Спутник навигационных систем. GPS 2R-18. [Редактировать]

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1GPS 57НайтиНайти
2GPS 2R-MНайтиНайти
3Navstar 61НайтиНайти
4USA 199НайтиНайти
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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - военно-коммерческие
3Тип орбиты - ГПО
4Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2059

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град55.5
2Апогей, км20238.3
3Перигей, км20141.3
4Период, минут718.0
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км26560

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2007-062A

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2007-12-20 at 20:04:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xGPS 2R-18
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2 7925

Найдено 826 документов по запросу «GPS 2R-18». [Перейти к поиску]


Дата загрузки: 2017-02-22
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... human bed-rest campaigns with 18 subjects for 2 different intensities of... Van Allen radiation F i s c a l On March 18, 2008, the Two Wide-angle... cause sudden brightening and rapid A e r o n a u t i c s S p a c e R e p o r t o f t h e 18 nection, a common process that occurs... Force launched a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite (GPSIIRM-19) on March... sharing the advanced technologies of GPS at no cost to all... 2008, flight tests demonstrated an 18-hour endurance without refueling, a world... of the Global Positioning System (GPS) by hosting the meetings and... activities included interagency coordination of GPS-related programs and budgets, guiding...), protecting the spectrum used by GPS, and outreach and education. OSC... fully compatible and interoperable with GPS. The agreement allows JAXA to..., providing satellite observations that enhance GPS-QZSS interoperability. OSC conducted a study... use of so-called “semicodeless” GPS equipment, which A c t i v i t i e s In FY08, the... Y e a r deparTmenT of CommerCe leverages military GPS signals to enable high-precision... P r e s i d e n t supporting semicodeless access to military GPS signals through December 31, 2020... which time the modernized civil GPS signals will be fully available... the second meeting of the GPS Galileo Working Group “B” on Trade... to promote the use of GPS for precision agriculture, landscape epidemiology... Radiometer instrument on the NOAA-18 satellite malfunctioned, rendering it unable... users the ability to use GPS to determine elevations relative to... will ensure the accuracy of GPS data. NGS acquired nearly 23... users to determine highly accurate GPS positions, which will improve the... satellites launched to modernize the GPS constellation. Once operational, this facility will improve the accuracy of GPS-derived elevations. Accurate elevations remain... Ethiopia in building a network of GPS CORSes and making the data... reef experts and managers from 18 countries around the world. In... information. in remote sensing and GPS technologies. Today, a wide range of... products from Landsat data for 18 fires that occurred between 2005... images to satellite radar, and GPS technology to support a wide variety... applications using remote sensing and GPS do not include the enormous... Midwest Region used aerial photography, GPS, and aerial surveillance to use... a nongeostationary remote sensing satellite. • October 18, 2007: To PanAmSat for a geostationary... usage of remote sensing and GPS technologies. A c t i v i t i e s remained ongoing. NASS identified... Neutrino Observatory gained a total of 18 strings of new optical photodetectors... efforts in FY08 to promote GPS and its augmentation in accordance..., DC, at the first U.S.-EU GPS Plenary to explore coordination on issues of mutual interest. GPS public diplomacy efforts in Europe... International Subcommittee of the Civil GPS Service Interface Committee meeting. The... on compatibility and interoperability with GPS also took place with Russia... that would be interoperable with GPS. With India, the DOS discussed... modern space geodetic technologies, including GPS. A c t i v i t i e s With regard to space issues... Research (OASCR). Simulations Y e a r used approximately 18,283,737 XT4-equivalent processor... 27 30 33 27 34 18 16 20 21 31 35... 22e 23 35 31f 23 18 28c, f 8c 10 20d 16... 26 24 32 16 13 18 18 22 22 17 6 8 12 17... 37 34 32 30 23 18 26 19 16 15 25... military communications October 17, 2007 GPS 2R-17 2007-047A Delta 2 Navigational... Atlas 5 Military December 20, 2007 GPS 2R-18 2007-062A Delta 2 Navigational January... and as USA 196 Replaced GPS 2A-14 in Plane F and... Reconnaissance Office Also known as GPS 2R-M, Navstar 61, and USA 199... 1 in Plane C to replace GPS 2A-24. GPS 2A-24 moved to replace GPS 2A-20 United Arab Emirates (... USA 201 and as GPS 2R-19(M) Standby GPS replacement satellite Geostationary communications... Objectives May 21, 2008 Galaxy 18 2008-024A Zenit 3SL Geostationary... Pamela A. Melroy R e p o r t S p a c e Clayton Anderson 12:18:21 Installed ESA’s Columbus laboratory... and returned Daniel M. Tani 15:18:11 Delivered the Japanese Kibo... Kononenko, and Richard Garriott 13:18:13 Delivered the Japanese Kibo... 20 19 15 23 19 18 21 25 26 29 25...,727 13,443 13,422 18,352 14,838 17,413...,331 19,822 19,735 18,370 18,031 17,468 17...,008 25,216 22,405 18,667 16,567 13,734...,029 17,512 19,221 18,743 18,096 17,638 16...,884 13,714 17,333 18,765 22,664 24,286...,336 15,805 17,150 18,408 22,248 21,500... 89 90 USDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 4 8 8 12 7 13 3 18 23 21 34 36 31... Space 4,600 6,150 10,306 18,513 30,194 37,477...,147 19,451 19,589 18,067 17,864 17,522 4,110 17,812 18,628 19,379 21,478... 16,502 17,282 852 18,179 15,247 17,231... GloVis GMSEC GNSS GOES GPM GPS GPSIIRM-19 GPSRO GRAV-D GRC... Measurement Global Positioning System specific GPS satellite Global Positioning System Radio...



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... 364 336 308 280 17 18 19 20 21 22 23... Engine NREC $ 810 Unknown GEO GPS, 55 deg GEO Polar LEO LEO 41 deg GPS, 55 deg GEO LEO, 58 deg Polar LEO GEO LEO GPS, 55 deg GEO LEO, 123...



Дата загрузки: 2017-04-24
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.... & Associates, 2002. 23 ASPRS Forecast. GPS GEO-REFERENCED INFORMATION GIS & Visualization... a business perspective, the increased accuracy • GPS-enabled timing devices, used to... U.S. State Intelligence released a report entitled “GPS World by U.S. suppliers (see particular... satellite navigation systems (GPS, an increasing role for GPS in what they... the post 9/11 market realities. GPS Markets” (© 2002). Department indicates a weakening... important emerging GPS initiatives is marketplace: in 1998, the GPS receiver market.... 7 “Terrorism Attacks Accelerate Interest in GPS Applications”, ibid. August 10, 1990... also well “positioned” to bring GPS-enabled techno- and communications industries... CHARACTERISTICS MARKET CHARACTERISTICS FIGURE C FIGURE D GPS MARKET TRENDS: 1996-2002 GLOBAL...”, 17 see “GPS and Aviation Safety” in GPS North American GPS Market Share... < 1% Land 72% Timing 6% Space Transportation 8% GPS 9% Aviation 7% Military 8% Marine 7% Source: U.S. Dept... motorists have trouble • Miniaturization of GPS technologies getting lost. So they... terrestrial or satellite transmitters) board GPS-based autolanding system17. SATELLITE NAVIGATION... spur growth development • Demand for GPS technologies to address aviation particularly... expansion ensures availability and accuracy • GPS-enabled navigation initiatives spur product... recreational marine markets that use GPS technologies • Hydrographic survey/mapping in... our • Falling prices Restraints: • Gradual GPS data integration into avionic support.... tion of time. GPS-enabled navigational initiatives GPS General Aviation market grew... of state-of-the-art GPS receivers. GPS World, July 2002, The... 23 A comprehensive Current and future GPS-related applications 23 • Synchronization/orientation of communication/ GPS satellites continuously communicate position Drivers... increasingly require precise overview of GPS include : relative navigation networks (EPLRS.... Positions military products and • Assisted-GPS for tactical indoor applications, JTIDS... Observatory’s Master • Escalating reliance on GPS-enabled technologies Clock which is... • Increased rate of integration of GPS into battlefield managemenflt systems Block... glide- signals from a formation of GPS satellites (ideally Restraints: the precise... options for timing: GPS-aided timing operating GPS data not always the... of the Transportation Infrastructure. Canadian GPS community. Global Space Sector Market..., U.S. Congress approves US$173 M for GPS satellite PriceWaterhouseCooper release business case... Communication & Surveillance Systems) to supply GPS CSI Wireless unveils Asset-Link...- services for the U.S. Nationwide Differential GPS, Shenzhen Shenyuan Trading Company for...$1.3 M. (UWB) yet protects GPS signals from intentional GPS 2F Modernization program. version... collision risks of decommissioned GPS satellites June (18 June 2002) next generation....redherring and specialized GPS. radio companies, and the GPS community, reiterate CSI... to Mobile Knowledge. the entire GPS infrastructure. cranes manipulating shipping containers... disruption, U.S. Depar- new, cost-effective GPS technology to monitor the generation... planning, execution, and analysis of GPS surveys. other. Standard mechanisms currently..., the operational GPS constellation consists of 28 Block 2/2A/2R satellites. Replenish... OPPORTUNITIES MARKET TRENDS AND OPPORTUNITIES GPS Modernization be upgraded by 2006... the GPS-2R satellites may reach modernization, World, September 2001; of the GPS... funding from the GPS-3 budget to cover non-GPS to bring the... building the satellites, modifying the GPS resistance31. Ground controllers will also... dubbed 2R/M for Modernized. Under power surges ten fold. Under GPS-3, the... fold. SATELLITE NAVIGATION GPS-3, see FIGURE F FIGURE E GPS Modernization Opportunities for Canada... OPPORTUNITIES FIGURE E FIGURE F EVOLUTION OF GPS GPS DEPLOYMENT: 2002-2015+ 32 Further... sats 1990 18 operational Boeing Block 2R/M: up to 20 sats 2R: 1997... phase Boeing and LM GPS-2RM Launch GPS-2F Launch L2 L2... GPS 2015 and GLONASS network specifications. GPS-3 Planned launch GPS-3 Contract to begin GPS... three orbital planes Block 1 and 2 GPS satellites became fully operational. Conceived..., resulting in a replenishing of GPS funding rcial GPS equipment manufacturers are in.../backup to the GPS system yet continually Block 2R and 2F modernization... inclination 64.8° 55° Spacecraft”, GPS World, augmenting GPS. GLONASS is monitored by... hand, EU officials maintained a cautious GPS 2001 Conference, energy_transport/library/ some... its own internal wrangling, the U.S. GPS/military lobby maintained a less-thansubtle... service and manufacturing industry as GPS technologies encounter more acute integration... Deployment and Long-term Operations GPS to improve intelligence, surveillance, deployment... utilities). Ongoing Turbulence: FAA’s dual GPS-based navigational systems: WAAS and... monitoring and atmospheric science. Securing GPS Modernization Funding: Despite the The...- and the role of GPS therein, GPS modernization sing developments over the...



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... in the process of modernizing GPS (Global Positioning System) with two... the US and Russian-administered GPS and GLONASS navigation systems. These... the satellites by specially designed GPS receivers. The data from these... with the latest information on GPS modernization, GLONASS constellation improvements, and... outline the use of modernized GPS signals and GLONASS signals, review the Trimble GPS+GLONASS1 construction solutions, and demonstrate... Center A SHORT HISTORY OF THE GPS, GLONASS, GLONASS satellites in orbits... the Russian Federation. As with GPS, the GLONASS constellation is used... than is currently available through GPS MODERNIZATION GPS or GLONASS, to improve... construction industry often refer to “GPS positioning system upon which European... rely Modernization”. So what is GPS Modernization? And even in times... the construction contractor’s perspective, GPS Unlike GPS and GLONASS, Galileo is controlled..., and L5 signal to the GPS satellite constellation. But with the... constellation (27 continuing development of GPS. plus three spares), as well... successful launches of GPS 2R-M1-satellites, higher altitudes than GPS, but the.... significant first step in the GPS Modernization Program The proposed constellation... the scenes for the construction GPS satellites transmitted two carrier frequencies—L1 contractor using GPS. But since the introduction of...-random codes advanced positioning instruments, GPS technology has that provide positioning... how information. These codes enable GPS receivers to track contractors carry... are currently 10 operational reliable GPS guidance or control of construction... Russia currently plans to have 18 satellite vehicles in multipath errors... satellites by 2009. The DoD GPS Modernization program also includes With... independent positioning “monitoring” segment. Six GPS monitoring stations solution for high... the which made up the GPS monitoring network. This Trimble RTK... throughout the tracking of all GPS satellites, resulting in more thorough... level, which will greatly expand GPS capabilities for nonmilitary use. Broadcast... significantly boosted, providing 10 GLN GPS 5 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 additional... Illustration 1: the projected availability of GPS and GLONASS satellites over time... Trimble integrated circuit inside the GPS that contractors working in tough... measurements are more robust, making GPS This new integrated circuit enables... more reliable. In open environments, GPS-only solutions will generally L1... each new development in the GPS, GLONASS, the constellation becomes more.... US DoD first announced the GPS Modernization Program in 1999, Trimble... on receiver www.trimble.com 6 GPS+GLONASS = PRODUCTIVITY BENEFITS ON This... satellites from both GLONASS and GPS, the minimum number of satellites... most open environment construction work, a GPS- as a high wall or bridge... for accurate positioning and Trimble GPS+GLONASS solutions will help machine... may not be enough usable GPS satellites to fully sometimes experienced with GPS-only solutions. meet the demands... number of satellites available through GPS and GLONASS in 2009. www... 7 The Trimble RTK Engine TRIMBLE GPS+GLONASS CAPABLE PRODUCTS FOR CONSTRUCTION... construction contractor. TRIMBLE MS990 SMART GPS ANTENNA The Trimble MS990 Smart... only commercially available integrated smart GPS antenna that offers the performance... the newest GPS and GLONASS signals. Each unit contains a GPS+GLONASS receiver.... The Trimble MS990 replaces traditional GPS receiver and antennas and the.... The elimination of cables improves GPS and GLONASS signal strength, reliability... of the TRIMBLE SPS850 MODULAR GPS RECEIVERS construction jobsite, where tree... other The Trimble SPS850 Modular GPS Receiver is ideal for obstructions... rover applications. The antennas modernized GPS signals, improving performance of the.... baseline lengths. Combined signals from GPS and The SPS850 receivers combine the radio and GPS receiver GLONASS reduce system downtime.... TRIMBLE SPS880 SMART GPS ANTENNAS Versatile Trimble SPS850 GPS receivers are a futureA... System, the Trimble SPS880 Smart GPS Antenna uses satellite signals to... signals that are part of GPS Modernization operations. will present contractors... it ideal for contractors civilian GPS users worldwide, of whom the... represents an ever growing percentage. GPS antennas are also ready to... system has a renewed sources of GPS corrections, for reduced downtime and... satellites provide beneficial augmentation to GPS in difficult environments. The Trimble MS990 Smart GPS Antenna, the Trimble SPS880 Smart... SPS850 www.trimble.com 9 Modular GPS Receiver have been developed to... solutions available in the marketplace. “GPS+GLONASS” to describe products that... take the changes available in GPS+GLONASS products into consideration. Modernized... • More robust performance in tough GPS conditions such as under tree... satellite geometry By choosing a Trimble GPS+GLONASS solution, customers can rest...



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...) ..................................................................................................... 14 2.3.1.1 GPS-Global Positioning System (Küresel Konumlandırma Sistemi) 18 2.3.1.2 GLONASS ........................................................................................ 22... System................................................ 25 2.3.1.6 GAGAN- GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GPS Destekli Yer Takviyeli... GNSS : Global Navigation Satellite System GPS : Global Positioning System IALA : International... ve kâğıt harita gösterimi .................................................................. 11 Şekil 2.9: GPS uyduları, yer istasyonu ve al... Şekil 2.17: A Sınıf AIS.............................................................................................. 29 Şekil 2.18: İstanbul Boğazı’nda deniz... percepted by the user.  Recently GPS has vital important for the.... GNSS-1 mevcut sistemlere (GPS, GLONASS) verilen isimdir. GPS Yer Tabanlı Takviye Sistemleri... düzeltmelerle kullanıldığında Diferansiyel GPS (Differential GPS-DGPS) olarak bilinir. GNSS... Uydu Sistemi (IRNSS) vb.) içerecektir. GPS’in geliştirilmesi 1973 yılında... “Uzay Yarışı” Sovyet sistemi GLONASS’ın GPS’e paralel olarak gelişmesi ile... az uydunun yerleştirilmesi nedeniyle GPS’e nazaran 1980 ve 1990’larda...ıştır. Kullanım kolaylığı ve doğruluğu GPS’i dünya çapında her türden... Avrupa Birliği ülkeleri konsept olarak GPS’e benzeyen fakat öncelikle sivil kullan... değildir. Sabit aralık* (s) 1 1 1 1 1 Mevcut GPS ve GLONASS Sistemleri gibi birinci... bir hedef haline gelmiştir. 2.3.1.1 GPS-Global Positioning System (Küresel Konumlandırma Sistemi) GPS’in tarihsel gelişimine bak... NAVSTAR Küresel Konumlandırma Sistemi (GPS-Global Positioning System) adını alm... 1 uyduları olarak bilinmekte olup, ilk GPS uydu sinyali 1977 yılında al...şik ana kontrol istasyonu bulunmaktadır. 18 Kullanıcı bölümü alıcılarının geliştirilmesi... düşürülmesi olayından sonra ABD GPS’i sivil kullanıma da açmıştır. Ancak...ştir. Haziran 1989’da Blok 2R uyduları General Electric’e (daha sonra... da gruptaki diğer Blok 2R uydularıyla karşılıklı ba... sistemini hemen kabul etmemiştir. GPS’in askerî kullanımı, 1990 yılında...ım ihtilaf süresince kapatılmıştır. 19 GPS 8 Aralık 1993’te, 6 yörüngesel düzlemde... almış olup, söz konusu politika ile; a. GPS’in ve ABD tarafından... güvenlik için ABD ve müttefiklerinin GPS’e erişimini korumak ve has... 2 roketi ile birinci Lockheed Martin GPS 2R-M uydusu yörüngeye atılmıştır. Modernize... ikinci sivil sinyale sahip olup, GPS’i sadece müdahaleye karşı güçlü kılmamış, ayn... olduğunda ulaşılacaktır. 8 Blok 2R-M 2006 ve 2009 yılları aras... Blok 2A ve 12 Blok 2R uyduyla beraber grup, 31 uyduya... atılmıştır. GPS 2F-1 61’inci GPS uydusu olup, GPS 2F-2 16 Temmuz... atılmıştır. 20 Bununla beraber GPS 3A olarak bilinen gelecek nesil GPS bakım programı 2006 yılında Lockheed Martin’e ihale edilmiştir. Planlı 8 GPS 3A uydularından ilkinin 2014 yılında atılması planlanmaktadır.[9] Şekil 2.9 : GPS uyduları, yer istasyonu ve al... noktası gibi kullanılmaktadır. Herbir GPS uydusu hassas konum ve zaman...ır. Sistemin uzun vadeli hedefi ise GPS ve GLONASS gibi küresel bir...ı verilmiştir. 2.3.1.6 GAGAN- GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GPS Destekli Yer Takviyeli...şten kaynaklı çevresel etkilerin de GPS alıcılarını etkilediği bilinmektedir. 26...çli müdahalenin bir yolu zayıf GPS sinyalini karıştırma iken, di... Bilgiler; Cayro Pusuladan gelen pruva, GPS’ten gelen konum, yere göre... karşı karşıya olmalarıdır. Şekil 2.18: İstanbul Boğazı’nda deniz...’i mevcut Küresel Konumlandırma Sistemi (GPS)’nin yedeği olarak farklı bir...ı sisteme olan güveni artıracaktır. (5) GPS halihazırda gemiler için hayati... RADAR tercih edilmekte ve konum GPS’ten teyit edilmektedir. 3.3.4.2 Gemi trafik... kullanıcı tarafından seçilebilmelidir. (8) GPS halihazırda gemiler için hayati... Navigation Satellite System-GNSS) GPS’tir. GNSS (GPS)’in yedeği olarak hangi...



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... lb 23 21 21 22 18 17 14 15 14 14... 13 13 15 15 17 18 20 20 175 13.5 41... 2002 there will be exactly 18 intermediate and 12 heavy-class... could see as many as 18 intermediate and 12 heavy-class..., “Commercial Spacecraft Mission Model Update - 18 May 1995,” Office of Commercial... times are striving for 12-18 month delivery cycles, while launch... 1 Philippine-Mabuhay 1 ILV 1 China-APStar 2R 1 China-Chinasat 8 MLV Proton 4 HLV...-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-28 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-01 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-02 1 US... ICO 05 US-AF-GPS 2R-03 US-AF-GPS 2R-04 US-AF...-AF-GPS 2R-05 US-AF-GPS 2R-06 US-AF-GPS 2R-07 US-AF-GPS 2R-08 US-AF-GPS 2R... 3 Year Average Rate 28 32 18 27 77 25.7 9 24 8.0 TOTAL... 3 HLV 1 US-AF T4 DSP 18 1 US-NASA T4 Cassini 1 US... 23 68 22.7 28 32 18 27 77 25.7 24 27... TOTAL = Arianespace Atlas Average Rate 18 26 28 166 16.6 9 14 15 100 10.0 25 2.5 18 1.8 0 0 0.0 2 13 1.3 6 0.6 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 9 8 18 14 17 10 18 9 7 9 8 9 8 12 1 Intelsat 602... 1A 1 China-Chinasat 7 1 China-APStar 2R 1 China-APStar 2 1 China-Asiasat 2 1 US...-AF GPS Navstar 01 US-AF GPS Navstar 02 US-AF GPS Navstar 03 US-AF GPS Navstar 04 US-AF GPS Navstar 05 Long March 2 Ekran 18... Legend: 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 Gorizont 17 Gorizont 18 Gorizont 19 Raduga 1-1 Raduga 23...-AF GPS Navstar 12 US-AF GPS Navstar 13 US-AF GPS Navstar 14 US-AF GPS Navstar 15 US-AF GPS Navstar 16 US-AF GPS Navstar...-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 01 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 02 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 03 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 04 US-AF GPS 2 Blk 2 05 US-AF GPS Navstar 18.../Science 3 0 1 NASA-Wind 1 US-AF GPS 2 Block 2 06 1 US-AF SEDS...-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-07 1 US-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-28 1 1 1 1 US-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-08 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-01 US-AF-GPS 2-Block 2-10 1 US-AF-GPS 2R-02 US...-X Ray 1 US-AF GPS-Navstar 11 US-AF GPS Navstar 06 1 US-AF LOSAT (SDI) US-AF GPS Navstar 07 US-AF GPS Navstar 08 US-AF GPS Navstar 09 US-AF GPS Navstar... 1997 TOTAL Average Rate 18 25 26 18 19 23 23 22... Jumpseat)1 US-AF T4 DSP 18 US-AF T4 (DoD) 1 US...-Domestic 3 Russia-Domestic Start 0 20 18 Russia-Domestic 12 12 Russia...-Domestic 0 0 0 15 Russia-Domestic 18 18 Russia-Domestic 18 18 Russia-Domestic 24 23...-Domestic 1 Russia-Domestic 0 1 Israel-Gurwin 18 17 Russia-Domestic 1 Russia-Domestic...



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0.03/5
... of the next-generation 7-tonne, 18-kW Alphasat. Inmarsat’s 6.5-tonne I-XL... of other navigational satellite systems GPS, Glonass, and the future Galileo... on 25 September, using an 18-tonne dummy load dropped from... RpK’s COTS 11 agreement on 18 October, and although RpK subsequently... agreements with three firms on 18 June to support development of... Aerospace Center DLR issued an 18-month $690,000 contract to..., along with SES Global’s AMC-18. The 4.7tonne Wildblue-1, which develops... Canada, and Intelsat (Bermuda). AMC-18 was placed by the same... January was SES New Skies 18-kW NSS-8, carrying 56 C-band... equipped with 16 C-band and 18 Ku-band transponders. Optus Networks... service life is 15 years. 18 Eutelsat (France) ordered its W7... Italy) for payloads requiring 12 – 18 kW. ESA’s telecommunications budget, which... test operations of the 7-tonne, 18-kW Alphabus spacecraft from Inmarsat... data-linked Global Positioning System (GPS) position reports from aircraft. Other...) and thirteen smaller U.S. companies. On 18 September the U.S. Air Force announced... from the Global Positioning System (GPS). This feature, if implemented, would... the U.S. military to degrade civil GPS signals. The U.S. had stopped using... incorporated into the next-generation GPS-3 system. The Air Force completed... 14 September of the new GPS ground segment, which controls the... to 13 spacecraft, with a 16-18-satellite constellation expected to be... January 2008, and the full 18-satellite fleet required for complete..., which will apply to the U.S. GPS-3 L1C and Galileo L1F satellites... begin operations in 2012; the GPS-3 L1C spacecraft in 2013. Satamatics... Tracker, a device that uses the GPS navigation signal, relayed by Inmarsat... of other navigational satellite systems GPS, Glonass, and the future Galileo... a United Launch Alliance Delta-2 on 18 September. The 0.5-mresolution spacecraft, developed... contract, issued by ESA on 18 June to CosmoSkyMed-1’s builder Thales... minutes. A fourth spacewalk, lasting 6 hours, 18 minutes, was 36 conducted on... (NEEMO-12) took place on 7–18 May in the U.S. National Oceanic... (see Chapter IX.). 44 On 18 October the European Space Agency... scheduled to be launched. On 18 June NASA and ESA signed... orbit on 2 January, and on 18 January detected its first light..., NASA shut FUSE down on 18 October, when all its control... took images at wavelengths of 9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 190... burns JP-7 hydrocarbon fuel. On 18 September Aerojet (USA) completed data... the Tanegashima Space Center on 18 December, 2006. It was then... systems in a microgravity environment. The 18-month experiment, funded by the... a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, stereo cameras, a three-dimensional... Orbital Sciences Minotaur-1 rocket on 18 December 2006. Built by the... on 12 October following an 18-month overhaul that cost $2.04... into about 25 pieces on 18 February while in an orbit... Society by 31 January. On 18 December 2006, NASA announced a Space..., and especially Global Positioning System (GPS) applications. Space News’ annual “Launch... of DirecTV and EchoStar. On 18 December 2006, Loral Space & Communications.... IISL’s Statutory Changes As of 18 June 2007, the IISL is... of launchers throughout Europe. The 18-month contract is valued at... Agency of Ukraine announced on 18 July that the Ukraine government... will take a stake of nearly 18 percent in commercial broadcaster ITV.... ICASA had received up to 18 applications by the end of... the launch of its latest GPS-based vehicle security and tracking... owners. Based on the latest GPS, global information system (GIS), global... initial satellite of an augmented GPS system, the Quazi Zenith Satellite... launched in 2010, will provide GPS signals and broadcasting from a highly... Defense plans to stop procuring GPS satellites that provide Pentagon with... halted the intentional degradation of GPS satellite signals in May 2000... no longer be present in GPS 3 satellites, the Pentagon said. According... strong commitment to users of GPS that this free global utility... enhance the operation of the GPS constellation. The distributed server-based..., increase efficiency and accommodate future GPS capabilities as they become available... operates the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS provides 3-D position data in longitude... delivered to orbit a replenishment Block 2R satellite for the U.S. Air Force... of the GPS 2R satellites. The launch also marked the second GPS mission aboard a Boeing Delta II in less than two months. GPS 2R-16(M) is the third of the modernized GPS satellites that... note, stating that more than $18 billion is spent annually on... growth for satellite radio and GPS positioning and tracking is being... AMC-6 satellite. SES Americom's AMC-18 satellite completed in-orbit tests... an Arianespace Ariane 5 rocket, AMC-18 will provide broadcast coverage throughout...



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... Navigation Features ION NTM 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 GPS Satellites Help Outdoor Hobbyists Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 First Modernized GPS Satellite Delivered for May Launch... Executive Vice President: Len Jacobson, GPS Consultant; John Lavrakas, Overlook Systems... satellite navigation systems now operating, GPS and GLONASS, making them more...



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... Worker 2000 Presidential goal was 1.18 total workplace injury/illness cases... NASA/FAA/National Consortium of A e r o n a u t i c s S p a c e R e p o r t o f t h e 18 accomplished the goal of increased... determination of individual spacecraft using GPS receivers; • developed simplified equations of... U.S. remote sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS), satellite communications, and launch industries..., scientific, and governmental users of GPS technology during meetings of the... to host the offices Y e a r Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB), representing the... Center. In the area of GPS data services, NOAA acquired and... 2003, NOAA continued to use GPS and remote sensing technologies to... European Community toward cooperation between GPS and Europe’s planned Galileo satellite... and the end users of GPS technology, particularly with respect to... of the U.S. Government regarding the GPS-Galileo relationship. OSC also participated... ongoing bilateral cooperation related to GPS. These talks, held in October... cooperation to ensure interoperability between GPS and Japan’s planned Quasi-Zenith... of time signals received from GPS for the most demanding military... time scale. Using the microwave GPS carrier a n d frequency as the timing source instead of the GPS time code, NIST and its... interference between UWB devices and GPS, radar, and communications systems. NIST... 2003. The spectrum allocations for GPS. 2 0 0 3 results included updating satellite regulations.... These properties include high-precision GPS reference data, complete meteorological microclimate..., 2) the NOAA Forecast Systems a n d Laboratory GPS Surface Observation System Network, 3) the..., most tied to the aircraft GPS navigation log. These images are.... Satellite data were supplemented with GPS and geographic information system (GIS... being used in conjunction with GPS data for endangered species habitat...-resolution satellite remote sensing and GPS to support BIA and tribal... Action Plans sonnel also collected GPS data on high-priority dams... reporting period. BIA used commercial GPS receivers to collect data for... addition, digital aerial photographs with GPS coordinates were collected for all... the data using high-accuracy GPS ground control. They also generated.... AML specialists and contractors used GPS receivers to map subsidence complaints... use both the DOD Navstar GPS Precise Positioning Service (PPS) and augmented differential GPS for real-time positioning in... available. Over 1,500 Precise Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) units have been... events. The demand for trained GPS technical specialists to conduct fire... the United States. In response, GPS training courses were taught in... NPS staff used approximately 400 GPS receivers for mapping and navigation... A c t i v i t i e s mation designs. Mine inspectors employed GPS to verify jurisdictional boundaries of... to expand its use of GPS for surface mine reclamation Y e a r a coal... a camera. The instrument 71 with GPS databases to provide a visual presentation... for New England wildlife species. GPS was invasive plant species at... at a scale of 1:12000, with GPS center points, then digitally scanned... area. All plots have associated GPS coordinates, and most have detailed... Lakes Science Center regularly used GPS technologies to supplement scientific research conducted in 2003. GPS receivers and aerial photographs were... in the Detroit River required GPS technology to locate sample sites... studies in Lake Erie used GPS to guide sampling procedures and simplify navigation in open water. GPS was also used during native... parks in Michigan. A mapping-grade GPS receiver was used to determine... included helicopters for aerial and GPS equipment, food caterers, and showers... of Nationwide Differential GPS (NDGPS) receivers from a USDA GPS contract. At the... the fiscal year, over 4,100 GPS receivers were being used in... represented on Federal remote sensing, GPS, and geodata coordinating committees. NRCS... would not directly overlay the U.S. GPS military code. Other issues remained... U.S. leadership in geospatial technologies, including GPS, remote sensing, and Web-based... GPS Executive Board, the GPS outreach team developed an exhibit to promote GPS... 1980 13 89 1981 18 98 1982 18 101 1983 22 98... known as USA 166 and GPS 2R-8. Geosynchronous 20,228.8 km 187... known as USA 168 and GPS 2R-9. Also known as Milstar 6. Carries....cfm on the Web. A c t i v i t i e s DOD GPS satellite 2 0 0 3 Jan. 29, 2003 Navstar... Russell L. Schweickart 0:1:48 0:0:15 0:0:16 1:1:18 0:4:55 0:4:56 3:22:25 2:22... Garneau Flight Time (d:h:min) Highlights 2:0:18 Failed to achieve docking with... John-David F. Bartoe Joe H. Engle 7:2:18 Richard O. Covey James D. van Hoften...). Returned to Earth with Mir 18 crew (Vladimir N. Dezhurov, Gennady M. Strekalov...,330 24,843 20,865 18,259 18,620 17,037 15... and Land Elevation Satellite Interagency GPS Executive Board Integrated Global Observing... HST 2 0 0 3 H Y e a r GloVis GNSS GOES GP GPS GRACE GRC GSFC GSO GTE... Crop Assessment Division Precise Lightweight GPS Receiver Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory...



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... ............................................................................................................5 CHAPTER TWO: GPS AND GLONASS SYSTEMS........................................................7 2.1 GPS System ...............................................................................................................7 2.2 GLONASS System ....................................................................................................9 2.3 GPS and GLONASS... GPS and GLONASS......................................................15 2.4.2 Time System ....................................................................................................17 2.4.2.1 GLONASS Time....................................................................................17 2.4.2.2 GPS Time...............................................................................................18 2.4.2.3 Time Transformation .............................................................................18 2.4.3 Coordinate System...........................................................................................19 2.4.3.1 GLONASS Coordinate System .............................................................19 2.4.3.2 GPS... 5-17 Estimated GPS-GLONASS System Time Difference .................................. 91 Figure 5-18 Processing Results... two weeks. 2.3 GPS and GLONASS Modernizations 2.3.1 Modernization of GPS GPS reached Full Operational... (4.4.16) denotes the GPS system time t GPS for GPS observations but for GLONASS... offset as follows: dt r = t − t GLONASS = t − t GPS + t GPS − t GLONASS (4.4.17) g = dt + dt sys... ,avg ) (4.4.18) 62 ′ is a single sum of the real GPS-GLONASS system... − ⋅ (λ1r N1r 2 f 2r + δbLr1) − f 22r f12r − (4.4.32) ⋅ (λr2 N2r 2 f 2r GPS/GLONASS + δbLr... the GPS-GLONASS system time difference, as shown in Equation (4.4.18).Equations... f12r r ′ ⋅ N − ⋅ N2′r + ε Φ′rIF 1 2 2 2 2 f1r − f 2r f1r − f 2r (4.4.38) where cdt ′ g is the... provided in the following. East (m) 1 0 -1 GPS GPS/GLO North (m) 1 0 -1 Up (m) 1 0 -1 0:00 0:30... 30 seconds. 93 1 East (m) East (m) 1 0 -1 -1 GPS GPS/GLO 0 0 1 1 Up (m) -1 Up (m) -1 0 -1 0:00 0:30... (m) East (m) 0 GPS GPS/GLO 0 1 Up (m) 1 0 4:30 5:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 5:30 GPS GPS/GLO 0 -1 Up (m) 0 -1 6:00 6:00 6:30 7:00 GPS... 0 -1 1 0 0 -1 -1 GPS GPS/GLO 0 0 -1 1 1 Up (m) -1 0 8:30 9:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 9:30 10:00 GPS GPS...:30 11:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) Figure 5-18 Processing Results at... 12:00 94 1 East (m) East (m) 1 0 -1 -1 GPS GPS/GLO North (m) 0 0 -1 -1 1 1 0 -1 0:00 0:30 1:00... (m) 0 -1 North (m) 1 1 0 4:30 5:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 5:30 GPS GPS/GLO 0 -1 0 -1 6:00 6:00... 9:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 9:30 10:00 GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 0 0 -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 3:30 1 Up (m) North (m) Up (m) 0 -1 8:00 3:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 -1 4:00 2:30 1 1 Up (m) GPS GPS/GLO 1 Up... 12:00 95 1 East (m) East (m) 1 0 -1 -1 GPS GPS/GLO North (m) 0 0 -1 -1 1 1 0 -1 0:00 0:30 1:00... (m) East (m) 0 GPS GPS/GLO North (m) 0 1 1 0 4:30 5:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 5:30 GPS GPS/GLO 0 -1 0 -1 6:00 6:00 6:30 7:00 GPS Time... 9:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 9:30 10:00 GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 0 0 -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 3:30 1 Up (m) Up (m) North (m) 1 -1 8:00 3:00 GPS... the RMS statistics. 106 East (m) 1 0 -1 GPS GPS/GLONASS North (m) 1 0 -1 Up (m) 1 0 -1 1800 1900... (m) GPS GPS/GLO 0 -1 0 -1 0 -1 1 1 Up (m) -1 0 8:30 9:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 9:30 10:00 GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 0 0 -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 4:00 0 1 Up (m) 3:30 1 North (m) 0 -1 8:00 3:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 -1 4:00 2:30 1 -1 North (m) 0 -1 2:00 2:00 1 Up (m) 0 -1 0 GPS GPS/GLO 1 Up (m) North (m) Up (m) -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 0 0 -1 10:00... GPS GPS/GLO 1 1 0 -1 0 -1 1 1 Up (m) -1 0 8:30 9:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 9:30 10:00 GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 0 0 -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 North (m) 3:30 0 Up (m) North (m) Up (m) 0 -1 8:00 3:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 -1 4:00 2:30 1 1 Up (m) GPS GPS/GLO 1 Up (m) North (m) Up (m) -1 GPS GPS/GLO... 12:00 127 1 East (m) East (m) 1 0 -1 -1 GPS GPS/GLO North (m) 0 0 -1 -1 1 1 0 -1 0:00 0:30 1:00... (m) 0 -1 North (m) -1 1 0 4:30 5:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 5:30 GPS GPS/GLO 0 1 0 -1 6:00 6:00... 0 -1 1 0 0 -1 -1 GPS GPS/GLO 0 0 -1 1 1 Up (m) -1 0 8:30 9:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) 9:30 10:00 GPS GPS... 3:00 GPS Time (HH:MM) -1 GPS GPS/GLO 1 -1 4:00 2:30 1 1 Up (m) GPS GPS/GLO 1 Up... Sypm. on GIS/GPS,Istanbul/Turkey,September 15-18,1997,pp.156... Antenna Orientation on GPS Carrier Phase, Manuscripta Geodaetica, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1993, pp. 91-98. Yang, Y., R. R. Hatch and R.T. Sharpe (2004). GPS...