Спутник ФКИ. Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory-A (GRAIL). [Редактировать]

Зонд построены фирмой Lockheed-Martin по заказу JPL NASA. В основе конструкции лежит платформа LM-300. Полная масса каждого зонда 230 кг, сухая масса –201кг. Размер зонда - 1,09 м х 0,95 м х 0,76 м. Каждый зонд имеет две панели солнечных батарей площадью 1,88 квадратных метра каждая, способных генерировать не менее 1400 Вт в целом, и литий-ионный аккумулятор емкостью 30 Ач. Двигательная установка состоит из основного двигателя MR-106L на гидразине с тягой 22 Н и 8-ми малых гелиевых двигателей с тягой 0,9 Н для управления ориентацией.

Система управления базируется на компьютере RAD-750 с памятью 128 Мб (512 Мб для записанных программ).

В основе основного эксперимента по построению гравитационной карты Луны лежит измерение расстояния между аппаратами, которое будет меняться по мере того, как они проходят лунные гравитационные аномалии. Каждый из зондов имеет три приемо- передатчика S-диапазона для связи с Землей и синхронизации времени, два передатчика Х -диапазона для передачи научных данных, радиомаяк для передачи сигналов на Землю и измерения доплеровского сдвига, транспондер Ка-диапазона для измерения расстояния между двумя космическими аппаратами.

Как отметила научный руководитель миссии Мария Зубер (Maria Zuber), сегодняшние технологии позволяют определять расстояние между аппаратами с точностью до нескольких микрометров — «меньше диаметра красной кровяной клетки человека». На зондах установлены также миниатюрные камеры MoonKAM, способные выполнять до 30 кадров в секунду. На каждом спутнике будет находиться до пяти камер, предназначенных для широкой популяризации полученной информации и образовательных программ. Студенты младших курсов университетов под руководством наставников смогут работать с камерами на расстоянии с помощью оборудования, имеющегося в Калифорнийском университете, Сан-Диего.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1EbbНайтиНайти
2GRAIL-AНайтиНайти
337801НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США
3Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг230
2Масса (сухая), кг201
3Платформа, LM-3001
4Мощность, Вт1400

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2011-046A

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2011-09-10 at 13:08:52 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xGravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory-A (GRAIL)
3Полезная нагрузка 1xGravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory-B (GRAIL)
4Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2

Найдено 268 документов по запросу «Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory-A (GRAIL)». [Перейти к поиску]


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...) , T.H. You(15) , and B.T. Young(16) (1-16) Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of..., 2012 the twin NASA Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft, Ebb and Flow, achieved precise synchronized formation for collecting highly sensitive lunar gravity... the navigation strategy and performance of the twin GRAIL spacecraft from the... Phase in June 2012. Keywords: GRAIL, Lunar Gravity, Formation Flying, Low Altitude... Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission is a Discovery-class mission proposed to map the lunar gravity field to high accuracy and spatial resolution. GRAIL (GR) is the lunar analog of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, which is currently mapping the Earth’s gravity.... The GRAIL Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA, while the spacecraft were built and operated... the navigation strategy and performance of the twin GRAIL spacecraft from the... the GRAIL mission are: 1. To determine the structure of the lunar interior... of the crustal brecciation and magmatism 5. Constrain deep interior structure from tides... of the GRAIL Prime Mission is illustrated in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 2 displays the operation activities Figure 1. GRAIL launch during the Launch, TLC and LOI Phases while... 15 Mar 2012 8 Figure 3. GRAIL OPR, TSF and Science Phase operations activity.... The GRAIL extended mission (XM) was chosen to map the gravity at... through OPR and TSF is discussed in Reference [4]. The complex GRAIL mission... each phase and methods for mitigating the effects of the gravity errors... Challenges The uniqueness of the GRAIL mission and the Science formation requirements.... 5. The gravity on the lunar far side was largely uncertain and posed challenges to the OD Team[7]. The best lunar gravity available at the start of the GRAIL mission was the spherical harmonic representation to degree and order.... Because previous lunar gravity field determination efforts before GRAIL (and Selene) were performed... the gravity on the lunar far side could be made, and therefore this region of the lunar gravity field could... the influence of gravity errors on the downtrack and crosstrack predictions. Lastly... the large gravity field covariance into downstream position uncertainties and therefore could... decreased from launch and re-pressurization events. The gravity losses during the... gravity field posed issues to the timeliness of OD solution deliveries and... delivered an improved gravity field (grail270a9a) of degree and order 270 on... the twin GRAIL orbiters was the Ka-band Lunar Gravity Ranging System... by compensating for solar torques and gravity gradient torques in lunar orbit... frequency and performance, and accuracy of lunar gravity models. It was anticipated 10 GRAIL-A GRAIL... Phase Figure 8. GRAIL Attitude configuration through OPR and TSF in (a) and through Science... lunar gravity model was the primary source of both the downtrack and... with TCM-4 and were designed to insert the GRAIL spacecraft into the... reduced the gravity losses during the burn and optimized the ∆V and fuel use... to reduce gravity losses over three days in cluster 1 and four days... the gravity field errors. semi-major axis, eccentricity, argument of periapsis, and... Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and... of GRAIL Project, Lockheed-Martin Space Systems, and JPL DSN Operation, and Mission..., M., Hatch, S., and Roncoli, R. “Design of an Extended Mission for GRAIL.” AIAA/AAS... 2012. [2] Roncoli, R. and Fujii, K. “Mission Design Overview for the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission.” AIAA..., S., Roncoli, R., and Sweetser, T. “Trans-Lunar Cruise Trajectory Design of GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) Mission.” AIAA..., Aug. 2-5 2010. [4] Hatch, S., Roncoli, R., and Sweetser, T. “GRAIL Trajectory Design: Lunar Orbit Insertion.... 2-5 2010. [5] Havens, G. and Beerer, J. “Designing Mission Operations for the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission.” SpaceOps. Stockholm,Sweden, June 11-15 2012. [6] Beerer, J. and Havens, G. “Operating the Dual-Orbiter GRAIL Mission to Measure the Moon’s Gravity.” SpaceOps. Stockholm,Sweden, June 11-15 2012. [7] You, T. and et. al. “Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission (GRAIL) Orbit Determination.” ISSFD. Pasadena.... [8] Konopliv, A. S., Asmar, S. W., Carranza, E., Sjogren, W. L., and Yuan, D. N. “Recent Gravity Models as a Result of..., M., and Long, S. “Navigation Assessment of Launch Vehicle Performance for GRAIL.” JPL IOM: GRAIL...



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GRAVITY RECOVERY AND INTERIOR LABORATORY MISSION (GRAIL) ORBIT DETERMINATION Tung-Han You(1) , ...(9), Mason Keck(10) (1)-(9) Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800...-spacecraft Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) has the primary mission objective of generating a lunar gravity map with an unprecedented resolution via the Ka-band Lunar Gravity... six-month journey, Ebb and Flow (aka GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B) established the most stringent... requirements, major dynamic models, and navigation challenges. GRAIL is the first mission to generate a full high-resolution gravity field... and successful navigation was the key to making this a reality. Keywords: GRAIL.... 1. Introduction T he twin GRAIL spacecraft, Ebb and Flow (aka GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B), were launched on... gravity map with an unprecedented resolution via the Ka-band Lunar Gravity... and its thermal history. In addition to the Ka-band Lunar Gravity Ranging System (LGRS) payload, each GRAIL spacecraft (S/C) also..., and Decommission Phases. Figure 1 shows the heliocentric view of the GRAIL Primary... (see Figure 2), GRAIL was in-view from the Tracking and Data Relay... the successful signal acquisition of GRAIL-A and B at the subsequent DSN stations... LOI-A and LOI-B maneuvers, there were 9 additional maneuvers for GRAIL-A and 10 additional maneuvers for GRAIL-B performed in the OPR and TSF... 3: GRAIL Low-energy TLC, LOI, and OPR Trajectories This paper describes GRAIL orbit... preparation and risk reduction efforts were dedicated to this critical period. GRAIL... “GRAIL Contingency Playbook” pre-launch. However, owing to its complexity and time... on Farside Lunar Gravity: The pre-launch best gravity field available to... until the GRAIL Gravity Team released an internal version of lunar gravity field... 4 shows the GRAIL spacecraft configuration. 3 2.3.1 S/C Coordinate System Ebb and Flow have the... Y-Z plane and located on the –X bus surface. 2.3.2 Propulsion & ACS GRAIL has a three... the GRAIL flight path are gravity, solar radiation pressure, thruster events, and outgassing... the lunar gravity uncertainty Figure 5: Major Forces Acting on GRAIL, Post-LOI... acting on GRAIL post-LOI. Lunar albedo and the Earth oblate gravity field... OPR and TSF phases. 3.2. Gravity Models A truncated version of the Earth gravity model based on the GRACE mission [4] was used throughout the GRAIL... gravity field was obtained. It was solely generated based on the GRAIL LGRS data by the JPL GRAIL Lunar Gravity team. Several... the planetary ephemerides and constants. At the time of GRAIL’s Lunar Orbit... were many GRAIL outgassing events observed during the TLC and Orbital Phases... and their objectives. There were 15 maneuvers scheduled for GRAIL-A and 17 for GRAIL... On-board Reconstructed SMF, GRAIL-A through filtering and trending 9 analyses was used... adjusted and refined. A good example is small force trending. The GRAIL real... data and models. It depends on the mission Figure 11: GRAIL Orbit Determination Process phase and propagation end time... from other dynamic mismodeling signatures (e.g. gravity error). Figure 13 demonstrates passthrough... GRAIL relied on the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) for tracking and... in Spain, and Canberra in Australia participated in tracking GRAIL. DSN range... in Table 3, GRAIL was tracked extensively during launch, LOI, and in-orbit... of GRAIL-A’s two-way S-band Doppler and range data. The associated Doppler and... mid-TLC, GRAIL adopted an automatic data editing and weight strategy. The... the gravity covariance run. OD errors in radius of periapsis and argument... Approximately two and half an hour after the Launch (L), the GRAIL navigation... their first GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B solutions at L+7hr as planned with five and half... for GRAIL-A or GRAIL-B crosses the Xr(t) -- Zr(t) plane. Note that X, Y, and Z are slightly different directions for GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B. Figure 19 illustrates.... Similar analysis was performed on GRAIL-A and the conclusion was to cancel... and Flow after reaching formation were well within the requirements [8]. The GRAIL... the midpoint of Figure 25: GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B Orbit Differences after Formation the... strategy, process, and experiences in meeting the project requirements. GRAIL is the first mission to generate a full high-resolution gravity field... scientists to understand the detailed interior structure of the Moon but... out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena... of GRAIL Project, Lockheed-Martin Space Systems, and JPL DSN Operation, and Mission... ! 7. References [1] Roncoli, R. B. and Fujii K. K., “Mission Design Overview for the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission”, AIAA...-Lunar Cruise Trajectory Design of GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission”, AIAA 2010-8384, Toronto...



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... amazing landing of Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover that Sunday evening... hard work of design and fabrication and testing, and redesign as the launch... asteroid belt — Vesta and Ceres. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, or GRAIL, mission at Earth’s moon... to monitoring and understanding our home planet — Director, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 2 providing important data on climate change and storm tracking... years of discoveries and data science, robotics and autonomy, and energy. Coupled with potential space and airborne flight missions with our federal and commercial partners, the laboratory... will study the planet’s interior in 2016, and a major new rover in... represent the passion and skill of the laboratory as a whole, and I hope you enjoy their stories. 4 Jason 1 and 2 see... detects changes in sand dunes GRAIL craft end mission, impact moon... its name. For Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover, the “Seven Minutes... JPL and working on the ChemCam instrument for Mars Science Laboratory. How... drill beneath the surface and study the deep interior to better understand... orbiting Earth’s moon under the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, or GRAIL, mission. After circling the... of the GRAIL mission team and former Caltech trustee. The colorful gravity maps of the moon created from GRAIL data will... conditions favorable for life. 23 Gravity maps of Earth’s moon, rendered... data collected by the twin GRAIL spacecraft. In these false-color..., red indicates zones of high gravity, while blue represents the opposite... for one-third of the laboratory’s work, Earth science in 2012... ranging from satellites and instruments to studies by the laboratory’s cadre of...’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, or GRACE, mission showed that between 2003 and 2010... lost from Greenland, Antarctica and Earth’s glaciers and ice caps was about... as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer instruments. Scientists... role of clouds in weather and climate, and the health of forests... manager for Mars Science Laboratory’s entry, descent and landing. The week before... at Goldstone, California. Science and Technology Science and technology are at the... drive its missions, and lending the ways and means that make them..., the laboratory pays special attention to sustaining these communities. Technologists and scientists... scientists and 100 astrophysicists. Their numbers are continually refreshed by the laboratory..., planetary science and astronomy. Founded in 1989, JPL’s Microdevices Laboratory continues to be a birthing ground for microtechnologies and nanotechnologies. Researchers... brings the laboratory together with a variety of commercial, government and international partners... far below the sand. The laboratory also delivered imaging spectrometers to... what my entire Titan, asteroids, laboratory work, Mars, astrobiology career has...’s what I’ve worked and mission design, planning and operations. In on since.... In the ’80s and France, where I grew up and went to university... simulating space environments in the laboratory. ion engine on Deep Space...’s earliest days, the way the laboratory communicates with the public has... platforms such as Twitter and Facebook. The laboratory’s @MarsCuriosity Twitter account soared... Curiosity’s entry, descent and landing, went viral online and attracted about 10.... To ensure preservation of the laboratory’s history, JPL released a 90-minute... needs of small and medium higher-risk missions. The laboratory’s leadership also considered initiatives designed to foster creativity and innovation... to analyze financial performance, and strengthening cost estimating and project controls. JPL... JPL personnel to access the laboratory’s network remotely via virtual private... out for technical and business supervisors and managers. The laboratory also conducted an... diverting 80 percent of the laboratory’s total waste from landfills during... review with stakeholders, executive and division management, and the chief financial officer... Named Fellow 64 Mars Science Laboratory Space Foundation Jack Swigert Jr... Government Services Incorporated Facilities Maintenance and Operations General Dynamics Satcom Technologies... Non-NASA Research and Development Lockheed Martin Corporation Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, InSight, Juno, Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Science Laboratory... and Physics Solar System Exploration/ Exploration Systems and Technology Office Earth Science and Technology Interplanetary Network Other Research and... Telescope. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of...



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GRAIL Discovery Applying IV&V Lessons Learned: ..., 2011 Steve Larson Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Steve... ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ GRAIL Discovery Motivation GRAIL and MAVEN Project Overview Analysis of Phoenix IV&V and Post-Launch Anomalies Phoenix Lessons Applied to GRAIL Phoenix/GRAIL Post IV&V Comparison GRAIL Post-Launch Experience • Informal discussion, assuming GRAIL.... Government sponsorship acknowledged. 2 Motivation GRAIL Discovery ▪ Both GRAIL and MAVEN are cost-capped.... Government sponsorship acknowledged. 3 GRAIL Project Overview GRAIL Discovery ▪ GRAIL = Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory ▪ Launch September 2011 ▪ Mission • Determine the structure of the lunar interior.... 4 MAVEN Project Overview GRAIL Discovery ▪ MAVEN = Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution ▪ Launch...’s upper atmosphere, ionosphere and interactions with the sun and solar wind • Determine... history of Mars atmosphere and climate, liquid water, and planetary habitability ▪ Project.... 5 Analysis of Phoenix IV&V and Post-Launch Anomalies GRAIL Discovery ▪ NASA IV... of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged. 6 GRAIL Analysis of Phoenix IV&V Results... 190 585 459 346 805 7 GRAIL Analysis of Phoenix IV&V Results...&V agreed with the 2 UAI responses, and closed the issues • Severity 5 issues..., documentation – Earlier in life cycle and/or easier to fix © 2011... of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged. 8 GRAIL Analysis of Phoenix IV&V Results... for ▪ roughly ¾ of all issues, and had a somewhat higher proportion of... Phoenix IV&V Results GRAIL Discovery ▪ Review of immature and/or non-controlling... plan – Requirements continued to change, and updates were to be expected... acknowledged. 10 Phoenix Anomaly Analysis GRAIL Discovery ▪ 369 unique post-launch... ISAs concerned ground software and hardware, and were not included in the... acknowledged. 11 Contributing Factor Distribution GRAIL Discovery ▪ Inadequate Testing Implementation System... of IV&V findings Systems Engineering and S/W Design were leading causes of... sponsorship acknowledged. 12 Predictive Skill GRAIL Discovery ▪ IV&V broadly predicted (based... between distribution of IV&V issues and contributing factors for flight anomalies.... 13 Phoenix Lessons Applied to GRAIL ▪ • Discussion of the effects of... to mature • ▪ Payload issues dominated, and were all either first-of... products PBRA process used on GRAIL emphasized “newness” as a risk Product... software • ▪ Discovery “Newness” is a risk • ▪ GRAIL Structured discussion of potential issues... of early versions of FSW and requirements allowed us to resolve... that escape both the developer and IV&V tend to be “difficult...&V Results—GRAIL/Phoenix ▪ GRAIL Discovery Upon disposition of the last GRAIL issue, Phoenix (spacecraft only) and GRAIL... communication helped eliminate false positives and issues due to examining immature... Discrepancy) was introduced for the GRAIL analysis – Better alignment with the...&V changed approach, started with modeling and top-down requirements assessment (many.... 15 Product Line Software and MAVEN ▪ GRAIL Discovery Treated Reuse software modules... – Objective was to mitigate cost and schedule risk to the project... Other Lessons Applied to MAVEN… GRAIL Discovery ▪ “Newness” is a risk • When... LM FSW ▪ development OSIRIS REx and others are in the pipeline.../GRAIL/MAVEN veterans as much as possible: reduce the learning curve and... be the answer 17 GRAIL Post-launch Experience GRAIL Discovery © 2011 California... sponsorship acknowledged. 18 GAIL Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory BACKUP GRAIL Analysis of Phoenix IV&V Results...%) of IV&V ▪ ▪ findings were closed*, and about half of the remainder... Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged. 20 GRAIL Analysis of Phoenix IV&V Results... was not determined for Phoenix GRAIL experience was that this was... acknowledged. 21 Serious Spacecraft Incidents ▪ GRAIL Discovery There were only two... serious threat to the spacecraft, and both were addressed with in... had eluded the heritage review and development/test process – No way...&V Results—GRAIL/Phoenix (Data) ▪ GRAIL Discovery Upon disposition of the last GRAIL issue, Phoenix (spacecraft only) and GRAIL issue distribution was analyzed GRAIL Acronym...'t checked TM Type Mismatch Assignments and comparisons of differing types ML... DRD Design/Requirem ents Design and corresponding requirem ents spec not... not initialized before use UV GRAIL Discovery LP Loss of Precision... Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged. 24 GRAIL Issue types by CSCI CSCI... Implementation System Engineering Insufficient Information GRAIL Discovery Description The complexity of... down to FSW SE, and including science and mission system SE) did...



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National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory From the roar of... Propulsion Laboratory’s spacecraft have blazed the trail to the planets and the... human-made objects, Voyagers 1 and 2, were built and are operated by JPL.... From JPL’s labs and clean rooms come telescopes and cameras that have...’s Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory. Several of his graduate students and assistants gathered to... October 31, 1936. flight and ground systems and finally to fly the... as “the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.” The Laboratory now covers some 72 hectares... missions were Ranger 7, 8 and 9, launched in 1964 and 1965, which took photos..., Venus and Mars. Funded by Army Ordnance, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s early efforts would eventually involve technologies beyond those of aerodynamics and..., secure communications, spacecraft navigation and control, and planetary exploration. The team of..., 1967’s Mariner 5 to Venus, and 1969’s Mariner 6 and 7 to Mars. In 1971... the first spacecraft to use a “gravity-assist” boost from one planet... a gravity-assist swingby allowed it to fly by Mercury in March and... testing its aerodynamic design and durability under vibration and other stresses. The... Viking orbiters, conducting mission communications and eventually assuming responsibility for management... technologies of communications and control, of design and test and performance analysis. This... develop the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 2 NASA Facts (1979) and Saturn (1980–81... 1992, where the giant planet’s gravity flung it into an unusual.... Magellan mapped variations in Venus’s gravity field before the mission ended... Planet in September 1997, and spent a year and a half lowering its orbit... gravity assist swingbys to reach Jupiter, Galileo flew past Venus once and... loss of the orbiter and lander developed and launched under the Mars... Jupiter in December 2000 for a gravity assist to reach Saturn. On... Laboratory An orbiter named Mars Odyssey was launched in April 2001, and... of, detecting water and shallow buried ice, and studying the radiation environment.... In 2011, JPL’s Mars Science Laboratory mission carrying the Curiosity rover... to investigate the Red Planet’s interior structure. The mission is designed... habitability of Mars, and assess natural resources and hazards in preparation for... Planet. It will collect and store rock and soil samples potential return... Venus in April 1998 and June 1999 and conducted a Jupiter flyby in... Jet Propulsion Laboratory 4 NASA Facts orbit, Juno will observe Jupiter’s gravity and magnetic fields, atmospheric dynamics and composition, and evolution. The.... In September 2011, the twin Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, or Grail, spacecraft launched to Earth... into global climate and ocean interactions, currents, eddies, and new details about... and active until 2013; and Jason 2 and Jason 3, launched in 2008 and 2016, respectively, and both currently operating. The Laboratory... into a major segment of the Laboratory’s activities, now sponsored by NASA... the Seasat mission. Jet Propulsion Laboratory 5 NASA Facts Earth in various... between land, air, sea and the atmosphere; and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer... several shuttle missions and satellites in the 1980s and 1990s. A dedicated satellite.... A JPL-teamed mission called the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, or Grace, launched... high-resolution studies of Earth’s gravity field. A follow-on to the... the Laboratory. JPL, in conjunction with Caltech, operates the Infrared Processing and... complex processes, includ- Jet Propulsion Laboratory 6 NASA Facts 2009, JPL handed... the Milky Way’s structure and dust distribution, and large-scale structure in... Space Station, the Cold Atom Laboratory will make use of the... laboratory will be available for use by multiple scientific investigators and is... Swan and Lyra the Lyre. Following launch in March Jet Propulsion Laboratory Telecommunications To provide tracking and communications for planetary... the Department of Energy, and electric vehicles and other alternative transport systems, for the Department of Transportation. The Laboratory has also applied space-based operational, communication and information processing...-assisted microsurgery and medical imaging systems, and Internet-based telemedical systems; and projects... as advanced spacecraft and sensor technology, microelectronics, supercomputing and environmental protection. in... space using lasers; and Finding Individuals for Disaster and Emergency Response, or... In addition to the Laboratory’s main Pasadena site and the three Deep... about 5,500 employees and on-site contractors, and an annual budget of... a 22‑year career at the Laboratory, became director of JPL on...’ predecessors as head of the Laboratory were Dr. Charles Elachi (2001... built and launched National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute...



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... prepared for the Apollo landings, and they have remained a mystery ever... of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, or GRAIL, science team who led the research. "GRAIL has now mapped where they lay, and we have... to the moon's origin and evolution and will be useful in studying... known to exist including Mars and Mercury, said Melosh, who is... professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences and physics. Free-air gravitational... color scale ranges between -300 and 300 mgal. The image is... and the NASA GRAIL team A mystery of the moon that imperiled astronauts and... scientists as part of NASA's GRAIL mission. Large concentrations of mass... unseen and devastating hazard. These concentrations change the gravity field and can either... hotter than it is now and the crust thinner than we... at the basins left behind and the gravity signature of the areas... about the heavy asteroid bombardment and what the ancient Earth may... impacts billions of years ago and determined how these impacts changed... on the moon's surface and, in turn, its gravity field. A paper detailing... earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences, and graduate students Brandon Johnson and David Blair. Additional team members include Maria Zuber, 1/3 GRAIL principal investigator and...; S. Solomon of Columbia University; and the GRAIL Science Team. Jay Melosh, a Purdue distinguished professor of Earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences, stands in front of a map showing the moon's gravity field. As a member of the science team of NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, or GRAIL... billions of year ago and determined how and Mercury, and by understanding their... advanced knowledge moon's surface and, in turn, its gravity field. Credit: Mark... a gravity surplus at the bulls-eye surrounded by a ring of gravity deficit and an outer ring of gravity surplus. The team... consequence of crater excavation, collapse and cooling following an impact. The... that the increase in density and gravitational pull at the bulls... become more concentrated, stronger and denser, and pulls in additional material from... computer analysis methods called hydrocodes and finite element codes to create... team analyzed the Freundlich-Sharanov and Humorum mascon basins. The large... down the material beneath it and prevented it from fully rebounding... materials upon cooling and the evolution of Earth and other planets on... millions of years. Using the GRAIL data set, which offers an... how the moon's crust and mantle behaved and the development of the.... During their prime and extended missions, the two GRAIL spacecraft transmitted radio... distance between the crafts Ebb and Flow changed slightly as they... greater and lesser gravity caused by visible features, such as mountains and craters, and by masses hidden beneath the lunar surface. GRAIL scientists... about the moon's internal structure and composition. More information: "The Origin...



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... Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Mission Management, Spacecraft Operations Paulette... Earth Flyby Highlights.....................................................................................................15 Venus Gravity Assists........................................................................................................17 Flying by Mercury.... This encounter will provide a critical gravity assist needed to keep the... more than three decades, and a successful gravity assist will ensure that MESSENGER... System, and a scientist at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL... long-wavelength components of the gravity field will yield key information..., and September 2009, will use the pull of the planet’s gravity to... Michigan, Ann Arbor; and the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the... Laboratory in Laurel, Md. Briefings will be carried on NASA TV and... compaction of its interior by the planet’s own gravity) is about 5.3 grams... of the surface. Analysis of gravity and topography measurements will provide estimates... insight into the thermal history and interior structure of Mercury. Although Mercury..., MESSENGER will also determine the gravity field with much better precision... of the gravity field, will provide constraints on the size and structure...’s gravity field from the Mariner 10 flybys, currently the only gravity measurements... current thermal state of Mercury’s interior, which is very valuable information... might outgas from the planet’s interior and freeze at the poles. A few..., or diffusion from the planet’s interior. Variability of the composition of... to Venus and Mercury (James A. Dunne and Eric Burgess, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, SP... of the six gravity assists from three planetary bodies and five deterministic... 2006 and June 2007, used the pull of each planet’s gravity to... a Boost For a gravity assist, a spacecraft flies close to a planet and trades with... Yen of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed the concept in the... Sun and sending it toward Venus for gravity assists in 2006 and 2007... test results obtained in the laboratory before launch. Images The pictures... trajectory between the main DSMs and the gravity-assist flybys of the... next two gravity-assist flybys of Mercury in October 2008 and September...’s gravity, the Sun’s gravity, and radiation pressure from the Sun will slowly and slightly... Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Md., where the spacecraft was designed and built... center at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., which in turn... gravity is almost exactly the same at the surface of Mercury and... orbital phase. The first stereo and gravity field measurements will also be... provide a first glimpse into Mercury’s gravity field structure. These measurements will... second-order gravity coefficients, C20 and C22, representing the gravitational oblateness and equatorial... to be captured by Mercury’s gravity. And the probe would have to.... Designed and built by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory – with contributions from research institutions and companies around... Applied Physics Laboratory The multi-spectral MDIS has wide- and narrow-angle... Physics Laboratory, Patriot Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory GRS... University Applied Physics Laboratory, Patriot Engineering, Los Alamos National Laboratory NS maps variations in the fast, thermal, and epithermal...: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory XRS maps the elements in..., Greenbelt, Md., and Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory A three-axis, ring... and Surface Composition Spectrometer Mass: 3.1 kilograms (6.8 pounds) Peak Power: 6.7 watts Development: Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of... Physics Laboratory and University of Michigan, Ann Arbor EPS on left and FIPS... to measure the planet’s gravity field, and to support the laser altimeter... capsule), Blacksburg, Va. Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. (heat filters), Santa Rosa... Berkeley National Laboratory (GRS), Berkeley, Calif. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (GRS), Livermore, Calif. Space Science Laboratory, University of... Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL) Deputy Project Scientists: Brian J. Anderson and Deborah L. Domingue... David J. Lawrence Los Alamos National Laboratory Deborah L. Domingue JHUAPL Jean-Luc... Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), Laurel, Md., manages the... detailed maps of the gravity, magnetic properties, and chemical makeup of the... with the comet and examined the resulting debris and interior material. Dawn, launched in September 2007 toward Vesta and Ceres... for the first time. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, or GRAIL, mission, scheduled to launch...



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... that tells about a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to... the lunar core still molten? And why is the moon such... that faces Earth is flat and mostly smooth. The other side... a hundred spacecrafts’ worth of measurements and you still don’t know the... NASA mission is called the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, or GRAIL. It will conduct a single... get a clear picture of the interior. 6 GRAIL consists of two identical spacecraft... cross paths with the moon. GRAIL-A successfully slipped into an elliptical... of the moon Saturday afternoon. GRAIL-B is to follow on Sunday... spacecraft will begin collecting the gravity data. For the near side... do we collected the most gravity data? A. The back side of... side of the moon C. The interior of the moon D. The polar...? A. The sun B. The moon C. The GRAIL mission D. A rocket 3. The article states... the “somewhere else”? A. The flat and mostly smooth side of the... C. A map of the moon D. The interior of the moon 4. In this... map the moon’s gravitation? A. GRAIL-A B. GRAIL-B C. NASA D. GRAIL 7. Why will the spacecraft have... a rocket. B. Spacecraft will begin collecting gravity data. C. Spacecraft will go to... side of the moon? A. Flat and mostly smooth B. Mountainous C. Molten lump... Holly Hayes. Read the story and then answer questions 11-20... about taking over the planting and tending of my backyard "urban...." This garden had been conceived and designed in early 2009 by..., from Holly's fellow Master Gardeners and from readers who had never... touched I was by the e-mails and notes. In recent weeks, though..., summer squash, red and green peppers, bell peppers and green beans were... only had plenty for myself and for friends but also made... banks throughout much of July and August. With the notable exception... Strawberries, Big Rainbows, Cherokee Purples and Ed's Millenniums. Ed's Millenniums are... by Holly's friend, Bracey Tiede and other Master Gardeners. It proved... never got past the small and green stage. I finally had to... out to be railroad cantaloupe and not ambrosias. The railroads were... them rather tough and not very flavorful. And one variety of tomatoes.... The plant's foliage was lush and there were lots of tomatoes.... Some grew over 6 feet high and very bushy. At one point.... It made tending the plants and getting to all the fruit... a close eye on the zucchini and summer squash. Those "monster" zucchinis and squash may be very impressive ... taste they seem to have and the less useful they become.... I felt like I had honored Holly and her spirit made the farm..., snap peas, cauliflower, green onions, and broccoli. The farm lives on... a close eye on the zucchini and summer squash.” most nearly means A. plant the zucchini and summer squash near a window. B. sit... to the zucchini and summer squash. C. the zucchini and summer squash grow... eyes closed while the zucchini and summer squash grow. 13. In... to give food to friends and local food banks. C. The garden... designed it. D. People sent email and notes to inquire about the... more of Blue Lake, Hillbilly and Kentucky Wonders beans. B. Plant crops.... C. Shop carefully, prune tomatoes, and pick zucchini and summer squash early. D. Spring... spinach, lettuce, cauliflower, green onions, and broccoli. 17. The passage “Holly..., summer squash, red and green peppers, bell peppers and green beans. C. Holly Hayes’ friend Bracey Tiede and other Master Gardeners helped with...



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...-Flyer SMIRFF: Smart Maintenance, Inspection, and Repair Free-Flyer G. Atmeh,1, a) L. S. Henderson...,1 P. Ru,1 A. Godbole,1 P. Quillen,1 and K. Subbarao2, b) 1) Graduate Student, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department... Arlington. Associate Professor and Faculty Advisor, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University... for multiple robotic and crewed missions (Orion) from and to Earth among... periodic maintenance and upkeep. This involves routine and efficient inspection, maintenance, and repair of external components of crewed and... to perform inspection, routine maintenance and repairs. 2. Mission objectives • Primary objective... and other EVA associated hazards – Improve efficiency and response of inspections, maintenance, and... out inspection and maintenance. – Attitude control and propulsion subsystem (reorientation and locomotion of SMIRFF). – Manipulation subsystem (inspection and minimal maintenance/repairs). 3. Inspection: Employ sensors and robotic manipulators to conduct inspection and minimal repair if required. – Instrumentation and... profile time and distance stipulations – Attitude control and propulsion subsystem (reorientation and locomotion... (wireless up/down links, processing and sensing). – Adverse environment protection subsystem.... 3. SMIRFF internal structure design 2. Instrumentation and communication subsystem SMIRFF is equipped... accelerometers to measure translational accelerations, and gyroscopes to measure angular rates... link which transmits control and auxiliary data to and from the SMIRFF... Maintenance, Inspection, and Repair Free-Flyer 3. Attitude control and propulsion subsystems This..., non-flammability, non-explosiveness, compatibility, and availability. When considering all of... complexity, efficient use of propellant, and low power consumption16 . These characteristics...-lunar space, the lack of gravity and any reaction force will cause... to be acceleration due to gravity). The engineering factor of safety... emissivity (ε > 0.8) to maximize heat rejection and low solar absorptivity (α < 0.2) to limit... utilized. NASA’s Jet 10 Propulsion Laboratory has been experimenting with a similar... operate, efficient system. V. FEASIBILITY, RELIABILITY AND HUMAN SAFETY The Technology Readiness... technology according to certain definitions and descriptions27 . TRLs provide a common language... developing project requirements, system architecture, and mission design. Phase B involves testing... as follows30 : • Payload: Communications, sensors, and manipulator. • Spacecraft Bus: Spacecraft less... composed of enclosures, supporting structure, and mother-ship interface. • Thermal: Structures... and radiation limits. • Power: Batteries, harness, and power management electronics. • Tracking, Telemetry, and Command and Data Handling..., receivers, and data storage. • Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem (ADCS): antennas, and avionics. • Propulsion: Thrust and attitude means, and propellant liquid system. • Assembly, Integration, and Test (AI&T): labor and... needed for assembly, development, and acceptance testing and integration of subsystems. SMIRFF... Support (LOOS): planning and operations related to launch and orbital checkout of... following phases: • Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E): Comprised of design... 95%. • Operations and Maintenance (O&M): ongoing operations and maintenance. A. Space, Launch, and Ground Segment... Name Year Pioneer Prospector LRO GRAIL LADEE SMIRFF 1966 1998 2009... Operations and Maintenance $0.03 Annual Ops. And Maint. $0.17 Total Ops. And Maint.../RASCAL/index.aspx 6 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, “International Space Station - Facts and Figures,” May 2014. [Online]. Available...-transceiver 15 V. Zakirov, M. Sweeting, P. Erichsen, and T. Lawrence, “Specifics of Small Satellite... V. Zakirov, D. Gibbon, M. Sweeting, B. Reinicke, R. Bzibziak, and T. Lawrence, “Specifics of Small Satellite...-distribution-module 20 B. Huffman, “Efficiency and Power Characteristics of Switching Regulator....com/rift/ 26 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Human Interfaces Group, “Future robotic... “NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration Headquarters... 2007. 30 W. J. Larson and J. R. Wertz, Space Mission Analysis and Design, 2005. 31... Cost Estimating Handbook. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2008. 32 R. C. Sahr...?sc=1959-013A 36 E. Grayzeck, “Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory-A (GRAIL),” 2013. [Online]. Available: http://nssdc...



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... for the Production of 197Hg and 197Pt and Scoping the Science Parameter... Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA USA Student Intern Summer 2012 • Analyzed GRAIL satellite..., MONTE, to help improve the GRAIL spacecraft dynamic models. • Advisors: Tung... help determine nuclear energy levels and the half-life of Chlorine... • Advisor: Dr. William Hetherington HONORS AND AWARDS Oregon State Physics Department... State University, Corvallis, OR USA Laboratory Teaching Assistant, Tutor • General Physics... Organized outreach events at OSU and local elementary schools. Represented undergraduate...: Improved Maneuver Reconstructions for the GRAIL Orbiters. In Proceedings of the...: Improved Maneuver Reconstructions for the GRAIL Orbiters. In Proceedings of the... Meeting (Washington D.C., Mar. 2013) Paper: Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission (GRAIL) • TALKS • Orbit Determination You...,” K.S. Krane, M.L. Keck, E.B. Norman, and A.P. Shivprasad, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, (2011), doi:10... Astronomy Outreach Event Presented a lecture and led a lab demonstration for high... Program Organized undergraduate volunteers and set up and ran physics department science...