Спутник ФКИ. GRAIL. [Редактировать]

10.09.2011 в 17:08 мск с космодрома Канаверал /штат Флорида/ с помощью ракеты- носителя Delta-7920H-10C были запущены два зонда для исследования Луны GRAIL A (Discovery 11A) и GRAIL B (Discovery 11B). Программа полета. Оба зонда-"близнеца" GRAIL, запущенных в субботу с мыса Канаверал, успешно отделились от второй ступени ракеты-носителя Delta II, раскрыли солнечные батареи и вышли на расчетную траекторию. Чтобы достичь Луны, двум аппаратам GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) потребуется около четырех месяцев пути по специальной "энергосберегающей" траектории.

После достижения Луны зонды будут лететь друг за другом в течение 82 дней на высоте около 55 километров по полярной орбите вокруг Луны. Измеряя расстояние между аппаратами, которое будет меняться по мере того, как они проходят лунные гравитационные аномалии, ученые построят гравитационную карту спутника и получат представление о внутреннем строении Луны. Задачи миссии. Миссия GRAIL является частью программы NASA Discovery. GRAIL– крупный научно- исследовательский проект NASA по изучению недр Луны от коры до ядра. Два зонда- близнеца составят гравитационные карты земного спутника, которые позволят судить о его внутреннем строении и составе, а также получить представление о его тепловой эволюции, то есть периодах нагрева и остывания, что необходимо для лучшего понимания происхождения и развития. Точные гравитационные карты также станут неоценимой помощью в навигации будущих лунных космических станций. Как отметила научный руководитель миссии Мария Зубер (Maria Zuber), сегодняшние технологии позволяют определять расстояние между аппаратами с точностью до нескольких микрометров — «меньше диаметра красной кровяной клетки человека». Конструкция

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса (системы), кг960
2Количество аппаратов, шт.2

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Расчетный срок функционирования, месяц11

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2009-01-01496.2
2Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2009-01-0150.5
3Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2009-01-01427.0
4Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2009-01-0118.7
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2011-01-01496.2
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2011-01-0150.5
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2011-01-01427.0
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2011-01-0118.7
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-01487.2
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-0150.6
11Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2012-01-01398.3
12Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2012-01-0138.3

Каталог

#Наименование Масса, кг ×Дата пуска ×Ракета-носитель ×Космодром ×Страна операторСтрана производительТип
1Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory-A (GRAIL)1322011-09-10Дельта 2Мыс КанавералСШАСШАКА ФКИ
2Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory-B (GRAIL)1322011-09-10Дельта 2Мыс КанавералСШАСШАКА ФКИ

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... cycle for key programmatic missions (Grail, MSL and LADEE) and to... as a secondary payload with NASA's GRAIL mission, but was later transferred... of the Discovery Program is GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory... September 2011. The objectives of GRAIL are to launch twin spacecrafts... has a duration of 270 days. GRAIL is managed by the Marshall... in Chandrayaan-1) 2008 Opportunity mission n.a Grail 2011 Full mission $513 million... - COFSEP – Final report 2011 Launched Grail NASA Lunar gravity field mapping... and orbiters (Mars Odyssey, Juno, GRAIL, Stardust) or by providing major... purpose, essentially developed by NASA (Grail and LADEE notably). Mars programs...



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... France. The association of the Grail  with king Arthur started with... 1230A.D. did  Parsifal achieve the Grail. After Chrétien came Wolfram... the  Arthurian age when the Grail became associated with him. There... object. The guardianship of the Grail required the highest degree of... return for their purity, the Grail conferred blessings upon the land... was visible to  all. The Grail withdrew its presence from humanity... Grail.  THE GRAIL LEGEND  There are at least six versions of the Grail... his theatre in  Bayreuth.  The Grail legend goes as follows: Parsifal... the Grail which is "Whom does one serve with the Grail?" He... Wolfram. He believed that the Grail was a stone fallen from  heaven... and called him Anfortas. The Grail resided in a magnificent  castle and... miracle,  a writing appeared on the Grail stone, that a knight would come...  Kundrie. Parsifal however, achieved the Grail eventually and became the king... unfinished. Parsifal  however, achieved the Grail in one of the "continuations... but  of the Grail. The guardians of the Grail had become knights... these relics with Christ.  The Grail land itself thereby became the... as first guardian of the  Grail. Amfortas performed this duty until... been denied membership in the Grail Order. The  brotherhood came to... proceeded with Parsifal to the Grail castle. A castle of  great pillars... of Esquires brings in the  Grail, encased in a box. Titurel, Amfortas..., still refused to  uncover the Grail. He tore his clothes revealing... back.  Parsifal orders that the Grail be uncovered and should never...  relieved of his duties, the Grail shines brightest, the chalice was... most mystical of all the Grail stories. An  extraordinary tale, which... Arthur took a back seat. The Grail itself and its  central character... central  theme, which was the Grail. Wagner therefore, brought out the... the Grail is what should be focussed on.  THE HOLY GRAIL  What is the Holy Grail in reality? What... were converted  to Christianity. The Grail itself only became a Christian symbol... of the characteristics of the Grail.  It was associated with purity...  serve with the Grail?" This question about the Grail held the cure... it by Parsifal. Therefore, the Grail was indispensable to the  prosperity... therefore, was impossible without the Grail and Parsifal  held the key... by him), appeared on the Grail stone. The predicted deliverer appeared... enough to serve the Grail, as  the Grail required the purest of... old knight Gurnemanz what the Grail was.  The question however, was.... The failure to  uncover the Grail had disastrous consequences. These consequences...  consequently the service of the Grail depended on the personal involvement... on the Grail legend. Because the chalice or the Grail was already..., a concept totally inconceivable with the Grail. The  legends surely did not... stands the  Castle of the Grail, spiritually visible and tangible, because... substantiality. This Castle of the Grail contains a Sanctuary which lies on... Guardians of the Holy Grail!"  The Holy Grail according to this book... creation. This  would identify the Grail as a spiritual object, a view, which...  where the Grail had been associated with Paradise.  The Grail therefore has... legends, the Grail always resides in a castle called the  Grail castle and... the Holy Grail  occupying a sanctuary called the Castle of the Grail. Abd... be found in the spiritual Grail, which Grail was then  referred to... line! ... The Guardians of the Grail are Eternal Primordial  Spiritual Beings... of the Holy Grail. The actual  Guardians of the Grail were higher... there is a vessel called the "Grail", which  is faithfully guarded by... Sphere of Radiation." The actual Grail was therefore not  referred to... logical reasons in  the actual Grail Castle where its Guardians were... his downfall.  What does the Grail signify however? We have already... themselves have depicted about the Grail. Life­giving, source  of power... ask the questions concerning the Grail and the consequences were  disastrous... be crowned king of the Grail.  Throughout all the writings, Parsifal... his name always associated with Grail? The regularity with which this... indeed be synonymous with the Grail  and probably inseparable from it... to conceive a legend about the  Grail without this character. His characteristics... the Grail? Why is he always the protagonist in the Grail drama... as already mentioned that the Grail Castle where  Amfortas failed was...  king of the Grail? Parsifal entered the Grail castle in Amfortas' realm...  King of the actual Holy Grail because as mentioned, being a messenger... actual Holy Grail in the spiritual realm and this Holy  Grail as...  held in rapture whenever the Grail dispenses its blessings. The reason... became personally involved in the Grail story of Amfortas. The reason... therewith King of the Holy Grail, King of Creation! Parsifal's great... the Light of Truth, the Grail Message. Stiftung Gralsbotschaft  Publishing Company.... 1990.  2.  Loomis, Roger Sherman. The Grail, From Celtic Myth to Christian... Ltd. 1992.  3.  Matthews, John. The Grail, Quest for the eternal. Thames...



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... OF CALIFORNIA SIXTH APPELLATE DISTRICT GRAIL SEMICONDUCTOR, INC., Plaintiff and Appellant... in favor of plaintiff Grail Semiconductor, Inc. (Grail) on Grail's action for breach...) instead of a new trial because Grail failed to establish the element... business records. In its appeal Grail contends that the court erred... inventor Donald Stern, cofounder of Grail. Before Stern's invention there were... the market") and the "Holy Grail" of memory technology. Stern’s invention... the first quarter of 2003 Grail unsuccessfully tried to recruit investors... company. By March of 2001 Grail had run out of money... April 19, 2001, Stern and Grail met with two representatives of... attendance were Terry Speizer, the Grail president and chief operating officer... the prior written consent of [Grail]." Grail then gave a PowerPoint presentation describing... the group met again in Grail's San Jose office. But both... was no afternoon meeting in Grail's office; by that time the... of Grail's drawings, including some of the patent application drawings. Grail's efforts... chip which Stern believed incorporated Grail’s technology in violation of the NDA. In June 2007 Grail initiated this action, alleging misappropriation... and compared them to the Grail devices, with the assistance of... breached the NDA by disclosing Grail's confidential information to Renesas, which... the 16 items of confidential Grail information disclosed by Stern had... design without some prior knowledge. Grail offered three measures of damages... damages should be based on Grail's expectations consistent with its business... had realized from using the Grail technology, which was $252 million... 19, 2001 meeting, and that Grail was harmed by the breach... Civil Procedure section 904.1, subdivision (a)(4). 7 Grail evidently had submitted a motion for... injunctive relief to be moot. Grail challenged the court's finding as... remedy for Grail's future commercial opportunities. At a hearing on Grail's renewed motion... court agreed with Mitsubishi that Grail had not shown the likelihood... compensated by damages, particularly since Grail had agreed to an injunction... request on September 18, 2012. Grail then filed a notice of cross... of JNOV. In its view, Grail simply failed to present sufficient... the party securing the verdict, 8 Grail filed its notice of appeal... trial based on inadequacy of Grail's proof of the damages element..., not from insufficient evidence that Grail suffered damage.9 The jury had... the total value, because Grail still had the 9 Grail's expert, Joseph Gemini... should be based on what Grail's expectations were based on their... the sales that used the Grail technology—i.e., $203 million. Third, he... to the use of the Grail technology from 2003 through 2012... testified that the harm to Grail was "the value . . . of the... is beyond question here that Grail established every element of breach... of value. Mitsubishi argues that Grail has "waived any challenge" to... ground. But Grail is not making any such challenge. Grail's point is... to refute the viability of Grail's second measure of damages, the... was an inappropriate measure of Grail's damages; on the contrary, it...'s profits from its sales using Grail's technology, was irrelevant. Thus, it... what [Mitsubishi] actually took from Grail," a measure the court defined as... Gemini cited 10 We decline Grail's implicit suggestion that this court... sale of Renesas products containing Grail's technology, which, in the court... Grail was prejudicial and necessitated a new trial on liability. At trial Grail... [he] sold used a MONOS structure." Grail attempted to elicit testimony that... could not provide that affirmation. Grail then showed Keeley an exhibit... document was accurate or inaccurate. Grail then showed Keeley PTX-19... trial court, however, agreed with Grail that the documents qualified under... they were the "cornerstone of Grail's case" and contained highly prejudicial... technology also suggested use of Grail's confidential information. After admitting the..., and reached a conclusion favorable to Grail. Having examined the asserted error... grant a new trial on liability. 2. Grail's Appeal As noted earlier, the trial court's initial judgment awarded Grail injunctive relief as requested in... Grail's motion for pretrial interest and an injunction to be moot. Grail... harm," especially in view of Grail's agreement to a stay of any... would be issued. On appeal, Grail contends that it was entitled... continuing damage to the Company [i.e., Grail] for which there will be... through Renesas's successful use of Grail's technology." "A permanent injunction is an... Cal.App.4th at p. 722.) Grail acknowledges the standard of review....App.4th 138, 146.) Here Grail failed to carry its burden...



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... High History of the Holy Grail Table of Contents Acknowledgments......................................................................................................................................3 INTRODUCTION... High History of the Holy Grail Acknowledgments “The High History of..., or the Knight of the Grail". Author unknown. Translation by Sebastian... High History of the Holy Grail SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY: ORIGINAL TEXT -• Potvin... High History of the Holy Grail INTRODUCTION This book is translated... High History of the Holy Grail Neele. M. Potvin, without giving any... the quest of the Holy Grail, and on other occasions. Originally... High History of the Holy Grail volumes containing the Romance in... High History of the Holy Grail Several years later, about 1280... High History of the Holy Grail The Translation BRANCH I INCIPIT. Hear... High History of the Holy Grail father, gave the candlestick to... High History of the Holy Grail "Damsel," he saith, "I will essay... High History of the Holy Grail arriving. Anyway, he hath ridden... High History of the Holy Grail trussed behind her with a brachet... High History of the Holy Grail thereafter returned to the King... High History of the Holy Grail assembled, Messire Gawain and the... High History of the Holy Grail great beauty. After meat Messire... High History of the Holy Grail she understandeth his treachery. She... High History of the Holy Grail Thereupon the knight departeth and... High History of the Holy Grail "Sir," saith Messire Gawain, "God... High History of the Holy Grail "Fair sweet friend, withdraw yourself... High History of the Holy Grail forest. BRANCH VI INCIPIT. Another... High History of the Holy Grail "Ha, Sir," saith Messire Gawain... High History of the Holy Grail "Sir," saith Messire Gawain, "And... High History of the Holy Grail "Ha, lords!" saith Messire Gawain... High History of the Holy Grail "I marvel me right sore," saith... High History of the Holy Grail XVIII. Thereupon Messire Gawain was... High History of the Holy Grail Therewithal issue two damsels from... High History of the Holy Grail "Messire Gawain," saith Lancelot, "They... High History of the Holy Grail Right wroth waxeth Sir Lancelot... High History of the Holy Grail "Yea, truly, saith Lancelot, "were... High History of the Holy Grail X. Thereupon, behold you, two knights... High History of the Holy Grail "Certes," saith Lancelot, "poor he... High History of the Holy Grail Therewithal he holdeth forth the... High History of the Holy Grail III. Clamodos heareth the damsel... High History of the Holy Grail "Lady," saith he, "Gramercy! Chaos... High History of the Holy Grail "Clamados," saith the Queen, "the... High History of the Holy Grail least, within the term appointed... High History of the Holy Grail "Yea, Sir, certes." "Thereof do... High History of the Holy Grail loaded with flowers, and a river... High History of the Holy Grail "Sir," saith Lancelot, "I saw him... High History of the Holy Grail "Lancelot," saith Messire Gawain, "Choose... High History of the Holy Grail Messire Gawain is right sorrowful... High History of the Holy Grail "Damsel," saith Lancelot, "Never yet... High History of the Holy Grail V. Lancelot was awake, all scared... High History of the Holy Grail "Not I," saith the hermit, "I cannot... High History of the Holy Grail seemeth so a-dread. "Sir, I come... High History of the Holy Grail X. Perceval drew himself up when... High History of the Holy Grail XV. Thereinto entered the damsel... High History of the Holy Grail knew him not." X. "Damsel," saith... High History of the Holy Grail "Lords," saith the damsel, "Now... High History of the Holy Grail Lancelot and Messire Gawain departed... High History of the Holy Grail Knight righteth him again, sore... High History of the Holy Grail right sore wrath, and willingly... High History of the Holy Grail pleased." XXI. "Fair uncle," saith... High History of the Holy Grail otherwise succeed in winning past... High History of the Holy Grail The knights saw Perceval coming... High History of the Holy Grail holds and castles and adventures... High History of the Holy Grail XVIII. This high history witnesseth... High History of the Holy Grail great force and great puissance... High History of the Holy Grail Messire Ywain." XVIII. The knights... High History of the Holy Grail maketh a ring about him amongst... High History of the Holy Grail The damsel departeth from Cardoil... High History of the Holy Grail "Damsel," saith the King, "Pray... High History of the Holy Grail VIII. "Damsel." saith Lancelot, "I see... High History of the Holy Grail "Lancelot," saith the lady, "Long... High History of the Holy Grail "Sir," saith the knight, "I ask... High History of the Holy Grail rushing, and breaketh his spear... High History of the Holy Grail XII. "Sir," saith he, "Meseemeth... High History of the Holy Grail I espied him through the underwood... High History of the Holy Grail "Sir, Gramercy," saith Perceval, "But... High History of the Holy Grail "Meliot," saith Messire Gawain, "You... High History of the Holy Grail "Sir," saith Perceval, "Sith that... High History of the Holy Grail reconquering thereof, and know the...



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... Lake.......................36 Grail Damsels.....................................38 Gifts of the Lady...............................39 Grail Pilgrims...’s Progress..................103 Questing for the Grail.............. 104 Grail Knights.................................. 104 Nobility................................ 105... Virtues of Knighthood.............. 107 The Grail Virtues........................... 108 Chapter IX: Ill... drink from the Grail, and at last, the Grail Companions reached their... who succeeded became Grail Knights, who, as the Grail Companions died one... the Grail Knights—the flower of Bretonnian chivalry—and the Grail Damsels... is the Grail, the magical cup from which her Grail Knights drink and from which Grail Damsels and... of Grail Chapels to be found there, though the Grail Damsels normally... blessing. Grail Chapels The Lady’s temples and shrines are called Grail Chapels... to drink from the Grail, becoming a Grail Knight. As Grail Chapels are almost.... Every Grail Chapel is supposed to be attended by a Grail Knight, who... Lady. In practice, many Grail Knights found Grail Chapels on the site... far more Grail Chapels than Grail Knights. In addition, most Grail Knights spend... material from a Grail Chapel. At an attended Chapel, the Grail Knight gives... a Grail Prophetess, at least three Grail Damsels, and at least two Grail Knights... is most often a Grail Chapel attended by a living Grail Knight, with the... pilgrims from across Bretonnia. Grail Damsels Grail Damsels, also known as The.... Experienced Grail Damsels are called Prophetesses of the Lady, or Grail Prophetesses... as any Grail Knight. As these peasants cannot become Grail Knights or... of a Grail Knight. Such people are known as Grail Pilgrims. A Grail Pilgrim, as long as he follows his Grail Knight... life expectancy of Grail Pilgrims is not long. Most Grail Knights believe... the parents. Grail Day In origin, this festival honoured the Grail. It... Gilles’ss personal Grail Chapel, and almost all Grail Knights have visited... him so sully the Grail. Only a handful of Grail Knights have ever... Pilgrims are Grail Pilgrims who have survived following their Grail Knight for... leaders of groups of Grail Pilgrims, as the Grail Knight never condescends... M Mag IP FP +1 +6 — — — — — — Career Entries: Grail Pilgrim, Hunter, Outlaw, Outrider, Peasant..., Outdoor Survival, Perception Career Exits: Grail Pilgrim, Herrimault, Outlaw, Scout, Vagabond..., Intimidate, Outdoor Survival, Perception Description: Grail Pilgrims are peasants devoted to... represented by her Grail Knights. They believe that Grail Knights are paragons... rightly. If a Grail Knight dies whilst questing, his Grail Pilgrims descend on...: Agitator, Carcassonne Shepherd, Charlatan, Coachman, Grail Pilgrim, Hunter, Innkeeper, Knight Errant... Career Exits: Captain, Courtier, Explorer, Grail Knight, Faceless, Noble Lord, Politician...-face with their Goddess. Grail Knights Grail Knights are the paragons of... of Bretonnia is always a Grail Knight, most Grail Knights swear fealty directly... heir to a Grail Knight is not a Grail Knight himself. Many Grail Knights, however.... These are the Grail Knights most likely to attract Grail Pilgrims. Running... the Quest, but Grail Knights must take the Grail Virtue corresponding to.... The Grail Virtues The Grail Virtues are only available to Grail Knights. They... apply, and a Grail Knight can only take the Grail Virtue corresponding to his Virtue of Knighthood. Grail Virtue... your Strength and Toughness characteristics. Grail Virtue of Empathy Description: When... or your allies. Grail Virtue of the Penitent Grail Virtue of the... less serious. Grail Virtue of the Impetuous Knight Grail Virtue of Purity... Grail Chapels 37 Grail Companions 16 Grail Damsels 38 Grail Day 41 Grail Knight 96 Grail Knights 15, 104 Grail Pilgrim 97 Grail Pilgrims 40 Grail Virtue of Audacity 108 Grail Virtue of Confidence 109 Grail Virtue of Discipline 109 Grail Virtue of Duty 109 Grail Virtue of Empathy 109 Grail Virtue of Heroism 109 Grail Virtue of Knightly Temper 109 Grail Virtue of Noble Disdain 109 Grail Virtue of Purity 109 Grail Virtue of Stoicism 109 Grail Virtue of the Ideal 109 Grail Virtue of the Impetuous Knight 109 Grail Virtue of the Joust 109 Grail Virtue of...



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... The Holy Grail 295 The Legend of the Holy Grail 297 The... the Holy Grail.8 We were not prepared to regard the Grail as... Crusade ecclesiastics fulminated against the Grail romances, declaring them to be... one of his Grail romances, declares that the Grail castle was situated... Wolfram, the name of the Grail castle was Munsalvaesche a - 47 - Germanicised... the Holy Grail? It seemed inconceivable to us that the Grail romances... guard the Holy Grail, the Grail castle and the Grail family, are Templars... guardians of the Holy Grail, whatever the Holy Grail might be. The... the Grail. The Templars, too, were often regarded as the Grail’s custodians; and the Grail romances had originally... attributes traditionally ascribed to the Grail -providing sustenance, for example, and... Eschenbach, most important of the Grail chroniclers. Indeed, the Guillem in... the mysterious “Grail family’. Were these intrusions of the Grail into our... our inquiry to the Grail, whatever the Grail might really be? At... to the Grail romances themselves. And in themselves the Grail romances posed..., the Grail was both of these. But if the Grail was so... provocatively still, why should the Grail finally surface precisely when it... Grail Most twentieth-century scholarship concurs in the belief that the Grail... legends roughly contemporary with the Grail romances though obviously drawing on... were subsequently incorporated into the Grail romances. There is no question.... The pagan foundation for the Grail romances has been exhaustively explored... originally pagan foundation for the Grail romances underwent a curious and extremely... the investigation of researchers, the Grail became very uniquely and specifically... of some elusive amalgamation, the Grail became inextricably linked with Jesus... linked mystically with Jesus, the Grail engendered a voluminous quantity of romances... Germany actually believed in the Grail’s physical existence, and excavations for... Western culture and consciousness. Chretien’s Grail romance was dedicated not to..., and constitutes a prototype, for subsequent Grail narratives. Its protagonist is named... with Jesus. Of the numerous Grail romances which followed Chretien’s version... often credited with making the Grail a specifically Christian symbol. Robert himself... whether Robert himself Christianised the Grail, or whether someone else did... to furnish a history of the Grail. The Grail, he explains, was the... keepers of the Grail. And for Robert the Grail romances involve the... experience uncharacteristic of any other Grail romance. If the Perlesvaus was... sense, to the Grail itself. For Chretien the Grail was something unspecified.... In the Perlesvaus, however, the Grail assumes a most curious and significant... the guardians of the Grail and the Grail family are Templars. This... of the Grail, there is one flagrant implication that the Grail existed... the whole mystery surrounding the Grail. Unfortunately, the text of Parzival... by name to the Grail. 115 And ‘the Grail is unknown save... Grail’s company.”6 Wolfram is both precise and elusive in identifying the Grail... also called the Grail.” According to Wolfram, then, the Grail is a stone... its other extraordinary attributes the Grail, in Wolfram’s poem, would almost... a nu, as ontsegur. Within Munthe Grail’s actual ?~-tuber of enigmatic figures... heir to the Grail castle. The Grail, or the Grail family, calls certain... so much the Grail as the Grail family. Indeed the Grail family seems... in Switzerland. And the Grail family itself? The Grail castle? Wolfram provides... secrets. The Grail and Cabalism As the Perlesvaus suggests, the Grail, at... connection between Cabalism and the Grail romances. Very briefly then, Cabalism... to the Grail romances is sufficiently apparent. In every Grail narrative there... to the Grail’s supposedly Christian character. But whatever the Grail’s experiential aspects... Lost Kings and the Grail The Grail romances were not the only..., modern scholars concur that the Grail romances, like the Nibelungenlied, refer... specific indications provided by the Grail romances themselves. The (Zueste del... controversial, therefore, in connecting the Grail romances with the Merovingian age... had not automatically associated the Grail with the Merovingian dynasty. And... or miraculous properties. Perhaps the Grail romances constituted, at least in... Merovee. Or perhaps, in the Grail family, a representation of the clandestine... guardians of the Grail and the Grail family. If the Grail family and... the Grail at the time, more or less, that the Grail romances were composed. Their presence in the Grail romances would... such questions asserted themselves. The Grail, for example, pertained in some... been numerous treatises on the Grail romances, their origins and development... were custodians of the Grail whatever the Grail might be. But there... sources early ecclesiastical texts, the Grail romances, Merovingian records and chronicles... the Holy Grail or “Blood Royal’ into France. The Grail is closely associated with Jesus. And the Grail, on...



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... Harmonic Degree 660 from the GRAIL Primary Mission.” Journal of Geophysical... harmonic degree 660 from the GRAIL Primary Mission Alex S. Konopliv,1 Ryan... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, knowledge of the lunar... spherical harmonic degree n ≤ 70. The GRAIL Primary Mission, for which results... at different spacecraft altitudes. The GRAIL data also improve low-degree... harmonic degree 660 from the GRAIL Primary Mission, J. Geophys. Res. Planets... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) would have been greatly reduced... accurately 1415 KONOPLIV ET AL.: GRAIL LUNAR GRAVITY predicted long-term... missions to the Moon including GRAIL. Comparable lunar gravity fields were... characterize their uncertainties. The initial GRAIL lunar gravity field [Zuber et... [8] The twin GRAIL spacecraft (Figure 1), Ebb (GRAIL-A) and Flow (GRAIL-B), were launched on... [Konopliv et al., 1999]. [9] The GRAIL science mission began 2 months after... KONOPLIV ET AL.: GRAIL LUNAR GRAVITY Figure 1. The GRAIL-B (Flow) spacecraft. The... KONOPLIV ET AL.: GRAIL LUNAR GRAVITY Figure 2. The GRAIL spacecraft orbit eccentricity... (no degradation is observed for GRAIL at larger separation distances). The... and relative velocity between the GRAIL spacecraft from begin of Primary... (Figure 6). 3. Figure 4. Geometry for the GRAIL Primary Mission as viewed from... primary science instrument on each GRAIL spacecraft was the Lunar Gravity... Mission. 1419 KONOPLIV ET AL.: GRAIL LUNAR GRAVITY Figure 6. Minimum spacecraft... oneway Doppler measurement from the GRAIL spacecraft to a DSN station is... Ka-band frequency. [20] Each GRAIL satellite transmits continuous Ka-band...-acceleration 1421 KONOPLIV ET AL.: GRAIL LUNAR GRAVITY observable can be... precision orbit determination for each GRAIL spacecraft [Kruizinga et al., 2013... about 800 cores. [33] The GRAIL spacecraft observations were processed using... interspacecraft measurement system. The complementary GRAIL gravity investigation at GSFC [Lemoine... maneuver time span of GRAIL-A (Ebb) and GRAIL-B (Flow), respectively. Typical maneuver... parameters. 1423 KONOPLIV ET AL.: GRAIL LUNAR GRAVITY Table 3. Nominal Normalized... future studies with the combined GRAIL primary and extended mission data... any spacecraft thermal emission), the GRAIL mission must accurately model or... entrance and exit of the GRAIL spacecraft into solar eclipse (i.e., lunar... ET AL.: GRAIL LUNAR GRAVITY Figure 9. Model derived acceleration on GRAIL-A (Ebb... surface radial acceleration of the GRAIL lunar gravity field GL0660B truncated... magnitude gravity spectrum for the GRAIL gravity fields GL0420A [Zuber et... Lockheed Martin, which built the GRAIL spacecraft. [51] Figure 9 shows the...-of-magnitude improvement in the GRAIL velocity measurement (KBRR) versus previous... and Phillips, 1998] and the GRAIL gravity models exhibit global correlation...ficients Based Upon the Entire GRAIL Primary Mission (PM) Unless Otherwise... GRAIL PM, normalized without permanent tide " " " " " " " " " " " GRAIL PM, unnormalized with permanent tide " GRAIL...] GRAIL PM, k20, k21, k22 constrained to be equal GRAIL PM GRAIL PM GRAIL PM GRAIL middle month of PM (~April), full Sun GRAIL... KONOPLIV ET AL.: GRAIL LUNAR GRAVITY Figure 16. GRAIL KBRR residual RMS...., Lunar interior properties from the GRAIL mission, submitted to Journal of... for the gravity estimation. Future GRAIL results will include data analysis... the nongravitational acceleration on the GRAIL spacecraft including the empirical periodic... current GRAIL-derived solutions based upon the Primary Mission. [62] GRAIL has... Other Parameters [63] During the GRAIL PM, multiple tests were performed... the KBRR residuals, GRAIL spacecraft orbit overlap errors, GRAIL KBRR time-tag... the gravity fields using only GRAIL data progressed, the corresponding orbit... errors in meters for GRAIL-A (Ebb) and GRAIL-B (Flow) for the Primary...) to GL0660B errors of 0.9, 8.3, and 4.8 m. GRAIL extended mission data at lower.... [66] The GRAIL Level-1 process requires accurately determined GRAIL orbits to avoid... Figure 21b. 8. Summary [69] The GRAIL mission Ka-band interspacecraft rangerate... unprecedented 1432 KONOPLIV ET AL.: GRAIL LUNAR GRAVITY accuracy near 0.03... this paper. We thank the GRAIL Navigation team (P. Antresian, M. Ryne, T. You..., D. Kahan, and D. Fleischman for their GRAIL Level-1 contributions, and W. Lu for earlier contributions to the GRAIL gravity effort. References Akim, E. L. (1966... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, Space Sci. Rev., 174..., D. Yuan, S. Asmar, and M. Watkins (2012), GRAIL Level-1 Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission, Space Sci. Rev., doi...), High degree gravity models from GRAIL Primary mission data, J. Geophys. Res... Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission, AIAA Guidance, 1433 KONOPLIV ET AL.: GRAIL LUNAR GRAVITY...), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL): Mapping the lunar interior from... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, Science, 339, doi:10...



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... the Cathars and the Holy Grail. The first edition appeared in... and their guardianship of the Grail, a "stone from the stars." The... the last custodians of the Grail. Induced by Himmler to become... ONE Parsifal 3 PART TWO The Grail The Golden Fleece Gwion's Cup... FOUR The Apotheosis of the Grail 157 Appendix: Observations on the... edition of Crusade Against the Grail [Kreuzzug gegen den Gral] in... Kreuz und Gral [Cross and Grail], which eventually appeared in the... resolve the legend of the Grail and surpass Heinrich Schliemann, the... their lost treasure—the Gral (Grail). Skillfully blending legends and tales... had worshipped the Mani or Grail and rejected the cross. According... was the Temple of the Grail, and that mystical Cathar Christianity... the symbolic purity of the Grail. And yet, throughout the book... deliberately left the spelling of "Grail" in its middle German equivalent... the legend of a "grail," and not the Holy Grail, the chalice that... publication of Crusade Against the Grail would not have been possible... translation of Crusade Against the Grail, Jones retraced Otto Rahn's footsteps... part, which refers to the Grail. Why did Guyot's original version... its blossoming— A thing called "The Grail" Paradisal, transcending all Earthly perfection... them any better fortune. THE GRAIL 45 If I should describe for.... Esclarmonde, the keeper of the Grail, threw the precious relic into... to learn matters concerning the Grail That has been hidden His... wood, drawings, and inscriptions: THE GRAIL 49 A tree of the word... lose themselves in the THE GRAIL 51 radiant springtime. The Greeks... was referred to as "the Grail"? A stone!4 The Lapsis exillis (Lapsis... way. Before leaving for the Grail Castle, Muntsalvaesche, Parsifal makes a visit... Hindu Kush, know of the Grail?3 There was a heathen named Flegetanis... castle of Muntsalvaesche, where the Grail was kept. In the evening... forest of Briciljan separates the Grail temple Muntsalvasche from the rest... In epic poems of the Grail, the Grail King Amfortas is described... Schoye"—the keeper of the Grail. The historical Esclarmonde de Foix... plays the role of the Grail that distributes food. The Bocaige... kept their precious relic, the Grail, in Muntsalvaesche. The symbol of... in the Grail." 104 MUNTSALVAESCHE AND MONTSEGUR 105 Was the Grail Mountain a Venus mountain? Didn't this contradict the Grail circle... when they saw in the Grail Mountain a mountain of Venus, sinning... of the Grail knights. A dove left a host on the Grail on Good... girl," those who guarded the Grail in Muntsalvaesche were virgins. Their... standing, the Cathars kept the Grail inside them. Montsegur was in.... Esclarmonde, the keeper of the Grail, threw the precious relic into... live. . . . According to Wolfram, the Grail Queen Repanse de Schoye was... a cromlech, they spoke of the Grail: A stone whose essence is most... stone is also called the "Grail." WOLFRAM VON ESCHENBACH Maybe the... the Apostle Paul) took the Grail to Marseille, where Maria Magdalena... nowhere in its story. The Grail was a heretical symbol. Those who... undertook a holy war against the Grail. The Cathars saw in the... began the Crusade against the Grail. Without vultures and crows, Beziers... highest tower of Carcassonne. The Grail was in danger! After the..." in the crusade against the Grail. Americ de Montreal, the sovereign... Esclarmonde continued guarding the Holy Grail! Pedro de Aragon, who enjoyed... FOUR THE APOTHEOSIS OF THE GRAIL ROME HAD MONOPOLIZED ORTHODOXY and.... Some THE APOTHEOSIS OF THE GRAIL 163 heretics even twist their... the THE APOTHEOSIS OF THE GRAIL 169 persecution of the heretics.... He THE APOTHEOSIS OF THE GRAIL 173 even permitted his officers... Sabarthes. THE APOTHEOSIS OF THE GRAIL 177 The "treasure of the... how THE APOTHEOSIS OF THE GRAIL 179 their country was murdered... the THE APOTHEOSIS OF THE GRAIL 181 convent of the Cistercians... Chateau THE APOTHEOSIS OF THE GRAIL 187 Verdun, could resist until... those THE APOTHEOSIS OF THE GRAIL 189 remote valleys wanted to... the Grail, the Occitan Mani? According to a Pyrenean legend, the Grail moves..., that Golgotha of Occitania. The Grail symbolized their desire for Paradise... 1982 bestseller Holy Blood, Holy Grail by Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh... ecclesiastical establishment speaks of the Grail. Although the curious tale of... the Priest-king and the Grail, see Kampers, p. 105. 19. Wechssler... Munsalvatsche, as Wolfram calls the Grail Castle, translates in German as...; Kampers, p. 56. PART TWO The Grail 1. Parzival, p. 235 (Hatto translation, p. 125... the Golden Fleece the "Classical Grail." 2. See Reinach, Orpheus, pp. 58.... 4. Wolfram clearly states that the Grail was a stone. He calls it... FOUR The Apotheosis of the Grail 1. Domingo de Guzman: Peyrat, Vol... four knights who evacuated the Grail from Montsegur. All escaped from... Ketzergeschichte. 1766. Parsifal and the Grail Baist, Gottfried. Parzival und der... Henry Lincoln. Holy Blood, Holy Grail. London: Jonathan Cape, 1982. Biedermann..., 2002. -------- . The Mystery of the Grail. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions, 1996...



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... application ___________________________________ 42 5.1 A Web application_______________________________________________________42 5.2 Grail architecture _______________________________________________________47 5.3 Adaptation mechanisms for... simulator _____________________________________68 6.2 Implementation of the Grail extensions _____________________________________70 6.3 Summary ______________________________________________________________75 Chapter....py______________________________________________________________94 Display.py_________________________________________________________________95 Appendix C. New Grail modules__________________________________________ 96 Adaptation.py _____________________________________________________________96... to existing Grail modules. _______________________ 102 D.1 Modifications to core Grail modules ______________________________________102... The Grail user interface _____________________________________________________ Simplified Grail architecture _________________________________________________ Style preference panel_______________________________________________________ Grail resource usage________________________________________________________ Grail cache... _________________________________________________________ Interaction between Grail and the QoS monitor___________________________________ Modified Grail architecture __________________________________________________... Initiatives (CNRI)1. The architecture of Grail is described with particular focus... described. Subsequently, some modifications to Grail’s architecture to enable adaptation are... most appropriate variant. 46 5.2 Grail architecture Grail is a prototype Web browser that... Navigator. The Grail browser window is shown in Figure 5.2. Grail supports HTML... constructed through a detailed analysis of Grail’s implementation, comprising in excess of... File API Core Modules Grail Preferences Figure 5.3. Simplified Grail architecture In this... of preference panels provided with Grail include a style panel for manipulating... resource used by Grail: • Libraries. The libraries required by Grail all belong... by Grail are language interpreters for Python and Tk. The Grail modules... network sockets. Grail Modules Browser HTTP API • • • Protocol API Grail Tkinter httplib...’s display Network OS Resources Figure 5.5. Grail resource usage2 2 This figure is... following URL: http://grail.cnri.reston.va.us/grail/info/diagram.gif... availability of secondary memory. Figure 5.6. Grail cache preferences panel 5.3.3 Adapting to... the incorporation of adaptability into Grail’s architecture. 5.4.1 A scheme for supporting application... in Section 3.1.6. 5.4.2 Adding adaptability to Grail This section considers the use... adaptability of Grail, focussing on the impact of adaptability on Grail’s architecture. The QoSM can be used by Grail as... Monitor Grail Change Notification Interface 2. Notify(“PDA”) Figure 5.8. Interaction between Grail and... used by Grail. This can be supported by adding Grail preference panel... File API Core Modules Grail Preferences text/plain ••• Grail Context Handler n Handler 2 Handler 1 Notification Handler Figure 5.9. Modified Grail architecture... chosen as interesting examples. 5.4.2.1 Adapting Grail to a changing user display The... architecture of the browser. 5.4.2.2 Adapting Grail to changing network resources In... resources can be incorporated into Grail without modification to the architecture... next addressed required modifications to Grail’s architecture that arise from the... adaptability could be incorporated into Grail. First, a mechanism for obtaining information...’s client. A number of modifications to Grail to incorporate adaptation have also... 6.2 Implementation of the Grail extensions The extensions to Grail implement adaptation mechanisms.... 70 6.2.1.1 Adaptation to bandwidth availability Grail’s adaptation to bandwidth availability uses... down the callback handlers upon Grail’s termination. The CallbackHandler module also... by Grail is illustrated using the page as an example. Grail attempts... through the preference panels. Finally, Grail downloads are adapted by including... 30, 1996. http://grail.cnri.reston.va.us/grail/info/papers/restofus....variable.get()) 95 Appendix C. New Grail modules Adaptation.py """ Adaptation.py... the callback implementations used by Grail. Additionally, the get_boa operation returns...): """ Terminate Grail callback handlers - called when the user exits Grail to ensure... to the Grail preferences, ie. callbacks defined in various Grail modules are...) 101 Appendix D. Modifications to existing Grail modules. This appendix briefly describes... to core Grail modules Module Class Method Modification grail Application __init__ Added... are stopped before Grail terminates. This prevents Fnorb errors. grail Application go...



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...-7 Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL): Mapping the Lunar Interior from... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) is a spacecraft-tospacecraft tracking mission... of all terrestrial planets. Each GRAIL orbiter contains a Lunar Gravity Ranging... September 10, 2011, the twin GRAIL orbiters embarked on independent trajectories... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission under the Solar System Exploration Division Discovery Program. GRAIL was developed to map the...) contracted to provide the spacecraft. GRAIL’s science instrument was developed by... to extend the GRAIL mission until December 2012. Each GRAIL orbiter contains... currently gravity mapping the Earth. GRAIL’s twin spacecraft have heritage derived.../Public Outreach (E/PO) payload called GRAIL MoonKAM (or Moon Knowledge Acquired... gravity field; Sect. 3 summarizes the GRAIL science objectives in the context... Development and Design; Sect. 6 describes GRAIL’s extended mission; Sect. 7 describes data flow; and Sect. 8 describes GRAIL’s data products. All acronyms are... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) unique in providing a detailed, global... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Table 2 Primary Mission science investigations... reconstruct planetary evolution motivates the GRAIL primary science objectives, which are... expertise in terrestrial planet evolution. GRAIL’s Primary Mission includes six lunar... inner core. Measurement requirements for GRAIL’s science investigations are given in... change between two spacecraft. Specifically, GRAIL obtains global, regional and local... GRAIL Primary Mission performance prior to launch 4 Spacecraft and Instruments The GRAIL... maneuvers. Some components of the GRAIL spacecraft, most notably the flight... MRO were transferable to GRAIL. Functionally, the GRAIL flight computer is a simplification... Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Table 3 GRAIL science team Team member Role... inter- M.T. Zuber et al. Fig. 2 GRAIL (a) −X spacecraft view; (b) +X spacecraft view satellite.... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Fig. 3 Lunar Gravity Ranging System... entirely to education and outreach. GRAIL’s MoonKAMs consist of electronics and... 4 Summary of key GRAIL events Event Date GRAIL Selection as a Discovery Mission... development of the GRAIL mission is given in Table 4. GRAIL’s development initiated... due GRAIL’s status as the last east coast Delta launch. GRAIL’s development... and perform science operations. The GRAIL orbiters, which carried small onboard... and informative to graphically depict GRAIL’s mission phases from a heliocentric perspective... Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Fig. 4 Heliocentric view of the GRAIL Primary Mission timeline... science mission, GRAIL achieved the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Fig... performed, all flawlessly, by the GRAIL operations team. 6 Extended Mission On... an Extended Mission (XM) for GRAIL, through December 2012, or approximately... dramatically expands the scope of GRAIL’s gravity science investigation beyond what... Fig. 9 Heliocentric view of the GRAIL’s Extended Mission timeline, extending over... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Fig. 10 Maximum (red) and... spacecraft while in ranging configuration. GRAIL’s XM average altitude is 23...-km block size resolution, permitting GRAIL to map structure globally within.... To address this objective the GRAIL extended mission undertakes six investigations... Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Fig. 12 GRAIL Science downlink data flow diagram 7 Data Flow and Processing The GRAIL... by the GRAIL Science Team. M.T. Zuber et al. Table 6 GRAIL archive summary... (files in ASCII format) Documentation GRAIL Gravity Theoretical Description and Data... calibration reports 8 Data Accessibility The GRAIL mission will archive all acquired... acquired in the PM. 9 Summary GRAIL successfully completed its Primary Mission... GRAIL spacecraft successfully transited the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Table 7 GRAIL... errors removed 0 LGRS CDR (GRAIL_0101) GRAIL-L-LGRS-3-CDR-V1.0 Calibrated & resampled... media calibrations) LGRS SPICE (GRAIL_0301) GRAIL-L-SPICE-6-ADR-V1.0 SPICE geometry... System Gravity Processing Assembly GRAIL-A Spacecraft (Ebb) GRAIL-B Spacecraft (Flow) Gravity Recovery... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) References E.L. Akim, Determination of the... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. Space Sci. Rev. (2012...-lunar cruise trajectory design of GRAIL mission, in AIAA Astrodynamics Conf..., 2012), p. 16 S.J. Hatch, R.B. Roncoli, T.H. Sweetser, GRAIL trajectory design: lunar orbit insertion..., San Francisco/London, 1967) T.L. Hoffman, GRAIL: gravity mapping the Moon, in... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. Space Sci. Rev. (2012... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, in AIAA Guidance, Navigation... of an extended mission for GRAIL, in AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference... R.L. Taylor, M.T. Zuber, D.H. Lehman, T.L. Hoffman, Managing GRAIL: getting to launch on cost...