPS Atlas launch team at Vandenberg... E & F Launch Vehicle History on the GPS Program NAVSTAR # Figure 17 Air... F Launch Vehicle used to Launch GPS NAVSTAR 1 through NAVSTAR 10 between... satellites including the 100 proposed GPS Block II satellites be launched... first Atlas F launched the first GPS satellite in February 1978. It... the launch of the first 7 GPS launches for the contractor including the GPS engineering team at Vandenberg AFB... NAVSTAR 5. SV-12 was the GPs Block 1 qualification vehicle. SV-1`2 was... military payloads. Since so many GPS satellites were to be purchased... Air Force hoped that the GPS satellite Bus would become a standard... purchased the company that produced GPS satellites had already established a long... predictive algorithms pioneered on the GPS program allowed the identification of...) identified in Table 11. Table 10 Summary of GPS and EUVE Satellite... communications satellites and the military, GPS constellation of satellites. The Iridium... a minimum of redundant equipment. The GPS satellites subsystem equipment used a minimum... on Air Force GPS Block 1 satellites. On the GPS satellites, we demonstrated... for the Iridium, GLOBALSTAR and GPS satellites were obtained differently because....eoportal.org [17] Losik, Len, “GPS Quarterly Orbital Test Report,” 1983... launch vehicles. As the Boeing GPS Space and Ground Segment Manager...-orbit operations of over 52 GPS satellites. During the test & evaluation... predictive algorithms that demodulated the GPS spacecraft equipment telemetry to identify...



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... Mission Directorate For the past 11 years, NASA has applied the... October 10, 2007, Soyuz TMA-11 launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan... with Soyuz TMA-10, TMA-11 experienced a transition to a ballistic trajectory... coverings in Antarctica. On June 11, 2008, NASA’s GLAST launched. Scientists... commercial. Early in FY08 (November 11, 2007), the final Defense Support... Force launched a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite (GPSIIRM-19) on March... sharing the advanced technologies of GPS at no cost to all... in 2008. The agency licensed 11 orbital commercial space launches, including... of the Global Positioning System (GPS) by hosting the meetings and... activities included interagency coordination of GPS-related programs and budgets, guiding...), protecting the spectrum used by GPS, and outreach and education. OSC... fully compatible and interoperable with GPS. The agreement allows JAXA to..., providing satellite observations that enhance GPS-QZSS interoperability. OSC conducted a study... use of so-called “semicodeless” GPS equipment, which A c t i v i t i e s In FY08, the... Y e a r deparTmenT of CommerCe leverages military GPS signals to enable high-precision... P r e s i d e n t supporting semicodeless access to military GPS signals through December 31, 2020... which time the modernized civil GPS signals will be fully available... the second meeting of the GPS Galileo Working Group “B” on Trade... to promote the use of GPS for precision agriculture, landscape epidemiology... users the ability to use GPS to determine elevations relative to... will ensure the accuracy of GPS data. NGS acquired nearly 23... users to determine highly accurate GPS positions, which will improve the... satellites launched to modernize the GPS constellation. Once operational, this facility will improve the accuracy of GPS-derived elevations. Accurate elevations remain... Ethiopia in building a network of GPS CORSes and making the data... established a preliminary agenda for WRC-11. One of the preliminary agenda... frequency issues through the WRC-11 forum. Satellite products continued to... over minutes (flares) to years (11-year solar cycle). These measurements... information. in remote sensing and GPS technologies. Today, a wide range of... images to satellite radar, and GPS technology to support a wide variety... applications using remote sensing and GPS do not include the enormous... Midwest Region used aerial photography, GPS, and aerial surveillance to use... 123° west orbit location. • January 11, 2008: To EchoStar for a geostationary... usage of remote sensing and GPS technologies. A c t i v i t i e s remained ongoing. NASS identified... Chile, now comprising a total of 11: 7 from the United States and... efforts in FY08 to promote GPS and its augmentation in accordance..., DC, at the first U.S.-EU GPS Plenary to explore coordination on issues of mutual interest. GPS public diplomacy efforts in Europe... International Subcommittee of the Civil GPS Service Interface Committee meeting. The... on compatibility and interoperability with GPS also took place with Russia... that would be interoperable with GPS. With India, the DOS discussed... modern space geodetic technologies, including GPS. A c t i v i t i e s With regard to space issues... Success Failure 1 8 9 12 12 12 11 8 7 12 4 15 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 0 2 2 0 4 1 0 0 3 1 4 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 4 0 4 4 7 10 3 8 3 8 8 3 1 4 1 2 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 2 0 3 0 2 1 2 2 2 0 0 4 2 2 2 1 0 0 1 1b 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1b... Statesb 2 2 4 3 2 2 7 7 5 9 7 7 6 12 10 12 11 10 12 8 11 4 3 5 5 8 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 23 5 (through September 30... military communications October 17, 2007 GPS 2R-17 2007-047A Delta 2 Navigational... Shuttle International Space Station November 11, 2007 USA 197 2007-054A... Atlas 5 Military December 20, 2007 GPS 2R-18 2007-062A Delta 2 Navigational... km 91.4 min 51.6° A e r o n a u t i c s R e p o r t o f t h e October 11, 2007 WGS F1 (USA 195... and as USA 196 Replaced GPS 2A-14 in Plane F and... Reconnaissance Office Also known as GPS 2R-M, Navstar 61, and USA 199... 1 in Plane C to replace GPS 2A-24. GPS 2A-24 moved to replace GPS 2A-20 United Arab Emirates (... 2 Navigational March 19, 2008 DirecTV 11 2008-013A Zenit 3SL Unavailable... USA 201 and as GPS 2R-19(M) Standby GPS replacement satellite Geostationary communications... Shuttle International Space Station June 11, 2008 GLAST 2008-029A Delta... (EUMETSAT) July 16, 2008 Echostar 11 2008-035A Zenit 3SL Geostationary... 30, 2008 Spacecraft Soyuz TMA-11 (Expedition 16) Launch Date October... returned Daniel M. Tani 15:18:11 Delivered the Japanese Kibo (“Hope... Shuttle Endeavour (STS-123) March 11, 2008 Dominic Gorie Gregory H. Johnson...,106 13,166 10,644 11,514 11,727 12,359 13...,949 13,719 11,716 11,618 11,570 2,833 11,249 11,482 12... 10,246 10,678 11,476 11,254 11,351 12,161 12... GloVis GMSEC GNSS GOES GPM GPS GPSIIRM-19 GPSRO GRAV-D GRC... Measurement Global Positioning System specific GPS satellite Global Positioning System Radio...