Спутник ФКИ. GRAIL. [Редактировать]

10.09.2011 в 17:08 мск с космодрома Канаверал /штат Флорида/ с помощью ракеты- носителя Delta-7920H-10C были запущены два зонда для исследования Луны GRAIL A (Discovery 11A) и GRAIL B (Discovery 11B). Программа полета. Оба зонда-"близнеца" GRAIL, запущенных в субботу с мыса Канаверал, успешно отделились от второй ступени ракеты-носителя Delta II, раскрыли солнечные батареи и вышли на расчетную траекторию. Чтобы достичь Луны, двум аппаратам GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) потребуется около четырех месяцев пути по специальной "энергосберегающей" траектории.

После достижения Луны зонды будут лететь друг за другом в течение 82 дней на высоте около 55 километров по полярной орбите вокруг Луны. Измеряя расстояние между аппаратами, которое будет меняться по мере того, как они проходят лунные гравитационные аномалии, ученые построят гравитационную карту спутника и получат представление о внутреннем строении Луны. Задачи миссии. Миссия GRAIL является частью программы NASA Discovery. GRAIL– крупный научно- исследовательский проект NASA по изучению недр Луны от коры до ядра. Два зонда- близнеца составят гравитационные карты земного спутника, которые позволят судить о его внутреннем строении и составе, а также получить представление о его тепловой эволюции, то есть периодах нагрева и остывания, что необходимо для лучшего понимания происхождения и развития. Точные гравитационные карты также станут неоценимой помощью в навигации будущих лунных космических станций. Как отметила научный руководитель миссии Мария Зубер (Maria Zuber), сегодняшние технологии позволяют определять расстояние между аппаратами с точностью до нескольких микрометров — «меньше диаметра красной кровяной клетки человека». Конструкция

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса (системы), кг960
2Количество аппаратов, шт.2

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Расчетный срок функционирования, месяц11

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2009-01-01496.2
2Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2009-01-0150.5
3Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2009-01-01427.0
4Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2009-01-0118.7
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2011-01-01496.2
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2011-01-0150.5
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2011-01-01427.0
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2011-01-0118.7
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-01487.2
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-0150.6
11Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2012-01-01398.3
12Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2012-01-0138.3

Каталог

#Наименование Масса, кг ×Дата пуска ×Ракета-носитель ×Космодром ×Страна операторСтрана производительТип
1Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory-A (GRAIL)1322011-09-10Дельта 2Мыс КанавералСШАСШАКА ФКИ
2Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory-B (GRAIL)1322011-09-10Дельта 2Мыс КанавералСШАСШАКА ФКИ

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0.44/5
... Waste Land and Attaining the Grail ........................................................................................................................ 213 Chapter 7 Michel Zink‟s Déodat... Quest for Oneself ....................................................................................................................... 224 7.1 The Grail Quest from the Perspective of..., Arthurian adventures and, particularly, the Grail quest, have been consistently intriguing... Television (London: McFarland, 2013). 1 the Grail quest that mention both medieval... medieval Grail quest romances, followed by an overview of modern Grail literature.... 7 MaryLynn Saul, „The Unholy Grail: Recasting the Grail Myth for an Unbelieving... of individual Grail quests. Wagner‟s Parsifal informed ideas about the Grail quest... Grail, Prolegomena to a Study of Grail Imagery in Arthurian Manuscripts‟, in The Grail..., P. J. C. Field, „Malory and the Grail‟, in The Grail, the Quest and the... World, David Lodge approaches the Grail quest from a different perspective, being... the earlier Grail quest romances. Zink‟s use of the Grail quest trope... of the Grail which differs from Chrétien de Troyes‟s Grail, an... the Grail quest, as well as exclusion from discussion of Grail literature... medieval and modern literature, the Grail quest narrative represents one version... medievalism, the Arthurian and the Grail quest themes make a spectacular reappearance... a substantial change from Malory‟s Grail and the Grail of Malory‟s sources. He... society, the Grail is, more often than not, an „Unholy Grail‟, a dangerous... Lance‟s „Unholy Grail‟, but there is also, presumably, the Grail of Percival... the „Unholy Grail‟ of sexual sin, but the Holy Grail of genuine... („The Lancelot-Grail Project: Chronological and Geograpical Distribution of Lancelot-Grail Manuscripts..., p. 3. 25 Stones, „Lancelot-Grail Project‟. 26 Stones, „Lancelot-Grail Project‟. 32 entertainment..., MS 93-94 (Stones, „Lancelot-Grail Project‟). 32 K. S. Whetter, „Subverting, Containing... 2013]). 35 Stones, „Seeing the Grail‟, p. 302. 36 Middleton, „Manuscripts‟, p. 219..., the Grail book, if indeed it is a romance about the Grail quest... „emphasizes the importance of the Grail quest, thus reinforcing a perspective established...: Perceval‟s Sister and the Grail Quest‟, in The Grail: A Casebook, ed. by... to modern Grail quest literature rather than considering the Grail quest, if...‟ virginity conceptualized as a kind of „Grail‟.8 Kaufman acknowledges that the popularity... see the Grail if you recall. Did you find the Grail? You... the „Unholy Grail‟, and Percy‟s use of the Grail quest metaphor for... Grail is quite intentional‟, indicating that „the quest for the contemporary Grail... way to attaining the Grail and that the Grail can be achieved... most prominent difference between medieval Grail romances and Percy‟s Lancelot is... appearance of the Grail itself. In medieval romances, the Grail may be... Grail, there is Percival‟s Grail and the film-makers‟ Grail. Lancelot‟s unholy Grail constitutes...‟s Grail is closer to the true Grail than Lancelot‟s unholy Grail. The third Grail..., including contemporary theories about the Grail origins presented in Jessie Weston... romances, particularly romances about the Grail quest, Percy‟s Lancelot has a didactic... no unholy grail just as there was no Holy Grail‟ (275). Lancelot... accomplish the Grail quest, has parallels in medieval and American Grail quest.... Analogies between Lancelot and medieval Grail quest romances are generally found... resembles the medieval Grail quest romances, where the Grail is taken from... private Grail of affection enables the attainment of the public Grail and... end, the Grail quest romances usually end with the Grail being taken... the possibility of any further Grail adventures. 6.2 Reality Clashes with Literary... distinguished father, Arthur Kingfisher. Persse‟s Grail being wordplay on „girl‟, it... message of medieval Grail quest romances, where the Grail is available only... their interpretation of the Grail: in Déodat, the Grail is viewed, by... the Grail quest is primarily a spiritual adventure. However, the Grail quest in... to seek the Grail, because through knowing the Grail mysteries one comes... one nearer the Grail and why approaching the Grail means moving closer... to attain the Grail appears in the medieval Grail quest romances, including... theme of the Grail story].40 Zink‟s Grail can be achieved only... guidelines for action. Approaching medieval Grail quest romances, a reader has to...., The History of the Holy Grail (Cambridge; D. S. Brewer, 2010) O‟Donovan, Daniel...), 45-8 ---------, „Malory and the Grail‟, in The Grail, the Quest and the...) Saul, MaryLynn, „The Unholy Grail: Recasting the Grail Myth for an Unbelieving... Holy Grail‟, Arthuriana, 21:2 (2011), 42-58 Smith, C. E., „The Unholy Grail in... Lancelot-Grail Project: Chronological and Geographical Distribution of Lancelot-Grail Manuscripts‟, The... Grail, Prolegomena to a Study of Grail Imagery in Arthurian Manuscripts‟, in The Grail...: Perceval‟s Sister and the Grail Quest‟, in The Grail: A Casebook, ed. by...



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0.26/5
...”) of the Guardians of the Grail: landscape in the style of... to atone for flaunting the Grail’s command! Ah, woe to him... the brothers to whom the Grail’s mighty power grants the strength... he then turned towards the Grail. from which its guardian drove... awaits the knights of the Grail to lure them to sinful... with it, he fancies the Grail already firmly his! Ohnmächtig...: a blessed radiance emanated from the Grail; a holy vision clearly spoke to... Well done, according to the Grail’s mercy: they vanquish evil who... if you are pure, the Grail will be meat and drink... Gral? PARSIFAL Who is the Grail? GURNEMANZ Das sagt sich nicht... could tread it whom the Grail itself had not guided. PARSIFAL... of the castle of the Grail.) GURNEMANZ (sich zu Parsifal wendend... opened: the knights of the Grail enter from the right and... an den KNIGHTS OF THE GRAIL At this latest love-feast... the covered shrine of the Grail. This procession moves to the... the covered shrine of the Grail.) JÜNGLINGE (aus der mittleren Höhe... I again today look on the Grail and live? Must I die without... expiate your sin! – Uncover the Grail! AMFORTAS ] 5 Nein! Laßt ihn unenth... antike Kristallschale, TITUREL Uncover the Grail! (Amfortas raises himself slowly and... everything. Amfortas, transfigured, raises the Grail aloft and waves it gently... today! (Amfortas sets down the Grail again, and its glow gradually... Supper the Lord of the Grail once turned, through the power... passing the chalice of the Grail over them, distribute the bread...! – that chaste guardian of the Grail – what drove you forth again... it – I myself will guard the Grail – Ha ha! How did you....) In the domain of the Grail. A pleasant, open Spring landscape with... of the knights of the Grail, comes out of the hut..., the holy Spear of the Grail. GURNEMANZ (in höchstes Entzücken... is the domain of the Grail, whose brotherhood awaits you. Ah... again his holy office. The Grail has long lain enclosed within..., whom the sight of the Grail no longer revived, is dead... to reveal to us the Grail, once more to serve today... of the knights of the Grail, and he and Kundry invest..., the great hall of the Grail, but without the festal tables... the covered shrine with the Grail.) ERSTER ZUG DER RITTER (mit... in its sheltering shrine the Grail to the holy Office; whom... more might look upon the Grail. ERSTER ZUG DER RITTER Wer... him from looking on the Grail? ZWEITER ZUG DER RITTER Den... behind the altar of the Grail, the coffin placed in front... KNIGHTS Alas! Guardian of the Grail! Ah, for the last time... closer to Amfortas) Uncover the Grail! – Serve the Office! Your father... agony, then once more the Grail shall shine clear on you... the Grail. No more shall it be hidden: uncover the Grail, open the shrine! (Parsifal mounts the altar steps, takes the Grail... Lichtschein aus der Höhe.) The Grail gradually glows with a soft light... redeemed! (A beam of light: the Grail glows at its brightest. From... to Parsifal, who waves the Grail in blessing over the worshipping...



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0.14/5
...-3), a mission in its development phase (GRAIL), three Missions of Opportunities (M3... Impact encounter in FY 2005. GRAIL will be in Assembly, Test....3 -- Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) 122.4 124.1 104.8 41.4 4.7 0.0 -- Other... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Changes from FY 2010 Request... (GRAIL). Additional details on the GRAIL mission are contained in the GRAIL "Project... July 2005 Deep Impact mission. GRAIL has completed its Critical Design... Explanation of Changes GRAIL GRAIL continues its development phase. GRAIL will perform high... to determine its interior structure. GRAIL will provide the most accurate... for any planet, including Earth. GRAIL will enable the public to... to public outreach and education. GRAIL was selected in December 2007... (Phase C) in January 28, 2009. GRAIL is currently scheduled to launch... can be found in the GRAIL development section of this document... or instrument development and assembly GRAIL, Strofio, LaRA Same PLANET - 27... Mapper (M3) EPOXI Stardust NExT GRAIL Strofio LaRa Discovery Management Discovery... of Tempel) JPL JPL None GRAIL JPL GSFC, JPL, KSC None... Principal Investigator and leads the GRAIL mission. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California... of Project Changes NASA confirmed GRAIL to proceed into implementation phase... Phase C/D) on January 28, 2009. GRAIL approved baseline development ($427M) and... and Interior Laboratory Project Purpose GRAIL was selected in December 2007... overarching scientific goal of the GRAIL mission is to determine the... from crust to core. The GRAIL mission will also advance our... the other terrestrial-type planets. GRAIL has six lunar science objectives... lunar inner core. Project Parameters GRAIL will achieve its science objectives... measurements of the lunar gravity. GRAIL will ultimately provide a global, high... management to JPL. Acquisition Strategy GRAIL was selected competitively in December... planned for GRAIL, late in 2011. Single String Spacecraft Both GRAIL spacecraft...



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... mission in its development phase (GRAIL), and four Missions of Opportunities..., comet Hartley 2, in November 2010. GRAIL will complete its Critical Design... layer. In 2008, NASA Selected GRAIL, a lunar gravity mapping mission, as....3 Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) 67.0 122.4 124.1 104.8 41... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Other Missions and Data Analysis... (GRAIL). Additional details on the GRAIL mission are contained in the GRAIL "Project..., comet Hartley 2, in November 2010. GRAIL will complete its Critical Design... Explanation of Changes GRAIL GRAIL is in its development phase. GRAIL will perform... to determine its interior structure. GRAIL will provide the most accurate... for any planet, including Earth. GRAIL will enable the public to... to public outreach and education. GRAIL was selected in December 2007... (Phase C) in January 28, 2009. GRAIL is currently scheduled to launch... can be found in the GRAIL section of this document. SCI... begin spacecraft development and assembly GRAIL Same SCI-109 Mission Directorate... Mapper (M3) EPOXI Stardust NExT GRAIL Discovery Management Tech & Adv Concepts... of Tempel) MSFC JPL None GRAIL MSFC GSFC, JPL, KSC None... Principal Investigator and leads the GRAIL mission. The Discovery Program solicits....0M. Explanation of Project Changes GRAIL was confirmed to proceed into... 28, 2009. This budget reflects GRAIL approved baseline for schedule, development... and Interior Laboratory Project Purpose GRAIL was selected in December 2007... overarching scientific goal of the GRAIL mission is to determine the... from crust to core. The GRAIL mission will also advance our... the other terrestrial-type planets. GRAIL will conduct six lunar science... lunar inner core. Project Parameters GRAIL will achieve its science objectives... measurements of the lunar gravity. GRAIL will ultimately provide a global, high... Development Cost and Schedule Summary GRAIL was confirmed to proceed into.... This budget reflects the approved GRAIL Project baseline for schedule, development... management to JPL. Acquisition Strategy GRAIL was selected competitively in December... costs Spacecraft & Reaction Wheel Both GRAIL spacecraft are largely single string...



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0.42/5
... the Quest of the Holy Grail (London: Walter Scott, 1886), xxix..., the life of Lancelot, the Grail Quest – and also offers a broadly... Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1975) and Marion Zimmer Bradley... of Lancelot, Gareth and the Grail Quest – into five or six... the Quest of the Holy Grail, Ernest Rhys notes that ‘one... Tale of Gareth and the Grail Quest. They omit the rape... Pyle, The Story of the Grail and the Passing of Arthur...’, foreshadowing his role in Malory’s Grail Quest. ‘But the lad knew... to questers for the Holy Grail. Similarly, Forbush’s boys were encouraged... achieve the Grail is linked to childhood deficiency: recounting his Grail Quest...’s notion of Christ’s ‘Hallows’ (the Grail, the Lance and the Crown... always accompanied sightings of the Grail. This was a novel shift in... and Edwardian versions omitted the Grail Quest altogether, or marginalised it..., and the symbolism of the Grail and Hallows underpins the entire... a rejuvenated interest in the Holy Grail after World War One, initiated... and esoteric subjects, including the Grail. Williams had discussed both Weston... his son’, noting that ‘the Grail had run through it all... that the knights on the Grail quest failed because they should... Gawain’s failure to achieve the Grail is called, ‘Sir Gawaine and... and failure to achieve the Grail, but the fact that these... simply not suited to the Grail Quest. Although there is no... Monty Python and the Holy Grail, a bathetic, parodic (albeit affectionate) critique...: Monty Python and the Holy Grail in the Twenty-First Century... Lancelot could not achieve the Grail was because of ‘the faults... 1907. ——— The Story of the Grail and the Passing of Arthur... the Quest of the Holy Grail. London: Walter Scott, 1886. ——— The...: Monty Python and the Holy Grail in the Twenty-First Century.... Monty Python and the Holy Grail. Directed by Terry Jones. Handmade...



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0.19/5
... Mars Science Lander (Dr. Treiman), GRAIL  (Drs. Kiefer and McGovern), Cassini... of the Moon revealed by GRAIL gravity gradiometry, Science. Schmidt, M.E., Campbell... GRAIL Science Team, The Crust of the Moon as Seen by GRAIL... Results from the GRAIL Mission.” Presentation Type P. Session – GRAIL. 49. J. Ruiz, P. J. MCGOVERN... O. 52. Kiefer, W., Zuber, M., McGovern, P., Head, J., “GRAIL Gravity Observations of Lunar Volcanic..., P., Crews-Hanna, J., Head, J., Williams, J., Zuber, M., “GRAIL Gravity Observations of Lunar Volcanic... Laboratory (GRAIL): Extended Mission and Endgame Status”. Presentation Type O. Session – GRAIL. 69... lunar mascons? New insights from GRAIL gravity and numerical modeling.” Presentation... emplacement scenarios.” Presentation Type O. Session - GRAIL 77. Morris R.V., M. D. W., Blake D.F., D.T. Vaniman, Bish..., M., Goossens, S., rews-Hanna, J., Soderblom, J., Kiefer, W., “GRAIL Gravity Field of the South... P. 109. Sori, M., Zuber, M., Head, J., Kiefer, W., “GRAIL Search for Cryptomare.” Presentation Type... of the Lunar Crust from GRAIL Data: Implications for Bulk Composition..., “GRAIL Gravity Observations of Lunar Volcanic Complexes.” Presentation Type O. Session GRAIL 123...          125. Wieczorek, M., Nimmo, F., Kiefer, W., “The GRAIL Science Team, High-resolution Estimates... Density and Porosity from the GRAIL Extended Mission.” Presentation Type O. Session..., W., “The GRAIL Science Team, Lunar Interior Properties and the GRAIL Mission's Gravitational..., W., The GRAIL Science Team, Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL): Extended Mission..., with content geared toward the  GRAIL mission  Interviewed by reporter Luna... on the discoveries from the GRAIL  gravity mission to the Moon...: Steps towards  development of life  GRAIL explores the Moon's  interior Lunar...



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0.29/5
... the asteroid Vesta, and the GRAIL launch. On February 14, 2011... largest asteroid in the belt. GRAIL launched successfully from Cape Canaveral...-month journey to the Moon. GRAIL will create a gravity map of... the twin spacecraft, previously called GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B. The naming contest was... PLANNED FOR FY 2013 The GRAIL mission will complete its collection... some project’s budgets, such as GRAIL, DAWN, and MESSENGER, will be....4 12.5 Strofio 6.2 1.6 0.9 1.3 0.7 0.8 0.8 103.4 29.8 8.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Dawn GRAIL 14.8 14.3 8.1 10.1 11.3 0.4 8.5 M ESSENGER... than $35 million; operating missions (GRAIL, Dawn, MESSENGER); missions whose operations... MISSIONS AND DATA ANALYSIS and GRAIL missions. Data access through Discovery.... GRAVITY RECOVERY AND INTERIOR LABORATORY (GRAIL) GRAIL is composed of two functionally... asteroids. Launched in September 2011, GRAIL will complete its prime mapping... mission extension. Recent Achievements GRAIL The twin GRAIL spacecraft successfully launched on...



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0.31/5
... Mars Science Lander (Dr. Treiman), Grail (Drs. Kiefer and McGovern), Cassini... of the Moon revealed by GRAIL gravity gradiometry. Submitted to Science... the Moon as seen by GRAIL. Submitted to Science. 25. White..., M.T., McGovern, P.J., Head, J.W., and the GRAIL Science Team, GRAIL Gravity Observations of Lunar... Lunar Mascons? New Insights from GRAIL Gravity and Numerical Modeling, AGU..., Gravitational Signatures, and Tests for GRAIL, Lunar Planet. Sci., 43, abstract... Astrobiology W.S. Kiefer Principal Investigator NASA GRAIL Guest Scientist Program Density Models... anomalies. G. Kramer Co-Investigator NASA GRAIL Guest Scientist Program Volcanic and...: Constraints from Integrated Analysis of GRAIL Gravity and Other Remotely Sensed... Modeling P. J. McGovern Principal Investigator NASA GRAIL Guest Investigator Program 30    Volcanic...: Constraints from Integrated Analysis of GRAIL gravity and other remotely sensed... (2011-2013).  Guest Scientist for GRAIL Mission (2012-2014).  Venus High...



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0.19/5
... Martin, Univ. of Indianapolis The Grail Quest in the Royal Shakespeare... J. Bryan, Brown Univ. The Modern Grail: Insider Tips from Search Committees... in the Castle of the Grail Maidens: George Miller’s Mad Max... and the Holy Grail Richard Sévère, Centenary College The Grail in England... Eschenbach’s Grail Evelyn Meyer, St. Louis Univ. Reclaiming the Grail from Arthur... Geert H. M. Claassens, KU Leuven The Grail in Medieval Wales Joshua Byron... Friday 10:00 a.m. The Holy Grail (A Roundtable) Sponsor: International Arthurian Society.... Session 364 Schneider 1280 “The Grail Is the Opposite of Poetry... in Jack Spicer’s The Holy Grail (A Performance and Roundtable) Sponsor: eth..., Univ. of Massachusetts–Boston (“Spicer’s Grail in the Boston Public Library...



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0.12/5
... France. The association of the Grail  with king Arthur started with... 1230A.D. did  Parsifal achieve the Grail. After Chrétien came Wolfram... the  Arthurian age when the Grail became associated with him. There... object. The guardianship of the Grail required the highest degree of... return for their purity, the Grail conferred blessings upon the land... was visible to  all. The Grail withdrew its presence from humanity... Grail.  THE GRAIL LEGEND  There are at least six versions of the Grail... his theatre in  Bayreuth.  The Grail legend goes as follows: Parsifal... the Grail which is "Whom does one serve with the Grail?" He... Wolfram. He believed that the Grail was a stone fallen from  heaven... and called him Anfortas. The Grail resided in a magnificent  castle and... miracle,  a writing appeared on the Grail stone, that a knight would come...  Kundrie. Parsifal however, achieved the Grail eventually and became the king... unfinished. Parsifal  however, achieved the Grail in one of the "continuations... but  of the Grail. The guardians of the Grail had become knights... these relics with Christ.  The Grail land itself thereby became the... as first guardian of the  Grail. Amfortas performed this duty until... been denied membership in the Grail Order. The  brotherhood came to... proceeded with Parsifal to the Grail castle. A castle of  great pillars... of Esquires brings in the  Grail, encased in a box. Titurel, Amfortas..., still refused to  uncover the Grail. He tore his clothes revealing... back.  Parsifal orders that the Grail be uncovered and should never...  relieved of his duties, the Grail shines brightest, the chalice was... most mystical of all the Grail stories. An  extraordinary tale, which... Arthur took a back seat. The Grail itself and its  central character... central  theme, which was the Grail. Wagner therefore, brought out the... the Grail is what should be focussed on.  THE HOLY GRAIL  What is the Holy Grail in reality? What... were converted  to Christianity. The Grail itself only became a Christian symbol... of the characteristics of the Grail.  It was associated with purity...  serve with the Grail?" This question about the Grail held the cure... it by Parsifal. Therefore, the Grail was indispensable to the  prosperity... therefore, was impossible without the Grail and Parsifal  held the key... by him), appeared on the Grail stone. The predicted deliverer appeared... enough to serve the Grail, as  the Grail required the purest of... old knight Gurnemanz what the Grail was.  The question however, was.... The failure to  uncover the Grail had disastrous consequences. These consequences...  consequently the service of the Grail depended on the personal involvement... on the Grail legend. Because the chalice or the Grail was already..., a concept totally inconceivable with the Grail. The  legends surely did not... stands the  Castle of the Grail, spiritually visible and tangible, because... substantiality. This Castle of the Grail contains a Sanctuary which lies on... Guardians of the Holy Grail!"  The Holy Grail according to this book... creation. This  would identify the Grail as a spiritual object, a view, which...  where the Grail had been associated with Paradise.  The Grail therefore has... legends, the Grail always resides in a castle called the  Grail castle and... the Holy Grail  occupying a sanctuary called the Castle of the Grail. Abd... be found in the spiritual Grail, which Grail was then  referred to... line! ... The Guardians of the Grail are Eternal Primordial  Spiritual Beings... of the Holy Grail. The actual  Guardians of the Grail were higher... there is a vessel called the "Grail", which  is faithfully guarded by... Sphere of Radiation." The actual Grail was therefore not  referred to... logical reasons in  the actual Grail Castle where its Guardians were... his downfall.  What does the Grail signify however? We have already... themselves have depicted about the Grail. Life­giving, source  of power... ask the questions concerning the Grail and the consequences were  disastrous... be crowned king of the Grail.  Throughout all the writings, Parsifal... his name always associated with Grail? The regularity with which this... indeed be synonymous with the Grail  and probably inseparable from it... to conceive a legend about the  Grail without this character. His characteristics... the Grail? Why is he always the protagonist in the Grail drama... as already mentioned that the Grail Castle where  Amfortas failed was...  king of the Grail? Parsifal entered the Grail castle in Amfortas' realm...  King of the actual Holy Grail because as mentioned, being a messenger... actual Holy Grail in the spiritual realm and this Holy  Grail as...  held in rapture whenever the Grail dispenses its blessings. The reason... became personally involved in the Grail story of Amfortas. The reason... therewith King of the Holy Grail, King of Creation! Parsifal's great... the Light of Truth, the Grail Message. Stiftung Gralsbotschaft  Publishing Company.... 1990.  2.  Loomis, Roger Sherman. The Grail, From Celtic Myth to Christian... Ltd. 1992.  3.  Matthews, John. The Grail, Quest for the eternal. Thames...