Спутник ФКИ. Herschel Space Observatory. [Редактировать]

Астрономический спутник, созданный ЕКА. Первоначально предложен консорциумом европейских учёных в 1982 году. Запуск состоялся 14 мая 2009 года, в 13:12 по UTC с космодрома Куру с помощью ракеты-носителя «Ариан-5». Миссия названа в честь сэра Уильяма Гершеля, первого исследователя инфракрасного спектра. Спутник размещён на гелиоцентрической орбите вблизи второй точки Лагранжа (L2) системы Земля — Солнце. 
Телескоп «Гершель» — первая космическая обсерватория для полномасштабного изучения инфракрасного излучения в космосе. Телескоп с зеркалом диаметром 3,5 метра — самый крупный космический телескоп, работающий в инфракрасном спектре, из когда-либо запущенных (на 2014 год). Зеркало отполировано в мастерской обсерватории Туорла в Финляндии фирмой Opteon. Материалом для зеркала послужил карбид кремния — благодаря этому его вес составил лишь 300 кг при толщине 20 см (зеркало из традиционных материалов весило бы 1,5 тонны). Кроме того, физические свойства карбида кремния позволяют контролировать форму зеркала с точностью до 10 мкм. Зеркало «склеено» из 12 элементов. Излучение фокусируется на три прибора с датчиками, имеющими температуру ниже 2 K. Датчики охлаждаются жидким гелием при низком давлении, что позволяет понизить его температуру кипения до 1,4 K (по сравнению с 4,2 K при атмосферном давлении). Время работы спутника на орбите ограничено количеством гелия на его борту (2300 литров).

Датчики телескопа:

  • Фотокамера со спектрометром низкого разрешения. Диапазон спектрометра по длине волны — от 55 до 210 микрометров; спектральное разрешение R — от 1000 до 5000; чувствительность — на уровне −63 дБ. Фотокамера способна давать одновременно изображения в двух диапазонах: 60—85/85—130 мкм и 130—210 мкм при спектральной плотности потока излучения в несколько миллиянских.
  • Приёмник спектральных и фотометрических изображений. Спектрометр низкого разрешения на диапазон длин волн 194—672 мкм. Спектральное разрешение R — от 40 до 1000 (на длине волны 250 мкм). Спектрометр способен фиксировать объекты со спектральной плотностью потока 100 мЯн для точечных источников и 500 мЯн — для протяжённых. Фотокамера имеет три элемента на длины волн 250, 350 и 500 мкм, с числом точек (пикселей) 139, 88 и 43, соответственно. Она способна фиксировать точечные объекты с плотностью потока 2 мЯн и протяжённые объекты с плотностью потока 4—9 мЯн. Прототип этого устройства прошёл проверку на высотном стратостате «BLAST».
  • Гетеродинный датчик для излучения в дальнем инфракрасном диапазоне. Этот спектрограф имеет очень высокое спектральное разрешение — на уровне R=107. Имеет два рабочих диапазона: от 157 до 212 мкм и от 240 до 625 мкм.

 

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1Far Infrared and Submillimetre Telescope (FIRST)НайтиНайти
234937НайтиНайти
3HerschelНайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - Европа
3Страна производитель - Европа

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12009-09-03. Аномалии в полезной нагрузкеТэги: Herschel Space Observatory
22010-01-18 - 2010-01-01. Крупнейший орбитальный телескоп "Гершель" (Herschel) вновь заработал в полную силу. Ученые смогли починить спектрометр HIFI, вышедший из строя более пяти месяцев назад, сообщает BBC News. Окончательно инструменты теле-скопа начали функционировать в штатном режиме 14 января. Ученые заметили, что телескоп работает не так, как обычно, 3 августа 2009 года, уточняется в пресс-релизе института космических исследований Нидерландов, сотрудники которого задействованы в миссии "Гершеля". Спектрометр HIFI находился в состоянии, не предусмотренном в руководстве по эксплуатации. Сбой произошел из-за разряда, который возник после того, как телескоп вы-полнил сложную последовательность операций. Изначальной причиной неполадок, по мнению специалистов, стало воздействие космических лучей. Определение природы поломки заняло несколько месяцев. Затем ученые разработали алгоритм, призванный наладить работу спектрометра. Все команды телескопу посылали дистанционно. Чтобы полностью восстановить функциональность HIFI, специалисты задействовали резервную электронику (космические приборы часто снабжаются дублирующими комплектами техники, так как обслуживание в космосе либо невозможно, либо связано со множеством трудностей). "Гершель" был запущен на орбиту 14 мая 2009 года. Диаметр главного зеркала телескопа составляет 3,5 метра (почти на метр шире, чем зеркало знаменитого "Хаббла"). "Гершель" работает в инфракрасном диапазоне - это означает, что он может "видеть" сквозь пыль, заполняющую космическое пространство. Для телескопов, работающих в оптическом диапазоне, пыль является непреодолимым препятствием. Тэги: Herschel Space Observatory

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг3300
2Диаметр (зеркала телескопа), метра3.5
3Граница спекртального диапазона (нижняя), мкм55
4Граница спекртального диапазона (верхняя), мкм672
5Угловое разрешение, угл. сек.1
6Охлаждение (приемников), кельвинов0.3

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2009-026A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Страна (оператора)Европа
2Стоимость , млн. долл.1540
3Оператор Европейское космическое агентство
4Оператор Космическое агентство США
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2003-01-0172.7
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2003-01-01277.6
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2007-01-01325.4
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2007-01-0110.4
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2007-01-01117.0
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2007-01-01198.0
11Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2008-12-01276.8
12Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2008-12-0110.4
13Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2008-12-01131.7
14Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2008-12-01134.7
15Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2009-10-01277.0
16Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2009-10-0110.4
17Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2009-10-01126.7
18Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2009-10-01139.9

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2009-05-14 at 13:12:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xHerschel Space Observatory
3Полезная нагрузка 1xPlank
4Ракета-носитель 1xАриан 5 ECA

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Herschel Space Observatory». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Institution(s): 1. Columbia University, 2. European Southern Observatory, 3. Space Telescope Science Institute, 4. University of...(s): 1. IRAM, 2. Joint ALMA Observatory, 3. KASI, 4. NAOJ, 5. National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA), 6. STScI..., Galileo, and Herschel. We visited Stonehenge, the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the London..., 4. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 5. Penn State University, 6. Space Telescope Science... Observatory, 2. florida state university, 3. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 4. Quest University Canada, 5. Space... University, 3. RECONS Institute, 4. U.S. Naval Observatory, 5. U.S. Naval Observatory, 6. University of Washington Author(s): Todd... Inter-American Observatory, 5. European Space Research and Technology Centre, 6. Gunma Astronomical Observatory, 7. University...(s): 1. Goddard Space Flight Center, 2. Institute for Advanced Studies, 3. National Astronomical Observatory of... team(s): Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer team 147 – Instrumentation: Space Missions Poster Session... Framework SPICA is a cryogenic space-borne observatory designed for optimal sensitivity in... for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory From the 2010 NRC Decadal... development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range... largeaperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate... survey. This study uses new Herschel Space Observatory and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter.../Caltech in association with Herschel, which is a European Space Agency Cornerstone Mission... of phase-space environment. Specifically, we use 5-band Herschel photometry to estimate... of Technology, 3. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 4. Space Telescope Science Institute 219.05... Haystack Observatory, 2. Univ. of North Dakota 235.08 – Using Herschel Far-Infrared..., the far-IR by the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE, and in... P. Madrid2 Institution(s): 1. Australian Astronomical Observatory, 2. Gemini Observatory, 3. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State... complement data from infrared space telescopes like Herschel, scientists have been able... Radio Astronomy Observatory, 3. National Radio Astronomy Observatory 247.01 – The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program Lowell Observatory is... WestRock Observatory (WRO), located in Columbus State University's Coca-Cola Space Science...(s): 1. Gemini Observatory, 2. Max Planck Institut fur Radioastronomie, 3. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center... to be observed with the Herschel Space Observatory and study their star forming..., 2. CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, 3. Leiden Observatory, 4. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 5. Universidad... Goddard Space Flight Center, 3. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 4. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 5. Space Telescope..., Andrew Ptak2 Institution(s): 1. Geneva Observatory, 2. Goddard Space Flight Center, 3. Johns Hopkins University... and Space Science Institute (KASI), 4. Kwansei Gakuin University, 5. National Astronomical Observatory of... last decade, the Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Telescope enabled large infrared... T. Beltrán1 Institution(s): 1. Arcetri Observatory, 2. SOFIA/USRA, 3. Space Science Institute, 4. University of... Development Results for a Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatories... and Astrophysics , 2. European Southern Observatory, 3. European Southern Observatory, 4. Harvard-Smithsonian, CfA, 5. Macquarie... the SPIRE FTS onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. Much attention has been paid...) and galaxy properties The Herschel and Spitzer space telescopes have been crucial... identified at 250 μm by the Herschel Space Observatory. In particular, for galaxies in... Observatory observations and a catalog of star clusters based on Hubble Space Telescope... and SPIRE photometers on the Herschel Space Observatory, bands 3 and 4 of WISE, and..., temperature, and radiation field. The Herschel Space Observatory has enabled the observation of... field within the PDR. Using Herschel Space Observatory data, we create a dust temperature... and Technology, 9. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 10. Space Telescope Science Institute, 11. University..., 12. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 13. Observatory of Bologna, 14. University..., 2. Goddard Space Flight Center, 3. Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), 4. UCO/Lick Observatory Contributing... Distribution with Hi-GAL The Herschel Space Observatory’s submillimeter dust continuum survey Hi... for Space Research, 2. CNRS, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris , 3. European Southern Observatory, 4. University College London, Space and Climate Physics, Mullard Space Science Laboratory... sensitivity observations taken with the Herschel Space Observatory to measure the cold dust... Hubble Space Telescope time, exceeding the available time with the observatory by... Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona. 445 – Instrumentation on Earth and in Space...



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... X-ray Observatory (IXO), Large Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and the Space Infrared Telescope... 3.4.1. IXO: International X-ray Observatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.4.2. LISA: Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.4.3. EJSM... Space Telescope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.3.2. Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.3.3. Chandra X-ray Observatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.3.4. The XMM-Newton Observatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.3.5. INTEGRAL: International... James Webb Space Telescope: Launch 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 4.4.9. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy... by science requirements for future observatory-class missions. Technology development: national... be the only new large space astronomy Observatory to be possibly operational... X-ray space observatory, operative in the next decade. Large Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA... loss of scientific capability. Space Infrared Observatory for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA..., complexity and cost of large space-based observatory missions leads to a growing... observatory South: http://www.auger.org/. 9 8 P. Ubertini et al. / Advances in Space... Spitzer Space Telescope, http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/. 21 The X-ray Observatory... by science requirements for future observatory-class missions. Technology development: national... potential of space astronomy in the future. Next generation c ray Observatory. Large... be the only approved large space observatory to be possibly operational in... etc.). Vigorously pursue a large X-ray space observatory, operative in the next decade... 2008 Planck 2009 Herschel 2009 MAXI 2009 (NASA/ESA) Observatory mission: 2.4 m telescope... MW cosmic background radiation (ESA) Observatory, 3 m Cassegrain telescope, high throughput heterodyne... (China Space Agency) Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (1–250 keV) (NASA/ESA) Observatory... satellites and observatory class missions which are operating in space and have... Observatory NASA’s Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, (AXAF), renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory... X-Ray Observatory artist’s concept. P. Ubertini et al. / Advances in Space Research 50... in Space Research 50 (2012) 1–55 4.3.4. The XMM-Newton Observatory XMM-Newton observatory... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Fermi is a multiagency and international observatory-class.... 4.3.13. The Herschel mission The Herschel Space Observatory is the largest infrared space observatory launched to... of space observatories is shown in Figs. 26–28. The Herschel image... in Space Research 50 (2012) 1–55 Fig. 27. IR-Herschel image of...) Observatory, IR 6.5 m mirror telescope sensitive from 0.6 to 27 lm Stratospheric Observatory for... the Canadian Space Agency. The observatory consists ofa large, infrared-optimised space telescope... infrared observatory (see Fig. 41) that will complement the Hubble, Spitzer, Herschel and Webb space telescopes and major Earth... Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA).LISA is a low-frequency gravitational wave observatory that... the first dedicated space-based gravitational wave observatory, LISA will detect waves... a new X-ray observatory class mission was designed: the International X-ray Observatory (IXO... 5.2.2.7. M3: Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO). The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) would be.... 5.2.2.8. M3: Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT). The Large Observatory For X-ray..., two “ground based” observatories and 1 space observatory, to be promoted on the... matter and cosmic ray observatory on board China’s Space Station with a projected... international space observatory designed for observations in the ultraviolet domain. The observatory includes... this project is to construct a space observatory operating in millimetre, sub-millimetre... of the second identical space telescope). The observatory will provide the possibility... Webb Space Telescope Laser Interferometer Space Antenna Low Frequency Array Large Observatory For... X-ray Timing Explorer Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients Square... Kilometer Array Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Space Programme Committee Space Infrared Telescope.... XMM-Newton observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations, XMM-Newton observatory. Astron. Astrophys...



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... launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The European Cryosat-2 was launched..., NASA launched the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) into a geosynchronous orbit which... launch the agency's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) replacement satellite aboard a Taurus... the ringed planet. >> Chandra X-ray Observatory Evidence for a thin veil of..., made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, resolves a 10-year mystery surrounding... a contract with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory to provide science and operational... Japanese space programme and the mission scientists and engineers involved. Herschel Space Observatory Early in the reporting period, the European Space Agency released a preview of the first science results from the Herschel Space Observatory. >> In January 2010, the Herschel telescope's highest resolution... May 2010, Herschel made an unexpected discovery: a hole in space. The hole... of Mercury. >> Planck The Planck space observatory - ESA's mission to study the... X-ray observatory, operated jointly by NASA and the Japanese space agency, to... Physics NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) made new observations about.... >> Cameras on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory captured activity on the sun... most powerful X-ray observatory ever built and launched into space, marked its... to space aboard an Atlas booster in February, NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory.... NASA's LADEE spacecraft is a small observatory intended to study the moon... the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory, closed on... School of Law and Astronomical Observatory, and the Research Group CREAR...'s best-known and loved observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope. The Columbia and... ESA's Herschel and Planck its Special Grand Prix 2010. >> The Space Frontier... ESA-NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) has completed half a solar..., the ESA Cornerstone Gaia astrometric observatory mission, to be launched before... be observed with a ‘Great Heliospheric Observatory’, a fleet of spacecraft designed and... February 2010, NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is the most advanced... Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the observatory is able to remotely measure...,000 K. NASA’s Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) is the third mission... 1995, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) has been stationed near... ESA/NASA project, is a space-based observatory, viewing and investigating the Sun..., such as NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory are launched, SOHO’s continued observations... size and complexity of large space-based observatory missions places a growing emphasis... distant objects known. NASA’s Chandra observatory and ESA's X-ray Multi-mirror... and high throughput spectroscopy, these observatory missions continue to generate major... (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) observatory, launched in 2002, is now.... Spectrum RG is a RKA Xray observatory with Russian and German X-ray... 2014. The large International X-ray Observatory (IXO), involving NASA, ESA and... in 2003. Infrared NASA’s Spitzer Observatory has ended its cryogenic phase... the NASA-DLR SOFIA stratospheric observatory for far-IR astronomy in... WISE Herschel HST-SM4 AGILE Fermi (GLAST) MAXI (NASA/ESA) Observatory mission... with GI (guest observer) (ESA) Observatory mission. High throughput spectroscopy and... mission with GI programme. (Japan) Observatory mission with 10 m antenna for... survey mission. Spitzer (NASA) Observatory mission. Space Infrared Telescope Facility. IR telescope... May 2009 together with Herschel to L2. Herschel (ESA) Observatory mission, launched with...) X-ray observatory. (ESA) Technology test mission for future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna... space; a fleet of advanced solar observatories, namely the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory... Solar-B), the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), Sun Watcher with APS... the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) are all currently in space, observing the... Demonstration Programme. The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the first mission for... Force to launch the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). The currently expected... 2013. The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), launched on 11 February...) and Peter Sutcliffe (Hermanus Magnetic Observatory, South Africa). Both the invited... of meteoric smoke Particles X-Ray Observatory (NASA) Lunar orbiter (China) Lunar... by Satellite Deep Space Network Deep Space Climate Observatory Deep Space Exploration Research Center... Diffusion in Liquids International X-Ray Observatory Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism... Solar-Terrestrial Physics Solar Dynamics Observatory Sun Earth Connection Coronal and... Radar Altimeter Space Infra-Red Telescope Facility, now Spitzer Observatory (NASA) Satellite... Instrument Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Solar irradiance... Energy Programme Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Space Telescope Imaging Spectrometer - 275 - STP...



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... 118 Universities Space Research Association - USRA 120 Arecibo Observatory 122 Stratospheric Observatory for... 409 Space Science Institute 412 Submillimeter Array 414 Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope - LCOGT 415 Millennium Space Systems 417... The National Optical Astronomy Observatory - NOAO 521 Space Telescope Science Institute 526... Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute... H.10 1. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD. 2.UCO/Lick Observatory, University of... Kingdom. 3.Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD. 4.UCO/Lick Observatory, University of... (RFI) and Space Debris; IAU’s Commission 50 on Observatory Site Protection; and..., Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht, Netherlands. 7.European Southern Observatory, Garching bei... Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT. 2.Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division... Kingdom. 5. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD. 6.National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM... Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, 7935,South Africa. 4.The Southern African Large Telescope, Observatory, 7935... M.2; Fontaine, Gilles3 1. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD. 2.Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ..., Baltimore, MD. 2.Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD. 3.Steward Observatory, University of... Observatory Smith, Sierra1 1. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA. 209.06 Hubble Space... particular the Hubble Space Telescope and the Kepler Observatory, continues to be... Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ. 4.Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD. 5.Space... scrutiny by the Keck Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope. They are... E.2 1. Quito Astronomical Observatory of National Polytechnic School, Quito, Ecuador. 2.Space Telescope Sciences...: National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Montana Space Grant Consortium, West Virginia Space Grant Consortium... Observatory, Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Contributing teams: The Herschel... California Observatories - Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA. 3.Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore... Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA. 3.Univeristy of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. 4. Space Telescope... J.2 1. NASA Herschel Science Center/IPAC, Pasadena, CA. 2.Chandra X-Ray Observatory, Cambridge, MA.... 2.National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA. 3.European Southern Observatory, Santiago, RM, Chile... discovery space in time-domain astrophysics. Organizer(s): Zaven Arzoumanian, Arecibo Observatory 301... James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a general purpose observatory that will..., AZ. 2.Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. 3.Arizona Space Grant Consortium... for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa. 10. Astronomical Observatory... from Herschel Wednesday, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM; Maryland Ballroom C WEDNESDAY The 3.5-m Herschel Space..., WA. 5.Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD. 6. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville... for a Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Livas, Jeffrey C.1 1. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center... 1. Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO. 2.USRA-SOFIA, Moffett Field, CA. 3.W. M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, HI. 4.Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, CU.... 13.Besancon Observatory, Besancon, Franche-Comte, France. 14.Space Telescope Science Institute... Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM. 3.University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. 4.NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. POSTERS WEDNESDAY 353.07 Herschel Constraints.... 2.Space Science Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA. 3.GEPI - Paris Observatory..., PA. 3.Paris Observatory, Meudon, France. 409.07 Hubble Space Telescope STIS Coronagraphy..., Tucson, AZ. 4.Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Tucson, AZ. 5.Vatican Observatory, Tucson, AZ. 6.Planetary... Observatory, Tucson, AZ. 10.U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ. 11.National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ. 12.MMT Observatory.... 7.European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany. 8. Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands. 9.Space Telescope Science.... 2.NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt , MD. 3.Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA...-Space Science Department, Noordwijk, Netherlands. 7. Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA. 8.Royal Observatory Edinburgh... ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile. 4. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA. 5.National Astronomical Observatory...’s Nest Radio Observatory, Industry, PA. 8.AJ4CO Observatory, High Springs, FL. 9.Heliotown Observatory, Heliotown, NM. 10.Mountain Rest Astronomical Observatory..., Diego1, 5 1. Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile. 2.European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany. 3.Institut...



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... the agency's imperiled next-generation space telescope recently, telling members of... discovery than the iconic Hubble Space Telescope.  A proposed congressional budget bill... would terminate NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), an ambitious instrument... it can deliver JWST to space for about the same price... annual open day at Leighton Observatory, I arrived quite early to set... Place in Space”. Dave Galvin set up a projector in the Observatory with... as Observatory Open Day visitors were given a tour of the observatory, also... from the door of my observatory using everywhere. They decided to... 15-20 metres from my observatory and Whilst the principal objective... to the present day. Much space is devoted here and in... Labyrinth" (ESA Senior Editor for Space Science) Sam George (StarDome - Astronomy... will be pleased to allocate space for you in the exhibition... the Public together • Mark Kidger: Herschel's History of Star formation in... Astronomical Society 8 Summer 2011 Astronomy & Space News Young Stars Take a Turn... Spotlight ScienceDaily The European Southern Observatory's New Technology Telescope (NTT) has... Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. The stars are... (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. This star cluster... June, the European Space Agency announced that its Herschel Space Observatory, which has important.... But Herschel could see the cloud with its infrared detectors. "Herschel is...," said Paul Goldsmith, the NASA Herschel project scientist at NASA's Jet... in 1997, the European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory confirmed the presence of... Saturn's atmosphere from somewhere in space. But from where and how.... The answer came by combining Herschel's ob- F.A.S. Newsletter 97 Water vapor... around Saturn. (Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute) servations of the... Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Boulder. "What's amazing is... the torus is lost to space, some of the water molecules... that has been observed there. Herschel's measurements combined with the cloud...) of water vapor. "With the Herschel measurements of the torus from..., Ariz. "It's very nice with Herschel to track where it goes... NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL, a division... and assembled at JPL. Herschel is a European Space Agency cornerstone mission, with... important participation by NASA. NASA's Herschel Project Office is based at... for two of Herschel's three science instruments. The NASA Herschel Science Center..., used data from the Kepler space telescope, which measures dips in... photos captured by Hawaii's Keck Observatory. To the naked eye, Neptune... the dark night of deep space. Brown posted the pictures via... optics system at Hawaii's Keck Observatory. Earth's moon. CREDIT: Mike Brown... its surface composition," Brown told SPACE.com in an email. "But... optics system at Hawaii's Keck Observatory, shows Neptune and its moon..., Brown said. You can follow SPACE.com senior writer Mike Wall...: @michaeldwall. Follow SPACE.com for the latest in space science and exploration... light, captured by Hawaii's Keck Observatory. The moon Miranda is to... Brown/Caltech by Mike Wall, SPACE.com Senior Writer F.A.S. Newsletter 97... Hubble to Hollywood. Using Hubble Space Telescope images collected over 14.... Stellar jets blast out into space from tives to the project.../watch?v=0Yf_O-S4FM8 Hartigan's Hubble Space Telescope movies are available at... A T K I NSO N —Universe Today The International Space Station has had a continual human... the Russian engineers. Since the space shuttles are no longer flying...



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... the agency's imperiled next-generation space telescope recently, telling members of... discovery than the iconic Hubble Space Telescope.  A proposed congressional budget bill... would terminate NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), an ambitious instrument... it can deliver JWST to space for about the same price... annual open day at Leighton Observatory, I arrived quite early to set... Place in Space”. Dave Galvin set up a projector in the Observatory with... as Observatory Open Day visitors were given a tour of the observatory, also... from the door of my observatory using everywhere. They decided to... 15-20 metres from my observatory and Whilst the principal objective... to the present day. Much space is devoted here and in... Labyrinth" (ESA Senior Editor for Space Science) Sam George (StarDome - Astronomy... will be pleased to allocate space for you in the exhibition... the Public together • Mark Kidger: Herschel's History of Star formation in... Astronomical Society 8 Summer 2011 Astronomy & Space News Young Stars Take a Turn... Spotlight ScienceDaily The European Southern Observatory's New Technology Telescope (NTT) has... Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. The stars are... (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. This star cluster... June, the European Space Agency announced that its Herschel Space Observatory, which has important.... But Herschel could see the cloud with its infrared detectors. "Herschel is...," said Paul Goldsmith, the NASA Herschel project scientist at NASA's Jet... in 1997, the European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory confirmed the presence of... Saturn's atmosphere from somewhere in space. But from where and how.... The answer came by combining Herschel's ob- F.A.S. Newsletter 97 Water vapor... around Saturn. (Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute) servations of the... Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Boulder. "What's amazing is... the torus is lost to space, some of the water molecules... that has been observed there. Herschel's measurements combined with the cloud...) of water vapor. "With the Herschel measurements of the torus from..., Ariz. "It's very nice with Herschel to track where it goes... NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL, a division... and assembled at JPL. Herschel is a European Space Agency cornerstone mission, with... important participation by NASA. NASA's Herschel Project Office is based at... for two of Herschel's three science instruments. The NASA Herschel Science Center..., used data from the Kepler space telescope, which measures dips in... photos captured by Hawaii's Keck Observatory. To the naked eye, Neptune... the dark night of deep space. Brown posted the pictures via... optics system at Hawaii's Keck Observatory. Earth's moon. CREDIT: Mike Brown... its surface composition," Brown told SPACE.com in an email. "But... optics system at Hawaii's Keck Observatory, shows Neptune and its moon..., Brown said. You can follow SPACE.com senior writer Mike Wall...: @michaeldwall. Follow SPACE.com for the latest in space science and exploration... light, captured by Hawaii's Keck Observatory. The moon Miranda is to... Brown/Caltech by Mike Wall, SPACE.com Senior Writer F.A.S. Newsletter 97... Hubble to Hollywood. Using Hubble Space Telescope images collected over 14.... Stellar jets blast out into space from tives to the project.../watch?v=0Yf_O-S4FM8 Hartigan's Hubble Space Telescope movies are available at... A T K I NSO N —Universe Today The International Space Station has had a continual human... the Russian engineers. Since the space shuttles are no longer flying...



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... Space Interferometer (SIM) - Planetquest SMD-228 SMD-233 SMD-239 Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SMD-243 Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared... Infrared Survey Explorer International Space Science Collaboration Herschel Beyond Einstein EXPLORATION SYSTEMS... form the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory. This observatory will be launched into a polar... Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Schedule Commitments The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) will provide the first space-based measurements... 8HE06 Complete Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Integrated Observatory Performance Test. Living with a Star Performance Achievement Highlights New Millennium Space... next STP mission in space. Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) Launched on... Chandra X-Ray Observatory in 1999 and the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2003...: the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (1991... Chandra X-ray Observatory explores the hot, turbulent regions in space in the...-Newton Observatory is an X-ray astrophysics observatory developed by the European Space Agency, with U.S. participation. This facility-class observatory...--is a large, deployable, space-based infrared astronomical observatory. JWST conducted a replan in... target Canadian Space Agency pointing information to the (CSA) observatory's attitude control..., Virginia, and the U.S. Naval Observatory. Northrop Grumman Space Technology is responsible for... ($ millions) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy... FY 2008 Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared... Partners SOFIA Observatory Aircraft and Operations DFRC L3 German Space Agency (DLR... Astrophysics Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy... Astrophysics Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy... Astrophysics Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy... Astrophysics Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy... Astrophysics Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy... 2007 PB Request International Space Science Collaboration Herschel FY 2008 PB Request... inaccessible. Herschel and Planck, two projects in the International Space Science Collaboration... of the Herschel and Planck instruments with the European Space Agency will... inaccessible. Herschel and Planck, two projects in the International Space Science Collaboration... of the Herschel and Planck instruments with the European Space Agency will... Development: Science Astrophysics International Space Science Collaboration Herschel Budget / Life Cycle Cost... Astrophysics International Space Science Collaboration Herschel Project Purpose The Herschel project is an astrophysics mission in the International Space Science... Parameters The Herschel Space observatory is a collaboration between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). It will be the first space observatory covering... largest mirror deployed in space to date. The observatory will operate for...: Science Astrophysics International Space Science Collaboration Herschel Project Commitments Herschel will launch in... International Space Science Collaboration Herschel Development Cost Summary Base Year Project Herschel Base... Performer Partners Herschel HIFI JPL Netherlands Institute for Space Research ESA Herschel SPIRE... Development: Science Astrophysics International Space Science Collaboration Herschel Project Risk Management Title... Space Antenna (LISA) would be the first dedicated space-based gravitational wave observatory... (OSTM), Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), and Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). STSS, GLAST... Area Space Telescope (GLAST), Kepler, Herschel, Mars Phoenix, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO... 8HE06 Complete Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Integrated Observatory Performance Test. Living with... DSN Deep Space Network Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (Solar Dynamics Observatory instrument... Integrated Space Transportation Plan HMI Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (Solar Dynamic Observatory... instrument) SAO Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory ST Space Technology SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar... Terrestrial Relations Observatory SBT Space-Based Technology STIS SC Shared Capabilities Space Telescope... Space Transportation System Space Communications Program STScI Space Telescope Science Institute Solar Dynamics Observatory STSS Space...



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....com Eric Warren Science Instrument Space Dynamics Laboratory, Logan, Utah 435....edu George Diller NASA Kennedy Space Center, Fla. Launch Operations 321... Bryan Boyette, U.S. Air Force 30th Space Wing Public Affairs Office, Vandenberg... a.m. PST (9:09:33 a.m. EST), from Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force... missions in space -- NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory, a European Space Agency mission... as NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, the Herschel Space Observatory, NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, NASA’s upcoming... and NASA’s upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Powerful ground-based telescopes... Program managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The... instrument was built by the Space Dynamics Laboratory, Logan, Utah, and... will be launched from NASA’s Space Launch Complex 2 at Vandenberg Air...-a-half hours after separation, the observatory will stabilize itself with its... 100 megabits per second). The observatory’s science instrument will be powered... 30 days. Mission Operations The observatory’s ground segment includes all facilities... in the universe. Objects in space sizzle and shimmer with a range... animals. The astronomer Sir William Herschel discovered infrared light serendipitously in... to develop technologically and build space telescopes, they too might launch... as black, empty space in visible-light views. Space: The Best Place... up above our atmosphere in space, using very cold telescopes. Telescopes... also detect infrared light, but space has the best vantage point... with hundreds of millions of space objects. Like scanning the grains... buried in the vastness of space. WISE will guide other telescopes... NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope and NASA’s upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, to... largely gone missing. NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope recently spotted a few members... of their history and evolution. Space Rocks Abound Millions of asteroids... of the surface. A tiny, bright space rock will look the same... Scientist JPL Dominic Benford Goddard Space Flight Center Andrew Blain Caltech... Kirkpatrick Caltech David Leisawitz Goddard Space Flight Center Carol Lonsdale University of Virginia John Mather Goddard Space Flight Center Ian McLean UCLA... and the spacecraft bus. The Space Dynamics Laboratory in Logan, Utah... to keep the observatory operating and oriented correctly in space. Two star... the orientation of WISE in space. It consists of a complementary set... per second. Flight Software The observatory uses stored commands to perform... health and safety of the observatory. The flight software can perform... already in space, NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, and the European Space Agency’s Herschel Observatory, in which NASA plays an important role. Herschel is... do we need another infrared space telescope? WISE is different in... for finding the oddballs of space -- the superlative objects, such as... follow-up studies. Spitzer, Herschel, NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, NASA’s upcoming SOFIA airborne telescope, NASA’s upcoming James Webb Space... by WISE in more detail. Space-based Missions • Infrared Astronomical Satellite... first all-sky survey from space at infrared wavelengths. The satellite... infrared wavelengths. 23 • Infrared Space Observatory (European Space Agency, with participation of Japan...): This was the first Japanese space telescope dedicated to infrared astronomy... completed by 2007. • NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope: This infrared member of... includes the Hubble and Chandra space telescopes, launched in Aug. 2003... Bang. • Herschel Observatory (European Space Agency with important NASA participation): Launched into space from French Guiana in May 2009, Herschel is the largest infrared space telescope ever flown, with a mirror 3.5 meters (11.5 feet) in diameter. Herschel can see the coldest and dustiest objects in space. It... sky. • James Webb Space Telescope (NASA/European Space Agency): This telescope, scheduled... Airborne Observatory: From 1971 to 1995, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was the... in Earth’s atmosphere. Among the observatory’s most notable discoveries were the... Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, commonly referred to as SOFIA: The Stratospheric Observatory... Boeing 747-SP aircraft. The observatory is scheduled to fly in... ground, taken at Mount Wilson Observatory in Southern California in the... world-class scientific investigations from space. Explorer missions are focused science... awareness of and appreciation for space science and to incorporate educational... activities as integral parts of space science investigations. Individual Explorer missions... is hosted at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md... program scientist. At NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, Andrea... for NASA. At NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the NASA... integration with the rocket; the Space Launch Complex 2 pad facilities; countdown... is managed by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. 12-3-09 27...



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... OF PHYSICS SECTION OF ASTROPHYSICS & SPACE PHYSICS ANNUAL REPORT FOR 2015...  AND  NOTABLE  EVENTS   3.  FACILITIES   3.1.  SKINAKAS  OBSERVATORY   3.2.  IONOSPHERIC  PHYSICS  LABORATORY   4.  COURSES   5.  SCIENTIFIC...: the 1.3m telescope of Skinakas Observatory inside its dome (see Sect.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report 1. INTRODUCTION... the Section of Astrophysics and Space Physics at the Department of... infrastructure and hardware at Skinakas Observatory and the Ionospheric Physics Laboratory... the Section of Astrophysics and Space Physics consists of 15 PhD... staff associated with the Skinakas Observatory were Mr. Anastasios Kougentakis, Dr.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report In... researchers coming from the National Observatory Athens and Columbia University (USA... and physics. 3. FACILITIES 3.1. SKINAKAS OBSERVATORY The Skinakas Observatory operates as part of... was fully operating at Skinakas Observatory in 2015. This telescope is... Collaboration, consisting of the Skinakas Observatory, the California Institute of Technology... on the 1.3 m telescope of Skinakas Observatory. The main scientific aim of.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report The... “open nights” continued and the Observatory was open to the public... night. More details on Skinakas Observatory, the quality of the site.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report The.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report observable.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report accretion.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report population... Chandra X-ray observatory and narrow-band data from the Skinakas observatory. the... with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The goal.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report Reference... on observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope in order to explore... sample, using the Spitzer and Herschel Space telescopes. A second is the analysis... on observations with the Hubble Space Telescope of the Great Observatories... obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory. The analysis was extended.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report surface.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report Marie... Technology – Hellas (FORTH), Heraklion National Observatory of Athens, Athens Technical Education... of Astrophysics & Space Physics - 2015 Annual Report NASA Goddard Space Flight Center..., Oxford, UK Rome Observatory, Rome, Italy Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai, China Stanford..., Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing of the National Observatory of Athens.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report http... to the facilities of Skinakas Observatory, as well as TV and... societies in Crete. The Skinakas observatory opened its doors to the... 6. Hundrends of people visited the observatory where they were guided to... telescopes and cameras of Skinakas Observatory” took place at the Heraklion... Dr. Paleologou using the Skinakas observatory telescopes. Graduate students of the.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics q q 2015 Annual Report Monday... of the galaxies: a journey in space and time” speaker: V. Pavlidou Wednesday.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report I., King... Hughes, T.M., H alpha imaging of the Herschel Reference Survey The star formation.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report Korista..., M., Villforth, C., Yan, H., Young, S., and Zu, Y., Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping... Cosmic Origins Spectrograph On Hubble Space Telescope. Astrophysical Journal, 2015. 806..., T., Vestergaard, M., Villforth, C., Yan, H., and Zu, Y., Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping..., D., Pannella, M., Pope, A., and Popesso, P., Goods-Herschel: Identification of the Individual Galaxies.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report Sanders..., M.T., Scott, D., Shu, X., and Wang, T., Goods-Herschel: Star Formation, Dust Attenuation, and... Der Wiel, M.H.D., and Xilouris, E.M., the Herschel Comprehensive (U)Lirg Emission Survey (Hercules.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report of... galaxies at z > 2.5: Implications from the Herschel/SPIRE color-color diagram. Astronomy... the Section of Astrophysics and Space Physics is: University of Crete... Physics Section of Astrophysics and Space Physics GR-71003 Heraklion Greece.... of Physics Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics 2015 Annual Report 2015... 1, 2016 Copyright © Section of Astrophysics & Space Physics, Department of Physics, University...



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.../s10686-008-9090-0 O R I G I N A L A RT I C L E The space infrared telescope for cosmology and... + Business Media B.V. 2008 Abstract The Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and... planned to be the next space astronomy mission observing in the... focal plane conceptual design. Keywords Space missions . Infrared Co-authored by... University, The Netherlands Gunma Astronomical Observatory, Japan HIA/NRC—Herzberg Institute..., USA KASI—Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejon, Korea Kobe...-OAMP, Marseille, France LO—Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, The Netherlands... für Kernphysik, Germany UCL-MSSL—Mullard Space Science Laboratory, UK Nagoya—Nagoya...—National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Japan SRON—Netherlands Institute for Space Research... Kuiper Airborne Observatory [2], and after the success of the infrared space observatories... necessary that any MIR/FIR observatory is cooled to temperatures at... temperature less than ∼5 K, and all space observatories to date (IRAS, ISO...—Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK STScI—Space Telescope Science Institute, USA SNU....ac.uk T. Nakagawa Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) Japan... with the advent of the Herschel Space Observatory [6] with an 80-K 3.5 m telescope operating... 700 μm and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) [7] with a 45-K, 25... diffraction limited at 2 μm and beyond. Herschel and JWST will represent a leap... cover wavelengths longer than 28 μm; Herschel only starts coverage at 57... of its relatively warm aperture, Herschel only gives a modest improvement in... of Herschel and the narrow wavelength coverage of JWST, the Japanese space agency (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS... (JAXA)) is proposing to build Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and... in the FIR compared with Herschel. Furthermore, SPICA will employ mechanical... telescope will be monolithic, like Herschel, and will in principle have... the sensitivities of the predecessor (Herschel) and complementary facilities such as... used publicly available sensitivities for Herschel, JWST and ALMA and have... as used for JWST [8] and Herschel [10]. For the MIR range... photoconductors and a development of the Herschel-PACS bolometer arrays; and Goal..., are discussed later 197 Herschel PACS Herschel SPIRE SPICA FIR SOAP ALMA... a huge gain in sensitivity over Herschel can be achieved with SPICA... of the full band instrument Herschel SPIRE Herschel PACS Spitzer IRS SPICA... be observed. The spectrometers on Herschel are expected to make further... populations resolved in deep photometric Herschel surveys out to z>3. In the... the universe formed since z∼1. Previous space-borne spectrometers could barely detect... the angular resolution of hubble space telescope (HST)/near infrared camera... to evaluate the co-moving space density of this dusty population.... It launches from the Tanegashima Space Centre and can deliver a payload... as a good instantaneous sky visibility. Space segment In order to meet..., the key elements of the space segment must rely either on... the coolers is radiated to space with a system of loop heat... and instruments to safe the space segment in the event of... carbide cryogenic space optical elements. In particular the Astrium-France Herschel (3.5 m, 80... passive radiative cooling (to deep space) + mechanical cooler after initial warm... are under extensive development by Herschel/PACS and SPITZER MIPS SRON... tested by Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON), Netherlands and Cardiff... such cooler systems for future space science experiments. The most recent... on direct experience gained from Herschel, AKARI and indirectly from SPITZER... the USA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). A fourth instrument giving high...