Спутник навигационных систем. GPS 2R-13. [Редактировать]

GPS-2R (Global Positioning System) или Navstar-2R (Navigation System using Timing And Ranging) – третье поколение космических аппаратов системы GPS. GPS-IIR должны по контракту от 19989 года осуществить замену второго поколения аппаратов группировки. Производителем аппаратов выступает Lockheed Martin, которая использует для производства космический аппаратов свою коммерческую платформу AS-4000. Космические аппараты имеют трех-осевую стабилизацию и работают на 1572.42 MHz, 1227.6 MHz и 2227.5 MHz. Lockheed также отвечает за запуски аппаратов и их эксплуатацию. По сравнению с предшествующими аппаратами новое поколение спутников позволяет значительно улучшить точность определения координат на Земле.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1USA 180НайтиНайти
228474НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - военно-коммерческие
3Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2032
2Платформа, AS-40001

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град53.8
2Апогей, км20550.5
3Перигей, км19826.7
4Период, минут717.9
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км26559

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2004-045A

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2004-11-06 at 05:39:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xGPS 2R-13
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2

Найдено 500 документов по запросу «GPS 2R-13». [Перейти к поиску]


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... ISS—replaced a Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna, reboosted the orbit of... years. In addi- F i s c a l exploring Mars. 13 Cassini discovered that the moon... GPS Joint Program Office launched the thirteenth replacement GPSII satellite (IIR-13) in November 2004 and the first modernized replacement GPS-II... Boeing were exercised to procure GPS-II Follow-on (IIF) satellites..., Commission continued to ensure that GPS and Galileo are compatible with... and to increase support for GPS. t h e Service, and Milstar—continued to.... Delta II successfully launched two GPS II satellites. Titan IVB (launch... a key role on the Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB) and its... to promote global interoperability between GPS and other a n d satellite navigation systems... and new spectrum allocations for GPS. 49 F i s c a l 2004 earthquake in the... km wide caldera subsided about 13 mm/yr since 1992. U.S. Fish... Wildlife Service (FWS) scientists use GPS technology and remotely sensed data.... The FWS has been using GPS and remote sensing data for... Refuge (NWR) in Minnesota used GPS units to acquire location data... the vegetation monitoring program. • Both GPS technology and satellite data were... Bird Program continues to use GPS technology and Geographic Information Systems... public lands. During FY 2005, GPS and GIS supplemented data from..., and Earth Observer-1. Use of GPS figured prominently during the research... usage of remote sensing and GPS technologies by farmers through the... the use of remote sensing, GPS, and other precision farming technologies... on project designed to use GPS beacons for Earth weather and... with three instruments that include GPS radio occultation receivers, tiny ionospheric... also complement a variety of related GPS missions, including the Challenging Minisatellite... the Global Positioning System/Meteorology (GPS/MET) missions were completely reprocessed... on the civilian use of GPS. Among the topics discussed were... be supplementary and interoperable with GPS. QZSS is also expected to... with Russia on cooperation between GPS and its Russian counterpart, Global... to promote the use of GPS and its applications. DOS provided... 88 1979 16 87 1980 13 89 1981 18 98 1982... Navastar 56 2004-045A Delta 2 GPS/Navigational satellite 20412 km 19... known as USA 180 and GPS 2R-13 NASA gamma-ray burst detector... 19,041 km 1,045 min 13.5° Mockup carrying two smaller university... Navstar 57 2005-038A Delta 2 GPS/Navigation satellite 20,328 km... known as USA 183 and GPS 2R-M1 * U.N. Committee on Space Research... Soyuz TMA 5 (Expedition 10) Oct. 13, 2004 Leroy Chiao Salizhan Sharipov... Noguchi Stephen Robinson Andrew Thomas 13:21:33 First Space Shuttle...,310 14,570 13,854 13,884 13,709 13,648 13,653 13,601 14... 10,097 11,460 13,046 13,199 13,064 13,022 12,543...,321 12,459 12,521 13,304 13,871 14,360 14...,181 15,023 14,106 13,166 10,644 11,514 11,727 12,359 13,203 12,941 14,326...,110 17,737 15,921 13,343 12,693 12,484...,232 12,213 16,700 13,502 15,845 17,136...,443 14,040 14,027 13,915 14,492 14,761...,780 16,227 12,843 13,606 13,597 14,084 14... 375 360 DOT Total Space 2 1 4 6 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 13 13 13 12 12 4,186 5,596 9,378... Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Interagency GPS Executive Board Integrated High Payoff... GISD GLAS GLONASS GNSS GOES GPS GPS/MET GRACE GRC GRB GSFC...



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... Course L119 www.PDHonline.org GPS Modernization © 2004 Jan Van Sickle... configuration are well known. 24 GPS satellites needed for 24-hour... every 12 hours sidereal time. - GPS Space Segment It is a beautiful..., there are three blocks of GPS satellites in orbit around the... L119 www.PDHonline.org The GPS satellites being launched now are... for the latest, IIR-13, from November 6. “GPS 2R-13 SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCHED. After 2 delays..., the Delta 2 launch vehicle sent GPS 2R13 (SVN61-PRN02) to space... clear skies. Topped with the GPS 2R-12 spacecraft, the three-stage... craft, it will join the GPS constellation and replace an ailing satellite. The GPS network features 24 primary satellites... bombs. Controllers will maneuver the GPS 2R-12 satellite into the Plane... is currently held by the GPS 2A-16 satellite, which was.... Air Force program officials say GPS 2A-16 ‘is aging and clock performance is degrading.’ GPS 2A-16 is expected to... carrier since the beginning of GPS of course, but now there... of the agenda in for GPS modernization is related to the GPS signal itself. It includes plans ... two carrier frequencies assigned to GPS, L1 at 1575.42 MHZ... from the very beginning of GPS surveyors have been deriving positions... accuracy available to us using GPS. In fact, the first civilian... right now the signal from GPS satellites has about the same... rate. As shown in Figure 1.4 GPS codes are based on, the... introduced on the fourth generation GPS satellites, Block IIF. But we... for the delay in implementing GPS III, the effort to take a new look at the entire GPS architecture to ensure the best... to cut the funds for GPS III about a year ago. We... grow substantially. The interoperability of GPS with other systems holds great... kilometers (621 miles) lower than GPS and could pose a collision problem... operational and GLONASS may revive. GPS and GALILEO Figure 1.7 The EU... on the US military controlled GPS. In February of 2004 Aviation... arrangements between the Galileo and GPS system designs. One of the... (1,240 or 1,860 miles) above GPS, could pose a problem under current... to interoperability between Galileo and GPS are falling away. If the... and E5A frequencies and the GPS L1 and L5 frequencies. Therefore... may require a broadcast correction. Page 13 of 14 www.PDHcenter.com...



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...” Example Screen Fig jpg ok 13 Model Candidates - “LLEGO” • The Launch... Engine NREC $ 810 Unknown GEO GPS, 55 deg GEO Polar LEO LEO 41 deg GPS, 55 deg GEO LEO, 58 deg Polar LEO GEO LEO GPS, 55 deg GEO LEO, 123...



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... CZ DMSP GCOM GMI GPM GPS IONDS IUS MWRI NOSS SMAP...) ........................................... 11 4.2 Получены измерения по КА GPS-2-2 (1989-044A, 20061) ............................................... 16 4.3 Измерен... КА типа GPS-2 ............................................................................16 Рисунок 13. Форма паттерна кривой блеска КА GPS-2-2 в проводке... вид КА GPS-2 и GPS-2A....................................................................17 Рисунок 16. Общий вид КА GPS-2R и GPS-2RM ..............................................................17 Рисунок 17. Общий вид КА GPS-2F.... Форма паттерна кривой блеска КА GPS-2A-5 в проводке 19 декабря 2015.... Форма паттерна кривой блеска КА GPS-2A-8 в проводке 21 ноября 2014....2016) .....................................................................................................13 Таблица 4. Информация из БД ММТ по КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38... 1.09.2016).............................................................................................................................16 Таблица 5. КА GPS различных типов, находящиеся на орбитах... из БД ММТ по КА GPS различных типов (на 1.09.2016...) 15 4.2 Получены измерения по КА GPS-2-2 (1989-044A, 20061) В августе 2016... нефункционирующему американскому КА навигационного обеспечения GPS-2-2 (USA-38, 1989-044A, 20061... измерений системы ММТ по КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38) произведена на основе... из БД ММТ по КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38) (по состоянию на... 10 июня 1989 года КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38, рис 12) работал... глобальной спутниковой навигационной системы (СНС) GPS / Navstar около 15 лет. Вывод... состоянию на 1.09.2016, КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38) находился на околокруговой... 12. Общий вид КА типа GPS-2 Содержащиеся в БД ММТ фотометрические измерения по КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38) были получены после.... На рис. 13 показана форма паттерна кривой блеска КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38... года. 16 Рисунок 13. Форма паттерна кривой блеска КА GPS-2-2 в проводке 28... года Запуски спутников американской СНС GPS / Navstar осуществляются с февраля 1978 года. В 1978-1985 гг. запускались КА GPS 1-го поколения (рис. 5). Начиная с 1989... GPS 2-го поколения, представленные пятью различными модификациями: КА GPS-2, КА GPS-2A, КА GPS-2R, GPS-2RM и КА GPS-2F (рис. 14…17). В состав полезной нагрузки КА GPS... вид КА GPS-2 и GPS-2A Рисунок 16. Общий вид КА GPS-2R и GPS-2RM Рисунок 17. Общий вид КА GPS-2F По..., на орбитах находятся 70 КА GPS двух поколений (табл. 5). Из них... КА активные (работающие в составе СНС GPS / Navstar), 32 КА нефункционирующие и 7 КА... статуса (выведены из состава СНС GPS / Navstar, но возможно находятся в орбитальном... дополнительную задачу). 17 Таблица 5. КА GPS различных типов, находящиеся на орбитах... КА статуса GPS-1 10 0 10 0 GPS-2 9 0 9 0 GPS-2A 19 0 13 6 GPS-2R 12 12 0 0 GPS-2RM 8 7 0 1 GPS-2F... семнадцати КА GPS четырех типов: КА GPS-2, КА GPS-2A, КА GPS-2R и КА GPS-2F (табл. 6). Таблица 6. Информация из БД ММТ по КА GPS... GPS-2-2 1989-044A / N 28.08.2016 1 2.7 ± 0.9 период 2.83 с (USA-38, SVN 13) 20061 GPS-2A-1 1990-103A / ? 01.06... (USA-66, SVN 23) 20959 GPS-2A-5 1992-039A / N 19.12... с (USA-83, SVN 26) 22014 GPS-2A-7 1992-079A / ? 22.11... (USA-85, SVN 32) 22231 GPS-2A-8 1992-089A / N 21.11... с (USA-87, SVN 29) 22275 GPS-2R-2 1997-035A / + 04.11.2015... (USA-132, SVN 43) 24876 GPS-2R-3 1999-055A / + 24.07.2014... (USA-145, SVN 46) 25933 GPS-2R-12 2004-023A / + 03.12... (USA-178, SVN 60) 28361 GPS-2R-13 2004-045A / + 22.02.2015... (USA-180, SVN 61) 28474 GPS-2F-1 2010-022A / + 16.03... (USA-213, SVN 62) 36585 GPS-2F-3 2012-053A / + 18.12... (USA-239, SVN 65) 38833 GPS-2F-5 2014-008A / + 15.01... (USA-248, SVN 64) 39533 GPS-2F-6 2014-026A / + 10.02... (USA-251, SVN 67) 39741 GPS-2F-7 2014-045A / + 12.11... (USA-256, SVN 68) 40105 GPS-2F-8 2014-068A / + 22.09...-258, SVN 69) 40294 GPS-2F-9 2015-013A / + 13.02.2016 2 3.9 ± 0.4 не выявлена (USA-260, SVN 71) 40534 GPS-2F... КА»: «+» - КА, работающий в составе СНС GPS / Navstar, «N» - КА, выведенный из состава СНС GPS / Navstar, «?» - КА неясного статуса (выведены из состава СНС GPS / Navstar, но возможно находятся в орбитальном...). 18 Помимо рассмотренного выше КА GPS-2-2 (USA-38), периодическое изменение блеска... у нефункционирующих КА GPS-2A-5 (USA-83, 1992-039A, 22014) и GPS-2A-8 (USA... кривых блеска КА GPS-2A-5 (USA-83) и КА GPS-2A-8 (USA-87.... Форма паттерна кривой блеска КА GPS-2A-5 в проводке 19 декабря 2015.... Форма паттерна кривой блеска КА GPS-2A-8 в проводке 21 ноября 2014....4 13.8 70.0 244.8 13.8 70.0 255.5 13.8 70.0 236.8 13.7 70.0 215.4 13.7 70.0 228.2 13....3 21.9 2.7 9.2 35.9 17.0 11.9 12.0 7.7 8.4 13.6 13.3 6.8 30.4 16.5 33.0 29.1 15....4 35.7 8.0 89.7 297.6 13.1 90.0 39.1 13.1 90.1 39.1 13.0 90.3 290.9 14... нефункционирующему американскому КА навигационного обеспечения GPS-2-2 (USA-38, 1989-044A, 20061...



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.... & Associates, 2002. 23 ASPRS Forecast. GPS GEO-REFERENCED INFORMATION GIS & Visualization... a business perspective, the increased accuracy • GPS-enabled timing devices, used to... U.S. State Intelligence released a report entitled “GPS World by U.S. suppliers (see particular... satellite navigation systems (GPS, an increasing role for GPS in what they... the post 9/11 market realities. GPS Markets” (© 2002). Department indicates a weakening... important emerging GPS initiatives is marketplace: in 1998, the GPS receiver market.... 7 “Terrorism Attacks Accelerate Interest in GPS Applications”, ibid. August 10, 1990... also well “positioned” to bring GPS-enabled techno- and communications industries... CHARACTERISTICS MARKET CHARACTERISTICS FIGURE C FIGURE D GPS MARKET TRENDS: 1996-2002 GLOBAL...”, 17 see “GPS and Aviation Safety” in GPS North American GPS Market Share... < 1% Land 72% Timing 6% Space Transportation 8% GPS 9% Aviation 7% Military 8% Marine 7% Source: U.S. Dept... motorists have trouble • Miniaturization of GPS technologies getting lost. So they... terrestrial or satellite transmitters) board GPS-based autolanding system17. SATELLITE NAVIGATION... spur growth development • Demand for GPS technologies to address aviation particularly... expansion ensures availability and accuracy • GPS-enabled navigation initiatives spur product... recreational marine markets that use GPS technologies • Hydrographic survey/mapping in... our • Falling prices Restraints: • Gradual GPS data integration into avionic support... a • Low adoption rates for new GPS technologies stopwatch20.” The testimonial was.... tion of time. GPS-enabled navigational initiatives GPS General Aviation market grew... of state-of-the-art GPS receivers. GPS World, July 2002, The... military Precise Positioning Service Vol. 13, No. 7. (PPS) receivers has improved... 23 A comprehensive Current and future GPS-related applications 23 • Synchronization/orientation of communication/ GPS satellites continuously communicate position Drivers... increasingly require precise overview of GPS include : relative navigation networks (EPLRS.... Positions military products and • Assisted-GPS for tactical indoor applications, JTIDS... Observatory’s Master • Escalating reliance on GPS-enabled technologies Clock which is... • Increased rate of integration of GPS into battlefield managemenflt systems Block... glide- signals from a formation of GPS satellites (ideally Restraints: the precise... options for timing: GPS-aided timing operating GPS data not always the... of the Transportation Infrastructure. Canadian GPS community. Global Space Sector Market..., U.S. Congress approves US$173 M for GPS satellite PriceWaterhouseCooper release business case... Communication & Surveillance Systems) to supply GPS CSI Wireless unveils Asset-Link...- services for the U.S. Nationwide Differential GPS, Shenzhen Shenyuan Trading Company for...$1.3 M. (UWB) yet protects GPS signals from intentional GPS 2F Modernization program. version....redherring and specialized GPS. radio companies, and the GPS community, reiterate CSI... to Mobile Knowledge. the entire GPS infrastructure. cranes manipulating shipping containers... disruption, U.S. Depar- new, cost-effective GPS technology to monitor the generation... planning, execution, and analysis of GPS surveys. other. Standard mechanisms currently..., the operational GPS constellation consists of 28 Block 2/2A/2R satellites. Replenish... OPPORTUNITIES MARKET TRENDS AND OPPORTUNITIES GPS Modernization be upgraded by 2006... the GPS-2R satellites may reach modernization, World, September 2001; of the GPS... funding from the GPS-3 budget to cover non-GPS to bring the... building the satellites, modifying the GPS resistance31. Ground controllers will also... dubbed 2R/M for Modernized. Under power surges ten fold. Under GPS-3, the... fold. SATELLITE NAVIGATION GPS-3, see FIGURE F FIGURE E GPS Modernization Opportunities for Canada... OPPORTUNITIES FIGURE E FIGURE F EVOLUTION OF GPS GPS DEPLOYMENT: 2002-2015+ 32 Further... phase Boeing and LM GPS-2RM Launch GPS-2F Launch L2 L2... GPS 2015 and GLONASS network specifications. GPS-3 Planned launch GPS-3 Contract to begin GPS... three orbital planes Block 1 and 2 GPS satellites became fully operational. Conceived..., resulting in a replenishing of GPS funding rcial GPS equipment manufacturers are in.../backup to the GPS system yet continually Block 2R and 2F modernization... inclination 64.8° 55° Spacecraft”, GPS World, augmenting GPS. GLONASS is monitored by... hand, EU officials maintained a cautious GPS 2001 Conference, energy_transport/library/ some... its own internal wrangling, the U.S. GPS/military lobby maintained a less-thansubtle... service and manufacturing industry as GPS technologies encounter more acute integration... Deployment and Long-term Operations GPS to improve intelligence, surveillance, deployment... utilities). Ongoing Turbulence: FAA’s dual GPS-based navigational systems: WAAS and... monitoring and atmospheric science. Securing GPS Modernization Funding: Despite the The...- and the role of GPS therein, GPS modernization sing developments over the...



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... Platform 35,000 8,200 8,900 13,000 19,000 11,050.... Russia captured 37 percent with 13 launches, Europe's 12 launches represent... Russia Europe China Multinational Japan 7 13 12 0 3 0 21 23 0 5 0 1 28 36... 2000, Russia launched 36 vehicles, 13 of them commercial flights. Proton.... The previous flight record of 13 launches was last achieved in....0% 2/2 100.0% 1 1/1 100.0% 2/2 100.0% 1 1/1 100.0% 4/5 80.0% 13 13/13 100.0% 141/144 97.9% 2 2/2 100... companies developing reusable launch Figure 13. Five-Year Worldwide Orbital Launch... * * Kosmos 2370 DSP 20 Navstar GPS 2R- 4 Simsat 1 Simsat 2 ISS 2A.2a... Agency (ASI) RUBIN Germany Navstar GPS DoD 2R- 5 Salsa ESA Samba ESA.../00 Shuttle KSC Discovery 10/13/00 Proton Baikonur ü Soyuz Atlas... 1 * Europe Star 1 ISS 2R Beidou 1A Navstar GPS 2R- 6 ProSEDS * PAS 1R AMSAT...



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....1 52% HLV >9,000 5 7 11 9 12 13 13 15 15 17 18 20 20 175 13.5 41% Total Market 33 29... 1 Philippine-Mabuhay 1 ILV 1 China-APStar 2R 1 China-Chinasat 8 MLV Proton 4 HLV...-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-28 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-01 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-02 1 US... ICO 05 US-AF-GPS 2R-03 US-AF-GPS 2R-04 US-AF...-AF-GPS 2R-05 US-AF-GPS 2R-06 US-AF-GPS 2R-07 US-AF-GPS 2R-08 US-AF-GPS 2R... 1 US-AF-Call UP MLV-13 1 US-AF-DSCS 3-08 8 3 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Japan... 21 1 US-AF T4 Milstar 4 2 0 0 2 0.7 1 0 1 2 0.7 5 13 4.3 5 1.7 8 2.7 8 2.7 3 1.0 US-NRO T4 US-NRO...-Terrier 1 1 1 1 1 Iridium 12 - 03 Iridium 13 - 03 US-NASA-GP B US... 15 100 10.0 25 2.5 18 1.8 0 0 0.0 2 13 1.3 6 0.6 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995... 1A 1 China-Chinasat 7 1 China-APStar 2R 1 China-APStar 2 1 China-Asiasat 2 1 US... 25.2 3 3 2 4 2 2 0 4 5 1 26 2.6 20 2.0 44 4.4 13 1.3 10 1.0 139 13.9 1 ESA-Meteosat 3 1 France-TDF...-AF GPS Navstar 01 US-AF GPS Navstar 02 US-AF GPS Navstar 03 US-AF GPS Navstar 04 US-AF GPS Navstar... US-AF GPS Navstar 12 US-AF GPS Navstar 13 US-AF GPS Navstar 14 US-AF GPS Navstar 15 US-AF GPS Navstar 16 US-AF GPS Navstar...-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 01 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 02 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 03 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 04 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 05 US-AF GPS Navstar.../Science 3 0 1 NASA-Wind 1 US-AF GPS 2 Block 2 06 1 US-AF SEDS...-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-07 1 US-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-28 1 1 1 1 US-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-08 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-01 US-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-10 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-02 US...-X Ray 1 US-AF GPS-Navstar 11 US-AF GPS Navstar 06 1 US-AF LOSAT (SDI) US-AF GPS Navstar 07 US-AF GPS Navstar 08 US-AF GPS Navstar 09 US-AF GPS Navstar...-DFH 302 1 China-Fen Yun 2 13 1 GALS 2 1 Luch 1-1 11 Russia-Mil... (Magnum) US-STS-035 Columbia 13 1 US-NASA GRO 1 US-US... 4 (NOSS) US-AF Titan 4 (DSP 13) 3 US-AF Titan 4 (NOSS) US... 11 0 MLV Pegasus 1 0 0 1 1 US-NOAA 13 0 0 0 0 2 0 5 Domestic 1 San Marcos 0 2 2 Domestic 0 7 0 1 US...-Orbcomm 01-2 US-Orbcomm 02-2 1 0 0 0 13 1.3 2 0 0 0 2 0.2 3 19 1.9 1 Domestic 0 Small Titan 2 1 US...-MIR Manned 6 Russia-MIR Supply 13 Russia-Domestic Tskylon 3 MLV 3 Russia... 1 Russia-Cosmos 1980 Vostok 2 Zenit 2 13 1 Russia-MIR Manned 4 Russia-MIR...-Domestic 12 12 Russia-Domestic 13 13 Russia-Domestic 0 0 0 15 Russia-Domestic... (All Launch Sites) 0198266.doc C-13



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... of other navigational satellite systems GPS, Glonass, and the future Galileo... Shepherd reusable launch vehicle on 13 November 2006 from its facility... will be used to determine 13 whether ESA will participate in... two Ka-band transponders. On 13 June the Canadian Ministry of... Eutelsat’s Hot Bird 6 satellite at 13 degrees east longitude, to be..., and has a design life of 13 years. 20 China announced on... the Sirius Radio. 24 On 13 June Continental Airlines (USA) issued... data-linked Global Positioning System (GPS) position reports from aircraft. Other... from the Global Positioning System (GPS). This feature, if implemented, would... the U.S. military to degrade civil GPS signals. The U.S. had stopped using... incorporated into the next-generation GPS-3 system. The Air Force completed... 14 September of the new GPS ground segment, which controls the.... Russia’s Defense Minister announced on 13 November 2006 that all security..., raising the inorbit complement to 13 spacecraft, with a 16-18-satellite..., which will apply to the U.S. GPS-3 L1C and Galileo L1F satellites... begin operations in 2012; the GPS-3 L1C spacecraft in 2013. Satamatics... Tracker, a device that uses the GPS navigation signal, relayed by Inmarsat... of other navigational satellite systems GPS, Glonass, and the future Galileo.... The combined truss units span 13.6 m and weigh 16.2 tonnes, the... delivery to the ISS. On 13 June during the stowing of... controlled vehicle. Subsequently the NEEMO-13 crew, comprising U.S. astronauts Richard Arnold... Hinode of a gigantic flare on 13 December 2006 that ejected solar... National Space Council (BNSC) on 13 September by the U.K. Space Exploration...-mdeep Victoria Crater, and on 13 September proceeded 6 m down inside the..., SpeedUp, and Unreasonable Rocket. On 13 September Google, Inc. and the... a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, stereo cameras, a three-dimensional... Charterhouse School, Surrey (UK) on 13 April. As in the abovementioned..., and especially Global Positioning System (GPS) applications. Space News’ annual “Launch...-owned CITIC group proposed on 13 February to purchase all of... year-end total to over 13 million; competitor DirecTV (USA) had.... MultiChoice now leases a total of 13 transponders on Eutelsat's W4 and... regulatory approval of Sonae's hostile $13 billion takeover bid for Portugal... the launch of its latest GPS-based vehicle security and tracking... owners. Based on the latest GPS, global information system (GIS), global... initial satellite of an augmented GPS system, the Quazi Zenith Satellite... launched in 2010, will provide GPS signals and broadcasting from a highly..., and by March 2006 had 13.2 million mobile subscribers, showing a rapid... of the awards is about 13.2 million Canadian dollars (US $11... Defense plans to stop procuring GPS satellites that provide Pentagon with... halted the intentional degradation of GPS satellite signals in May 2000... no longer be present in GPS 3 satellites, the Pentagon said. According... strong commitment to users of GPS that this free global utility... enhance the operation of the GPS constellation. The distributed server-based..., increase efficiency and accommodate future GPS capabilities as they become available... operates the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS provides 3-D position data in longitude... delivered to orbit a replenishment Block 2R satellite for the U.S. Air Force... of the GPS 2R satellites. The launch also marked the second GPS mission aboard a Boeing Delta II in less than two months. GPS 2R-16(M) is the third of the modernized GPS satellites that... (FCC) was accepting comments until 13 August on its rule that... growth for satellite radio and GPS positioning and tracking is being...



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... determination of individual spacecraft using GPS receivers; • developed simplified equations of... U.S. remote sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS), satellite communications, and launch industries..., scientific, and governmental users of GPS technology during meetings of the... to host the offices Y e a r Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB), representing the... Center. In the area of GPS data services, NOAA acquired and... 2003, NOAA continued to use GPS and remote sensing technologies to... European Community toward cooperation between GPS and Europe’s planned Galileo satellite... and the end users of GPS technology, particularly with respect to... of the U.S. Government regarding the GPS-Galileo relationship. OSC also participated... ongoing bilateral cooperation related to GPS. These talks, held in October... cooperation to ensure interoperability between GPS and Japan’s planned Quasi-Zenith... of time signals received from GPS for the most demanding military... time scale. Using the microwave GPS carrier a n d frequency as the timing source instead of the GPS time code, NIST and its... interference between UWB devices and GPS, radar, and communications systems. NIST... 2003. The spectrum allocations for GPS. 2 0 0 3 results included updating satellite regulations.... These properties include high-precision GPS reference data, complete meteorological microclimate..., 2) the NOAA Forecast Systems a n d Laboratory GPS Surface Observation System Network, 3) the..., most tied to the aircraft GPS navigation log. These images are.... Satellite data were supplemented with GPS and geographic information system (GIS... being used in conjunction with GPS data for endangered species habitat...-resolution satellite remote sensing and GPS to support BIA and tribal... Action Plans sonnel also collected GPS data on high-priority dams... reporting period. BIA used commercial GPS receivers to collect data for... addition, digital aerial photographs with GPS coordinates were collected for all... the data using high-accuracy GPS ground control. They also generated.... AML specialists and contractors used GPS receivers to map subsidence complaints... use both the DOD Navstar GPS Precise Positioning Service (PPS) and augmented differential GPS for real-time positioning in... available. Over 1,500 Precise Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) units have been... events. The demand for trained GPS technical specialists to conduct fire... the United States. In response, GPS training courses were taught in... NPS staff used approximately 400 GPS receivers for mapping and navigation... A c t i v i t i e s mation designs. Mine inspectors employed GPS to verify jurisdictional boundaries of... to expand its use of GPS for surface mine reclamation Y e a r a coal... a camera. The instrument 71 with GPS databases to provide a visual presentation... for New England wildlife species. GPS was invasive plant species at... at a scale of 1:12000, with GPS center points, then digitally scanned... area. All plots have associated GPS coordinates, and most have detailed... Lakes Science Center regularly used GPS technologies to supplement scientific research conducted in 2003. GPS receivers and aerial photographs were... in the Detroit River required GPS technology to locate sample sites... studies in Lake Erie used GPS to guide sampling procedures and simplify navigation in open water. GPS was also used during native... parks in Michigan. A mapping-grade GPS receiver was used to determine... included helicopters for aerial and GPS equipment, food caterers, and showers... of Nationwide Differential GPS (NDGPS) receivers from a USDA GPS contract. At the... the fiscal year, over 4,100 GPS receivers were being used in... represented on Federal remote sensing, GPS, and geodata coordinating committees. NRCS... would not directly overlay the U.S. GPS military code. Other issues remained... U.S. leadership in geospatial technologies, including GPS, remote sensing, and Web-based... GPS Executive Board, the GPS outreach team developed an exhibit to promote GPS... Titan 2 Military scientific satellite Jan. 13, 2003 CHIPS (Cosmic Hot Interstellar... known as USA 166 and GPS 2R-8. Geosynchronous 20,228.8 km 187... known as USA 168 and GPS 2R-9. Also known as Milstar 6. Carries....cfm on the Web. A c t i v i t i e s DOD GPS satellite 2 0 0 3 Jan. 29, 2003 Navstar...-033A Atlas 5 Communications satellite Aug. 13, 2003 SCISAT 1 2003-036A Pegasus... R. Lousma C. Gordon Fullerton Soyuz T-5 May 13, 1982 Soyuz T-6 June 24, 1982... Expedition 4 crew to Earth. a n d S p a c e R e p o r t o f t h e P r e s i d e n t 134 13:20:35 10:19:58... 10,097 11,460 13,046 13,199 13,064 13,022 12,543...,321 12,459 12,521 13,304 13,871 14,360 Otherc...,310 14,570 13,854 13,884 13,709 13,648 13,653 13,601 14...,482 14,205 13,802 13,390 13,352 13,242 13,804 14,049... 12,290 13,013 12,994 13,432 14,150 13,686 14... and Land Elevation Satellite Interagency GPS Executive Board Integrated Global Observing... HST 2 0 0 3 H Y e a r GloVis GNSS GOES GP GPS GRACE GRC GSFC GSO GTE... Crop Assessment Division Precise Lightweight GPS Receiver Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory...



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... Conclusions...................................................................................................................... 67 Recommendations............................................................................................................. 69 APPENDIX A: GPS DESCRIPTION .................................................................................... 73 Space Segment ................................................................................................................. 73... ..................................................................................... 82 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. GPS Dependencies ................................................................................................. 36 ii LIST OF... on military strategy [as GPS]. Today, GPS is the glue that binds... of a fully operational constellation of GPS satellites. The current constellation replenishment... February 2003. 13 Andrew Zolli, "Oh, Nooo! What If GPS Fails?," Wired... Problem Statement Faced with a frail GPS constellation, a launch infrastructure of questionable... provide outstanding performance. U.S. Strategic Command, GPS III Concept of Operations30 The... exceeding performance standards. With the GPS technology successfully proven, the system... lack of financial support for GPS. First, GPS was categorized as a support... Operations, 3-18. Colonel G.B. Green, "The GPS 21 Primary Satellite Constellation," NAVIGATION... W. Poburka, Jr., "Global Positioning System (GPS) Constellation Sustainment Assessment Team (CSAT..., and D. Latterman, "Global Positioning System (GPS) Modernization," 32nd Annual Precise Time..., "Increased Navigation Performance from GPS Block IIR," ION GPS 2002, 24-27...? Controlling Momentum on Aging GPS Satellites," ION GPS '99, 14-17 September... GPS Constellation Sustainment Assessment Team (CSAT)," (2001) memo.; GPS Joint Program Office, GPS... multiple satellite failures can degrade GPS service availability and reduce positioning... a global utility of GPS’ stature. Probability of Multiple GPS Failures November 2003.... 95 Allied Business Intelligence Research, "GPS World Markets: Opportunities for Equipment... areas. 100 N.W. Rhodus and P.D. Massatt, "GPS Baseline Constellation Update," (1991), 18...’s infrastructure is to designate the GPS constellation as a critical national infrastructure... the central importance of a functioning GPS constellation to homeland security, national... Foreign Intelligence 120 National Defense GPS Dependencies GPS central to network synchronization... public safety vehicles. GPS timing for telemedicine GPS timing synchronizes electric power..., hyperspectral imaging spacecraft prototype, uses GPS for accurate image geolocation and... industry’s dependence on GPS. The growin g reliance on GPS has some concerned... waterways 129 Charlotte Adams, "GPS: How Vulnerable Is GPS?," Avionics Magazine, [Internet.... 137 Richard E. Schmidt, "GPS Times the Internet," GPS World, February 2000, 44... ability to economically install inexpensive GPS receivers throughout a network has revolutionized... Sally L. Frodge, "GPS: Synchronizing Our Telecommunications Networks," ION GPS 1999, 14-17... of GPS.169 The RC-135 Rivet Joint aircraft and the U-2R Dragon Lady both use precise GPS timing to accurately..., “Defending the American Homeland,” recognized GPS’ susceptibility to jamming. It recommended... Ann Divis, "Washington View," GPS World, (13 June 2002, accessed 3 January 2004... programs represent significant improvements in GPS capabilities for the joint warfighter... on a reliable and accurate GPS signal. In addition, GPS has spawned a $17... (GPS) Acquisition Policy and Impacts (KPMG Peat Marwick LLP, 1996), 13-14... understanding of the interdependencies among GPS, its augmentation systems, critical end... fail. 72 APPENDIX A: GPS DESCRIPTION The mission of GPS is to provide... and timing missions of GPS. Two levels of GPS service are superimposed... Forum and A B Kristinsson, "Was There a GPS Outage?" [Internet] (2 August 2001, accessed... BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, Charlotte. "GPS: How Vulnerable Is GPS?" Avionics Magazine, 2001. Accessed... 2000. Allied Business Intelligence Research. "GPS World Markets: Opportunities for Equipment.../telecom_timing_higher_source/index.htm. Butler, Amy. "GPS Spacecraft Lasting Longer Than Expected... Sally L. Frodge. "GPS: Synchronizing Our Telecommunications Networks." ION GPS 1999, 14-17..., Dee Ann. "Washington View." GPS World, 13 June 2002. Accessed 3 January 2004....gov/pubs/gps/gpsfuture/GPSfuture.doc. GPS Joint Program Office. GPS JPO CSAT.... "Increased Navigation Performance from GPS Block IIR." ION GPS 2002, 2427 September..., and D. Latterman. "Global Positioning System (GPS) Modernization." 32nd Annual Precise Time.... Henry W., Jr. "Global Positioning System (GPS) Constellation Sustainment Assessment Team (CSAT... Logistics, 2003. Rhodus, N.W., and P.D. Massatt. "GPS Baseline Constellation Update." 1991. Rip....com/. Schmidt, Richard E. "GPS Times the Internet." GPS World, February 2000, 44...? Controlling Momentum on Aging GPS Satellites." ION GPS '99, 14-17 September...