Спутник ФКИ. GRAIL. [Редактировать]

10.09.2011 в 17:08 мск с космодрома Канаверал /штат Флорида/ с помощью ракеты- носителя Delta-7920H-10C были запущены два зонда для исследования Луны GRAIL A (Discovery 11A) и GRAIL B (Discovery 11B). Программа полета. Оба зонда-"близнеца" GRAIL, запущенных в субботу с мыса Канаверал, успешно отделились от второй ступени ракеты-носителя Delta II, раскрыли солнечные батареи и вышли на расчетную траекторию. Чтобы достичь Луны, двум аппаратам GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) потребуется около четырех месяцев пути по специальной "энергосберегающей" траектории.

После достижения Луны зонды будут лететь друг за другом в течение 82 дней на высоте около 55 километров по полярной орбите вокруг Луны. Измеряя расстояние между аппаратами, которое будет меняться по мере того, как они проходят лунные гравитационные аномалии, ученые построят гравитационную карту спутника и получат представление о внутреннем строении Луны. Задачи миссии. Миссия GRAIL является частью программы NASA Discovery. GRAIL– крупный научно- исследовательский проект NASA по изучению недр Луны от коры до ядра. Два зонда- близнеца составят гравитационные карты земного спутника, которые позволят судить о его внутреннем строении и составе, а также получить представление о его тепловой эволюции, то есть периодах нагрева и остывания, что необходимо для лучшего понимания происхождения и развития. Точные гравитационные карты также станут неоценимой помощью в навигации будущих лунных космических станций. Как отметила научный руководитель миссии Мария Зубер (Maria Zuber), сегодняшние технологии позволяют определять расстояние между аппаратами с точностью до нескольких микрометров — «меньше диаметра красной кровяной клетки человека». Конструкция

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса (системы), кг960
2Количество аппаратов, шт.2

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Расчетный срок функционирования, месяц11

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2009-01-01496.2
2Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2009-01-0150.5
3Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2009-01-01427.0
4Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2009-01-0118.7
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2011-01-01496.2
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2011-01-0150.5
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2011-01-01427.0
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2011-01-0118.7
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-01487.2
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2012-01-0150.6
11Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2012-01-01398.3
12Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2012-01-0138.3

Каталог

#Наименование Масса, кг ×Дата пуска ×Ракета-носитель ×Космодром ×Страна операторСтрана производительТип
1Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory-A (GRAIL)1322011-09-10Дельта 2Мыс КанавералСШАСШАКА ФКИ
2Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory-B (GRAIL)1322011-09-10Дельта 2Мыс КанавералСШАСШАКА ФКИ

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... fuel, many launch days Hiten, GRAIL, ARTEMIS a Missions referred to include... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission was the first mission... directly on a low-energy transfer. GRAIL’s low-energy transfer required much... relaxed the operational timeline. Furthermore, GRAIL launched two satellites on board... by more than a day. Finally, GRAIL’s low-energy transfer reduced the... small errors. Missions such as GRAIL, which launched aboard a Delta II... before performing a maneuver. In fact, GRAIL was able to cancel the... using a single launch vehicle. The GRAIL mission separated two lunar-orbit... a low lunar orbit, such as GRAIL’s target lunar orbit. The transfer..., and a relaxed operational schedule. The GRAIL mission took advantage of these... spacecraft from their joint launch. GRAIL’s two spacecraft flew independently to... Explorer (SELENE), Chang’e 1, LRO, and GRAIL, among others. The results of... orbit using conventional techniques. The GRAIL mission, launched on September 10... of its primary mission. The GRAIL mission benefited from its... in 2010 and the two GRAIL spacecraft in 2011. A brief summary.... 22 INTRODUCTION AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY GRAIL. The GRAIL mission (Fig. 1-13) [83... launch vehicle. Two vehicles, GRAIL-A (Ebb) and GRAIL-B (Flow), were separated soon... of the Moon. The two GRAIL spacecraft were the first ever... directly from low-energy transfers. GRAIL’s trajectory design is illustrated in... can see in Fig. 1-13, GRAIL’s mission design includes two signi... orbit insertion dates. Figure 1-13 GRAIL’s mission design, including a 26-day... two deterministic maneuvers for both GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B, designed to separate their... is no outbound asymptote. The GRAIL targets included the right ascension... on a lunar encounter trajectory. The GRAIL mission design involves two deterministic...



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... Institute of Technology. Lower Right: GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B spacecraft, which entered lunar...: Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) ...................... 38 Session 9: Orbit Determination and...: Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Afternoon Break Function Speakers Breakfast...: GRAVITY RECOVERY AND INTERIOR LABORATORY (GRAIL) Chair: Tomas Martin-Mur, Jet... Modeling and Analysis of the GRAIL Spacecraft Pair 13-268 Troy..., NASA / Caltech JPL The GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B spacecraft completed their primary mission... AAS Orbit Determination for the GRAIL Science Phase and Extended Mission... Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission (GRAIL) is the 11th mission of..., thermal evolution, and collisional history. GRAIL employs twin spacecraft, which fly... the strategies used by the GRAIL Orbit Determination Team to overcome...:10 AAS The Role Of GRAIL Orbit Determination In Preprocessing Of... Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has construct-ed a lunar... of orbit de-termination in GRAIL preprocessing and the iterative process... the latest GRAIL lunar gravity fields. 14:30 AAS GRAIL Science Data...., this meeting) of preprocessing raw GRAIL data into the gravity science... Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. The inter-satellite and... 13-273 Development for the GRAIL Mission Frank Lemoine, NASA Goddard... Gravity Recover and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) intersatellite Kaband tracking data has... to the analysis of the GRAIL data from the primary mission... developed and their impact on GRAIL precision orbit determination (POD). 15... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft. We assess the geodetic... al. Orbit Determination for the GRAIL Science … 14:10 Sabol, et..., et al. The Role Of GRAIL Orbit Determination In … 14:30... Model Parameters … Fahnestock, et al. GRAIL Science Data System Orbit Determination...



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... числі два місячні: «Лунар Проспектор» і GRAIL. Першою країною, яка порушила...іт мимо астероїда 4179 Таутатис GRAIL GRAIL A (Ebb) GRAIL B (Flow) США 10.09... на сьогодні є дві місячні місії: LRO і GRAIL. Розглянемо їх детальніше. LRO (Lunar... та двоокис вуглецю та ін. [18]. GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory...ї вище програми США «Дискавері» [46]. Місія GRAIL — це тандем двох однотипних косм... одній і тій же навколомісячній орбіті: GRAIL-A ISSN 1561-8889. Космічна...: сучасний стан та перспективи (огляд) і GRAIL-B, які після запуску були перейменован...). Запуск обох апаратів (спочатку GRAIL-A, а за ним і GRAIL-B) здійснено 10 вересня... — Сонце. Через три з половиною місяці GRAIL-A і GRAIL-B зайняли навколомісячну полярну орб...ітних програм. Вимірювання з допомогою GRAIL виконані упродовж двох тримісячних... опрацьовуються. 17 грудня 2012 р. експеримент GRAIL був завершений. Обидва апарати зійшли...і, яка була також учасником проекту GRAIL. НАЙБЛИЖЧІ ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ КОСМІЧНИХ ДОСЛ.... № 3 Рис. 4. Схема передачі інформаціі в проекті GRAIL [21] перспективних досліджень Місяця.... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Launch / NASA Press Kit/august.... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission: Status at the Initiation...



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... Waste Land and Attaining the Grail ........................................................................................................................ 213 Chapter 7 Michel Zink‟s Déodat... Quest for Oneself ....................................................................................................................... 224 7.1 The Grail Quest from the Perspective of..., Arthurian adventures and, particularly, the Grail quest, have been consistently intriguing... Television (London: McFarland, 2013). 1 the Grail quest that mention both medieval... medieval Grail quest romances, followed by an overview of modern Grail literature.... 7 MaryLynn Saul, „The Unholy Grail: Recasting the Grail Myth for an Unbelieving... of individual Grail quests. Wagner‟s Parsifal informed ideas about the Grail quest... Grail, Prolegomena to a Study of Grail Imagery in Arthurian Manuscripts‟, in The Grail..., P. J. C. Field, „Malory and the Grail‟, in The Grail, the Quest and the... World, David Lodge approaches the Grail quest from a different perspective, being... the earlier Grail quest romances. Zink‟s use of the Grail quest trope... of the Grail which differs from Chrétien de Troyes‟s Grail, an... the Grail quest, as well as exclusion from discussion of Grail literature... medieval and modern literature, the Grail quest narrative represents one version... medievalism, the Arthurian and the Grail quest themes make a spectacular reappearance... a substantial change from Malory‟s Grail and the Grail of Malory‟s sources. He... society, the Grail is, more often than not, an „Unholy Grail‟, a dangerous... Lance‟s „Unholy Grail‟, but there is also, presumably, the Grail of Percival... the „Unholy Grail‟ of sexual sin, but the Holy Grail of genuine... („The Lancelot-Grail Project: Chronological and Geograpical Distribution of Lancelot-Grail Manuscripts..., p. 3. 25 Stones, „Lancelot-Grail Project‟. 26 Stones, „Lancelot-Grail Project‟. 32 entertainment..., MS 93-94 (Stones, „Lancelot-Grail Project‟). 32 K. S. Whetter, „Subverting, Containing... 2013]). 35 Stones, „Seeing the Grail‟, p. 302. 36 Middleton, „Manuscripts‟, p. 219..., the Grail book, if indeed it is a romance about the Grail quest... „emphasizes the importance of the Grail quest, thus reinforcing a perspective established...: Perceval‟s Sister and the Grail Quest‟, in The Grail: A Casebook, ed. by... to modern Grail quest literature rather than considering the Grail quest, if...‟ virginity conceptualized as a kind of „Grail‟.8 Kaufman acknowledges that the popularity... see the Grail if you recall. Did you find the Grail? You... the „Unholy Grail‟, and Percy‟s use of the Grail quest metaphor for... Grail is quite intentional‟, indicating that „the quest for the contemporary Grail... way to attaining the Grail and that the Grail can be achieved... most prominent difference between medieval Grail romances and Percy‟s Lancelot is... appearance of the Grail itself. In medieval romances, the Grail may be... Grail, there is Percival‟s Grail and the film-makers‟ Grail. Lancelot‟s unholy Grail constitutes...‟s Grail is closer to the true Grail than Lancelot‟s unholy Grail. The third Grail..., including contemporary theories about the Grail origins presented in Jessie Weston... romances, particularly romances about the Grail quest, Percy‟s Lancelot has a didactic... no unholy grail just as there was no Holy Grail‟ (275). Lancelot... accomplish the Grail quest, has parallels in medieval and American Grail quest.... Analogies between Lancelot and medieval Grail quest romances are generally found... resembles the medieval Grail quest romances, where the Grail is taken from... private Grail of affection enables the attainment of the public Grail and... end, the Grail quest romances usually end with the Grail being taken... the possibility of any further Grail adventures. 6.2 Reality Clashes with Literary... distinguished father, Arthur Kingfisher. Persse‟s Grail being wordplay on „girl‟, it... message of medieval Grail quest romances, where the Grail is available only... their interpretation of the Grail: in Déodat, the Grail is viewed, by... the Grail quest is primarily a spiritual adventure. However, the Grail quest in... to seek the Grail, because through knowing the Grail mysteries one comes... one nearer the Grail and why approaching the Grail means moving closer... to attain the Grail appears in the medieval Grail quest romances, including... theme of the Grail story].40 Zink‟s Grail can be achieved only... guidelines for action. Approaching medieval Grail quest romances, a reader has to...., The History of the Holy Grail (Cambridge; D. S. Brewer, 2010) O‟Donovan, Daniel...), 45-8 ---------, „Malory and the Grail‟, in The Grail, the Quest and the...) Saul, MaryLynn, „The Unholy Grail: Recasting the Grail Myth for an Unbelieving... Holy Grail‟, Arthuriana, 21:2 (2011), 42-58 Smith, C. E., „The Unholy Grail in... Lancelot-Grail Project: Chronological and Geographical Distribution of Lancelot-Grail Manuscripts‟, The... Grail, Prolegomena to a Study of Grail Imagery in Arthurian Manuscripts‟, in The Grail...: Perceval‟s Sister and the Grail Quest‟, in The Grail: A Casebook, ed. by...



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...-5 Small Spacecraft Design for the GRAIL Mission Stuart R. Spath Lockheed Martin... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission was to collect a global... of 200.6 kg each, these GRAIL spacecraft were among the lightest... the on-orbit performance during GRAIL’s primary mission including: • Spacecraft performance... mission Not only have the GRAIL spacecraft returned a wealth of scientific... Development Office (RSDO) catalog. The GRAIL mission proposal was submitted to... the basic mantras of the GRAIL proposal was high value science... extend through December 7, 2012. INTRODUCTION GRAIL is a two-spacecraft lunar gravity... OVERVIEW A NASA Discovery-class mission, GRAIL will unlock the mysteries of... acquired about the moon from GRAIL will be extended to understand... how the terrestrial planets evolved. GRAIL’s mission design for the primary... depicted in Figure 1. Per the GRAIL project-level documentation, the mission... other terrestrial planets. Credit: JPL GRAIL was implemented using an Lockheed... and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. GRAIL placed twin spacecraft (referred to... of the lunar gravity. The GRAIL science team then utilized the... and to October 19, 2011. GRAIL was launched on the third... days of weather delays. The GRAIL spacecraft separated from the Delta...-v, and longer TLC duration. For GRAIL, the extended TLC duration was... process was used successfully on GRAIL to design and maintain a spacecraft... of the Science phase the GRAIL spacecraft were in a near-polar... than three times underneath the GRAIL orbit. The collection of gravity... derivation and flow-down for GRAIL began with systems engineering performing... in all applicable sources including GRAIL’s environmental requirements document (ERD), JPL... studies were performed by the GRAIL spacecraft team to drive out... bus was not adequate for GRAIL. Because it was designed for... the 850 m/sec required by GRAIL to capture into lunar orbit... options to consider as the GRAIL point of departure. These bus... bus would fly unchanged. The GRAIL team was fully aware that... arrays were undersized for the GRAIL power requirements. The solar array... XSS-11 to ~800W on GRAIL) simply by increasing the size... the development lifecycle, the twin GRAIL spacecraft were designed to be.... The gravity measurement technique on GRAIL (inherited from GRACE) requires that... the other pointed aft. Furthermore, GRAIL’s orbit requires that the normal... each spacecraft, but the two GRAIL orbiters fly in orientations that... Redundancy. One unique aspect of GRAIL was the extremely short mission... on other missions. Moreover, the GRAIL ERD specified benign radiation conditions.... Based on all these factors, GRAIL was proposed as a single-string... it would not significantly increase GRAIL’s mission risk. Figure 8: Science Collection... instances of component redundancy, the GRAIL Fault Protection (FP) required some... to reduce thermal perturbations during GRAIL science collection necessitated two key... safeguards were in place for GRAIL. WARM GAS RADIATOR BATTERY RADIATOR..., computer modeling, and technical reviews. GRAIL’s successful Preliminary Design Reviews at...) and David Lehman (JPL), the GRAIL project submitted an extended mission... Credit: JPL PRIMARY MISSION S/C PERFORMANCE GRAIL’s primary mission ended on May... on May 29, 2012, the GRAIL spacecraft completed their primary mission.... The press release states: The GRAIL mission has gathered unprecedented detail... diverse worlds we see today. "GRAIL delivered to Earth over 99... phasing data provided by the GRAIL mission design team, the spacecraft... Fault Protection GR-A GRAIL-A spacecraft, or Ebb GR-B GRAIL-B spacecraft, or Flow... Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment GRAIL Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory... spacecraft components. This is because GRAIL’s 9-month primary mission duration was.... Maria T. Zuber (GRAIL Principal Investigator) and Dr. David E. Smith (GRAIL Deputy Principal... acknowledge David H. Lehman (GRAIL Project Manager), Tom L. Hoffman (GRAIL Deputy Project Manager), and the rest of the GRAIL team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The GRAIL mission... success of the primary mission, GRAIL was recently awarded an extended... like to acknowledge John W. Henk (GRAIL Spacecraft Manager) and all the... Company that worked on the GRAIL program—your performance, commitment, and... and currently serves as the GRAIL Program Manager. Other previous positions... 1. Beerer, J.G., Havens, G.G., “Operation the DualOrbiter GRAIL Mission to Measure the Moon..., K.K., “Mission Design Overview for the GRAIL Mission,” AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist... publication). 3. McMechen, A.M., Kato, D.N, Roncoli, R.B., Fujii, K.K., “GRAIL Flight System Design Description & Nomenclature... 23, 2010. 4. Zuber, M.T., et al, “GRAIL Senior Review Proposal—Extended Mission...



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... General relativistic observables of the GRAIL mission Article in Physical review.... General relativistic observables of the GRAIL mission Slava G. Turyshev1,3 , Viktor T. Toth2... travel times between the two GRAIL spacecraft. We develop a general relativistic... for this fundamental observable of GRAIL, accurate to 1 µm. We develop and... potentials and their application to GRAIL. I. INTRODUCTION Several past, present and... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, which comprises two spacecraft... particular current interest is GRAIL, as the two GRAIL spacecraft are presently..., we therefore focus on the GRAIL mission and its science observables... reach its science objectives, the GRAIL mission relies on precision navigation... various microwave signals used on GRAIL for formation tracking and navigation... are critical for GRAIL. The ultimate observable model for GRAIL must correctly... “B” are the positions of the GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B spacecraft, respectively, and “C” is... range RAC = |RAC | between a GRAIL spacecraft (GRAIL-A, for instance) and a ground-based... even exceeding that of the GRAIL experiment, have already been discussed... computing the observables of the GRAIL mission, with results that are... for another fundamental observable on GRAIL: the dual one-way range... GRAIL. To reach its scientific objectives, in addition to the BCRS, GRAIL... level of accuracy required by GRAIL. A. Barycentric Coordinate Reference Frame (BCRS... for the purposes of the GRAIL mission (i.e., neglecting higher order mass... that the O(c−5 ) terms are beyond GRAIL’s sensitivity; see the analysis in... nature of the observables on GRAIL further reduces the sensitivity of... for collection and interpretation of GRAIL data. C. Coordinate systems used in... level of accuracy anticipated for a GRAIL, it is sufficient to consider... and, thus, completely negligible for GRAIL. In addition, we present only... level of accuracy sufficient for GRAIL, we have: dτC 1 =1− 2 dt c 1 2 (vE + [ΩE × yC... coordinates to be considered for GRAIL. In addition to the terrestrial... the spacecraft GRAIL-A are (the equations are identical for GRAIL-B, except for... equations of motion of the GRAIL-A spacecraft in the lunicentric frame..., making it barely observable with GRAIL. Note that the lunar angular... , which makes it negligible for GRAIL. A m 0 ˆ A a result, the metric tensor gmn... the reference frames relevant for GRAIL, expressed in terms of harmonic... effect. As far as the GRAIL’s accuracy in concerned, contributions to... micron-level sensitivity of the GRAIL mission, they become noticeable. It... worthwhile, demonstrating that a spacecraft with GRAIL’s sensitivity is already a practical instrument... the anticipated accuracy of the GRAIL experiment, we can simplify Eq... most Solar System experiments including GRAIL, as seen from BCRS, the... timing observables on GRAIL. 14 FIG. 2: Timing events on GRAIL: Depicted (not... the world-lines of the GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B spacecraft with corresponding proper... . In the case of the GRAIL mission, when signal transmission between...-way range (DOWR) observables on GRAIL, we need the expressions derived... the interpolation algorithm realized on GRAIL to synchronize the LGRS clocks... their magnitudes and relevance for GRAIL. To develop numerical estimates for... TABLE I: Select parameters of the GRAIL mission (some taken from Ref... text. Parameter Symbol(s) Values used GRAIL Mission Inter-spacecraft range dAB... of signal propagation 2 realized on GRAIL (dAB /c ≃ 1 ms), this term is... Range-Rate (DOWRR) observables on GRAIL To develop an analytical form... on the GRAIL mission, the model for DOWRR on GRAIL given by... instantaneous DOWRR observable for the GRAIL mission, developed to a level of... for the observables of the GRAIL mission. We addressed some practical... accuracy of modeling of the GRAIL fundamental observables. We presented a hierarchy... at the accuracy required for GRAIL. We advocate a definition for the... of the relativistic computations for GRAIL are done implicitly and are... Ref. [18]. To navigate the GRAIL spacecraft, the code transforms the... of sensitivity of the GRAIL mission demonstrate that GRAIL is already a practical... very similar to that of GRAIL. Indeed, the calculations presented here...., submitted (2012). [6] G. L. H. Kruizinga and W. I. Bertiger, GRAIL Project Memorandum (2009). [7] M. Soffel, S. A. Klioner... and frequency transfer in the GRAIL experiment. The derivation presented in... are thus relevant to the GRAIL mission configuration. Appendix B: Evaluating the..., nothing is perfect and the GRAIL mission’s design relies on a synchronization... (t − t0 )2 m/s , which is negligible for GRAIL. Appendix C: Relativistic frequency transfer between... generated on-board the two GRAIL spacecraft. However, these frequencies are... observable for spacecraft such as GRAIL that are equipped with a precision... frequency fA0 , located at point A (GRAIL-A), which emits light signals during... In a 1-way Doppler transmission between a GRAIL spacecraft and a DSN station, the...). With the X-band navigation on GRAIL with frequency ∼ 8.4 MHz, the result...



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... ARTEMIS spacecraft and the two GRAIL spacecraft. This book illuminates the... and as a navigator on the GRAIL mission, which sent two spacecraft... fuel, many launch days Hiten, GRAIL, ARTEMIS a Missions referred to include... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission was the first mission... directly on a low-energy transfer. GRAIL’s low-energy transfer required much... relaxed the operational timeline. Furthermore, GRAIL launched two satellites on board... by more than a day. Finally, GRAIL’s low-energy transfer reduced the... small errors. Missions such as GRAIL, which launched aboard a Delta II... before performing a maneuver. In fact, GRAIL was able to cancel the... using a single launch vehicle. The GRAIL mission separated two lunar-orbit... a low lunar orbit, such as GRAIL’s target lunar orbit. The transfer..., and a relaxed operational schedule. The GRAIL mission took advantage of these... spacecraft from their joint launch. GRAIL’s two spacecraft flew independently to... Explorer (SELENE), Chang’e 1, LRO, and GRAIL, among others. The results of... orbit using conventional techniques. The GRAIL mission, launched on September 10... of its primary mission. The GRAIL mission benefited from its... in 2010 and the two GRAIL spacecraft in 2011. A brief summary.... 22 INTRODUCTION AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY GRAIL. The GRAIL mission (Fig. 1-13) [83... launch vehicle. Two vehicles, GRAIL-A (Ebb) and GRAIL-B (Flow), were separated soon... of the Moon. The two GRAIL spacecraft were the first ever... directly from low-energy transfers. GRAIL’s trajectory design is illustrated in... can see in Fig. 1-13, GRAIL’s mission design includes two signi... orbit insertion dates. Figure 1-13 GRAIL’s mission design, including a 26-day... two deterministic maneuvers for both GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B, designed to separate their... is no outbound asymptote. The GRAIL targets included the right ascension... on a lunar encounter trajectory. The GRAIL mission design involves two deterministic... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) [83]. The procedures presented in... to low lunar orbit. The GRAIL mission is the only mission... in this chapter [83–85]. GRAIL’s trajectory design is illustrated in... as the mission developed. The GRAIL mission launched on September 10... day of its launch period. GRAIL’s mission design includes two significant Figure 4-2 An illustration of GRAIL’s mission design, including a 26-day... two deterministic maneuvers for both GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B, designed to separate their... of maneuvers like those in GRAIL’s design. 4.3 DIRECT TRANSFERS BETWEEN EARTH...], Chandrayaan-1 [3], the LRO [188], and GRAIL [83]. The LOI is modeled... arrival geometry of the two GRAIL spacecraft, though in a different month... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission was designed with lunar... in mind, since the two GRAIL spacecraft were not originally designed... an extended passage through shadow. GRAIL’s entire science phase was designed... following eclipse. This means that GRAIL’s launch opportunities do not repeat... useful for missions such as GRAIL that depend on arriving at... studied here is similar to GRAIL’s mission: a spacecraft is launched from... not have launch asymptotes. The GRAIL project used two similar target... injection errors. For instance, the GRAIL mission planned to have both... strict flight path requirements. The GRAIL mission scheduled two trajectory correction... the case for the two GRAIL spacecraft, and it could be... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission,” Proceedings of the AIAA...-Lunar Cruise Trajectory Design of GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Lab.... 85. S. J. Hatch, R. B. Roncoli, and T. H. Sweetser, “GRAIL Trajectory Design: Lunar Orbit Insertion... azimuth angle GEO GM GPS GRAIL geosynchronous Earth orbit gravitational constant...



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... KA-BAND DATA FROM THE GRAIL MISSION Stefano Bertone(1) , Adrian J¨aggi... the Bernese GNSS Software using GRAIL data. In particular we will... GRAIL primary mission phase. Keywords: orbit determination, Doppler, Bernese GNSS Software, GRAIL... collected by the NASA mission GRAIL (Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory... the Bernese GNSS Software using GRAIL data. In particular we will... the inhomogeneous tracking of the GRAIL orbits by ground stations tracking... orbit determination problem for each GRAIL satellite separately by using only... emerging from the GRAIL mission and from the pre-GRAIL era. We... procedure for GRAIL. We then provide our results in GRAIL data processing... and KBRR orbit determination for GRAIL We use the Doppler observations... for a combined orbit determination of GRAIL probes. The background framework and... normal equation systems based on GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B Doppler observations as part... in the context of the GRAIL mission We applied the methodology described in Section 3. to the GRAIL mission. In our analysis, we... a background field derived from the GRAIL mission, in particular we will...; 2. the case of using a pre-GRAIL field as background field, in... one-way data from the GRAIL mission requires additional screening of... focus on GRAIL-A but similar results also apply to GRAIL-B. Fig. 1 shows the two-way Doppler residuals for GRAIL-A obtained... to estimate a dynamic orbit for GRAIL probes. As shown in Fig... delicate when working with pre-GRAIL lunar gravity fields. We performed... position differences (bottom, w.r.t. GNI1B) for GRAIL-A over the entire PM phase... the improved orbits for both GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B to compute KBRR residuals... 1 and 2 for GRAIL-A. Similar results also apply to GRAIL-B. We observe in... about orbit determination of the GRAIL probes around the Moon from... ability to perform OD for GRAIL probes when using two different background lunar gravity fields, the GRAIL field GRGM900C (truncated to d/o 300... provided as a by-product of GRAIL data processing at NASA/JPL... on the absolute positioning of GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B by comparing them to... positions. The orbits computed with a GRAIL gravity field and an appropriate... orbit improvement based on pre-GRAIL fields proves to be difficult..., D., Bertone, S., J¨aggi, A., Beutler, G., and Mervart, L. “GRAIL gravity field determination using the... Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission.” Science, Vol. 339, pp... lunar gravity fields from the GRAIL Primary and Extended Missions.” Geophysical... 900 lunar gravity model from GRAIL primary and extended mission data..., M. T. “High-degree gravity models from GRAIL primary mission data.” Journal of...



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... France. The association of the Grail  with king Arthur started with... 1230A.D. did  Parsifal achieve the Grail. After Chrétien came Wolfram... the  Arthurian age when the Grail became associated with him. There... object. The guardianship of the Grail required the highest degree of... return for their purity, the Grail conferred blessings upon the land... was visible to  all. The Grail withdrew its presence from humanity... Grail.  THE GRAIL LEGEND  There are at least six versions of the Grail... his theatre in  Bayreuth.  The Grail legend goes as follows: Parsifal... the Grail which is "Whom does one serve with the Grail?" He... Wolfram. He believed that the Grail was a stone fallen from  heaven... and called him Anfortas. The Grail resided in a magnificent  castle and... miracle,  a writing appeared on the Grail stone, that a knight would come...  Kundrie. Parsifal however, achieved the Grail eventually and became the king... unfinished. Parsifal  however, achieved the Grail in one of the "continuations... but  of the Grail. The guardians of the Grail had become knights... these relics with Christ.  The Grail land itself thereby became the... as first guardian of the  Grail. Amfortas performed this duty until... been denied membership in the Grail Order. The  brotherhood came to... proceeded with Parsifal to the Grail castle. A castle of  great pillars... of Esquires brings in the  Grail, encased in a box. Titurel, Amfortas..., still refused to  uncover the Grail. He tore his clothes revealing... back.  Parsifal orders that the Grail be uncovered and should never...  relieved of his duties, the Grail shines brightest, the chalice was... most mystical of all the Grail stories. An  extraordinary tale, which... Arthur took a back seat. The Grail itself and its  central character... central  theme, which was the Grail. Wagner therefore, brought out the... the Grail is what should be focussed on.  THE HOLY GRAIL  What is the Holy Grail in reality? What... were converted  to Christianity. The Grail itself only became a Christian symbol... of the characteristics of the Grail.  It was associated with purity...  serve with the Grail?" This question about the Grail held the cure... it by Parsifal. Therefore, the Grail was indispensable to the  prosperity... therefore, was impossible without the Grail and Parsifal  held the key... by him), appeared on the Grail stone. The predicted deliverer appeared... enough to serve the Grail, as  the Grail required the purest of... old knight Gurnemanz what the Grail was.  The question however, was.... The failure to  uncover the Grail had disastrous consequences. These consequences...  consequently the service of the Grail depended on the personal involvement... on the Grail legend. Because the chalice or the Grail was already..., a concept totally inconceivable with the Grail. The  legends surely did not... stands the  Castle of the Grail, spiritually visible and tangible, because... substantiality. This Castle of the Grail contains a Sanctuary which lies on... Guardians of the Holy Grail!"  The Holy Grail according to this book... creation. This  would identify the Grail as a spiritual object, a view, which...  where the Grail had been associated with Paradise.  The Grail therefore has... legends, the Grail always resides in a castle called the  Grail castle and... the Holy Grail  occupying a sanctuary called the Castle of the Grail. Abd... be found in the spiritual Grail, which Grail was then  referred to... line! ... The Guardians of the Grail are Eternal Primordial  Spiritual Beings... of the Holy Grail. The actual  Guardians of the Grail were higher... there is a vessel called the "Grail", which  is faithfully guarded by... Sphere of Radiation." The actual Grail was therefore not  referred to... logical reasons in  the actual Grail Castle where its Guardians were... his downfall.  What does the Grail signify however? We have already... themselves have depicted about the Grail. Life­giving, source  of power... ask the questions concerning the Grail and the consequences were  disastrous... be crowned king of the Grail.  Throughout all the writings, Parsifal... his name always associated with Grail? The regularity with which this... indeed be synonymous with the Grail  and probably inseparable from it... to conceive a legend about the  Grail without this character. His characteristics... the Grail? Why is he always the protagonist in the Grail drama... as already mentioned that the Grail Castle where  Amfortas failed was...  king of the Grail? Parsifal entered the Grail castle in Amfortas' realm...  King of the actual Holy Grail because as mentioned, being a messenger... actual Holy Grail in the spiritual realm and this Holy  Grail as...  held in rapture whenever the Grail dispenses its blessings. The reason... became personally involved in the Grail story of Amfortas. The reason... therewith King of the Holy Grail, King of Creation! Parsifal's great... the Light of Truth, the Grail Message. Stiftung Gralsbotschaft  Publishing Company.... 1990.  2.  Loomis, Roger Sherman. The Grail, From Celtic Myth to Christian... Ltd. 1992.  3.  Matthews, John. The Grail, Quest for the eternal. Thames...



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... Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission (GRAIL) Orbit Determination† Tung-Han You1... The twin GRAIL spacecrafts, Ebb and Flow (aka GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B), were launched... to the LGRS payload, each GRAIL spacecraft also carries the MoonKAM... educational purposes. Shortly after liftoff, GRAIL was in-view from the... the successful signal acquisition of GRAIL-A and B at the subsequent DSN... 9 additional maneuvers for GRAIL-A and 10 additional maneuvers for GRAIL-B performed in... Propulsion Laboratory 2 GRAIL Navigation Team Chief, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 3 GRAIL Navigation Orbit... formation. It was a novel accomplishment. GRAIL consists of one structural subsystem... orbit), the physical structure of GRAIL was decomposed into 8 representative components..., major dynamic models, and challenges. GRAIL will be the first mission...