Спутник ФКИ. GRAIL. [Редактировать]

10.09.2011 в 17:08 мск с космодрома Канаверал /штат Флорида/ с помощью ракеты- носителя Delta-7920H-10C были запущены два зонда для исследования Луны GRAIL A (Discovery 11A) и GRAIL B (Discovery 11B). Программа полета. Оба зонда-"близнеца" GRAIL, запущенных в субботу с мыса Канаверал, успешно отделились от второй ступени ракеты-носителя Delta II, раскрыли солнечные батареи и вышли на расчетную траекторию. Чтобы достичь Луны, двум аппаратам GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) потребуется около четырех месяцев пути по специальной "энергосберегающей" траектории.

После достижения Луны зонды будут лететь друг за другом в течение 82 дней на высоте около 55 километров по полярной орбите вокруг Луны. Измеряя расстояние между аппаратами, которое будет меняться по мере того, как они проходят лунные гравитационные аномалии, ученые построят гравитационную карту спутника и получат представление о внутреннем строении Луны. Задачи миссии. Миссия GRAIL является частью программы NASA Discovery. GRAIL– крупный научно- исследовательский проект NASA по изучению недр Луны от коры до ядра. Два зонда- близнеца составят гравитационные карты земного спутника, которые позволят судить о его внутреннем строении и составе, а также получить представление о его тепловой эволюции, то есть периодах нагрева и остывания, что необходимо для лучшего понимания происхождения и развития. Точные гравитационные карты также станут неоценимой помощью в навигации будущих лунных космических станций. Как отметила научный руководитель миссии Мария Зубер (Maria Zuber), сегодняшние технологии позволяют определять расстояние между аппаратами с точностью до нескольких микрометров — «меньше диаметра красной кровяной клетки человека». Конструкция

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса (системы), кг960
2Количество аппаратов, шт.2

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Расчетный срок функционирования, месяц11

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2009-01-01496.2
2Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2009-01-0150.5
3Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2009-01-01427.0
4Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2009-01-0118.7
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2011-01-01496.2
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2011-01-0150.5
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2011-01-01427.0
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2011-01-0118.7
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-01487.2
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-0150.6
11Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2012-01-01398.3
12Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2012-01-0138.3

Каталог

#Наименование Масса, кг ×Дата пуска ×Ракета-носитель ×Космодром ×Страна операторСтрана производительТип
1Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory-A (GRAIL)1322011-09-10Дельта 2Мыс КанавералСШАСШАКА ФКИ
2Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory-B (GRAIL)1322011-09-10Дельта 2Мыс КанавералСШАСШАКА ФКИ

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... by Grigol Robakidze «Guards of Grail”)...........................................................160 maia jaliaSvili saqarTvelo, Tbilisi... by Grigol Robakidze “Guards of Grail”) Soviet Georgia was some kind.... In his novel “Guards of Grail” he symbolically restored the Georgia... paradigms. Key words: Grigol Robakidze, Grail, Mythical, Georgian Literature. maia jaliaSvili... his search for the Holy Grail, Parsifal becomes distracted by the.... The search for the Holy Grail is, in essence, the search... go on a quest for the Grail; the physical movement away from... this sense, Parsifal on his Grail Quest is, in a sense, an... on the quest for the Grail, and accepts that this necessary.... For the seeker for the Grail, the only way to find...



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... the quest for the holy grail). Key words: Pound, Cantos, modernism... the quest for the holy grail. For whatever reason—piracy of.... Similarly, the quest for the grail is perhaps also relatable. In... the grail quest, the real importance is not finding the grail itself... seeking it. To find the grail itself is, in a sense, not... Cantos as being comparable to a grail quest. He does not need..., Canterbury) or a specific goal (the grail, or a paradise, heavenly or terrestrial... McCarthy’s “The Road” as Apocalyptic Grail Narrative. Studies in the Novel...



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... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, designed to increase knowllaunch... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft lifted off from Cape... Earth’s moon in unprecedented detail. GRAIL-A reached the moon on New Year’s Eve 2011, while GRAIL-B arrived on New Year’s Day... to measure its gravity field. GRAIL answered long-standing questions about... Aquarius instrument for NASA, the GRAIL mission for NASA, and the... of Jupiter September 10, 2011 GRAIL A/B 2011-046A-B Delta 2 7920H-10...’s Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) twin spacecraft (Ebb and Flow... GOES-R GP-B GPHS-RTG GPS GRAIL GREAT GS GSFC GTF GV...



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..., the Juno mission to Jupiter, GRAIL, and the James Webb Space... Moon with GRAIL The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, or GRAIL, will... interior structure and gravity field. GRAIL has in its lineage the... to the XSS11 spacecraft on GRAIL. Aerospace had a number of critical... operations lead. Like XSS-11, GRAIL is mostly a singlestring system, which..., evaluation, and appropriate design selection. GRAIL, the Gravity Recovery and Interior... assess the reliability of the GRAIL design during its preliminary design phase. These studies allow GRAIL engineers to quickly assess what...



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... Waste Land and Attaining the Grail ........................................................................................................................ 213 Chapter 7 Michel Zink‟s Déodat... Quest for Oneself ....................................................................................................................... 224 7.1 The Grail Quest from the Perspective of..., Arthurian adventures and, particularly, the Grail quest, have been consistently intriguing... Television (London: McFarland, 2013). 1 the Grail quest that mention both medieval... medieval Grail quest romances, followed by an overview of modern Grail literature.... 7 MaryLynn Saul, „The Unholy Grail: Recasting the Grail Myth for an Unbelieving... of individual Grail quests. Wagner‟s Parsifal informed ideas about the Grail quest... Grail, Prolegomena to a Study of Grail Imagery in Arthurian Manuscripts‟, in The Grail..., P. J. C. Field, „Malory and the Grail‟, in The Grail, the Quest and the... World, David Lodge approaches the Grail quest from a different perspective, being... the earlier Grail quest romances. Zink‟s use of the Grail quest trope... of the Grail which differs from Chrétien de Troyes‟s Grail, an... the Grail quest, as well as exclusion from discussion of Grail literature... medieval and modern literature, the Grail quest narrative represents one version... medievalism, the Arthurian and the Grail quest themes make a spectacular reappearance... a substantial change from Malory‟s Grail and the Grail of Malory‟s sources. He... society, the Grail is, more often than not, an „Unholy Grail‟, a dangerous... Lance‟s „Unholy Grail‟, but there is also, presumably, the Grail of Percival... the „Unholy Grail‟ of sexual sin, but the Holy Grail of genuine... („The Lancelot-Grail Project: Chronological and Geograpical Distribution of Lancelot-Grail Manuscripts..., p. 3. 25 Stones, „Lancelot-Grail Project‟. 26 Stones, „Lancelot-Grail Project‟. 32 entertainment..., MS 93-94 (Stones, „Lancelot-Grail Project‟). 32 K. S. Whetter, „Subverting, Containing... 2013]). 35 Stones, „Seeing the Grail‟, p. 302. 36 Middleton, „Manuscripts‟, p. 219..., the Grail book, if indeed it is a romance about the Grail quest... „emphasizes the importance of the Grail quest, thus reinforcing a perspective established...: Perceval‟s Sister and the Grail Quest‟, in The Grail: A Casebook, ed. by... to modern Grail quest literature rather than considering the Grail quest, if...‟ virginity conceptualized as a kind of „Grail‟.8 Kaufman acknowledges that the popularity... see the Grail if you recall. Did you find the Grail? You... the „Unholy Grail‟, and Percy‟s use of the Grail quest metaphor for... Grail is quite intentional‟, indicating that „the quest for the contemporary Grail... way to attaining the Grail and that the Grail can be achieved... most prominent difference between medieval Grail romances and Percy‟s Lancelot is... appearance of the Grail itself. In medieval romances, the Grail may be... Grail, there is Percival‟s Grail and the film-makers‟ Grail. Lancelot‟s unholy Grail constitutes...‟s Grail is closer to the true Grail than Lancelot‟s unholy Grail. The third Grail..., including contemporary theories about the Grail origins presented in Jessie Weston... romances, particularly romances about the Grail quest, Percy‟s Lancelot has a didactic... no unholy grail just as there was no Holy Grail‟ (275). Lancelot... accomplish the Grail quest, has parallels in medieval and American Grail quest.... Analogies between Lancelot and medieval Grail quest romances are generally found... resembles the medieval Grail quest romances, where the Grail is taken from... private Grail of affection enables the attainment of the public Grail and... end, the Grail quest romances usually end with the Grail being taken... the possibility of any further Grail adventures. 6.2 Reality Clashes with Literary... distinguished father, Arthur Kingfisher. Persse‟s Grail being wordplay on „girl‟, it... message of medieval Grail quest romances, where the Grail is available only... their interpretation of the Grail: in Déodat, the Grail is viewed, by... the Grail quest is primarily a spiritual adventure. However, the Grail quest in... to seek the Grail, because through knowing the Grail mysteries one comes... one nearer the Grail and why approaching the Grail means moving closer... to attain the Grail appears in the medieval Grail quest romances, including... theme of the Grail story].40 Zink‟s Grail can be achieved only... guidelines for action. Approaching medieval Grail quest romances, a reader has to...., The History of the Holy Grail (Cambridge; D. S. Brewer, 2010) O‟Donovan, Daniel...), 45-8 ---------, „Malory and the Grail‟, in The Grail, the Quest and the...) Saul, MaryLynn, „The Unholy Grail: Recasting the Grail Myth for an Unbelieving... Holy Grail‟, Arthuriana, 21:2 (2011), 42-58 Smith, C. E., „The Unholy Grail in... Lancelot-Grail Project: Chronological and Geographical Distribution of Lancelot-Grail Manuscripts‟, The... Grail, Prolegomena to a Study of Grail Imagery in Arthurian Manuscripts‟, in The Grail...: Perceval‟s Sister and the Grail Quest‟, in The Grail: A Casebook, ed. by...



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...-5 Small Spacecraft Design for the GRAIL Mission Stuart R. Spath Lockheed Martin... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission was to collect a global... of 200.6 kg each, these GRAIL spacecraft were among the lightest... the on-orbit performance during GRAIL’s primary mission including: • Spacecraft performance... mission Not only have the GRAIL spacecraft returned a wealth of scientific... Development Office (RSDO) catalog. The GRAIL mission proposal was submitted to... the basic mantras of the GRAIL proposal was high value science... extend through December 7, 2012. INTRODUCTION GRAIL is a two-spacecraft lunar gravity... OVERVIEW A NASA Discovery-class mission, GRAIL will unlock the mysteries of... acquired about the moon from GRAIL will be extended to understand... how the terrestrial planets evolved. GRAIL’s mission design for the primary... depicted in Figure 1. Per the GRAIL project-level documentation, the mission... other terrestrial planets. Credit: JPL GRAIL was implemented using an Lockheed... and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. GRAIL placed twin spacecraft (referred to... of the lunar gravity. The GRAIL science team then utilized the... and to October 19, 2011. GRAIL was launched on the third... days of weather delays. The GRAIL spacecraft separated from the Delta...-v, and longer TLC duration. For GRAIL, the extended TLC duration was... process was used successfully on GRAIL to design and maintain a spacecraft... of the Science phase the GRAIL spacecraft were in a near-polar... than three times underneath the GRAIL orbit. The collection of gravity... derivation and flow-down for GRAIL began with systems engineering performing... in all applicable sources including GRAIL’s environmental requirements document (ERD), JPL... studies were performed by the GRAIL spacecraft team to drive out... bus was not adequate for GRAIL. Because it was designed for... the 850 m/sec required by GRAIL to capture into lunar orbit... options to consider as the GRAIL point of departure. These bus... bus would fly unchanged. The GRAIL team was fully aware that... arrays were undersized for the GRAIL power requirements. The solar array... XSS-11 to ~800W on GRAIL) simply by increasing the size... the development lifecycle, the twin GRAIL spacecraft were designed to be.... The gravity measurement technique on GRAIL (inherited from GRACE) requires that... the other pointed aft. Furthermore, GRAIL’s orbit requires that the normal... each spacecraft, but the two GRAIL orbiters fly in orientations that... Redundancy. One unique aspect of GRAIL was the extremely short mission... on other missions. Moreover, the GRAIL ERD specified benign radiation conditions.... Based on all these factors, GRAIL was proposed as a single-string... it would not significantly increase GRAIL’s mission risk. Figure 8: Science Collection... instances of component redundancy, the GRAIL Fault Protection (FP) required some... to reduce thermal perturbations during GRAIL science collection necessitated two key... safeguards were in place for GRAIL. WARM GAS RADIATOR BATTERY RADIATOR..., computer modeling, and technical reviews. GRAIL’s successful Preliminary Design Reviews at...) and David Lehman (JPL), the GRAIL project submitted an extended mission... Credit: JPL PRIMARY MISSION S/C PERFORMANCE GRAIL’s primary mission ended on May... on May 29, 2012, the GRAIL spacecraft completed their primary mission.... The press release states: The GRAIL mission has gathered unprecedented detail... diverse worlds we see today. "GRAIL delivered to Earth over 99... phasing data provided by the GRAIL mission design team, the spacecraft... Fault Protection GR-A GRAIL-A spacecraft, or Ebb GR-B GRAIL-B spacecraft, or Flow... Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment GRAIL Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory... spacecraft components. This is because GRAIL’s 9-month primary mission duration was.... Maria T. Zuber (GRAIL Principal Investigator) and Dr. David E. Smith (GRAIL Deputy Principal... acknowledge David H. Lehman (GRAIL Project Manager), Tom L. Hoffman (GRAIL Deputy Project Manager), and the rest of the GRAIL team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The GRAIL mission... success of the primary mission, GRAIL was recently awarded an extended... like to acknowledge John W. Henk (GRAIL Spacecraft Manager) and all the... Company that worked on the GRAIL program—your performance, commitment, and... and currently serves as the GRAIL Program Manager. Other previous positions... 1. Beerer, J.G., Havens, G.G., “Operation the DualOrbiter GRAIL Mission to Measure the Moon..., K.K., “Mission Design Overview for the GRAIL Mission,” AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist... publication). 3. McMechen, A.M., Kato, D.N, Roncoli, R.B., Fujii, K.K., “GRAIL Flight System Design Description & Nomenclature... 23, 2010. 4. Zuber, M.T., et al, “GRAIL Senior Review Proposal—Extended Mission...



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... MANPAD/SA-6 Gainful SP/SA-7 Grail MANPAD/SA-8 Gecko SP/SA...) with 1 x4 manual with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 4 single ASTT, 2 RBU 1200... 185+: 75 Blowpipe; 20+ SA-7 Grail; 90 SA-18 Grouse (Igla... Gremlin/SA-16 Gimlet/ SA-7 Grail Navy ε800 EQUIPMENT BY TYPE....) FS 2 Pauk each with 1 SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 4 single 406mm TT, 2 RBU... SSM, 2 quad (8 eff.) with 8 SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 1 76mm gun 6 Osa I/II...: 539 9K32M Strella 2M (SA-7 Grail); 80 9K38 Igla (SA-18...; SA-6 Gainful; RBS-70; (SA-7 Grail available for trg RBS-70... SAM • MANPAD 5 Strela 2M (SA-7) Grail GUNS • TOWED 52: 14.5mm... HWT, 1 quad (4 eff.) with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 2 RBU 6000 Smerch 2 (24... SSM, 1x4 manual with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 1 76mm gun Europe (NATO... SSM, 1 x4 manual with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 1 76mm gun MINE WARFARE... tactical SSM, each with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 2 triple 533mm ASTT (6 eff... MANPADS SA-16 Gimlet; SA-7 Grail RADAR • LAND SNAR-10 Big...-10B Grumble; SA-6 Gainful; SA-7 Grail EQUIPMENT BY TYPE AIRCRAFT 22... Grumble; SA-6 Gainful MANPAD SA-7 Grail MSL AAM AA-8 Aphid; AA...) with 1 quad (4 eff.) with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, up to 94 mine... 1 Pauk I with 1 quad with 4 SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 4 Single 406mm TT, 1 76mm... (16 eff.) each with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 2 57mm twin gun (4 eff... 2 quad (8 eff.) each with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, (capacity 230 troops; either... PFT 3 Pauk I each with 4 SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 4 single 406mm TT, 1 76mm...-20 (S-400) Triumph MANPAD SA-7 Grail (being replaced by -16/-18... 2 quad (8 eff.) each with SAN-5 Grail SAM, 2 twin 533mm ASTT (4 eff... with 1 quad (4 eff.) with SA-N-5 Grail naval SAM, 2 twin 533mm TT... with 1 quad (4 eff.) with SA-N-5 Grail naval SAM, 2 single 406mm TT... with 1 quad (4 eff.) with SA-N-5 Grail naval SAM, 4 single 406mm TT... 220+: ε220 SA-7A Grail/SA-7B Grail; SA-14 Gremlin/SA...+: 2,000 Ayn al-Saqr/SA-7 Grail; FIM92A Stinger GUNS 705+ SP... (PRC) 4 Shershen each with 1+ SA-N-5 Grail SAM (manual aiming), 1 12 tube... Gremlin/SA-16 Gimlet/SA-7 Grail; Misaq (QW-1) GUNS 1,700 SP...-5 Gammon; FIM-92A Stinger; SA-7 Grail; 29 Tor-M1 systems (reported...) MANPAD FIM-92A Stinger; SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 23mm ZU-23... • MANPAD 84 SA-7A Grail/SA-7B Grail GUNS 81 TOWED 20mm...+: 24 Crotale (quad); 400 SA-7 Grail; SA-13 Gopher; SA-9 Gaskin...-9 Gaskin (reported) MANPAD ε100 SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 82: 14.5mm... M-48 Chaparral MANPAD 70 SA-7 Grail GUNS 407 SP 60 M-163... 1,000 AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail; Stinger reported 2010 3.64 3.64... Gopher MANPAD 4,100+: 4,000+ SA-7 Grail/SA-18 Grouse (Igla); 100... of 4,000 SA-7A Grail/SA-7B Grail)) SAM  2 regt (each: 2 SAM... MANPAD 4,000 SA-7A Grail/SA-7B Grail Paramilitary ε108,000 Gendarmerie...; SA-13 Gopher MANPAD SA-7 Grail; SA-14 Gremlin GUNS 530...-2 Guideline; SA-3 Goa MANPAD SA-7 Grail; SA-14 Gremlin MSL • AAM...† AD • SAM • MANPAD 500 SA-7 Grail/SA-14 Gremlin/ SA-16... SA-16 Gimlet; 12 SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 20mm 7 M-167 Vulcan...; M-20 AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 42: 14.5mm... AD • SAM • MANPAD ε30 SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 150+: 14.5mm...) AD • SAM • MANPAD 50 SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 30: 14.5mm... LRAC AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail (reported) GUNS 21+ SP 20mm...) AD • SAM • MANPAD 20 SA-7 Grail Sub-Saharan Africa Paramilitary 10...-2 Guideline/SA-3 Goa MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS SP 23mm ZSU-23... D-44 AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS 70+ SP 23mm ZSU... Gustav AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 8+: 14.5mm 4+: 4 ZPU... 6 D-44 AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 24+: 30mm M-53... 8 D-44 AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 34: 23mm 18... 12+ SA-3 Goa MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 12: 37mm 6 M-1939... • SAM • MANPAD 250: 20 SA-7 Grail; 230 in store GUNS 330...; 120mm AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS ε150: 14.5mm; 23mm...† AD • SAM • MANPAD 10 SA-7 Grail† GUNS • TOWED 14.5mm ZPU... AD • SAM • MANPAD 54 SA-7 Grail GUNS 996+ SP 20: 20mm... SA-3 Goa† MANPAD 120 SA-7 Grail† GUNS 200 TOWED 14.5mm... • SAM • MANPAD 200+: 200 SA-7 Grail; SA-16 Gimlet GUNS • TOWED...-7 Knout AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 136: 20mm 50... AD • SAM • MANPAD 30 SA-7 Grail† Sub-Saharan Africa Air Force... SA-13 Gopher MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS SP ZSU-23-4 TOWED... Gopher; MANPAD 2,620+: 620 SA-7 Grail (being phased out); 2,000+ SA..., 1 quad (4 eff.) with SA-N5 Grail SAM, 1 76mm gun, 1 hel landing... manual aiming) each with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 1 76mm gun 5 Vibhuti (mod....) (quad manual aiming) with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 1 76mm gun 2 Vibhuti (advanced... (4 eff.) (manual aiming) with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 1 76mm gun FS 4: 4 Abhay....) (quad manual aiming) with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 2 x1 533mm ASTT (twin... FIM-92A Stinger (reported); SA-7 Grail Air Force/Air Defence 1,500... ASTT, Twin each with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 2 RBU 6000 Smerch 2 (24... Gremlin/SA-16 Gimlet/SA-7 Grail (Possible Western systems, reverseengineered Stinger... SA-5 Gammon MANPAD 3,050+ SA-7 Grail/SA-14 Gremlin/SA-16...-7 Knout AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS SP 23mm ZSU-23... (arty) AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail/SA-16 Gimlet/SA-18... tactical SSM non-operational, SA-N-5 Grail SAM (manually operated) PATROL AND...-2 Guideline; SA-3 Goa MANPAD SA-7 Grail; SA-16 Gimlet GUNS 37mm...-3 Goa/SA-6 Gainful SP/SA-7 Grail MANPAD Paramilitary 40,000 active...



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... MANPAD/SA-6 Gainful SP/SA-7 Grail MANPAD/SA-8 Gecko SP/SA...) with 1 x4 Manual with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 4 single ASTT, 2 RBU 1200... Blowpipe; 18 Chaparral; 20+ SA-7 Grail; 90 SA-18 Grouse (Igla... Gremlin/SA-16 Gimlet/ SA-7 Grail Navy ε800 EQUIPMENT BY TYPE....) FS 2 Pauk each with 1 SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 4 single 406mm TT, 2 RBU... SSM, 2 quad (8 eff.) with 8 SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 1 76mm gun 6 Osa I/II...; SA-6 Gainful; RBS-70; (SA-7 Grail available for trg RBS-70... SAM • MANPAD 5 Strela 2M (SA-7) Grail GUNS • TOWED 52: 14.5mm... HWT, 1 quad (4 eff.) with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 2 RBU 6000 Smerch 2 (24... SSM, 1x4 manual with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 1 76mm gun 3 Orkan (GDR... SSM, 1 x4 Manual with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 1 76mm gun MINE WARFARE... tactical SSM, each with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 2 triple 533mm ASTT (6 eff... MANPADS SA-16 Gimlet; SA-7 Grail RADAR • LAND SNAR-10 Big...-10B Grumble; SA-6 Gainful; SA-7 Grail EQUIPMENT BY TYPE AIRCRAFT 46... Grumble; SA-6 Gainful MANPAD SA-7 Grail MSL AAM AA-8 Aphid; AA...: 539 9K32M Strella 2M (SA-7 Grail); 80 9K38 Igla (SA-18...: 5 SA-16 Gimlet; 54 SA-7 Grail Europe (Non-NATO) FORCES BY...) with 1 quad (4 eff.) with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, up to 94 mine... 1 Pauk I with 1 quad with 4 SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 4 Single 406mm TT, 1 76mm... (16 eff.) each with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 2 57mm twin gun (4 eff... 2 quad (8 eff.) each with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, (capacity 230 troops; either... PFT 3 Pauk I each with 4 SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 4 single 406mm TT, 1 76mm...-20 (S-400) Triumph MANPAD SA-7 Grail (being replaced by -16/-18... 2 quad (8 eff.) each with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 2 twin 533mm ASTT (4 eff... with 1 quad (4 eff.) with SA-N-5 Grail naval SAM, 2 twin 533mm TT... with 1 quad (4 eff.) with SA-N-5 Grail naval SAM, 2 single 406mm TT... with 1 quad (4 eff.) with SA-N-5 Grail naval SAM, 4 single 406mm TT... 220+: ε220 SA-7A Grail/SA-7B Grail; SA-14 Gremlin/SA...+: 2,000 Ayn al-Saqr/SA-7 Grail; FIM92A Stinger GUNS 705+ SP... (PRC) 4 Shershen each with 1+ SA-N-5 Grail SAM (manual aiming), 1 12 tube... Gremlin/SA-16 Gimlet/SA-7 Grail; Misaq (QW-1) Middle East and...-5 Gammon; FIM-92A Stinger; SA-7 Grail; 29 Tor-M1 systems (reported...) MANPAD FIM-92A Stinger; SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 23mm ZU-23... • MANPAD 20 SA-7A Grail/SA-7B Grail GUNS 10+ SP 40mm...+: 24 Crotale (quad); 400 SA-7 Grail; SA-13 Gopher; SA-9 Gaskin...-9 Gaskin (reported) MANPAD ε100 SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 82: 14.5mm... M-48 Chaparral MANPAD 70 SA-7 Grail GUNS 407 SP 60 M-163... 1000 AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail; Stinger reported Non-State Groups... Gopher MANPAD 4,100+: 4,000+ SA-7 Grail/SA-18 Grouse (Igla); 100... of 4,000 SA-7A Grail/SA-7B Grail)) SAM  2 regt (each: 2 SAM... MANPAD 4,000 SA-7A Grail/SA-7B Grail Croatia UNDOF 95; 1 inf...-2 Guideline; SA-3 Goa MANPAD SA-7 Grail; SA-14 Gremlin MSL • AAM...; SA-13 Gopher MANPAD SA-7 Grail; SA-14 Gremlin GUNS 530...† AD • SAM • MANPAD 500 SA-7 Grail/SA-14 Gremlin/ SA-16... SA-16 Gimlet; 12 SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 20mm 7 M-167 Vulcan...; M-20 AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 42: 14.5mm... AD • SAM • MANPAD ε30 SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 150+: 14.5mm...) AD • SAM • MANPAD 50 SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 30: 14.5mm... LRAC AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail (reported) GUNS 21+ SP 20mm...) AD • SAM • MANPAD 20 SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 114: 14.5mm... D-44 AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail Sub-Saharan Africa Ethiopia Eth...-2 Guideline/SA-3 Goa MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS SP 23mm ZSU-23... Gustav AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 8+: 14.5mm 4+: 4 ZPU... 6 D-44 AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 24+: 30mm M-53... 8 D-44 AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 34: 23mm 18... 12+ SA-3 Goa MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 12: 37mm 6 M-1939... • SAM • MANPAD 250: 20 SA-7 Grail; 230 in store GUNS 330...; 120mm AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS ε150: 14.5mm; 23mm...† AD • SAM • MANPAD 10 SA-7 Grail† GUNS • TOWED 14.5mm ZPU... SA-3 Goa† MANPAD 120 SA-7 Grail† GUNS 200 TOWED 14.5mm... • SAM • MANPAD 200+: 200 SA-7 Grail; SA-16 Gimlet GUNS • TOWED...-7 Knout AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS • TOWED 136: 20mm 50... AD • SAM • MANPAD 30 SA-7 Grail† GUNS • TOWED 116: 14.5mm... Gopher; MANPAD 2,620+: 620 SA-7 Grail (being phased out); 2,000+ SA... SSM, 1 quad (4 eff.) with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 1 76mm gun, 1 hel landing... manual aiming) each with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 1 76mm gun 5 Vibhuti (mod....) (quad manual aiming) with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 1 76mm gun 2 Vibhuti (advanced... (4 eff.) (manual aiming) with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 1 76mm gun FS 4: 4 Abhay....) (quad manual aiming) with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 2 x1 533mm ASTT (twin... FIM-92A Stinger (reported); SA-7 Grail Non-State Groups Tajikistani Somoni... SA-13 Gopher MANPAD SA-7 Grail FACILITIES Minor base  Located at... ASTT, Twin each with SA-N-5 Grail SAM, 2 RBU 6000 Smerch 2 (24... Gremlin/SA-16 Gimlet/SA-7 Grail (Possible Western systems, reverseengineered Stinger... SA-5 Gammon MANPAD 3,050+ SA-7 Grail/SA-14 Gremlin/SA-16...-7 Knout AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail GUNS SP 23mm ZSU-23... (arty) AD • SAM • MANPAD SA-7 Grail/SA-16 Gimlet/SA-18... tactical SSM non-operational, SA-N-5 Grail SAM (manually operated) PATROL AND...-3 Goa/SA-6 Gainful SP/SA-7 Grail MANPAD Paramilitary 40,000 active...-2 Guideline; SA-3 Goa MANPAD SA-7 Grail; SA-16 Gimlet GUNS 37mm...



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... General relativistic observables of the GRAIL mission Article in Physical review.... General relativistic observables of the GRAIL mission Slava G. Turyshev1,3 , Viktor T. Toth2... travel times between the two GRAIL spacecraft. We develop a general relativistic... for this fundamental observable of GRAIL, accurate to 1 µm. We develop and... potentials and their application to GRAIL. I. INTRODUCTION Several past, present and... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, which comprises two spacecraft... particular current interest is GRAIL, as the two GRAIL spacecraft are presently..., we therefore focus on the GRAIL mission and its science observables... reach its science objectives, the GRAIL mission relies on precision navigation... various microwave signals used on GRAIL for formation tracking and navigation... are critical for GRAIL. The ultimate observable model for GRAIL must correctly... “B” are the positions of the GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B spacecraft, respectively, and “C” is... range RAC = |RAC | between a GRAIL spacecraft (GRAIL-A, for instance) and a ground-based... even exceeding that of the GRAIL experiment, have already been discussed... computing the observables of the GRAIL mission, with results that are... for another fundamental observable on GRAIL: the dual one-way range... GRAIL. To reach its scientific objectives, in addition to the BCRS, GRAIL... level of accuracy required by GRAIL. A. Barycentric Coordinate Reference Frame (BCRS... for the purposes of the GRAIL mission (i.e., neglecting higher order mass... that the O(c−5 ) terms are beyond GRAIL’s sensitivity; see the analysis in... nature of the observables on GRAIL further reduces the sensitivity of... for collection and interpretation of GRAIL data. C. Coordinate systems used in... level of accuracy anticipated for a GRAIL, it is sufficient to consider... and, thus, completely negligible for GRAIL. In addition, we present only... level of accuracy sufficient for GRAIL, we have: dτC 1 =1− 2 dt c 1 2 (vE + [ΩE × yC... coordinates to be considered for GRAIL. In addition to the terrestrial... the spacecraft GRAIL-A are (the equations are identical for GRAIL-B, except for... equations of motion of the GRAIL-A spacecraft in the lunicentric frame..., making it barely observable with GRAIL. Note that the lunar angular... , which makes it negligible for GRAIL. A m 0 ˆ A a result, the metric tensor gmn... the reference frames relevant for GRAIL, expressed in terms of harmonic... effect. As far as the GRAIL’s accuracy in concerned, contributions to... micron-level sensitivity of the GRAIL mission, they become noticeable. It... worthwhile, demonstrating that a spacecraft with GRAIL’s sensitivity is already a practical instrument... the anticipated accuracy of the GRAIL experiment, we can simplify Eq... most Solar System experiments including GRAIL, as seen from BCRS, the... timing observables on GRAIL. 14 FIG. 2: Timing events on GRAIL: Depicted (not... the world-lines of the GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B spacecraft with corresponding proper... . In the case of the GRAIL mission, when signal transmission between...-way range (DOWR) observables on GRAIL, we need the expressions derived... the interpolation algorithm realized on GRAIL to synchronize the LGRS clocks... their magnitudes and relevance for GRAIL. To develop numerical estimates for... TABLE I: Select parameters of the GRAIL mission (some taken from Ref... text. Parameter Symbol(s) Values used GRAIL Mission Inter-spacecraft range dAB... of signal propagation 2 realized on GRAIL (dAB /c ≃ 1 ms), this term is... Range-Rate (DOWRR) observables on GRAIL To develop an analytical form... on the GRAIL mission, the model for DOWRR on GRAIL given by... instantaneous DOWRR observable for the GRAIL mission, developed to a level of... for the observables of the GRAIL mission. We addressed some practical... accuracy of modeling of the GRAIL fundamental observables. We presented a hierarchy... at the accuracy required for GRAIL. We advocate a definition for the... of the relativistic computations for GRAIL are done implicitly and are... Ref. [18]. To navigate the GRAIL spacecraft, the code transforms the... of sensitivity of the GRAIL mission demonstrate that GRAIL is already a practical... very similar to that of GRAIL. Indeed, the calculations presented here...., submitted (2012). [6] G. L. H. Kruizinga and W. I. Bertiger, GRAIL Project Memorandum (2009). [7] M. Soffel, S. A. Klioner... and frequency transfer in the GRAIL experiment. The derivation presented in... are thus relevant to the GRAIL mission configuration. Appendix B: Evaluating the..., nothing is perfect and the GRAIL mission’s design relies on a synchronization... (t − t0 )2 m/s , which is negligible for GRAIL. Appendix C: Relativistic frequency transfer between... generated on-board the two GRAIL spacecraft. However, these frequencies are... observable for spacecraft such as GRAIL that are equipped with a precision... frequency fA0 , located at point A (GRAIL-A), which emits light signals during... In a 1-way Doppler transmission between a GRAIL spacecraft and a DSN station, the...). With the X-band navigation on GRAIL with frequency ∼ 8.4 MHz, the result...



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...: Approaching the Mystery of the Grail 1. The Literary Prejudice 2. The Ethnological... Grail 13. The Sources of the Grail 14. The Virtues of the Grail... the Grail 22. Initiatory Adventures of the Grail's Knights 23. The Grail as... the Grail 24. The Grail and the Knights Templar 25. The Grail, the... 27. The Grail and the Hermetic Tradition 28. The Grail and the...: 1. The Grail was not a Christian but a Hyperborean mystery. 2. The Grail legend deals with an initiatory mystery. 3. The Grail is a symbolic.... The various interpretations of the Grail thus differ greatly, extending from... spiritually, psychologically, and physically nourishing Grail function of their womanhood, since.... According to a widespread opinion, the Grail is essentially a Christian legend. Some... objects of the Grail cycle, just as the Grail's seat will be... Cycle of the Grail 13 The Sources of the Grail It has... most characteristic texts concerning the Grail suggest the existence of a hidden..., Europe ceased writing about the Grail. A new revival occurred after a sensible... the Holy Grail (London, 1913). 57 THE CYCLE OF THE GRAIL representatives... the Grail's promised land, or the place where the Grail is eminently... the Grail's story. The reference according to which the Grail fed the... Nordic tradition. This tradition, as a Grail tradition, was destined to awaken... ecclesiastical writer talks about the Grail. In the very abundant ecclesiastical... 6. Weston, Holy Grail, 8-10. 62 The Sources of the Grail precedes the... the Grail with a more mystical one: the book of the Grail was... Virtues of the Grail In the various texts, the Grail is essentially.... In Wolfram the Grail is a "stone oflight": "The Grail is a perfect fulfillment... OF THE GRAIL In the Grand Saint Graal the Grail reproduces the... the Grail. Wolfram, by relating that in virtue of the Grail "the...;' clearly establishes a relationship between the Grail's gift of life and the... in the Grail. 5. If, on the one hand, the Grail has a vivifying... a dreadful and destroying virtue. The Grail blinds, incinerates, and may even... finds the Grail. 5 Moreover, the dangerous nature of the Grail can be.... 68 The Virtues of the Grail Grail appears at Arthur's court; a light... the founder of the Grail dynasty; thus the Grail allegedly is this... the Grail along with him.lO Other people transported the Grail to... the tradition symbolized by the Grail as a persistent, unaltered, secret presence..., successfully participates in what the Grail symbolizes. This character reaches such... is not the Grail's law; in Wolfram, the Grail's kings are allowed..., designated by the Grail itself. In other texts the Grail's knights accept... CYCLE OF THE GRAIL leave in search of the Grail wish to... "woman" (here named Blancheflor). The Grail itself appears in strict relation... embody some attributes of the Grail. 6 Percival's stepbrother, the "pagan" knight... on the Grail itself. It has been noted that the Grail, as... du Graal, Galahad, contemplating the Grail in the palais espirituel, experiences... him into the Grail's castle. The king of the Grail takes this... of the Grail's regality. 95 THE CYCLE OF THE GRAIL and to... lead Lohengrin out of the Grail's land) evidently symbolizes a mute invocation... to whom the "Grail's banner" was entrusted. The Grail-that is, the... in the Grail's castle and the meaning of the Grail itself. A variation... on the Grail's king since Joseph of Arimathea, when the Grail's wounded... food supernaturally supplied by the Grail. This seems applicable especially to... of the Grail. The dynasty or tradition of the Grail was often... also in the Grail cycle. The castle of the Grail in the... the Grail's knights "live dangerously." 105 THE CYCLE OF THE GRAIL of.... 108 Initiatory Adventures of the Grail's Knights Concerning the "vocation" element... CYCLE OF THE GRAIL The hero of the Grail is naturally requested..., or senile representative of the Grail's regality, the demonstrated or acquired... admitted to the Grail's castle. When he sees the Grail he falls... THE CYCLE OF THE GRAIL kingdom of the Grail, just like Arthur... The Legacy of the Grail 24 The Grail and the Knights Templar... the "Universal Ruler." Outside the Grail cycle, I have already mentioned legends... against the Grail. In Wolfram, the analogy between the Grail knights and... spiritualismo contemporaneo, chapter 7. l30 The Grail and the Knights Templar currents... the Grail" and of blocking access to it. 132 The Grail and... more Christianized Grail texts: a sort of Mass having the Grail as its... achieve the Grail many people died: this is why the Grail has... only a superficial correspondence with the Grail, since the Cathar symbol merely... conclusion of the Grail legend, namely, to the Grail that becomes invisible..., thus acknowledging a correspondence between the Grail and the divine or heavenly... a title that characterizes a 158 The Grail and the Rosicrucians specific degree... hochloblichen Ordens des R + c." 160 ',' The Grail and the Rosicrucians predated its...'s kingdom, to which Montsalvatsche, the Grail, and its knights had previously...