Спутник ДЗЗ. Gaofen 10. [Редактировать]

Gaofen 10 - это китайский спутник дистанционного зондирования Земли который унаследовал свои характеристики и является гражданской версией аппаратов Yaogan. Космический аппарат предположительно был запущен 1 сентября 2016 года. Однако, по данным Центра наблюдения за околоземным пространство США запуск не привел к появлению на орбите новых объектов.

По заявлениям китайских информагентств новый космический аппарат должен был использоваться в целях планирования развития городов, кадастра и прокладки железнодорожных магистралей.

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - Китай
2Страна производитель - Китай
3Тип орбиты - НОО
4Тип оператора(владельца) - военно-коммерческие
5Все спутники ДЗЗ

Информация о неудачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром Тайюань
2Дата пуска2016-09-01
3Полезная нагрузка 1xGaofen 10
4Ракета-носитель 1xВеликий поход 4C

Найдено 114 документов по запросу «Gaofen 10». [Перейти к поиску]


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..., 2016. This rocket had carried Gaofen 10 satellite, part of China High... positioning accuracy of less than 10 meters and a timing accuracy of... 2013 13, PossiblyDN2 Not known 10,000 to Likely rocket test...



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... 31 China Chang Zheng 4C Gaofen 10 Stage 3 failure 0.00 2016-E01... D Defense Total Number 12 24 4 9 8 10 12 6 0 3 0 0 94 41 16 15 12 10 B Belgium D Germany DK Denmark E Spain... recovered: Shenzhou 11, Shi Jian 10 and the DFFC experimental spacecraft... 3, PSLV stage 3, some Soyuz-2 stage 3). 9 10 11 2016 2016 2016 2016... 0320? Aug 15 1820? Feb 10 1402 Dec 8 1100? Dec 9 1540... and deorbits, 2016 Shi Jian 10 RV 2016 Apr 18 0830...



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....................................................12 4.2 Получены измерения по КА Gaofen-9 (2015-047A, 40894) .............................................. 12 4.2 Измерен... (вверху) и приведенного (внизу) блеска КА Gaofen-9, полученные в проводке системы ММТ 25... г.......................................................12 Рисунок 3. Предполагаемый вид КА Gaofen-9 ..................................................................13 Рисунок 4. Общий вид КА...) и соответствующая форма паттерна....................................................................17 Рисунок 10. Приведенный блеск КА Yaogan-6 в проводке... года ...........................................................10 Таблица 2. Фотометрическая информация из БД ММТ по КА Gaofen-9 (по.... РН H2 и H-2A...............................................................................................................................27 Таблица 10. Фотометрическая информация из БД ММТ... оптического канала 80 кв. градусов (10° х 8°), общее поле зрения системы ММТ.... градусов. Разрешение системы по времени – 0.1 с (10 кадров в секунду), при этом минимальный... по быстродвижущимся объектам составляет порядка 9.5…10.0 зв. вел. В течение наблюдательной ночи... ММТ отработано (полностью или частично) 10 ночей (рис. 1), получены измерения по... с период 3.71 с 10 По информации БД ММТ КО КА Gaofen-9 КА Lingqiao... информации. 4.2 Получены измерения по КА Gaofen-9 (2015-047A, 40894) В мае 2016... (1 проводка) по китайскому КА ДЗЗ Gaofen-9 (2015-047A, 40894). Данные по... измерений системы ММТ по КА Gaofen-9 произведена на основе орбитальной информации... из БД ММТ по КА Gaofen-9 (по состоянию на 1.06.2016..., с блеск 25.05.2016 20:10 44.4 448 6.87 ± 0.19 не... кривые измеренного и приведенного блеска КА Gaofen-9, полученные в проводке системы ММТ 25... (вверху) и приведенного (внизу) блеска КА Gaofen-9, полученные в проводке системы ММТ 25... КА Gaofen-9 выявлено не было. Запущенный 14 сентября 2015 года КА Gaofen... разведка. Сообщается, что масса КА Gaofen-9 составляет 800 килограмм, спутник работает... вид КА Gaofen-9 По состоянию на 1.06.2016, КА Gaofen-9 находится на....2016. 0 приведенный блеск, зв.вел. 1 2 3 4 5 10.06.2014 18.09.2014...: * – значение блеска с фильтром R На рис. 10 представлена кривая приведенного блеска КА... изменения блеска 3.12 секунды. Рисунок 10. Приведенный блеск КА Yaogan-6 в проводке....2016. 0 1 приведенный блеск, зв.вел. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10.06.2014 18.09.2014....8 1242 3.23 ± 0.54 не выявлена 10.06.2014 23:49 62....2015 00:21 62 2018 5.10 ± 0.59 * не выявлена 06.08... ± 1.00 не выявлена 10.05.2016 00:10 66.2 526 4.91 ± 0.80... 1994 – 1998 10 4.07 2.5 L-17 2001 – н/в 10 4.07 3.0 L-20 1999 10 4.07 3.0 27... ракет-носителей H-2 и H-2A (табл. 10). Таблица 10. Фотометрическая информация из БД ММТ... 4.0 ± 1.0 56 47 4.2 ± 0.7 7 49 4.1 ± 0.5 37 4.5 ± 0.5 39 4.2 ± 0.7 2.10 45 56 «замыкающий» КА в паре... 17 4.0 ± 1.1 7 «головной» КА в паре 17 3.8 ± 0.9 2.10 Давность последней полученной проводки, суток... в паре «головной» КА в паре 71 2.10 Примечание «головной» КА в паре 92... 4 IRIDIUM 914 IRIDIUM 12 IRIDIUM 10 Межд. обозн. / № КК ВВС США....04.2016 48 + 10 6.6 ± 0.9 27.01.2016 126 + 10 5.2 ± 1.3 28.09.2015... последней полученной проводки, суток 5.9 ± 0.9 06.10.2015 239 12 5.3 ± 1.0 03.05....02.2016 106 + 19 5.6 ± 1.5 20.10.2015 225 N 14 5.6 ± 0.9 09.03... + 19 6.2 ± 0.9 25.05.2016 7 N 14 5.2 ± 0.9 10.12.2015 174 + 14 6.0 ± 0.9 17... + 15 6.0 ± 0.7 22.04.2016 40 + 10 5.8 ± 1.2 03.05.2016 29 + 15... 29 + 5 6.4 ± 0.9 08.07.2015 329 + 10 6.1 ± 1.2 03.05.2016 29 + 11... + 19 6.0 ± 1.2 25.05.2016 7 + 18 5.9 ± 1.0 10.05.2016 22 + 17 6.3 ± 0.9 03... 126 + 18 5.7 ± 1.0 31.05.2016 1 + 10 5.8 ± 0.5 09.04.2016 53 + 17....04.2016 56 + 16 5.6 ± 1.2 18.10.2015 227 Сост. КА * Кол... орбитального столкновения с КА «Космос-2251» 10 февраля 2009 года. На рис... 16 15 14 13 11 10 10 5 5 0 менее 10 10…30 30…60 60....2016 21 N 101 5.7 ± 1.2 59.43 10.04.2016 52 N 111 6.1 ± 1.2 30.05.2016 2 N 87 6.1 ± 0.9 10.04.2016 52 N 101 5.7 ± 1.4 25... 27 25 22 20 15 10 5 1 0 менее 10 10…30 30…60 60... (из них 25 активных КА и 10 нефункционирующих КА), 6 КА Orbcomm-QL... FM 2 Orbcomm FM 8 Orbcomm FM 10 Orbcomm FM 11 Межд. обозн... Давность последней полученной проводки, суток 7.5 ± 0.7 10.05.2016 22 32 7.2 ± 0.9 08... 29 + 7 7.3 ± 0.6 17.04.2016 45 + 10 7.0 ± 0.7 18.04.2016 44 + 7 7.1 ± 0.7 03... количество КА 20 15 11 10 5 1 2 2 0 менее 10 10…30 30…60 60....05.2016 10410585 1.01 14.5 7.7 10.05.2016 10416655 1.37 35....3 8.3 30.05.2016 10430863 4.91 3.3 10.0 09.05.2016 10412954 0.49... среднее движение (вит./сут.) 12.3 10.9 1.3 N/A N/A 11.4 13.0 13.8 13.0 11....1 12.7 13.1 12.6 9.0 11.1 10.0 15.6 11.0 N/A N/A 10.2 14.4 13.7 N/A 7.8 0.5 2.5 15.7 11... ММТ отработано (полностью или частично) 10 ночей. Получены измерения по 1392... (1 проводка) по китайскому КА ДЗЗ Gaofen-9 (2015-047A, 40894).  Уточнены фотометрические.... Проанализирована динамика периодов изменения блеска 10-ти КО данного типа. 59....3 1289 7.12 ± 0.25 не выявлено 10.03.2016 19:07 418... 6062 3647 3626 минимум 9.8 10.3 11.0 11.0 10.1 10.7 максимум 8.3 8.6 8.7 9.2 8.4 8.8 Видимая угловая скорость...



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....com (K.L.); Tel.: +86-10-6480-6200 (T.W.); +86-10-6488-9439 (K.L.) These authors... TG-1 (with a spatial resolution of 10 m) to EO-1 Hyperion (with a spatial.... Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 438; doi:10.3390/rs8050438 www.mdpi.com... resolution of the VNIR is 10 m, that of the SWIR is... that of the TIR is 10 m. Due to the fine spatial... than the coarse spatial information [9,10]. However, for data with relatively... provided by the future Chinese Gaofen-5 sensor), may provide more multispectral... offuture TG-1 data and Chinese Gaofen-5 sensor), may provide more economical... classifiers for the Chinese upcoming Gaofen-5 sensor, which will provide examine...-1fine and EO-1 Hyperion images(10–20 in mapping complex urban... Gaofen-5 sensor, which will provide hyperspectral images with fine spatial resolution (10... 4’16.30”N and from 116 10’17.62”E to ˝ 116 17...°4’16.30”N and from 116°10’17.62”E to seasons characterized... TG-1 data were acquired on 10 May 2013 (15:30 LST... took place on 1 May 2013 (10:30 LST). Both of the... width of TG-1 data is 10 km. The TG-1 hyperspectral sensor... scanner with nominal bandwidths of 10 nm (VNIR) and 23 nm...]. TG-1 offers finer spatial resolution (10 m) than other hyperspectral sensors carried... width (km) Altitude (km) 64 10 10 400–1000 0.025 64 20 23 1000–2500 0.05 10 340 VNIR SWIR 70 172 30 30 10 10 355–1058 852–2577 0.043...–2577 nm, with a bandwidth of 10 nm and a spatial resolution of.... In addition, fine spatial resolution GaoFen-1 (GF-1) images (2 m panchromatic band) acquired... resampled to the same resolution (10 m) with the VNIR. Finally, a 1016... from near-infrared wavelengths, and 10 at shortwave infrared wavelengths. the... bands, the SVM wavelengths, and 10 at shortwave infrared wavelengths. classification... SVM algorithm, this study used a 10-fold cross-validation method out... of theLIBSVM SVM algorithm, study a 10-fold cross-validation method carried... data. ) Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 438 10 of 17 Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 438 10 of 16 Finally, the result... fine spatial resolution of TG (10 m) could collect a larger number of... spatial resolution satellite TG-1 (with 10 m) and the most widely used... sensor, such as the Chinese GaoFen-5, which is scheduled to launch... has a spatial resolution of about 10–20 m. Acknowledgments: This work is... imagery. Geocarto Int. 2005, 20, 3–10. [CrossRef] Cavalli, R.M.; Fusilli, L.; Pascucci, S.; Pignatti.... [CrossRef] Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 438 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15...://www.msadc.cn/ (accessed on 10 October 2013). Petropoulos, G.P.; Kalaitzidis, C.; Vadrevu..., MODIS, and Chinese new satellite GaoFen-1. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth...



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... ................................................................................................................ 9 Chinese Military Concept of Operations ........................................................................................ 10 Striking Centers of Gravity and... orbit Group on Earth Observations Gaofen Global Navigation Satellite System Global... introduced since 2000: vii the Gaofen, Yaogan, Huanjing, and Tianhui satellites... remote sensing megaproject is the Gaofen-1, launched in 2013. With these....0‒26.32 19 10.53 NA 23 8.7 NA 8.7‒10.53 8.7‒10.53 7.69... remote sensing data from its Gaofen, Ziyuan, Fengyun, and Haiyang satellites... and microbiological experiments. Shenzhou-10 Shenzhou-10 was the second manned mission... Military Bases], 太 空探索 [Space Exploration], 2006/10, 45. 347Wu Guoxing, “月球上的军事基地” [Lunar Military... satellites introduced since 2000: the Gaofen, Yaogan, Huanjing, Haiyang, and Tianhui... remote sensing megaproject is the Gaofen-1, launched in 2013.351 Due... this to 10 percent in 2014.352 Gaofen Satellites The Gaofen (GF) series... China Spacesat Company (航天东方红卫 星有限公司). The first Gaofen satellite was launched April 26...-field multi-spectrum imager. The Gaofen-1 uses the CAST2000 satellite bus... Ministry of Environmental Protection.354 Gaofen-2 was launched in August 2014.../content.html. 351 “聚焦高分一号卫星的创新与突破” [Focusing on Gaofen-1’s Innovations and Breakthroughs], CNSA, April.... 353 “高分一号卫星地面系统介绍” [An Introduction to the Gaofen-1 Ground System], China Center for.../n1145/n189058/index.html. 354 “高分一号卫星应用纪实:破空间时间分辨率冲突” [Gaofen-1 Satellite Application Account: Breaking Through... Earth remote sensing satellites Satellite Gaofen-1 Year Launched 2013 Resolution (meters... 30 100 30 100 20 5.0 10 2.0 5.0 10 2.0 2.36 5.0 10 2.1 3.5 6.0 Multiple Multiple Multiple Multiple... Gaofen-2 2014 Yaogan-1 2006 Yaogan-2 Yaogan-3 Yaogan-4 Yaogan-5 Yaogan-6 Yaogan-7 Yaogan-10...-3C 2013 Meteorological Multiple Y 63 Y N N Y N N Y Y Y Y Y N N Y Y N Gaofen-1 incorporates several design innovations. These... the HaiyangY-1A/B satellites. The Gaofen-1 is the first satellite to... given by a CNSA official, the Gaofen-1 “has been used in land... organizations in China.”356 The Gaofen series will be made up... either five or seven satellites. Gaofen-3 will also use the CS... eight-year service life. Unlike Gaofen-1 and 2, it will have a synthetic... and may launch in 2015. Gaofen-4 is also scheduled to be... camera with a 50-meter resolution. Gaofen-5 will use the SAST5000B satellite... in 2016. Gaofen-6 will have the same characteristics as Gaofen-1. 357 According to one source, the Gaofen-7 satellite will..., “高分一号卫星的技术特点” [The Technical Characteristics of the Gaofen-1], 中国航天 [China Aerospace], August 2013, 7‒8. 356..., CNSA, May 22, 2014. 357 “高分一号的落后与特色” [Gaofen-1 Deficiencies and Characteristics], Defense Review....shtml. 371 “China’s Ocean Satellites,” 10. 372 Ibid. 373 “环境与灾害监测预报小卫星” [Environmental and... from Taiyuan], 中国航天 [Aerospace China], 2013/10, 22. Li Qing, “中国气象卫星技术成就与展望(上)” [The Technological... of China’s Meteorological Satellites (Part 1),” 10. 401 “Overview of Fengyun Meteorological...-11/11/content_5640878.htm. 417 “长剑-10 导弹配合北斗系统可毁万吨巡洋舰” [Missile Incorporates Beidou System and... Successes 2 0 40 20 5 11 10 23 24 10 2 19 13 179 Failures... 2011 2012 2013 Totals Satellites 0 3 6 10 4 7 10 13 6 16 19 25 16 135 Spacecraft 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 1 9 Total 1 5 7 10 5 7 10 14 6 16 21 26 17.../assets/001/505021.pdf. 522 “高分一号的落后与特色” [Gaofen-1 Deficiencies and Characteristics], Defense Review... Satellite/AMSAT-China 9/22/10 9/22/10 Zhejiang University Zhejiang University Scientific...-1-1) Chuangxin 1-2 (Innovation 1-2) Chuangxin 1-3 (Innovation 1-3) Chuangxin-3 10/27/05 Operator/Owner Class... 3C (FY-3C) 9/23/13 Gaofen 1 4/26/13 Haiyang 1B (HY... Shijian 6G (SJ6-04A) 10/6/10 Shijian 6H (SJ6_04B) 10/6/10 Shijian 7 (SJ7, Dong... Sensing Satellite 9C) Zhongxing 10 (XZ-10, Chinasat 10) 12/1/08 12/15... 12/9/09 12/15/09 3/5/10 3/5/10 3/5/10 6/20/11 Remote Sensing Remote... GEO 8 Compass G-4 (Beidou G4) 10/31/10 Chinese Defense Ministry GEO 8 Compass... (ZY-2B, JB-3B) 8/9/10 9/22/10 11/9/11 11/29/11... Explorer]) MCubed-2 (Michigan Multipurpose Minisatellite 2) 10/28/2011 Technology Development LEO...-1) 9/8/1996 Communications GEO AMC-10 (Americom-10, GE 10) 2/5/2004 Communications GEO AMC... (SES)) 1Worldspace Communications GEO DirecTV-10 7/7/2007 DirecTV, Inc. Communications GEO... Technologies, LLC Communications GEO Echostar 3 10/5/1997 Echostar Technologies, LLC Communications... (Intelsat, Ltd.) Communications GEO Intelsat 10 (PAS-10) 5/14/2001 PanAmSat (Intelsat... Communications LEO Globalstar M040 (Globalstar 10) 2/9/1999 Globalstar Communications LEO Globalstar... Operational Environmental Satellite System [NPOESS]) 10/28/2011 NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic... - US Air Force Communications GEO 10/10/2001 3/2/2011 6/20/2012 132... 4/3/2012 12/6/2013 5/22/1999 10/5/2001 10/19/2005 1/20/2011... Corporation Earth Observation LEO Worldview 2 10/8/2009 DigitalGlobe Corporation Earth Observation...



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... Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval Using Gaofen-1 WFV Camera Data Kun Sun... spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD product at 10 km resolution is too coarse... applied in a regional-scale study. Gaofen-1 (GF-1) wide-field-of-view... upon in future research. Keywords: Gaofen-1; aerosol optical depth; deep blue... satellite images [6], air quality assessment [10] and haze pollution monitoring [11...]. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 89; doi:10.3390/rs9010089 www.mdpi.com... in terms of algorithm design. Gaofen-1 (GF-1) satellite, launched by the... by Gaofen-1 Wide-Field-of-View Figure 1. Wuhan citycity shown by Gaofen... (RGB (RGB composited). composited). 2.2. Datasets 2.2.1. Gaofen-1 Wide-Field-of-View (GF...-of-View) cameras aboard on Gaofen-1 satellite. Band Blue Green Red...-of-View) cameras aboard on Gaofen-1 satellite. Band Band Range (µm) Spatial... a nominal spatial resolution of 10 km × 10 km (MOD04 for Terra and... the overpassing time of GF-1 (10:30 local solar time), all...-based but window-based in a 10 × 10 size (corresponding to a spatial resolution... the Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 89 10 of 19 two figures that... reflectance urban forest farmland 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 Spring Summer Autumn... Coverage 8 July 2013 1 August 2013 10 August 2013 0.27 0.12 0.09... 0.92 0.34 0.58 0.10 0.10 0.16 0.14 0.15 0.06 0.10 95.4 92.9 100... 0.37 0.07 92.9 75.0 100.0 0.9 4.7 10.2 SON 21 September 2014 8 October... 0.65 0.04 0.15 100.0 99.5 10.0 33.4 SON 20 October 2015... 0.54 0.17 0.36 0.84 0.79 0.10 0.13 100.0 72.4 4.4 20.2 DJF... to January 2016. Figures 9 and 10 show continuously retrieved results during... periodininwinter. winter.(a–e) (a–e)are arethe Figure 10.10. The AOD retrieval results from... (160 m), m),MODIS MODIS DB AOD (10 and km) MODIS and MODIS... the spatial (160 DB AOD (10 km) DT AOD km). Figure... 160 m, MODIS DB AOD at 10 km and MODIS DT Figure... 160 m, MODIS DB AOD at 10 km and MODIS AOD at... 160 m, MODIS DB AOD at 10 km and MODIS DT shows... (as shown in Figures 9 and 10). The retrieved GF-1 WFV AOD... approach to retrieve AOD from Gaofen-1 Wide-Field-of-View (GF.... [CrossRef] Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 89 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15... land. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2010, 10, 10399–10420. [CrossRef] Hsu, N.C.; Gautam..., X.; Pang, X. Radiometric cross-calibration of Gaofen-1 WFV cameras using Landsat-8 OLI... composition. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2010, 10, 1155–1169. [CrossRef] Kim, M.; Kim...



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...; space assets; or space operations.10 General Staff Department The General... can increase launch payloads by 10–15 percent and satellite life... centers rely on a network of 10– 20 telemetry and tracking stations... plans. The Academy employs over 10,000 people.25 • The China... dollar invested estimated to yield $10 in gross domestic product growth... set the goal of capturing 10 percent of this market by... to 2013 but only achieved 10 percent in 2011 and 2012.... Remote sensing data from China’s Gaofen, Ziyuan, Fengyun, and Haiyang satellites... advanced Earth observation satellite, the Gaofen series, which has military applications... September 1, 2015, compared to about 10 in 2000 and 35 in... satellites are the Yaogan, Shijian, Gaofen, and Haiyang, each of which... on DSKHT7XVN1PROD with USCC Gaofen Satellites The Gaofen series of EO/SAR... innovations. According to Beijing, the Gaofen-1 ‘‘has been used in land....’’ 129 China also employed the Gaofen-1 to assist in the search... PLA. China launched the second Gaofen in 2014 and two more...’’ are satellites with a mass between 10 and 100 kilograms. Kevin Pollpeter... reportedly provides positioning accuracies of 10 meters or better, depending on... from 2010 to 2014, only 10 fewer than the United States... orbit.174 • China has conducted 10 Shenzhou missions and plans to... 21 hours Test Shenzhou-2 January 10, 2001 7 days Test Shenzhou-3 March... days Manned (3 crew) docking Shenzhou-10 June 11, 2013 15 days... 2049 Institute, April 26, 2012), 10; and U.S.-China Economic and Security..., Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, 10; U.S.-China Economic and Security Review... Cooperation and Exchange.’’ Staff translation. 10. U.S.-China Economic and Security Review...,’’ IHS Jane’s Defense Weekly, February 10, 2015; National Aeronautics and Space... Mission,’’ NASA Spaceflight.com, December 10, 2014; Kevin Pollpeter, China Dream... Mission,’’ NASA Spaceflight.com, December 10, 2014; Jane’s Space Systems and.... 130. Rui C. Barbosa, ‘‘China Lofts Gaofen 9 Via Long March 2D,’’ NASA...; Jane’s Space Systems and Industry, ‘‘Gaofen Series’’; U.S. Department of Defense, Annual...; and Collin Skockik, ‘‘China Launches Gaofen-2 Satellite,’’ SpaceFlight Insider, August 19...,’’ Project 2049 Institute, February 2011, 10; and SinoDefense, ‘‘FengHuo 1 (ChinaSat 22... of China 2014, June 2014, 10–11; Mark Stokes and Dean... be Established around 2022,’’ September 10, 2014; Irene Klotz, ‘‘China Unveils... Be Established around 2022,’’ September 10, 2014; Joan Johnson-Freese, ‘‘A Long... Review of Global Affairs, February 10, 2013. 180. China National Space...’ of the Moon,’’ CNN, September 10, 2015. 186. Quoted in Leonard... Morning Post (Hong Kong), November 10, 2014. 193. Kevin Pollpeter, China...



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... TM, Landsat ETM+, FLC1, and GaoFen-1) and hyperspectral datasets (Hyperion, HYDICE... coincident with the “real” situation [10]. In this circumstance, the role Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 295; doi:10.3390/rs8040295 www.mdpi.com... point and its cluster center [10]: the smaller the distance, the... of CVIs in different environments [10,19–21], little attention has... account (e.g., the well-known XBI) [10]. In fact, crisp CVIs (for... “ K ř Ni ||zi ´ z||2 , WK “ K ř ř BK WK { , K´1 N´K (10) ||x j ´ zi ||2 . i“1 x j PCi i “1 (4) The Fukuyama and... better the separation of clusters. (10) The WSJ Index (WSJI´ ) [13... iteration implemented with cluster number K = 2, 3, ..., 10 , respectively. To overcome the shortcoming... QuickBird [37], Landsat TM, Landsat GaoFen-1 GaoFen-1 [38], [39]. and FLC1 Their...+ datasets; (j–l) the corresponding maps of GaoFen-1 datasets; (m–o) the corresponding maps of... datasets. (a) True corresponding maps of GaoFen-1 datasets; (m–o) the corresponding maps of... 12, 9, and 1). Remote Sens. 2016, 8, x 10 of 23 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 2. Cont. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 295 10 of 22 (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) Figure 2. The Thehyperspectral...(b) (bands 120,(bands 90, 10); 120, 90, 10); (c) FC map (bands 90, 60, 10); and (d) FC map (bands 111, ...). (c) FC map (bands 90, 60, 10); and (d) FC map (bands 111...+ mapper mapper Widefiled filed Wide Gaofen-1 Gaofen-1 imager imager D Y L L Yalvhe farm, 2005... QuickBird Landsat TM Landsat ETM+ Gaofen-1 FLC1 Hyperion HYDICE ROSIS AVIRIS... 94.41 98.34 83.10 87.09 94.88 93.85 99.63 96.10 95.27 96.30 98... clusters ranging from two to 10 by FCM for each image... cluster numbers ranging from 2 to 10 for the QuickBird image. Cluster...´ (e-2) WSJI´ PBMFI+ (e3) SVFI+ WLI´ 2 3* 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0.754 0.565 0.509 0.822 2.486... ETM+, K =(l)5;Landsat (m) GaoFen-1, GaoFen-1, K =K4;=(o) (j)=Landsat ETM+,ETM+, K = 3; K(k) ETM+, K = 4; ETM+,KK==2;5;(n) (m) GaoFen-1, 2; GaoFen-1, K = 5; K = 6; K(q) K = 2; (r) FLC1, 3; (s) FLC1, and (t) FLC1, (n) GaoFen-1, K (p) = 4;GaoFen-1, (o) GaoFen-1, = FLC1, 5; (p) GaoFen-1, K =K 6; =(q) FLC1, KK = =2;5;(r) FLC1... cluster numbers ranging from 2 to 10 for the QuickBird image. (p) AVIRIS... TM10 image. 2 the 163CVIs * 5 6 7 2 to 10 for 8 the Landsat 9 0.800 PC... cluster numbers ranging from 2 to 10 for the ETM+ image. Cluster...´ WSJI´ PBMFI+ (e3) SVFI+ WLI´ 2 3 4* 5 6 7 8 9 10 0.404 0.284 0.775 0.404 5.803... numbers ranging from 2 to 10 for the GaoFen-1 image. Cluster Number CVIs...´ (e-3) WSJI´ PBMFI+ (e4) SVFI+ WLI´ 2 3 4 5* 6 7 8 9 10 0.850 0.374 0.700 0.587 4.715... cluster numbers ranging from 2 to 10 for the FLC1 image. Cluster...+ CWBI´ WSJI´ PBMFI+ SVFI+ WLI´ 2 3 4 5* 6 7 8 9 10 0.760 0.549 0.519 0.887 0.806... cluster numbers ranging from 2 to 10 for the Hyperion image. Cluster...´ (e-3) WSJI´ PBMFI+ (e6) SVFI+ WLI´ 2 3 4* 5 6 7 8 9 10 0.867 0.337 0.735 0.472 2.169... cluster numbers ranging from 2 to 10 for the HYDICE image. Cluster...´ (e-4) WSJI´ PBMFI+ (e6) SVFI+ WLI´ 2 3 4* 5 6 7 8 9 10 0.752 0.573 0.504 0.888 1.194... number of the image. Table 10. Variations of the 16 CVIs... cluster numbers ranging from 2 to 10 for the ROSIS image. Cluster...´ (e-3) WSJI´ PBMFI+ (e6) SVFI+ WLI´ 2 3 4 5* 6 7 8 9 10 0.703 0.661 0.406 1.305 0.580... cluster numbers ranging from 2 to 10 for the AVIRIS image. Cluster...´ (e-3) WSJI´ PBMFI+ (e5) SVFI+ WLI´ 2 3 4 5* 6 7 8 9 10 0.843 0.395 0.686 0.690 0.615... the clustering results of the GaoFen-1 image with the cluster number..., TI, CWBI, and WLI (Table 10). Once Figure 4m–p shows the... DBI DI CHI FSI SCI 3* 2 3 2 2 3* 2 2 2 2 3* 2 2 5* 3 3* 2 2 5* 2 3* 7 5 2 5* 8 4* 4* 5* 5* 8 4* 3 5* 5* 8 4* 7 5* 6 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 3 10 8 4 4 5 5 8 3 6 6 6 6 10 6 10 10 C XBI KI TI CWBI WSJI... ETM+ 4 GaoFen-1 5 FLC1 5 3* 2 2 5* 3 3* 2 2 5* 3 3* 2 2 5* 3 3* 4* 2 3 3 3* 4* 4* 5* 5* 3* 2 2 2 2 10 8 10 7 10 3* 2 2 5* 2 2 3 3 4 2 3 3 4 2 3 3 4 2 3 3 4 4* 4* 5* 4 3 3 2 2 10 9 10 7 3 3 3 4 Multispectral image QuickBird 3 Landsat TM 4 Landsat ETM+ 4 GaoFen-1 5 FLC1... MPC DBI DI 2 2 3* 3* 3* 9 7 7 2 2 2 2 8 4* 4* 4* 9 4* 4* 9 2 5* 5* 5* 7 7 4 4 5 7 3 3 5 7 9 6 7 5 9 10 WSJI PBMFI SVFI WLI 3* 3* 3* 10 2 2 4* 2 10 2 Multispectral image QuickBird 3 Landsat 4 TM Landsat 4 ETM+ GaoFen-1 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 5* 5* Hyperspectral... 4 ETM+ GaoFen-1 5 Hyperspectral image Hyperion 4 HYDICE 4 ROSIS 5 AVIRIS 5 CHI FSI SCI 2 2 2 3 4* 2 10 2 5* 5* 5* 5* 5* 2 9 5* 2 5 6 4 2 5 6 4 2 5 6 4 2 3 3 4 4* 4* 5* 4 3 2 2 2 10 10 10... numbers of most images (Table 10), consistent with previous studies [12... numbers of the images (Table 10). It was found that some... overestimate the cluster number (Table 10). Obviously, the bottleneck of most... images, such as QuickBird versus Gaofen-1, and HYDICE versus AVIRIS, have.... [CrossRef] Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 295 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15... Control Conference, Portland, OR, USA, 8–10 June 2005. Zahid, N.; Limouri, N.; Essaid...



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... Denial Sea-based Space Programs ..................................................................................................... 10 Anti-Access/Area Denial Land... the PLA’s strategy as follows:10 A robust, space-based C4ISR system...:23 According to Beijing, the Gaofen-1 ‘‘has been used in land... China.’’ China also employed the Gaofen-1 to assist in the search... and Developments AHC 9/19/2016 10 While the DF-21D offers... 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Zhongxing Beidou-2(M) Biedou-2 (G) Beidou-2(IGSO... its launch in August, the Gaofen-2 became China’s first satellite capable... satellites are the Yaogan, Shijian, Gaofen, and Haiyang, each of which... destabilizing during a conventional conflict.1 Gaofen Satellites The Gaofen series of EO/SAR... innovations. According to Beijing, the Gaofen-1 ‘‘has been used in land... China.’’ China also employed the Gaofen-1 to assist in the search... PLA. China launched the second Gaofen in 2014 and two more... code that provides accuracies of 10 meters or better, depending on... a press release. (Video) At approximately 10:26 p.m. EST today, a U.S. Navy AEGIS... Security Review Commission, March 2, 2015. 10 “China’s Space and Counterspace Programs..., http://www.nytimes.com/2003/10/15/international/asia/15SPAC.html... U.S. X-37B Drone?” Huffington Post, November 10, 2012. 16 “Tiangong-2 takes China...



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..., and over 100 journal articles. 10 Mr. Dean Cheng is a senior... positioning accuracies of less than 10 meters. With the use of... series introduced since 2000: the Gaofen, Yaogan, Huanjing, and Tianhui satellites... an altitude of more than 10,000 kilometers and released a barium... also serve legitimate peacetime functions.10 According to the U.S. Defense Department... Command and Technology (装备指挥技术学院学报), 2006/6, 49. 10 See, for example, Huang Siyong...://www.reuters.com/article/2011/10/31/us-china-us-hackingidUSTRE79U1YI20111031... can increase launch payloads by 10–15 percent and satellite life...) and cited in the NSSS (p.10). Language in the National Defense... Earth observation satellite, Gaofen 1 in May 2013, followed by Gaofen 2 in August... in conjunction with the Shenzhou 8-10 spacecrafts. Taingong-2 was to be... Mercury (6 crewed flights) and Gemini (10 crewed flights) programs, and one... interception technology within its territory.”10 As American defense officials noted.../content_12797459.htm (accessed February 6, 2015). 10 “China: Missile Defense System Test....usatoday.com/tech/news/2006-10-05-satellite-laser_x.htm (accessed...://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-10-27/chinese-military-suspected-in... time. We will reconvene at 10:50 with panel number two... deployments in the Western Pacific. Gaofen: The Gaofen satellite is a satellite used... reconnaissance of the earth. The Gaofen was launched in 2013 and.... Tiangong - 1 successfully docked with Shenzhou 10 on 13 June 2013 and... the China Construction Bank from 10 billion yuan to 20 billion... Chengdu Aircraft Corporation’s 4th generation J-10 fighter and its J-20 5th... about 40 optical surveillance satellites, 10 radar satellites, 8 possible early warning... it reached an altitude of 10,000km, while U.S. sources noted it... satellites may include 5-ton and 10-ton systems able to reside... may enable a revisit time of 10 minutes. The PLA or “civil... may have a life span of 10 years, the second may be... -8.6 3.4 1968 4,722 -13.0 2.7 1969 4,251 -10.0 2.3 1970 3,752 -11.7 1.9 1971 3,382... the U.S. terminology of “force enhancement.”10 Space support operations make use... China’s Military Space Efforts,” 218. 10 Kevin Pollpeter, “The Chinese Vision... People’s Republic of China 2014,” 10. 169 and is pursuing other...