Спутник ФКИ. Herschel Space Observatory. [Редактировать]

Астрономический спутник, созданный ЕКА. Первоначально предложен консорциумом европейских учёных в 1982 году. Запуск состоялся 14 мая 2009 года, в 13:12 по UTC с космодрома Куру с помощью ракеты-носителя «Ариан-5». Миссия названа в честь сэра Уильяма Гершеля, первого исследователя инфракрасного спектра. Спутник размещён на гелиоцентрической орбите вблизи второй точки Лагранжа (L2) системы Земля — Солнце. 
Телескоп «Гершель» — первая космическая обсерватория для полномасштабного изучения инфракрасного излучения в космосе. Телескоп с зеркалом диаметром 3,5 метра — самый крупный космический телескоп, работающий в инфракрасном спектре, из когда-либо запущенных (на 2014 год). Зеркало отполировано в мастерской обсерватории Туорла в Финляндии фирмой Opteon. Материалом для зеркала послужил карбид кремния — благодаря этому его вес составил лишь 300 кг при толщине 20 см (зеркало из традиционных материалов весило бы 1,5 тонны). Кроме того, физические свойства карбида кремния позволяют контролировать форму зеркала с точностью до 10 мкм. Зеркало «склеено» из 12 элементов. Излучение фокусируется на три прибора с датчиками, имеющими температуру ниже 2 K. Датчики охлаждаются жидким гелием при низком давлении, что позволяет понизить его температуру кипения до 1,4 K (по сравнению с 4,2 K при атмосферном давлении). Время работы спутника на орбите ограничено количеством гелия на его борту (2300 литров).

Датчики телескопа:

  • Фотокамера со спектрометром низкого разрешения. Диапазон спектрометра по длине волны — от 55 до 210 микрометров; спектральное разрешение R — от 1000 до 5000; чувствительность — на уровне −63 дБ. Фотокамера способна давать одновременно изображения в двух диапазонах: 60—85/85—130 мкм и 130—210 мкм при спектральной плотности потока излучения в несколько миллиянских.
  • Приёмник спектральных и фотометрических изображений. Спектрометр низкого разрешения на диапазон длин волн 194—672 мкм. Спектральное разрешение R — от 40 до 1000 (на длине волны 250 мкм). Спектрометр способен фиксировать объекты со спектральной плотностью потока 100 мЯн для точечных источников и 500 мЯн — для протяжённых. Фотокамера имеет три элемента на длины волн 250, 350 и 500 мкм, с числом точек (пикселей) 139, 88 и 43, соответственно. Она способна фиксировать точечные объекты с плотностью потока 2 мЯн и протяжённые объекты с плотностью потока 4—9 мЯн. Прототип этого устройства прошёл проверку на высотном стратостате «BLAST».
  • Гетеродинный датчик для излучения в дальнем инфракрасном диапазоне. Этот спектрограф имеет очень высокое спектральное разрешение — на уровне R=107. Имеет два рабочих диапазона: от 157 до 212 мкм и от 240 до 625 мкм.

 

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1Far Infrared and Submillimetre Telescope (FIRST)НайтиНайти
234937НайтиНайти
3HerschelНайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - Европа
3Страна производитель - Европа

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12009-09-03. Аномалии в полезной нагрузкеТэги: Herschel Space Observatory
22010-01-18 - 2010-01-01. Крупнейший орбитальный телескоп "Гершель" (Herschel) вновь заработал в полную силу. Ученые смогли починить спектрометр HIFI, вышедший из строя более пяти месяцев назад, сообщает BBC News. Окончательно инструменты теле-скопа начали функционировать в штатном режиме 14 января. Ученые заметили, что телескоп работает не так, как обычно, 3 августа 2009 года, уточняется в пресс-релизе института космических исследований Нидерландов, сотрудники которого задействованы в миссии "Гершеля". Спектрометр HIFI находился в состоянии, не предусмотренном в руководстве по эксплуатации. Сбой произошел из-за разряда, который возник после того, как телескоп вы-полнил сложную последовательность операций. Изначальной причиной неполадок, по мнению специалистов, стало воздействие космических лучей. Определение природы поломки заняло несколько месяцев. Затем ученые разработали алгоритм, призванный наладить работу спектрометра. Все команды телескопу посылали дистанционно. Чтобы полностью восстановить функциональность HIFI, специалисты задействовали резервную электронику (космические приборы часто снабжаются дублирующими комплектами техники, так как обслуживание в космосе либо невозможно, либо связано со множеством трудностей). "Гершель" был запущен на орбиту 14 мая 2009 года. Диаметр главного зеркала телескопа составляет 3,5 метра (почти на метр шире, чем зеркало знаменитого "Хаббла"). "Гершель" работает в инфракрасном диапазоне - это означает, что он может "видеть" сквозь пыль, заполняющую космическое пространство. Для телескопов, работающих в оптическом диапазоне, пыль является непреодолимым препятствием. Тэги: Herschel Space Observatory

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг3300
2Диаметр (зеркала телескопа), метра3.5
3Граница спекртального диапазона (нижняя), мкм55
4Граница спекртального диапазона (верхняя), мкм672
5Угловое разрешение, угл. сек.1
6Охлаждение (приемников), кельвинов0.3

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2009-026A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Страна (оператора)Европа
2Стоимость , млн. долл.1540
3Оператор Европейское космическое агентство
4Оператор Космическое агентство США
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2003-01-0172.7
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2003-01-01277.6
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2007-01-01325.4
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2007-01-0110.4
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2007-01-01117.0
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2007-01-01198.0
11Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2008-12-01276.8
12Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2008-12-0110.4
13Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2008-12-01131.7
14Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2008-12-01134.7
15Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2009-10-01277.0
16Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2009-10-0110.4
17Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2009-10-01126.7
18Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2009-10-01139.9

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2009-05-14 at 13:12:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xHerschel Space Observatory
3Полезная нагрузка 1xPlank
4Ракета-носитель 1xАриан 5 ECA

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Herschel Space Observatory». [Перейти к поиску]


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... 118 Universities Space Research Association - USRA 120 Arecibo Observatory 122 Stratospheric Observatory for... 409 Space Science Institute 412 Submillimeter Array 414 Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope - LCOGT 415 Millennium Space Systems 417... The National Optical Astronomy Observatory - NOAO 521 Space Telescope Science Institute 526... Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute... H.10 1. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD. 2.UCO/Lick Observatory, University of... Kingdom. 3.Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD. 4.UCO/Lick Observatory, University of... (RFI) and Space Debris; IAU’s Commission 50 on Observatory Site Protection; and..., Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht, Netherlands. 7.European Southern Observatory, Garching bei... Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT. 2.Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division... Kingdom. 5. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD. 6.National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM... Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, 7935,South Africa. 4.The Southern African Large Telescope, Observatory, 7935... M.2; Fontaine, Gilles3 1. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD. 2.Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ..., Baltimore, MD. 2.Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD. 3.Steward Observatory, University of... Observatory Smith, Sierra1 1. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA. 209.06 Hubble Space... particular the Hubble Space Telescope and the Kepler Observatory, continues to be... Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ. 4.Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD. 5.Space... scrutiny by the Keck Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope. They are... E.2 1. Quito Astronomical Observatory of National Polytechnic School, Quito, Ecuador. 2.Space Telescope Sciences...: National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Montana Space Grant Consortium, West Virginia Space Grant Consortium... Observatory, Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Contributing teams: The Herschel... California Observatories - Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA. 3.Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore... Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA. 3.Univeristy of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. 4. Space Telescope... J.2 1. NASA Herschel Science Center/IPAC, Pasadena, CA. 2.Chandra X-Ray Observatory, Cambridge, MA.... 2.National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA. 3.European Southern Observatory, Santiago, RM, Chile... discovery space in time-domain astrophysics. Organizer(s): Zaven Arzoumanian, Arecibo Observatory 301... James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a general purpose observatory that will..., AZ. 2.Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. 3.Arizona Space Grant Consortium... for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa. 10. Astronomical Observatory... from Herschel Wednesday, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM; Maryland Ballroom C WEDNESDAY The 3.5-m Herschel Space..., WA. 5.Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD. 6. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville... for a Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Livas, Jeffrey C.1 1. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center... 1. Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO. 2.USRA-SOFIA, Moffett Field, CA. 3.W. M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, HI. 4.Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, CU.... 13.Besancon Observatory, Besancon, Franche-Comte, France. 14.Space Telescope Science Institute... Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM. 3.University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. 4.NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. POSTERS WEDNESDAY 353.07 Herschel Constraints.... 2.Space Science Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA. 3.GEPI - Paris Observatory..., PA. 3.Paris Observatory, Meudon, France. 409.07 Hubble Space Telescope STIS Coronagraphy..., Tucson, AZ. 4.Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Tucson, AZ. 5.Vatican Observatory, Tucson, AZ. 6.Planetary... Observatory, Tucson, AZ. 10.U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ. 11.National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ. 12.MMT Observatory.... 7.European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany. 8. Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands. 9.Space Telescope Science.... 2.NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt , MD. 3.Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA...-Space Science Department, Noordwijk, Netherlands. 7. Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA. 8.Royal Observatory Edinburgh... ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile. 4. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA. 5.National Astronomical Observatory...’s Nest Radio Observatory, Industry, PA. 8.AJ4CO Observatory, High Springs, FL. 9.Heliotown Observatory, Heliotown, NM. 10.Mountain Rest Astronomical Observatory..., Diego1, 5 1. Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile. 2.European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany. 3.Institut...



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... the Russian Space Research Institute, Moscow), a Russian submillimeter-wave space science telescope... SRON—the Netherlands Institute for Space Research. He was principal investigator... motivators for the ultra-successful Herschel Space Telescope mission, an ESA Fourth... site of the European Southern Observatory’s first telescope facility. La Silla... telescope on an envisioned space shuttle-launched space lab (LIRTS) [9], and plans... a U.S. led concept for a large deployable space-based far infrared telescope mission...), and the ultimately realized, European Space Agency’s Herschel Space Observatory—only a very distant dream... and the C-141 Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) were used by Waters... Kea, at the Owens Valley Observatory (up to 345 GHz), the..., deployable submillimeter-to-far-infrared space telescope were taking shape [30... commitment of resources, the European Space Agency (ESA) released a general scientific... for a “large infrared and submillimeter space project”.7 Thijs quickly followed the..., for a “Far IR and Submillimeter space Telescope—FIRST [35]. The development... name was changed to the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO) in 2000, and Thijs... (from Netherlands) for an infrared space observatory mission (ISO), which was submitted... details on Herschel are available from ESA’s Herschel Science Center (www.herschel.esac.esa.int). of the space radiant...!). SRON, the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (Stichting RuimteOnderzoek Nederland) had... faxed over to Fokker Space (now Dutch Space) and then driven by...’s. He participated in MSX (midcourse space experiment), ISO, and Spitzer. He... House, 1957 – a classic! 13The Infrared Space Observatory. [Online] Available: iso.esac.esa... contribution to the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) mid... commitments “Intention, Attention, Exe14Spitzer 15The Space Telescope. [Online] Available: www.spitzer... students into his projects. Leiden’s Observatory (in the city itself) had... project. FIRST was renamed the Herschel Space Observatory.16 Its 3.5 m passively cooled infrared... a professional man16Herschel. 17A [Online] Available: herschel.esac.esa.int separate Cosmic... Herschel with so many individuals involved (986 are listed on the Herschel... on May 14, 2009, the Herschel Space Observatory was launched on a special vertically... 29, 2013. Major contributions from Herschel in general, and HIFI in... symposium on Herschel science results, The Universe Explored by Herschel [76] is... 2009, despite the success of Herschel, is still far from finished... “big” science. In 2007, before Herschel had launched, Thijs turned 65... a follow on mission plan to Herschel, ESPRIT [78], a large orbiting submillimeter... Radio Astronomy Observatory, based in Charlottesville, Virginia; the European Southern Observatory, a 15 member state European governments consortium; and the National Astronomical Observatory... for hand-over to the observatory, and Thijs arrived just as...’s science objectives are aligned with Herschel-HIFI, as is its receiver... science. However both ALMA and Herschel will continue to deliver the... the Russian Space Research Institute, Moscow), a Russian submillimeter-wave space science telescope.... [14] P. H. Siegel, “THz instruments for space,” IEEE Trans. on Antennas and..., “Sub-millimetre heterodyne techniques for space,” Adv. Space Res., vol. 2, no. 4, pp... Headquarters. : , 1982. [35] E. A. Trendelenburg, European Space Agency, Paris, France, “Call for...-project first (far infrared submillimetre space telescope),” in Proc. SPIE, 1986...] C. Cesarsky and T. de Graauw, “Infrared space observatory: ,” in Proc. ISO Science Workshop...] M. Kessler et al., “The infrared space observatory (ISO) mission,” Astron. Astrophys., vol... Graauw, “Space infrared/submm telescopes: Past and future,” in Space Infrared Telescopes and Related Science, Advances in Space Research...] T. de Graauw et al., “The Herschel-heterodyne instrument for the far..., Netherlands, “The Universe Explored by Herschel, ESA/ESTEC,” Oct. 15–18... Releases related to Herschel,” [Online]. Available: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/Press_Releases...., “Exploratory submm space radio-interferometric, telescope (ESPRIT),” Adv. Space Res., vol. 36...., “Millimetron—A large Russian-European submillimeter space observatory,” Experimental Astronomy, vol. 23, pp... at the Space Science Division of ESTEC, the European Space Research and... to the European Space Agency (ESA) for an Infrared Space Observatory platform (ISO... ESA for a Far Infrared Submillimeter Space Telescope (FIRST). Both of these... and resulted in extremely successful space astrophysics missions. In 1983, Dr..., the Netherlands. FIRST became the Herschel Space Observatory in 2000 and was successfully... of Director at the ALMA Observatory and he relocated to Chile... the official opening of the observatory in March 2013. de Graauw... Millimetron project, an advanced Russian space telescope program. Dr. de Graauw... astronomical instruments on ISO and Herschel. de Graauw spends part of...



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... Testi2 Paola Andreani2,3 1 Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile ESO 3 ESO ALMA... the first time the whole observatory infrastructure had been used for... was first detected in the Herschel ATLAS (H-ATLAS) survey (Negrello et... AGB Stars 1 nsala Space Observatory, Dept. of O Radio and Space Science, Chalmers University... di Padova, Italy 3 Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, Australia 4 Kavli Institute... WINGS database at the Virtual Observatory, together with the OmegaCAM reduced... Spectrograph (WYFFOS) on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), both multi-fibre... publicly available through the Virtual Observatory, as ex­plained in Moretti... WINGS database through the virtual observatory interface, including OmegaCAM images (see...-resolution imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which revealed a system... (FORS1 V, R and I filters and H ­ ubble Space Telescope B, V, I) of the galaxy cluster... 2, the trend of the physical space density, ρg, measured from DLAs/sub... Figure 1), who discussed results from space- and ground-based surveys of... spiral galaxies in the ­Hubble Space Telescope GHOSTS (Galaxy Halos The... angular resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) allows the detection... 2015 Catherine Vlahakis1,2 1 J oint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile 2 ESO The workshop..., including ALMA, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Herschel, Spitzer, the Wide-field... Array (NOEMA), the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the Square Kilo... Coma Cluster, with impressive Hubble Space Telescope imaging at 30 pc....html Report on the ALMA/Herschel Archival Workshop held at ESO... Zwaan1 Leonardo Testi1 1 ESO The Herschel mission produced data from 2009... in 2012. The lower frequency Herschel capabilities overlap the higher frequency..., Herschel provides targets for ALMA follow-up. Following up on a previous Herschel... in the middle of the Herschel science mission and ahead of... the expected impact of the Herschel surveys on the science programmes.../Herschel Archival Workshop” focused on the synergies of ALMA and Herschel joint archival research. and visualise Herschel and ALMA data products; and – to enable Herschel and ALMA archival science. The Herschel Space Observatory has produced high... to 2013. To date, all Herschel science data (~ 23 400 hours..., are publicly available through the Herschel Science Archive1. Meanwhile, the ALMA...) Herschel bands, and despite the huge difference in spatial resolution, Herschel sources... datasets are increasing immensely. ­However, Herschel and ALMA data differ greatly.... The workshop focused on ALMA/Herschel synergies and archival research, with... on the combined use of Herschel and ALMA data, covering a broad... promote mutual awareness of the ­Herschel and ALMA data archive contents... day, where the ALMA and Herschel archives and their contents were... made jointly with ALMA and Herschel data in the most prominent... Herschel and ALMA approach. Extragalactic studies Combined observations from ALMA and Herschel... GOODS-Herschel (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey: farinfrared imaging with Herschel) detections... gal­ axies than measured by Herschel, possibly indicating a change in the... gas masses ­estimated from either Herschel or ALMA can be very... shown that only a combined ALMA–Herschel approach allows accurate gas and... highflux tail (> 100 mJy) of Herschel surveys, have turned out to... (Matus Rybak). The combination of Herschel data with ALMA observations is... drives the evolution of galaxies. Herschel/SPIRE 870 μm observations of nearby... studied by combining ALMA and Herschel data. Herschel reveals the large-scale... infrared dark cloud, detected by Herschel, shows a surprising lack of a distributed... excitation molecular lines observed by Herschel and the low excitation lines... to be constrained (Andy Pon). Herschel observations of protoplanetary discs have... structure and evolution, but the Herschel catalogues provide excellent databases for... observed by both ALMA and Herschel, with surprising out- comes, such... the atmosphere of Titan with Herschel and ALMA were also presented... were that synergies between the Herschel and the ALMA data and... long after the end of Herschel operations, and that both facilities...://www.cosmos.esa. H int/web/herschel/science-archive 2 A LMA Science Archive... to work at the Paranal Observatory. I very much enjoy my shifts... that involved trips to the observatory of the astronomy department, where... asteroids at the National Astronomical Observatory of China (NAOC). There I met... ­Martian ­rovers, spacecraft, the Hubble Space Tele­scope and major groundbased... Physics and close to the Observatory of Munich’s Ludwig-Maximilian University... The two mountains of ESO's Observatory in the ­Atacama Desert, in....com) ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy... al. – Report on the “ALMA/Herschel Archival Workshop” Fellows at ESO... Hubble Space Telescope; Y. Tamura; A. Angelich (NRAO/AUI/NSF); NASA Chandra Space ­Telescope...



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... the key results from the Herschel observatory was that star formation appears... therefore not detected by the Herschel Space Observatory, but the dust around stars.... The student will use the Herschel Space Observatory to look for the emission...: Astronomy Galaxy evolution with Herschel and the Hubble Space Telescope Supervisor: Prof S A Eales Project Description: Our deep Herschel surveys.... However, the poor resolution of Herschel means that the galaxies just... the images. Fortunately, the Hubble Space Telescope has been carrying out... of many of the deep Herschel fields (the Cosmic Assembly Deep... will use a combination of the Herschel and Hubble data to investigate... in the Herschel ATLAS Supervisor: Dr H L Gomez Project Description: The Herschel ATLAS... survey carried out with the Herschel Space Observatory. Herschel is the largest, most powerful... telescope and is the first space observatory to observe from the far... been seen before. With the Herschel-ATLAS survey, we have detected... in the far-infrared before Herschel) out to redshifts of 3 to..., we will investigate the galaxies Herschel has detected during the last... in the past. Using our Herschel surveys, we showed that the..., you will use recently acquired Herschel data (PI Gomez & Smith) of...: Dr H L Gomez Project Description: The Herschel ATLAS project is the largest... survey carried out with the Herschel Space Observatory. Herschel is the largest, most powerful... telescope and is the first space observatory to observe from the far... time. Our work with the Herschel ATLAS data (Dunne, Gomez et... of dusty galaxies seen by Herschel out to a redshift of 0.5 to... thousands of galaxies in the Herschel ATLAS fields with a wide range... Herschel-SPIRE Supervisor: Prof M J Griffin and Dr C North Project Description: The Herschel Space Observatory... requires observational proof required. The Herschel Space Observatory has indeed detected dust in... supernovae and supernova remnants. The Herschel Space Observatory surveyed the Galactic Plane at... molecular lines in the Hershel Space Observatory’s spectra, and will model these... using a combination of groundbased and space-borne instruments and using the... in recent years including recent Herschel observations which have shown that... these set of data with Herschel at the same wavelengths and... Research Group: Astronomy TWINKLE: A British Space Mission to Explore Faraway Words... and technical performance of the space instrument. An end-to-end... massive star formation by analysing Herschel and molecular line data of... Dark Clouds and holes in space Supervisor: Dr N Peretto and Dr... IRDCs and the holes in space requires analysis of lots of..., including from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory. Identifying which IRDC... observations (from Spitzer and and Herschel) to identify which objects were... using data from Spitzer and Herschel to study a selection of IRDCs... a new means of obtaining surface space group symmetry and the atomic... as an exponential growth in space outside the system which causes... well as development of free-space atmospheric communication links. You will... using a combination of groundbased and space-borne instruments and using the... a double Fourier interferometry technique for space astronomy Supervisor: Dr E Pascale and... interferometer to be deployed in space. The concept seeks to combine... constituents or to image deep space to resolve objects at high.... Outline a straw man concept for a space instrumentThis is a very rewarding project... in recent years including recent Herschel observations which have shown that... these set of data with Herschel at the same wavelengths and... Research Group: Instrumentation TWINKLE: A British Space Mission to Explore Faraway Words... and technical performance of the space instrument. An end-to-end...



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... Sun such as Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) and recent data from... organised what was promoted as a ‘space day for Newport’s gifted and... a mobile planetarium where the young space cadets were exposed to a tour... this coming September. Watch this space!!! Courtesy: HERMES F.A.S. Newsletter 95 5 Winter... response from them as my observatory PC. So what to do... the camera up to the observatory and plugged it into the... to make a career in the space industry as it details the... interesting way. Brian Sheen Roseland Observatory Dramatis Personae, both supporting cast... gets the overall impression that ‘space research’ and ‘British Governby Colin... as part of the European Space any prospects of European follow... caused the mission promoting British space research. There are a failure can..., inOpen University, ESA for European Space ited from a working class family....uk. Guildford Astronomical Society Observatory Complex Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St... in the grounds at Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St Mary... F.A.S. Newsletter 95 9 Winter 2010 Mullard Space Science Laboratory Open Day Holmbury... in its sixth year, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, sited close to...-red telescopes, namely the new Herschel telescope, 'sees' their subjects and... to the staff at Mullard Space Science Laboratory for all their.... Winter 2010 More from: Mullard Space Science Laboratory Open Day F.A.S. Newsletter... in total. Only the Royal Observatory Library in Edinburgh has more... in total. Only the Royal Observatory Library in Edinburgh has more... astronomer and musician Sir William Herschel. Particularly the events surrounding his... (Continued from page 15) and observatory histories, Venus and Mercury transit... & D’Arrest, working at the Berlin Observatory. Using a predicted location, the blue... days later. It was William Herschel’s Son John who wrote to... with several visitors to his observatory, he observed all known planets... the archive boxes containing the Herschel observational books for the period... Uranus in March 1781. William Herschel was, as most newsletter (Continued... the Astronomer Royal, Neville Maskelyne, Herschel was able to have his... that Herschel had added a new planet to the Solar System, which Herschel... Uranus was the final choice. Herschel’s note of February 7th 1782... & Space News NASA Test Fires New Rocket Engine for Commercial Space Vehicle NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi... Orbital Sciences Corp.'s Taurus II space launch vehicle. The initial test... to power the Taurus II space vehicle on flights to low... eight cargo missions to the space station through 2015. "With this... new chapter in the nation's space program," said Patrick Scheuermann, Stennis... to space and eventual resupply of cargo to the International Space Station... testing on NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi conducted a successful... Orbital Sciences Corp.'s Taurus II space launch vehicle. The initial test... future for Dundee's Mills Observatory Dundee's Mills Observatory - Britain's only public stargazing... targets. The 85-year-old observatory costs the council only £46... trust fund. Supporters of the observatory, including Astronomer Royal for Scotland... the Mills was the only observatory built with the sole aim... you raised regarding the Mills Observatory. As I stated in the e-mail... just in terms of an observatory for people in Dundee but... a mote of space dust to cross vast stretches of space and time... the Dissemination of Life in Space. Courtesy: Universetoday.com Search engine... cooperative missions between the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA. (Credit... so far with the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory, and are published in... since Herschel has only covered one thirtieth of the entire Herschel-ATLAS... being found to be real. Herschel looks at far-infrared light... visible and radio wavelengths." The Herschel-ATLAS images contain thousands of... far-infrared wavelengths observed by Herschel. This led them to suspect... seen by Herschel. To find the true distances to the Herschel sources... 26 bright galaxies seen by Herschel." The magnification provided by these... Rob Ivison of the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, part of the team... instrument built by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md... radiation Earth years.) escaping into space also changes. This might vary... its trometer. thermal emission to space, started to warm up or... can't detect CO2 and current space telescopes aren't tuned to look...



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...: ASTRO Galaxy evolution with Herschel and the Hubble Space Telescope Supervisor: Prof S A Eales Project Description: Our deep Herschel surveys.... However, the poor resolution of Herschel means that the galaxies just... the images. Fortunately, the Hubble Space Telescope has been carrying out... of many of the deep Herschel fields (the Cosmic Assembly Deep... will use a combination of the Herschel and Hubble data to investigate... of the Herschel surveys led from Cardiff was the Herschel Reference Survey... Star formation studies with the Herschel Space Observatory Supervisor: Dr P Hargrave Project Description... large amount of publicly available Herschel far-infrared data to study... about Herschel and its data ii) To extract data from the Herschel... simple growth and competition for space between the two daisy species... a new means of obtaining surface space group symmetry and the atomic... massive star formation by analysing Herschel and molecular line data of... Type: PHYS or ASTRO Bringing Herschel into the classroom Supervisor: Dr... Herschel Space Observatory was launched in May 2009 and is the largest infrared space observatory... to areas as diverse as space craft design, astronomical instrumentation design... project you will take the Herschel mission and develop an education...: PHYS or ASTRO Improving the Herschel-SPIRE data-processing pipeline Supervisor... Dr A Papageorgiou Project Description: The Herschel Space Observatory was launched in May 2009... will involve (a) learning about the Herschel-SPIRE camera and its dataprocessing... of star formation revealed by Herschel and Spitzer Supervisor: Dr E Pascale...



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...–Catania Astrophysical Observatory, Catania, Italy. 19 INAF–Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, Florence, Italy... and landscape in Europe 1.2.1. European Space Agency (ESA). At ESA, astrobiology... and Operations (D/HSO). ESA’s mandatory space science program funds the development... from national organizations. ESA’s optional space research program includes work on... program, ESA’s strategic framework for space exploration. Aurora commenced in January... organic compounds to a combination of space environmental factors (full spectrum of... resistance and adaptation to extreme space and (simulated) planetary conditions. The... 1.4 Be to space activities, 5% of which will target space sciences. In effect, most Horizon 2020 space-related call topics are targeted towards developing appropriate space technologies and services and fostering European industry competitiveness. In fact, space...; and (iii) set up a ‘‘virtual observatory’’ for planetary science, making high... Earth extreme environments and in space. Connected to astrobiology, this community... partner for international partnerships in space science and exploration. The Roadmap... challenged by new discoveries. Recent space missions, such as COnvection ROtation... a number of recent space missions, culminating with the Herschel Space Observatory, an enormous step... largely unexplored. More ground- and space-based observations are needed (including.... Observations by Spitzer (NASA) and Herschel (ESA) suggest that debris discs... Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), Herschel]. The validation of chemical models with the Herschel observations... observational capabilities exist (e.g., European Southern Observatory, ESO), and significant experience has... from space missions, within the framework of collaboration between national space agencies and ESA. An example is the ESA space mission... detected as gaseous species in space (http://astrochymist.org/ astrochymist_mole.html... organics and their evolution under space conditions. Considering the putative involvement... either laboratory experiments or in space by astronomical observations. Of course... planetary conditions. Exposure experiments in space. Currently, the analysis of exposed... in a space station and/or on the Moon. Specific space experiments should... conditions. Experiments mimicking conditions in space and on terrestrial planets. It... experiments under conditions that mimic space and terrestrial planet environments. The... quantification of processes occurring in space can provide additional insights into... chemical interactions between carbon from space and rock-water-carbon interactions... strength [EANA, Mars Analogues for Space Exploration (MASE), AstRoMap, for example... Section 7.1.1). (Micro)biological experiments in space and in the laboratory under simulated extraterrestrial conditions (of space and planets). Perform experiments on... considerations for biotechnological applications in space (e.g., space mining, ecopoesis, in situ resource..., biology, chemistry, geology, physics, medicine, space technology, and biotechnology. There is...). 8.1.2. International cooperation. International collaboration in space activities in recent decades has... ISS, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), the Cassini-Huygens missions... be spread. International cooperation in space missions related to astrobiology is... collaboration with India (the Indian Space Research Organisation’s Mars Orbiter Mission... implementation of complex and costly space missions and ground infrastructures, but... missions and programs implemented by space agencies and research organizations, the... international space research program in cooperation with major non-European space-faring... reveals planetary genesis. Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile. Available online at... beyond Earth: microbemineral interactions in space exploration and settlement. Trends Microbiol... Stone for Global Space Exploration— Earth-X, Committee On Space Research (COSPAR), Paris... exhibit a broader temperature– pH–salinity space for cell division than anaerobically... subtilis spores to space environment: results from experiments in space. Orig Life.... Horneck, G., Klaus, D.M., and Mancinelli, R.L. (2010) Space microbiology. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev.... (2014) MASE: Mars Analogues for Space Exploration. Project supported by European...-R on board of the International Space Station. International Journal of Astrobiology..., G. (2013) European space research in support of international partnership. Space Policy 29... EXPOSE-R facility of the International Space Station. International Journal of Astrobiology... martian conditions: data from the space experiment ADAPT on EXPOSE-E. Astrobiology..., G., Horner, J., Kavelaars, J.J., and Wilner, D. (2012) Herschel imaging of 61 Vir: implications... and Physical Sciences in Space program ESA ¼ European Space Agency EURO-CARES... ¼ galactic cosmic rays ISS ¼ International Space Station JUICE ¼ JUpiter ICy moons...



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... results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory (hereafter Chandra; e.g., Weisskopf et al... high-energy (3–79 keV) X-ray observatory in orbit; for X-ray surveys... chapters in the Astrophysics and Space Science Library volume titled “Supermassive... sensitivity vs. solid-angle “discovery space” via the standard “wedding-cake... constraints, allowing extremely high quasar space densities in principle (e.g., Haiman and... now further broadening the parameter space of discovery, allowing improved identification... magnitude. Furthermore, quantitative comparisons of space densities for optically selected quasars... data generally suggest a decline in space density for moderate-luminosity AGNs... et al 2011). The available space-density estimates indicate that, in... UV–NIR wavelengths from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. The excellent... launch of the Herschel observatory in 2009, the first observatory with high sensitivity... 2014 for a recent review of Herschel survey results). On the basis... a large number of studies using Herschel data, it is now abundantly... X-ray AGNs are detected by Herschel ; however, these results are also... past decade in measuring the space density and luminosity density evolution... powerful when the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the successor to... whether there is a high-redshift space-density decline) down to 2–10... the effective exploration of parameter space from the current Chandra and... 2006) is a NASA– ESA–Canadian Space Agency satellite hosting a 6.5 m telescope with... the X-ray sources. Spitzer and Herschel have provided an excellent resource... serendipitous X-ray sources that lack Herschel coverage. The only currently operating... operational lifetimes of Spitzer and Herschel at MIR–FIR wavelengths were... helium cryogen supply), an airborne observatory with moderate sensitivity over the... longer timescales (≈ 2025–2030), the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and... concept for a nextgeneration MIR–FIR observatory, although it is not yet... below those of Spitzer and Herschel , allowing for deep MIR–FIR... with existing Spitzer–Herschel coverage. Future MIR–FIR space-borne observatories such... described above are mounted inside space-borne observatories (SOFIA is the... longer term, many exciting X-ray observatory concepts have been proposed that... an excellent general-purpose X-ray observatory and a devastatingly effective survey machine... the list of proposed X-ray observatory concepts solicited by NASA in... the Distant Universe, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, vol 308 Barger...) Faint quasar candidates from Hubble Space Telescope imaging: number counts from... galactic nuclei in the William Herschel Deep Field. MNRAS 419:1315... in the COSMOS Survey: The Space Density of z > 3 X-Ray Selected QSOs... the Distant Universe, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, vol 308, p 245... E, Urry CM, Vanzella E (2004) The Space Density of High-redshift QSOs... MT, Xue YQ (2013) GOODS-Herschel: radio-excess signature of hidden... supermassive black holes to z ∼ 3 with Herschel. MNRAS 439:2736–2754, DOI... H, Yun MS, Wilson G (2011) GOODS-Herschel: an infrared main sequence for... Camera (IRAC) for the Spitzer Space Telescope. Astrophys J Supp 154:10... GS (2006) The James Webb Space Telescope. Space Sci. Rev. 123:485...) instrument on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. In: Truemper JE, Tananbaum HD... Hartwick FDA, Schade D (1990) The space distribution of quasars. Ann Rev... Y, Akiyama M, Watson MG (2012) Comoving Space Density and Obscured Fraction of... N, Texier D, Vacanti G (2001) XMM-Newton observatory. I. The spacecraft and operations. Astron... B, Morrison G, Popesso P, Valtchanov I (2012) GOODS-Herschel: Impact of Active Galactic Nuclei... Galactic Nuclei in the Spitzer Space Telescope First Look Survey. Astrophys..., Scott D, Xue YQ (2012b) GOODS-Herschel: the far-infrared view of... the Distant Universe, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, vol 308, p 53..., Jewell C, Metcalfe L, Ott S, Schmidt M (2010) Herschel Space Observatory. An ESA facility for far... I, Wetzstein M, Wieprecht E (2010) The first Herschel view of the mass-SFR... evolution from z ˜ 2.5: results from PEP-Herschel. Astron Astrophys 545:A45, DOI... their relationships from CANDELS and Herschel/PACS. ArXiv e-prints 1409.5122... G, Magnelli B, Popesso P, Valtchanov I (2012) GOODS-Herschel: ultra-deep XMM-Newton observations... to inactive galaxies from PEP-Herschel observations. Astron Astrophys 540:A109... 10.1086/154079 Schmidt M (1968) Space Distribution and Luminosity Functions of... A, Yuasa T (2012) The ASTRO-H X-ray Observatory. In: Society of Photo-Optical... E, Urry CM, Virani S (2009b) The Space Density of Compton-Thick Active... K, Zamorani G, Mainieri V, Bongiorno A (2014) The space density of Compton-thick AGN...-Jansky flat-spectrum sample. III. Space density and evolution of QSOs..., O’Dell SL (2000) Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO): overview. In: Truemper JE..., Cruikshank DP (2004) The Spitzer Space Telescope Mission. Astrophys J Supp 154... Science with SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy. Astrophys J Let...



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... Chairman W.B. BURTON, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virginia, U.S.A. (burton@starband.net... R. A. SUNYAEV, Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia Y. TANAKA, Institute of Space & Astronautical Science... Edited by PASCALE EHRENFREUND Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands WILLIAM IRVINE University..., U.S.A. JOHN BRUCATO Naples Observatory, Naples, Italy LUIGI COLANGELI Naples Observatory, Naples, Italy... ANNE DUTREY Bordeaux Observatory, Floirac, France DIDIER DESPOIS Bordeaux Observatory, Floirac, France... interdisciplinary research ultilizing astronomical observations, space missions, laboratory and field research... in Bern. Pascale Ehrenfreund, Leiden Observatory, Holland (Teamleader) (Cosmic dust) Luann...) John Brucato, Observatory Napoli, Italy (Cosmic dust) Luigi Colangeli, Observatory Napoli, Italy...) Didier Despois, Observatory Bordeaux, France (Comets) Anne Dutrey, Observatory Bordeaux, France (Protoplanetary... Maarten Roos-Serote Lisbon Astronomical Observatory Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018... European Space Agency’s (ESA) Science Programme. DARWIN is an infrared space interferometer... observatories, particularly the ESA’s Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). These new data added... samples. Keywords: Astrobiology, comet, molecule, space mission, spectroscopy 1. Introduction To understand...) observed at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on 21 March 1997. This... far UV, the FUSE satellite observatory has observed several unidentified... in the autocorrelation mode. The Herschel Space Observatory (to be launched in 2007..., A.M., Tielens, A.G.G.M., et al. (2001). Infrared Space Observatory’s discovery of C4 H2 , C6...) observed with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Earth Moon Planets, 78:13... body in space is subjected to what is called “space weathering”. This...). The infrared Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly SIRTF, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility... in Chile and the 3.5-m Herschel sub-millimeter space telescope of ESA. Last..., A. Lazcano, T. Owen, F. Robert, an International Space Science Institue ISSI-Team "Astrophysical... astrobiology” was held at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, on 18... burgeoning U.S. space activities, the National Academy of Sciences created the Space Science... the Space Shuttle Challenger and the embarrassment concerning the Hubble Space Telescope.... In particular, Ames’s diverse, interdisciplinary space research and development activities appeared... agency’s science programs and space-science and space-science related discoveries and... of an extraterrestrial environment; • Hubble Space Telescope observations of protoplanetary disks... Office of Space Sciences, commissioned the National Research Council’s26 Space Studies... Aquarium Research Institute, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Salk Institute and Centro De... 11. The Space Science Board was renamed the Space Studies Board in... Sciences and Space Research,” pp.403406 in Science in Space, L.V. Berkner and... and Revisions), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., February, 1996. Astrobiology...: Findings of a Space Science Workshop, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1996... the International Space Science Institute in Bern, the International Space Science Team "Prebiotic matter in space" is a Astrobiology..., Antonio Lazcanok, Francois Robertl, a Leiden Observatory, Holland, bUniversity of Massachusetts, USA... are well understood. ESA's X-ray observatory, XMM-Newton, surveyed distant clusters... objects, and space missions such as WMAP, Planck, SST, Herschel and JWST... telescopes such as ALMA or Herschel should provide in the next...). As far as space telescopes are concerned, Herschel/HIFI will allow the... not tied to space research or to the European Space Agency (ESA... European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the US National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO... be obtainable. Space missions with Infrared facilities New space-borne telescopes are... will be the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO), previously known as FIRST. Herschel is “cornerstone” mission number 4 in the European Space Agency’s “Horizon... Space Telescope (JWST) and at submillimeter wavelengths by ALMA. In particular, Herschel... 2003, is a cryogenically-cooled infrared observatory, with a 85 cm telescope, capable... wavelength range 3-180 µm. The airborne observatory SOFIA (to be operational in... (Kuiper Airborne Observatory) and will be the largest airborne observatory in the world. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST... Astrobiology 503 SPACE ROADMAP FOR ASTROBIOLOGY (updated from Foing 2002) SPACE OBSERVATORIES... 2003-SST 2005-SOFIA 2008-Herschel JWST, IRSI-Darwin, TPF LIFE... French National Space Agency, CNES. It is a 30cm diameter space telescope designed.../muses-c/index.shtml HERSCHEL: Herschel will be the only space facility ever developed... in Astrobiology 509 ISO: Infrared Space Observatory, European infrared satellite with 4 instruments...



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... the HIFI Instrument for the Herschel Space Observatory Gareth S. Curran, J. Anthony Murphy .............................................................................. 4 2. Is...) on board the European Space Agency’s Herschel Space Observatory, which is due for launch... the HIFI Instrument for the Herschel Space Observatory Gareth S. Curran1, J. Anthony Murphy2 1. School...) on board the European Space Agency’s Herschel Space Observatory, which is due for launch.... 1. Introduction The Herschel Space Observatory is named after Sir Frederick William Herschel (1738 – 1822... the planet Uranus in 1781). Herschel discovered the non-visible part... observing non-visible radiation from space created a whole new branch of... Telescope (JCMT), the Caltech Submillimetre Observatory (CSO) and the Submillimetre Array... Herschel Space Observatory is one such satellite. This ambitious project by the European Space... at which only one other space telescope has previously been placed... artist’s impression of the ESA’s Herschel Space Observatory (HSO). These instruments will be... the HIFI instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. 2. Science with HIFI HIFI’s superb... nature of propagation in free space. Lenses and mirrors are still... magnetic wave equations in free space appropriate to paraxial propagation. It... as it propagates in free-space. Fig. 3.2: Propagating fundamental Gaussian beam... Layout of HIFI Alongside the Herschel Space Observatory inside the launch vehicle will... cost of putting satellites into space, the size of the HSO... are then modelled in 3D space with the correct orientation and... HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory and the astronomy that will... in collaboration with the Submillimetre Space Optics group at the National... Enterprise Ireland and the European Space Agency through a PRODEX award. References... the HIFI Instrument for the Herschel Space Observatory”, M.Sc. Thesis, National University of... the HIFI Instrument for the Herschel Space Observatory”, Ph.D. Thesis, National University of... – the books, journals and physical space of the traditional library combined...