Спутник навигационных систем. GPS 2R-13. [Редактировать]

GPS-2R (Global Positioning System) или Navstar-2R (Navigation System using Timing And Ranging) – третье поколение космических аппаратов системы GPS. GPS-IIR должны по контракту от 19989 года осуществить замену второго поколения аппаратов группировки. Производителем аппаратов выступает Lockheed Martin, которая использует для производства космический аппаратов свою коммерческую платформу AS-4000. Космические аппараты имеют трех-осевую стабилизацию и работают на 1572.42 MHz, 1227.6 MHz и 2227.5 MHz. Lockheed также отвечает за запуски аппаратов и их эксплуатацию. По сравнению с предшествующими аппаратами новое поколение спутников позволяет значительно улучшить точность определения координат на Земле.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1USA 180НайтиНайти
228474НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - военно-коммерческие
3Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2032
2Платформа, AS-40001

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град53.8
2Апогей, км20550.5
3Перигей, км19826.7
4Период, минут717.9
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км26559

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2004-045A

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2004-11-06 at 05:39:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xGPS 2R-13
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2

Найдено 700 документов по запросу «GPS 2R-13». [Перейти к поиску]


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... ISS—replaced a Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna, reboosted the orbit of... years. In addi- F i s c a l exploring Mars. 13 Cassini discovered that the moon... GPS Joint Program Office launched the thirteenth replacement GPSII satellite (IIR-13) in November 2004 and the first modernized replacement GPS-II... Boeing were exercised to procure GPS-II Follow-on (IIF) satellites..., Commission continued to ensure that GPS and Galileo are compatible with... and to increase support for GPS. t h e Service, and Milstar—continued to.... Delta II successfully launched two GPS II satellites. Titan IVB (launch... a key role on the Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB) and its... to promote global interoperability between GPS and other a n d satellite navigation systems... and new spectrum allocations for GPS. 49 F i s c a l 2004 earthquake in the... km wide caldera subsided about 13 mm/yr since 1992. U.S. Fish... Wildlife Service (FWS) scientists use GPS technology and remotely sensed data.... The FWS has been using GPS and remote sensing data for... Refuge (NWR) in Minnesota used GPS units to acquire location data... the vegetation monitoring program. • Both GPS technology and satellite data were... Bird Program continues to use GPS technology and Geographic Information Systems... public lands. During FY 2005, GPS and GIS supplemented data from..., and Earth Observer-1. Use of GPS figured prominently during the research... usage of remote sensing and GPS technologies by farmers through the... the use of remote sensing, GPS, and other precision farming technologies... on project designed to use GPS beacons for Earth weather and... with three instruments that include GPS radio occultation receivers, tiny ionospheric... also complement a variety of related GPS missions, including the Challenging Minisatellite... the Global Positioning System/Meteorology (GPS/MET) missions were completely reprocessed... on the civilian use of GPS. Among the topics discussed were... be supplementary and interoperable with GPS. QZSS is also expected to... with Russia on cooperation between GPS and its Russian counterpart, Global... to promote the use of GPS and its applications. DOS provided... 88 1979 16 87 1980 13 89 1981 18 98 1982... Navastar 56 2004-045A Delta 2 GPS/Navigational satellite 20412 km 19... known as USA 180 and GPS 2R-13 NASA gamma-ray burst detector... 19,041 km 1,045 min 13.5° Mockup carrying two smaller university... Navstar 57 2005-038A Delta 2 GPS/Navigation satellite 20,328 km... known as USA 183 and GPS 2R-M1 * U.N. Committee on Space Research... Soyuz TMA 5 (Expedition 10) Oct. 13, 2004 Leroy Chiao Salizhan Sharipov... Noguchi Stephen Robinson Andrew Thomas 13:21:33 First Space Shuttle...,310 14,570 13,854 13,884 13,709 13,648 13,653 13,601 14... 10,097 11,460 13,046 13,199 13,064 13,022 12,543...,321 12,459 12,521 13,304 13,871 14,360 14...,181 15,023 14,106 13,166 10,644 11,514 11,727 12,359 13,203 12,941 14,326...,110 17,737 15,921 13,343 12,693 12,484...,232 12,213 16,700 13,502 15,845 17,136...,443 14,040 14,027 13,915 14,492 14,761...,780 16,227 12,843 13,606 13,597 14,084 14... 375 360 DOT Total Space 2 1 4 6 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 13 13 13 12 12 4,186 5,596 9,378... Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Interagency GPS Executive Board Integrated High Payoff... GISD GLAS GLONASS GNSS GOES GPS GPS/MET GRACE GRC GRB GSFC...



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... Course L119 www.PDHonline.org GPS Modernization © 2004 Jan Van Sickle... configuration are well known. 24 GPS satellites needed for 24-hour... every 12 hours sidereal time. - GPS Space Segment It is a beautiful..., there are three blocks of GPS satellites in orbit around the... L119 www.PDHonline.org The GPS satellites being launched now are... for the latest, IIR-13, from November 6. “GPS 2R-13 SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCHED. After 2 delays..., the Delta 2 launch vehicle sent GPS 2R13 (SVN61-PRN02) to space... clear skies. Topped with the GPS 2R-12 spacecraft, the three-stage... craft, it will join the GPS constellation and replace an ailing satellite. The GPS network features 24 primary satellites... bombs. Controllers will maneuver the GPS 2R-12 satellite into the Plane... is currently held by the GPS 2A-16 satellite, which was.... Air Force program officials say GPS 2A-16 ‘is aging and clock performance is degrading.’ GPS 2A-16 is expected to... carrier since the beginning of GPS of course, but now there... of the agenda in for GPS modernization is related to the GPS signal itself. It includes plans ... two carrier frequencies assigned to GPS, L1 at 1575.42 MHZ... from the very beginning of GPS surveyors have been deriving positions... accuracy available to us using GPS. In fact, the first civilian... right now the signal from GPS satellites has about the same... rate. As shown in Figure 1.4 GPS codes are based on, the... introduced on the fourth generation GPS satellites, Block IIF. But we... for the delay in implementing GPS III, the effort to take a new look at the entire GPS architecture to ensure the best... to cut the funds for GPS III about a year ago. We... grow substantially. The interoperability of GPS with other systems holds great... kilometers (621 miles) lower than GPS and could pose a collision problem... operational and GLONASS may revive. GPS and GALILEO Figure 1.7 The EU... on the US military controlled GPS. In February of 2004 Aviation... arrangements between the Galileo and GPS system designs. One of the... (1,240 or 1,860 miles) above GPS, could pose a problem under current... to interoperability between Galileo and GPS are falling away. If the... and E5A frequencies and the GPS L1 and L5 frequencies. Therefore... may require a broadcast correction. Page 13 of 14 www.PDHcenter.com...



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...” Example Screen Fig jpg ok 13 Model Candidates - “LLEGO” • The Launch... Engine NREC $ 810 Unknown GEO GPS, 55 deg GEO Polar LEO LEO 41 deg GPS, 55 deg GEO LEO, 58 deg Polar LEO GEO LEO GPS, 55 deg GEO LEO, 123...



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... CZ DMSP GCOM GMI GPM GPS IONDS IUS MWRI NOSS SMAP...) ........................................... 11 4.2 Получены измерения по КА GPS-2-2 (1989-044A, 20061) ............................................... 16 4.3 Измерен... КА типа GPS-2 ............................................................................16 Рисунок 13. Форма паттерна кривой блеска КА GPS-2-2 в проводке... вид КА GPS-2 и GPS-2A....................................................................17 Рисунок 16. Общий вид КА GPS-2R и GPS-2RM ..............................................................17 Рисунок 17. Общий вид КА GPS-2F.... Форма паттерна кривой блеска КА GPS-2A-5 в проводке 19 декабря 2015.... Форма паттерна кривой блеска КА GPS-2A-8 в проводке 21 ноября 2014....2016) .....................................................................................................13 Таблица 4. Информация из БД ММТ по КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38... 1.09.2016).............................................................................................................................16 Таблица 5. КА GPS различных типов, находящиеся на орбитах... из БД ММТ по КА GPS различных типов (на 1.09.2016...) 15 4.2 Получены измерения по КА GPS-2-2 (1989-044A, 20061) В августе 2016... нефункционирующему американскому КА навигационного обеспечения GPS-2-2 (USA-38, 1989-044A, 20061... измерений системы ММТ по КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38) произведена на основе... из БД ММТ по КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38) (по состоянию на... 10 июня 1989 года КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38, рис 12) работал... глобальной спутниковой навигационной системы (СНС) GPS / Navstar около 15 лет. Вывод... состоянию на 1.09.2016, КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38) находился на околокруговой... 12. Общий вид КА типа GPS-2 Содержащиеся в БД ММТ фотометрические измерения по КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38) были получены после.... На рис. 13 показана форма паттерна кривой блеска КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38... года. 16 Рисунок 13. Форма паттерна кривой блеска КА GPS-2-2 в проводке 28... года Запуски спутников американской СНС GPS / Navstar осуществляются с февраля 1978 года. В 1978-1985 гг. запускались КА GPS 1-го поколения (рис. 5). Начиная с 1989... GPS 2-го поколения, представленные пятью различными модификациями: КА GPS-2, КА GPS-2A, КА GPS-2R, GPS-2RM и КА GPS-2F (рис. 14…17). В состав полезной нагрузки КА GPS... вид КА GPS-2 и GPS-2A Рисунок 16. Общий вид КА GPS-2R и GPS-2RM Рисунок 17. Общий вид КА GPS-2F По..., на орбитах находятся 70 КА GPS двух поколений (табл. 5). Из них... КА активные (работающие в составе СНС GPS / Navstar), 32 КА нефункционирующие и 7 КА... статуса (выведены из состава СНС GPS / Navstar, но возможно находятся в орбитальном... дополнительную задачу). 17 Таблица 5. КА GPS различных типов, находящиеся на орбитах... КА статуса GPS-1 10 0 10 0 GPS-2 9 0 9 0 GPS-2A 19 0 13 6 GPS-2R 12 12 0 0 GPS-2RM 8 7 0 1 GPS-2F... семнадцати КА GPS четырех типов: КА GPS-2, КА GPS-2A, КА GPS-2R и КА GPS-2F (табл. 6). Таблица 6. Информация из БД ММТ по КА GPS... GPS-2-2 1989-044A / N 28.08.2016 1 2.7 ± 0.9 период 2.83 с (USA-38, SVN 13) 20061 GPS-2A-1 1990-103A / ? 01.06... (USA-66, SVN 23) 20959 GPS-2A-5 1992-039A / N 19.12... с (USA-83, SVN 26) 22014 GPS-2A-7 1992-079A / ? 22.11... (USA-85, SVN 32) 22231 GPS-2A-8 1992-089A / N 21.11... с (USA-87, SVN 29) 22275 GPS-2R-2 1997-035A / + 04.11.2015... (USA-132, SVN 43) 24876 GPS-2R-3 1999-055A / + 24.07.2014... (USA-145, SVN 46) 25933 GPS-2R-12 2004-023A / + 03.12... (USA-178, SVN 60) 28361 GPS-2R-13 2004-045A / + 22.02.2015... (USA-180, SVN 61) 28474 GPS-2F-1 2010-022A / + 16.03... (USA-213, SVN 62) 36585 GPS-2F-3 2012-053A / + 18.12... (USA-239, SVN 65) 38833 GPS-2F-5 2014-008A / + 15.01... (USA-248, SVN 64) 39533 GPS-2F-6 2014-026A / + 10.02... (USA-251, SVN 67) 39741 GPS-2F-7 2014-045A / + 12.11... (USA-256, SVN 68) 40105 GPS-2F-8 2014-068A / + 22.09...-258, SVN 69) 40294 GPS-2F-9 2015-013A / + 13.02.2016 2 3.9 ± 0.4 не выявлена (USA-260, SVN 71) 40534 GPS-2F... КА»: «+» - КА, работающий в составе СНС GPS / Navstar, «N» - КА, выведенный из состава СНС GPS / Navstar, «?» - КА неясного статуса (выведены из состава СНС GPS / Navstar, но возможно находятся в орбитальном...). 18 Помимо рассмотренного выше КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38), периодическое изменение блеска... у нефункционирующих КА GPS-2A-5 (USA-83, 1992-039A, 22014) и GPS-2A-8 (USA... кривых блеска КА GPS-2A-5 (USA-83) и КА GPS-2A-8 (USA-87.... Форма паттерна кривой блеска КА GPS-2A-5 в проводке 19 декабря 2015.... Форма паттерна кривой блеска КА GPS-2A-8 в проводке 21 ноября 2014....4 13.8 70.0 244.8 13.8 70.0 255.5 13.8 70.0 236.8 13.7 70.0 215.4 13.7 70.0 228.2 13....3 21.9 2.7 9.2 35.9 17.0 11.9 12.0 7.7 8.4 13.6 13.3 6.8 30.4 16.5 33.0 29.1 15....4 35.7 8.0 89.7 297.6 13.1 90.0 39.1 13.1 90.1 39.1 13.0 90.3 290.9 14... нефункционирующему американскому КА навигационного обеспечения GPS-2-2 (USA-38, 1989-044A, 20061...



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... conditions Корсунь А. О., Курбасова Г. С. Реалізація GPS-часу і ГЛОНАСС-часу: порівняння...ів 34 Korsun’A. A., Kurbasova G. S. Realization of GPS time and GLONASS time: a comparison... 2009 to 2012 Ищенко М. В. Репроцессинг GPS-наблюдений на перманентных станциях региональной... l +1 ⋅ R l ⋅ a lT+1 yl +1 = ⎧ 0, ⎪ 2 βl +1 = ⎨ δ r + δ 2s , ⎪1 − y l +1 ⎩ yl +1 ≤ δ 2r + δ 2s , yl +1 > δ 2r + δ 2s . QIP 1 = Q IP 1 E , 1 E = e0... є важливим параметром у комбінованій обробці GPS/ГЛОНАСС-вимірювань. Високоточна система...ість визначення місця розташування. Супутники GPS і ГЛОНАСС широко використовуються, зокрема BIPM... (UTC) на стандартну GPS-епоху: 1980 січень 6.0. Шкала GPS-часу відтворює безперервний...ієвих годинників на супутниках GPS. Спочатку шкалу GPS-час синхронізували зі шкалою...ії отримують добові значення С0 з урахуванням у GPS-спостереженнях високих супутників поправок елемент... нс. Система ГЛОНАСС, аналогічна GPS, розроблялася в колишньому СРСР, зараз підпорядкована... подібні до GPS-орбіт. На відміну від GPS супутники ГЛОНАСС мають... одночасно реєструвати сигнали як від GPS-, так і від ГЛОНАСС-супутників, і обидві системи... (ГНСС), до якої належать системи GPS і ГЛОНАСС, насамперед покликана забезпечити глобальну...ійшла до редакції 13.02.14 А. А. Корсунь, Г. С. Курбасова РЕАЛИЗАЦИЯ GPS-ВРЕМЕНИ И ГЛОНАССВРЕМЕНИ... является важным параметром в комбинированной обработке GPS/ ГЛОНАСС-измерений. Высокоточная система оценки... сантиметровую точность определения местоположения. Спутники GPS и ГЛОНАСС широко используются, в частности BIPM... гг. A. A. Korsun’, G. S. Kurbasova REALIZATION OF GPS TIME AND GLONASS TIME: A COMPARISON...—1399 Приведены результаты обработки архивных GPS-наблюдений (репроцессинга), выполненной в Центре анализа... данных и программном обеспечении. ВВЕДЕНИЕ Начиная с GPS-недели 1400 (5 ноября 2006 г.), IGS... была направлена на улучшение орбит GPS-спутников [13]. Наличие точных эфемерид в системе... позволило организовать репроцессинг архивных данных GPS-наблюдений в Центре анализа ГАО НАН... зенитной тропосферной рефракции для восточноевропейских GPS-станций. Решение данной проблемы позволит... Украины выполнен репроцессинг наблюдений GPS-спутников для GPS-недель 935–1399 (с 7 декабря... которых — на территории Украины. Список GPS-станций приведен в табл. 1, а их географическое... решения использовался программный комплекс «Bernese GPS Software ver. 5.0» [3], разработанный в Астрономическом институте... Processing Engine», который входит в «Bernese GPS Software ver. 5.0», стало возможным выполнять... точностью, параметры орбит Рис. 1. Расположение GPS-станций спутников, поправки к часам спутников... использованы 30-секундные файлы наблюдений GPS-спутников в формате RINEX. Данные наблюдений... МА1. Использовались комбинированные точные эфемериды GPS-спутников и параметры вращения Земли, которые.... При использовании поправок к показателям часов GPS-спутников использовались оценки разностей кодовых...- Таблица 1. Список перманентных GPS-станций за период наблюдений GPS-недель 935—1399... наука і технологія. 2014. Т. 20. № 3 Репроцессинг GPS-наблюдений на перманентных станциях региональной... несколько этаТаблица 2. Априорные координаты и скорости GPS-станций (система координат IGS05, эпоха... значений зенитной тропосферной рефракции для GPS-станций. На этапе предварительной обработки... PRETAB выполнялось преобразование точных эфемерид GPS-спутников с земной системы координат в небесную... орбит создавались с помощью интегрирования движения GPS-спутников. С помощью программы RNXGRA с RINEXфайлов... о количестве и качестве наблюдений для каждой GPS-станции. В соответствии с установленными параметрами станции... получения новых значений скоростей движения GPS-станций снова выполнялась программа CRGMERGE... наука і технологія. 2014. Т. 20. № 3 Репроцессинг GPS-наблюдений на перманентных станциях региональной... В результате выполненной обработки архивных наблюдений GPS-наблюдений в Центре анализа ГНСС-данных... и значения зенитной тропосферной рефракции GPS-станций для GPS-недель 935—1399. В качестве... наука і технологія. 2014. Т. 20. № 3 Репроцессинг GPS-наблюдений на перманентных станциях региональной... CNIV DNMU SHAZ GPS-неделя 1090 GPS-неделя 1206 GPS-неделя 1399 X, м Y, м Z, м X, м Y, м Z, м X, м Y, м Z, м 3512889.... 3. Dach R., Hugentobler U., Fridez P., Meindl M. Bernese GPS Software version 5.0. — Berne: Astronomical Institute... Ionospharenmodellierung beim Rapid Static Positioning GPS // Diplomarbeit, Astronomisches Institut, Universitat Bern...— 271. 13. Steigenberg P., Rothacher M., Fritsche M., Rulke A., Dietrich R. Quality of reprocessed GPS satellite... 47 М. В. Ищенко М. В. Іщенко M. V. Ishchenko РЕПРОЦЕСИНГ GPS-СПОСТЕРЕЖЕНЬ НА ПЕРМАНЕНТНИХ СТАНЦІЯХ... 4 листопада 2006 р. (464 GPS-тижні) для 31 GPS-станцій, розташованих на територ... 4 November 2006 (464 GPS weeks) for 31 GPS stations located in the... спектрорадиометра. Все спектрорадиометры имеют в комплекте GPS-приемник. Портативный прибор «FieldSpec-HandHeld... электроники с бортовым компьютером, с терминалом оператора и GPS. Он составляет карты спектральных индексов...



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.... & Associates, 2002. 23 ASPRS Forecast. GPS GEO-REFERENCED INFORMATION GIS & Visualization... a business perspective, the increased accuracy • GPS-enabled timing devices, used to... U.S. State Intelligence released a report entitled “GPS World by U.S. suppliers (see particular... satellite navigation systems (GPS, an increasing role for GPS in what they... the post 9/11 market realities. GPS Markets” (© 2002). Department indicates a weakening... important emerging GPS initiatives is marketplace: in 1998, the GPS receiver market.... 7 “Terrorism Attacks Accelerate Interest in GPS Applications”, ibid. August 10, 1990... also well “positioned” to bring GPS-enabled techno- and communications industries... CHARACTERISTICS MARKET CHARACTERISTICS FIGURE C FIGURE D GPS MARKET TRENDS: 1996-2002 GLOBAL...”, 17 see “GPS and Aviation Safety” in GPS North American GPS Market Share... < 1% Land 72% Timing 6% Space Transportation 8% GPS 9% Aviation 7% Military 8% Marine 7% Source: U.S. Dept... motorists have trouble • Miniaturization of GPS technologies getting lost. So they... terrestrial or satellite transmitters) board GPS-based autolanding system17. SATELLITE NAVIGATION... spur growth development • Demand for GPS technologies to address aviation particularly... expansion ensures availability and accuracy • GPS-enabled navigation initiatives spur product... recreational marine markets that use GPS technologies • Hydrographic survey/mapping in... our • Falling prices Restraints: • Gradual GPS data integration into avionic support... a • Low adoption rates for new GPS technologies stopwatch20.” The testimonial was.... tion of time. GPS-enabled navigational initiatives GPS General Aviation market grew... of state-of-the-art GPS receivers. GPS World, July 2002, The... military Precise Positioning Service Vol. 13, No. 7. (PPS) receivers has improved... 23 A comprehensive Current and future GPS-related applications 23 • Synchronization/orientation of communication/ GPS satellites continuously communicate position Drivers... increasingly require precise overview of GPS include : relative navigation networks (EPLRS.... Positions military products and • Assisted-GPS for tactical indoor applications, JTIDS... Observatory’s Master • Escalating reliance on GPS-enabled technologies Clock which is... • Increased rate of integration of GPS into battlefield managemenflt systems Block... glide- signals from a formation of GPS satellites (ideally Restraints: the precise... options for timing: GPS-aided timing operating GPS data not always the... of the Transportation Infrastructure. Canadian GPS community. Global Space Sector Market..., U.S. Congress approves US$173 M for GPS satellite PriceWaterhouseCooper release business case... Communication & Surveillance Systems) to supply GPS CSI Wireless unveils Asset-Link...- services for the U.S. Nationwide Differential GPS, Shenzhen Shenyuan Trading Company for...$1.3 M. (UWB) yet protects GPS signals from intentional GPS 2F Modernization program. version....redherring and specialized GPS. radio companies, and the GPS community, reiterate CSI... to Mobile Knowledge. the entire GPS infrastructure. cranes manipulating shipping containers... disruption, U.S. Depar- new, cost-effective GPS technology to monitor the generation... planning, execution, and analysis of GPS surveys. other. Standard mechanisms currently..., the operational GPS constellation consists of 28 Block 2/2A/2R satellites. Replenish... OPPORTUNITIES MARKET TRENDS AND OPPORTUNITIES GPS Modernization be upgraded by 2006... the GPS-2R satellites may reach modernization, World, September 2001; of the GPS... funding from the GPS-3 budget to cover non-GPS to bring the... building the satellites, modifying the GPS resistance31. Ground controllers will also... dubbed 2R/M for Modernized. Under power surges ten fold. Under GPS-3, the... fold. SATELLITE NAVIGATION GPS-3, see FIGURE F FIGURE E GPS Modernization Opportunities for Canada... OPPORTUNITIES FIGURE E FIGURE F EVOLUTION OF GPS GPS DEPLOYMENT: 2002-2015+ 32 Further... phase Boeing and LM GPS-2RM Launch GPS-2F Launch L2 L2... GPS 2015 and GLONASS network specifications. GPS-3 Planned launch GPS-3 Contract to begin GPS... three orbital planes Block 1 and 2 GPS satellites became fully operational. Conceived..., resulting in a replenishing of GPS funding rcial GPS equipment manufacturers are in.../backup to the GPS system yet continually Block 2R and 2F modernization... inclination 64.8° 55° Spacecraft”, GPS World, augmenting GPS. GLONASS is monitored by... hand, EU officials maintained a cautious GPS 2001 Conference, energy_transport/library/ some... its own internal wrangling, the U.S. GPS/military lobby maintained a less-thansubtle... service and manufacturing industry as GPS technologies encounter more acute integration... Deployment and Long-term Operations GPS to improve intelligence, surveillance, deployment... utilities). Ongoing Turbulence: FAA’s dual GPS-based navigational systems: WAAS and... monitoring and atmospheric science. Securing GPS Modernization Funding: Despite the The...- and the role of GPS therein, GPS modernization sing developments over the...



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... (Küresel Uydu Seyir Sistemi) ..................................................................................................... 14 2.3.1.1 GPS-Global Positioning System (Küresel Konumland... System................................................ 25 2.3.1.6 GAGAN- GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GPS Destekli Yer Takviyeli... GNSS : Global Navigation Satellite System GPS : Global Positioning System IALA : International... ve kâğıt harita gösterimi .................................................................. 11 Şekil 2.9: GPS uyduları, yer istasyonu ve al...ı ve kaplama alanı ......................................................... 25 Şekil 2.13: Quasi-Zenith uyduları ve yap... percepted by the user.  Recently GPS has vital important for the... benzer fonksiyonlara sahip olabilirler. ECS 13 kullanımı hiçbir şartta kâğıt harita.... GNSS-1 mevcut sistemlere (GPS, GLONASS) verilen isimdir. GPS Yer Tabanlı Takviye Sistemleri... düzeltmelerle kullanıldığında Diferansiyel GPS (Differential GPS-DGPS) olarak bilinir. GNSS... Uydu Sistemi (IRNSS) vb.) içerecektir. GPS’in geliştirilmesi 1973 yılında... “Uzay Yarışı” Sovyet sistemi GLONASS’ın GPS’e paralel olarak gelişmesi ile... az uydunun yerleştirilmesi nedeniyle GPS’e nazaran 1980 ve 1990’larda...ıştır. Kullanım kolaylığı ve doğruluğu GPS’i dünya çapında her türden... Avrupa Birliği ülkeleri konsept olarak GPS’e benzeyen fakat öncelikle sivil kullan... değildir. Sabit aralık* (s) 1 1 1 1 1 Mevcut GPS ve GLONASS Sistemleri gibi birinci... bir hedef haline gelmiştir. 2.3.1.1 GPS-Global Positioning System (Küresel Konumlandırma Sistemi) GPS’in tarihsel gelişimine bak... NAVSTAR Küresel Konumlandırma Sistemi (GPS-Global Positioning System) adını alm... 1 uyduları olarak bilinmekte olup, ilk GPS uydu sinyali 1977 yılında al... düşürülmesi olayından sonra ABD GPS’i sivil kullanıma da açmıştır. Ancak...ştir. Haziran 1989’da Blok 2R uyduları General Electric’e (daha sonra... da gruptaki diğer Blok 2R uydularıyla karşılıklı ba... sistemini hemen kabul etmemiştir. GPS’in askerî kullanımı, 1990 yılında...ım ihtilaf süresince kapatılmıştır. 19 GPS 8 Aralık 1993’te, 6 yörüngesel düzlemde... almış olup, söz konusu politika ile; a. GPS’in ve ABD tarafından... güvenlik için ABD ve müttefiklerinin GPS’e erişimini korumak ve has... 2 roketi ile birinci Lockheed Martin GPS 2R-M uydusu yörüngeye atılmıştır. Modernize... ikinci sivil sinyale sahip olup, GPS’i sadece müdahaleye karşı güçlü kılmamış, ayn... olduğunda ulaşılacaktır. 8 Blok 2R-M 2006 ve 2009 yılları aras... Blok 2A ve 12 Blok 2R uyduyla beraber grup, 31 uyduya... atılmıştır. GPS 2F-1 61’inci GPS uydusu olup, GPS 2F-2 16 Temmuz... atılmıştır. 20 Bununla beraber GPS 3A olarak bilinen gelecek nesil GPS bakım programı 2006 yılında Lockheed Martin’e ihale edilmiştir. Planlı 8 GPS 3A uydularından ilkinin 2014 yılında atılması planlanmaktadır.[9] Şekil 2.9 : GPS uyduları, yer istasyonu ve al... noktası gibi kullanılmaktadır. Herbir GPS uydusu hassas konum ve zaman...ır. Sistemin uzun vadeli hedefi ise GPS ve GLONASS gibi küresel bir... 3 uydulu olması planlanmaktadır. 25 Şekil 2.13: Quasi-Zenith uyduları ve yap...ı verilmiştir. 2.3.1.6 GAGAN- GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GPS Destekli Yer Takviyeli...şten kaynaklı çevresel etkilerin de GPS alıcılarını etkilediği bilinmektedir. 26...çli müdahalenin bir yolu zayıf GPS sinyalini karıştırma iken, di... Bilgiler; Cayro Pusuladan gelen pruva, GPS’ten gelen konum, yere göre... Başkanı 2 10 VTS Operatörü 3 13 Kıyıdaki Diğerleri 4 19 Toplam...’i mevcut Küresel Konumlandırma Sistemi (GPS)’nin yedeği olarak farklı bir...ı sisteme olan güveni artıracaktır. (5) GPS halihazırda gemiler için hayati... RADAR tercih edilmekte ve konum GPS’ten teyit edilmektedir. 3.3.4.2 Gemi trafik... kullanıcı tarafından seçilebilmelidir. (8) GPS halihazırda gemiler için hayati....2013. Url-2 , alındığı tarih: 13.03.2013. Url-3 , alınd... Navigation Satellite System-GNSS) GPS’tir. GNSS (GPS)’in yedeği olarak hangi...



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....1 52% HLV >9,000 5 7 11 9 12 13 13 15 15 17 18 20 20 175 13.5 41% Total Market 33 29... 1 Philippine-Mabuhay 1 ILV 1 China-APStar 2R 1 China-Chinasat 8 MLV Proton 4 HLV...-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-28 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-01 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-02 1 US... ICO 05 US-AF-GPS 2R-03 US-AF-GPS 2R-04 US-AF...-AF-GPS 2R-05 US-AF-GPS 2R-06 US-AF-GPS 2R-07 US-AF-GPS 2R-08 US-AF-GPS 2R... 1 US-AF-Call UP MLV-13 1 US-AF-DSCS 3-08 8 3 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Japan... 21 1 US-AF T4 Milstar 4 2 0 0 2 0.7 1 0 1 2 0.7 5 13 4.3 5 1.7 8 2.7 8 2.7 3 1.0 US-NRO T4 US-NRO...-Terrier 1 1 1 1 1 Iridium 12 - 03 Iridium 13 - 03 US-NASA-GP B US... 15 100 10.0 25 2.5 18 1.8 0 0 0.0 2 13 1.3 6 0.6 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995... 1A 1 China-Chinasat 7 1 China-APStar 2R 1 China-APStar 2 1 China-Asiasat 2 1 US... 25.2 3 3 2 4 2 2 0 4 5 1 26 2.6 20 2.0 44 4.4 13 1.3 10 1.0 139 13.9 1 ESA-Meteosat 3 1 France-TDF...-AF GPS Navstar 01 US-AF GPS Navstar 02 US-AF GPS Navstar 03 US-AF GPS Navstar 04 US-AF GPS Navstar... US-AF GPS Navstar 12 US-AF GPS Navstar 13 US-AF GPS Navstar 14 US-AF GPS Navstar 15 US-AF GPS Navstar 16 US-AF GPS Navstar...-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 01 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 02 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 03 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 04 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 05 US-AF GPS Navstar.../Science 3 0 1 NASA-Wind 1 US-AF GPS 2 Block 2 06 1 US-AF SEDS...-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-07 1 US-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-28 1 1 1 1 US-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-08 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-01 US-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-10 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-02 US...-X Ray 1 US-AF GPS-Navstar 11 US-AF GPS Navstar 06 1 US-AF LOSAT (SDI) US-AF GPS Navstar 07 US-AF GPS Navstar 08 US-AF GPS Navstar 09 US-AF GPS Navstar...-DFH 302 1 China-Fen Yun 2 13 1 GALS 2 1 Luch 1-1 11 Russia-Mil... (Magnum) US-STS-035 Columbia 13 1 US-NASA GRO 1 US-US... 4 (NOSS) US-AF Titan 4 (DSP 13) 3 US-AF Titan 4 (NOSS) US... 11 0 MLV Pegasus 1 0 0 1 1 US-NOAA 13 0 0 0 0 2 0 5 Domestic 1 San Marcos 0 2 2 Domestic 0 7 0 1 US...-Orbcomm 01-2 US-Orbcomm 02-2 1 0 0 0 13 1.3 2 0 0 0 2 0.2 3 19 1.9 1 Domestic 0 Small Titan 2 1 US...-MIR Manned 6 Russia-MIR Supply 13 Russia-Domestic Tskylon 3 MLV 3 Russia... 1 Russia-Cosmos 1980 Vostok 2 Zenit 2 13 1 Russia-MIR Manned 4 Russia-MIR...-Domestic 12 12 Russia-Domestic 13 13 Russia-Domestic 0 0 0 15 Russia-Domestic... (All Launch Sites) 0198266.doc C-13



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... MISSIONS……………………………………………………… 17 Early NAVSTAR II GPS Missions……………………………………………….……. 17 Completing the Initial... II Constellation…………………………….……. 20 The NAVSTAR GPS IIR-1 Mission, 17 January 1997………………………………. 24 Later NAVSTAR GPS IIR Missions………………………………………………….. 27 U.S. Military Technology...), the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS), and various ground surveillance, satellite... the NAVSTAR Global Positioning Satellite (GPS II-1) mission. It was launched..., satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS). The technology necessary to field the GPS was confirmed, and a total of... successful. Following up on the GPS‟ initial success, the Air Force... a constellation of 24 Block II GPS satellites via the Space Shuttle....13 Following the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in January 1986, the GPS... the first eight Block II GPS satellites from the Shuttle program... as a launch vehicle for later GPS missions, but its prospects dwindled... increased pressure to replenish the GPS constellation to meet user needs... for the upcoming NAVSTAR II GPS mission. Following final prelaunch tests... in 1990 to lift heavier GPS Block IIA satellites, two important... the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) missions that placed spacecraft in... Typically, the DELTA IIs carrying GPS payloads lifted off the launch... the launch vehicle. For GPS II and early GPS IIR (Replenishment) satellite... for about 90 seconds. For GPS IIR Modernized payloads, the vehicle...-sponsored DELTA II mission – NAVSTAR GPS IIR-21 – is expected to... – 48 – featured Global Positioning System (GPS) payloads. Three military DELTA II... flights were successful. Only one GPS IIR satellite mission failed, just... the various missions. The first GPS mission was summarized in Chapter... NAVSTAR II GPS Missions Following the first NAVSTAR II GPS launch on... were used for the GPS II-1 through GPS II-9 orbital missions. Later... original plan of a 24-satellite GPS constellation. On 27 February 1989... Command to establish and maintain a GPS constellation of 21 primary satellites... be needed to give the GPS constellation its first worldwide twodimensional... 1991.13 In point of fact, five more NAVSTAR II GPS spacecraft... finally removed from the operational GPS constellation in August 1989. 12... Operations, 1971 – 1992,” p 172. 13 The GPS constellation consisted of six Block... II-10 in operation, the GPS network provided two-dimensional coordinates... 1994, McDonnell Douglas launched seven GPS missions (NAVSTAR II-18 through... more Block IIA missions (GPS II-25 through GPS II-28) were... two satellites in the new GPS IIR spacecraft series were launched... become part of the existing GPS navigational satellite network. The first... successful launch.39 The NAVSTAR GPS IIR-1 Mission, 17 January 1997... satellites were fully compatible with GPS satellites already on-orbit. In... spacecraft to replenish the aging GPS constellation between 1997 and 2006... 001A, DELTA Launch Vehicle with GPS 2R Exploded In Flight,” 172215Z Jan... 1999. As events unfolded, the GPS IIR-3 satellite remained in the... the rain shield protecting the GPS IIR-3 spacecraft. The rain shield... the spacecraft, and the original GPS IIR-3 satellite (SV-10) had... and engineers separated the original GPS IIR-3 spacecraft from the launch... their wheels for stability. The GPS IIR-3 spacecraft was stored in.... Technicians and engineers mated the GPS IIR-3 spacecraft to the vehicle... eventually as intended – to place a GPS spacecraft on-orbit. 54 45... those missions, beginning with the GPS IIR-7 launch on 30 January... for the “non-ADS modified GPS IIR-8 mission” which was scheduled... SMC Commander approved resumption of GPS IIR-8 processing a few days later... early November 2002 for the GPS IIR-8 launch, but other hardware... conducted the simulation flight for GPS IIR-8 on 19 October 2002..., and the GPS satellite was placed in storage. The GPS IIR-8 Star... January 2003 for the GPS IIR-8 mission. The GPS IIR-8 Star 48... 29 January 2003.68 The GPS IIR-8 mission was successful. Despite... to the constellation to enhance GPS capabilities.70 The seventh in the series – GPS IIR-20 (M) – was launched successfully... Martin and ITT built 21 GPS IIR spacecraft, they subsequently modified... Mar 2009; “Wing launches 20th GPS satellite,” 45th Space Wing Missileer, 27 Mar 2009; “Seventh Modernized GPS Satellite Built by Lockheed Martin...; Lockheed Martin, “Global Positioning System (GPS) – from Improved Accuracy to Knowing...; 2) the DELTA II carrying the GPS IIR-1 spacecraft explodes seconds after... way for the DELTA II GPS IIR-13 mission slated to launch... launched within weeks of the GPS IIR-21 mission. 7 Discussion, M. Cleary... 15 8 21 24 13 13 7 31 11 17 9 23 13 18 11 18... Pad 17A NAVSTAR GPS II-1 – 1ST GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) SATELLITE LAUNCH... DELTA II Pad 17A NAVSTAR GPS II-7 13 April 1990 DELTA II... NAVSTAR GPS II-19 13 May 1993 DELTA II Pad 17A NAVSTAR GPS... DELTA II Pad 17B NAVSTAR GPS IIR-13 20 November 2004 DELTA... 17A NAVSTAR GPS IIR-20 (M) 90 DELTA II NAVSTAR GPS MISSION PATCHES...



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... 6.2.2 Gemini Native Commands .................................................................... 66 6.3 Connecting a GPS Receiver .......................................................................... 66 6.4 Using Planetarium Programs... 7.1.12 Autoguider Calibration Problems.......................................................... 71 7.1.13 Gemini Displays “Autoguider Error”.................................................... 72... can be automatically set by a GPS receiver in the Geographic Location.../Time and Time Zone via a GPS receiver connected to Gemini’s serial... time and location data from a GPS attached to the serial port. If you have a GPS that supports the NMEA0183 protocol...’ s serial port. Gemini looks for a GPS every time it starts up... read the GPS data, Gemini briefly displays a GPS status message. If a GPS is... the welcome message and the GPS status message, you will normally... and time. If you had a GPS connected during poweron, Gemini read... the next two steps. The GPS receiver can also be read... item “ Setup→Geogr. Location→Query GPS Rec.” To set your geographic... observation, or were provided by a GPS receiver that was connected to... that it has been selected. 5.3.2.13 LDN (Lynd’s Dark Nebulae Catalog... the time provided by all GPS receivers, and is the time...% Brightness 27% Brightness 20% Brightness 13% Brightness 6.6% Brightness This menu item.... Location • • • • Longitude Latitude Timezone Query GPS Rec. Starting with Level 3 version... the RA+ button. 5.3.10.9.4 Query GPS Receiver Use this menu to... UTC Date/Time by querying a GPS receiver connected to the serial... to connect devices such as GPS receivers, computers, and handheld devices... used. 6.1.2 Settings Except when querying GPS units, Gemini’ s serial port is... as hexadecimal characters instead. 6.3 Connecting a GPS Receiver The serial ports of many GPS receiver units have a special, non-standardized design. To connect these GPS units to a computer, you will... to obtain a cable from your GPS manufacturer for that purpose. On.... Once you have connected your GPS receiver to Gemini, you should configure your GPS to output either Garmin Textout..., which is supported by all GPS receivers. 6.4 Using Planetarium Programs You... increase the autoguider’ s hysteresis setting. 7.1.13 Gemini Displays “Autoguider Error” • This... Gemini and the PC or GPS receiver. Refer to appendix 8.4 for...% Brightness 27% Brightness 20% Brightness 13% Brightness 6.6% Brightness Geogr. Location Longitude... Users Manual 75 Timezone Query GPS Rec. Coordinate Epoch Equinox of... is set to GM-8 or "2r#" if G-11 is selected. Meade..., 49, 72 DEC REV.......................................... 7 directional. 7, 8, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 28... ................................ 3, 29, 68 Controller, Hand..... 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 26... system, celestial................... 3 Coordinated Universal Time ......... 13, 51 coordinates 3, 4, 8, 12, 17, 18..., 45, 61 current, electrical.... 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 13, 14, 18, 20, 21, 22..., 81, 85, 86 axis .................................................... 7 button.. 7, 8, 13, 14, 18, 33, 40, 45... REV button................................... 7 declination .. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19..................................................... 3 GPN......................................... 44, 47, 73 GPS... 2, 3, 12, 13, 30, 51, 59, 60, 63, 65, 66, 67, 72, 76 GPS receiver. 2, 3, 13, 30, 51, 60, 63, 66, 67, 72 GPS Receiver, Query ........ 13..., 82, 85 H Hand Controller 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 26..., 53 handshake ............................................ 65 HC .. 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 26... scale................................................. 10 Latitude. 3, 10, 12, 13, 19, 30, 41, 59, 60... ............ 4, 51, 52, 74 Local Time ...... 13, 14, 31, 52, 60, 70.......................... 15, 27, 29 Menu..... 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18... commands........................................ 41 Main ................................................ 40 Mode.... 7, 8, 13, 14, 16, 18, 43, 45... ............................ 48, 65, 72, 86 Menu.... 7, 8, 13, 14, 16, 18, 43, 45..., 29 mount.... 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18... ............................................. 67 Gemini Users Manual Q Query GPS Receiver ......... 13, 59, 60, 76 QuickMenu..., 58, 59, 79, 83 receiver, GPS 2, 3, 13, 30, 51, 60, 63, 66..., 71, 75 right ascension.. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18..., polar.................................... 11, 27 scrolling.. 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 28, 40... Modes ........................ 62 Setup... 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 20, 24, 25..., 61 telescope1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19... Manual Time . 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20..., 72, 79, 83 Coordinated Universal............... 13, 51 Greenwich Mean ........... 51, 52... Date/Time.. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20...