Спутник ФКИ. Herschel Space Observatory. [Редактировать]

Астрономический спутник, созданный ЕКА. Первоначально предложен консорциумом европейских учёных в 1982 году. Запуск состоялся 14 мая 2009 года, в 13:12 по UTC с космодрома Куру с помощью ракеты-носителя «Ариан-5». Миссия названа в честь сэра Уильяма Гершеля, первого исследователя инфракрасного спектра. Спутник размещён на гелиоцентрической орбите вблизи второй точки Лагранжа (L2) системы Земля — Солнце. 
Телескоп «Гершель» — первая космическая обсерватория для полномасштабного изучения инфракрасного излучения в космосе. Телескоп с зеркалом диаметром 3,5 метра — самый крупный космический телескоп, работающий в инфракрасном спектре, из когда-либо запущенных (на 2014 год). Зеркало отполировано в мастерской обсерватории Туорла в Финляндии фирмой Opteon. Материалом для зеркала послужил карбид кремния — благодаря этому его вес составил лишь 300 кг при толщине 20 см (зеркало из традиционных материалов весило бы 1,5 тонны). Кроме того, физические свойства карбида кремния позволяют контролировать форму зеркала с точностью до 10 мкм. Зеркало «склеено» из 12 элементов. Излучение фокусируется на три прибора с датчиками, имеющими температуру ниже 2 K. Датчики охлаждаются жидким гелием при низком давлении, что позволяет понизить его температуру кипения до 1,4 K (по сравнению с 4,2 K при атмосферном давлении). Время работы спутника на орбите ограничено количеством гелия на его борту (2300 литров).

Датчики телескопа:

  • Фотокамера со спектрометром низкого разрешения. Диапазон спектрометра по длине волны — от 55 до 210 микрометров; спектральное разрешение R — от 1000 до 5000; чувствительность — на уровне −63 дБ. Фотокамера способна давать одновременно изображения в двух диапазонах: 60—85/85—130 мкм и 130—210 мкм при спектральной плотности потока излучения в несколько миллиянских.
  • Приёмник спектральных и фотометрических изображений. Спектрометр низкого разрешения на диапазон длин волн 194—672 мкм. Спектральное разрешение R — от 40 до 1000 (на длине волны 250 мкм). Спектрометр способен фиксировать объекты со спектральной плотностью потока 100 мЯн для точечных источников и 500 мЯн — для протяжённых. Фотокамера имеет три элемента на длины волн 250, 350 и 500 мкм, с числом точек (пикселей) 139, 88 и 43, соответственно. Она способна фиксировать точечные объекты с плотностью потока 2 мЯн и протяжённые объекты с плотностью потока 4—9 мЯн. Прототип этого устройства прошёл проверку на высотном стратостате «BLAST».
  • Гетеродинный датчик для излучения в дальнем инфракрасном диапазоне. Этот спектрограф имеет очень высокое спектральное разрешение — на уровне R=107. Имеет два рабочих диапазона: от 157 до 212 мкм и от 240 до 625 мкм.

 

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1Far Infrared and Submillimetre Telescope (FIRST)НайтиНайти
234937НайтиНайти
3HerschelНайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - Европа
3Страна производитель - Европа

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12009-09-03. Аномалии в полезной нагрузкеТэги: Herschel Space Observatory
22010-01-18 - 2010-01-01. Крупнейший орбитальный телескоп "Гершель" (Herschel) вновь заработал в полную силу. Ученые смогли починить спектрометр HIFI, вышедший из строя более пяти месяцев назад, сообщает BBC News. Окончательно инструменты теле-скопа начали функционировать в штатном режиме 14 января. Ученые заметили, что телескоп работает не так, как обычно, 3 августа 2009 года, уточняется в пресс-релизе института космических исследований Нидерландов, сотрудники которого задействованы в миссии "Гершеля". Спектрометр HIFI находился в состоянии, не предусмотренном в руководстве по эксплуатации. Сбой произошел из-за разряда, который возник после того, как телескоп вы-полнил сложную последовательность операций. Изначальной причиной неполадок, по мнению специалистов, стало воздействие космических лучей. Определение природы поломки заняло несколько месяцев. Затем ученые разработали алгоритм, призванный наладить работу спектрометра. Все команды телескопу посылали дистанционно. Чтобы полностью восстановить функциональность HIFI, специалисты задействовали резервную электронику (космические приборы часто снабжаются дублирующими комплектами техники, так как обслуживание в космосе либо невозможно, либо связано со множеством трудностей). "Гершель" был запущен на орбиту 14 мая 2009 года. Диаметр главного зеркала телескопа составляет 3,5 метра (почти на метр шире, чем зеркало знаменитого "Хаббла"). "Гершель" работает в инфракрасном диапазоне - это означает, что он может "видеть" сквозь пыль, заполняющую космическое пространство. Для телескопов, работающих в оптическом диапазоне, пыль является непреодолимым препятствием. Тэги: Herschel Space Observatory

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг3300
2Диаметр (зеркала телескопа), метра3.5
3Граница спекртального диапазона (нижняя), мкм55
4Граница спекртального диапазона (верхняя), мкм672
5Угловое разрешение, угл. сек.1
6Охлаждение (приемников), кельвинов0.3

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2009-026A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Страна (оператора)Европа
2Стоимость , млн. долл.1540
3Оператор Европейское космическое агентство
4Оператор Космическое агентство США
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2003-01-0172.7
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2003-01-01277.6
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2007-01-01325.4
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2007-01-0110.4
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2007-01-01117.0
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2007-01-01198.0
11Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2008-12-01276.8
12Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2008-12-0110.4
13Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2008-12-01131.7
14Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2008-12-01134.7
15Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2009-10-01277.0
16Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2009-10-0110.4
17Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2009-10-01126.7
18Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2009-10-01139.9

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2009-05-14 at 13:12:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xHerschel Space Observatory
3Полезная нагрузка 1xPlank
4Ракета-носитель 1xАриан 5 ECA

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Herschel Space Observatory». [Перейти к поиску]


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.../j.1365-2966.2012.20912.x The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey: HerMES..., CA 91109, USA 4 Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de... Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ... Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ 16 Center for Astrophysics and Space... CB3 0HA 2 California Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided... 2011 July 20 ABSTRACT The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES... to ∼20 deg2 , using the Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver..., 350 and 500 µm) and the Herschel-Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer... what we would expect for Herschel. Different groups use different combinations.... Such differences between the pre-Herschel models indicate the lack of... scientific pathfinder for SPIRE on Herschel, probing the wavelength regime where... the IR background peak. The Herschel Space Observatory (Pilbratt et al. 2010) is... obscured emission (see e.g. Fig. 2). The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES1... a Guaranteed Time Key Programme on Herschel which will provide a legacy survey... found in the Herschel observers’ manuals (available from http://herschel.esac.esa... Herschel Science Archive, http://herschel.esac.esa.int/ Science_Archive.shtml, using the Herschel... are outlined in Section 3. The Herschel bands can probe the peak... rest frame with the Herschel-PACS and Herschel-SPIRE bands at λ = 100.... Confusion is a serious issue for Herschel and SPIRE in particular, and..., Kitt Peak National Observatory Mosaic-1, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Mosaic-2, Isaac... a concern for extragalactic surveys with Herschel than it was for Spitzer... wavelengths not accessible to Herschel, or where Herschel is relatively inefficient due... is available from the Herschel Science Centre http://herschel.esac.esa.int... AORs is available through ESA’s Herschel archive. We have grouped N AOR... level, the target name, the Herschel observing mode and the number... band information for the different Herschel channels used by HerMES. Data... 3. Point source sensitivities for different Herschel observing modes. Scan rates are... is available from the Herschel Science Centre http://herschel.esac.esa.int... is available from the Herschel Science Centre http://herschel.esac.esa.int.... Table 4. Beam sizes for different Herschel observing modes. Scan rates are... Table 3 and their implications for Herschel surveys in Table 5. 2.6 Economies from... the Herschel mission scientists (M. Harwit, 10 h) and members of the Herschel Science.... 2.8 Special requirements and constraints The Herschel observatory is performing very close to... survey programmes being undertaken by Herschel. The ‘observations’ columns refer to... science goals and increase the Herschel discovery space for rare objects including.... 8. This was part of the Herschel SDP. Our SDP observations were... cumulative area of all major Herschel-SPIRE extragalactic Key Programme surveys... is striking to compare the Herschel-SPIRE submm surveys with previous... current ESA schedule is on herschel.esac.esa.int/observing/ScheduleReport... herschel.esac.esa.int/observing/ LogReport.html. 2.10 Comparison with other Herschel... HerMES 1625 Figure 8. Three-colour Herschel-SPIRE image of the central..., we use galaxies detected in Herschel images combined with extensive multiwavelength... well with direct measurements from Herschel at lower redshift but underestimated... et al. Figure 9. Three-colour Herschel-SPIRE image of the GOODS... the three-colour image. Table 6. Herschel blank field and cluster lens... OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 GT2 Herschel Extragalactic Multi-tiered Survey (HerMES...) The Cluster Lensing Survey The Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey... Origins Deep Survey (GOODS–Herschel) The Herschel–Akari NEP Deep Survey A deep... to quantify the space density of the faintest Herschel galaxies with 10... (to determine the counts of Herschel galaxies at the 5-mJy detection... to compare the results of a Herschel fluctuations survey with studies at... of objects, those below the Herschel confusion limit. Using the two.... The FIR colours of the Herschel sources can help in addressing... in Table 7 [together with The Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey... not a complete description of the Herschel populations; however, they are approximately... are summarized in Table 9. The Herschel source catalogues from SPIRE and... SPCAT product will include all Herschel bands. Upper limits will be... for sources detected in some Herschel bands but not others. The... the second open call for Herschel proposals (OT2). This was before... (herschel.esac.esa.int/), our data will be released through the Herschel..., ASCII) and accessible through Virtual Observatory Tools. Advanced searches, cross-correlated... the Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium, consisting of ESA, the NASA Herschel... Padua (Italy), IAC (Spain), Stockholm Observatory (Sweden), Imperial College London, RAL.... 460, The Promise of the Herschel Space Observatory. ESA, Noordwijk, p. 105 Oliver S. J., Rowan...



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... 6 ABSTRACT Using results from the Herschel Astrophysical Terrahertz Large-Area Survey... the Herschel Space Observatory and a deep near-infrared/optical survey with the Hubble Space... observational programmes with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have shown that... of the successes of the Herschel Space Observatory. The method is based on... October 7, 2015 detected by the Herschel Space Observatory (Pilbratt et al. 2010) it... redshift by the largest Herschel extragalactic survey, the Herschel Astrophysical Terrahertz Large... al. 2013). Observations with the Herschel Space Observatory have revealed that 50 per... sources, and now the deepest Herschel survey has also achieved this... Herschel ATLAS (or H-ATLAS; Eales et al. 2010) is the Herschel extragalactic... of the galaxy in the Herschel bands follows a modified blackbody, with... are difficult to detect with Herschel. We have started from the... this paper is the 2250 Herschel sources detected at >5σ at 250... spectroscopic redshifts <0.1. The fraction of Herschel sources for which we can... the five measurements in the Herschel bands – using the galaxy model... the sample of Herschel sources The public catalogue for Herschel-GOODS (H-GOODS... is possible to obtain with Herschel observations by themselves. However, it... disadvantage that it could miss Herschel sources if they are not... show our measurements, using the Herschel images of GOODS-South, of... the deepest survey with the Herschel Space Observatory, Herschel-GOODS (Elbaz et al. 2011... sample of sources detected with Herschel in the H-GOODS survey therefore...-South region by the Spitzer Space Telescope. This sample (sample 2) consists... source. The background level on a Herschel image is usually close to..., respectively, very similar to the Herschel confusion noise at these wavelengths... 3.4 Identifying the counterparts to the Herschel and Spitzer sources There are... on observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.5 μm, which have an... that any genuine counterpart to a Herschel/Spitzer source on the CANDELS... of the position of the Herschel/Spitzer source being there by... to lie closer to the Herschel/Spitzer position than the potential... the CANDELS galaxies and the Herschel/Spitzer sources, by the Monte... counterpart but closer to the Herschel position. A final argument that the... of the position of the Herschel source, whereas our Monte Carlo... the Herschel and Spitzer sources, the flux densities at the five Herschel... two bands, for example the Herschel bands centred at 100 and... sample of sources detected by Herschel (sample 1) and the blue dashed... was individually detected by the Herschel Space Observatory at 160 µm. Downloaded from http... the Herschel sources in sample 1. The images are centred on the Herschel... near-infrared counterpart to the Herschel source that we have identified... far-infrared survey with the Herschel Space Observatory and a deep near-infrared/optical... is a project with Herschel, which is an ESA space observatory with science instruments....gama-survey.org/. HerMES is a Herschel Key Programme utilizing Guaranteed Time... and Stellar Populations. Yale Univ. Observatory, New Haven, CT, p. 401 Trenti..., The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ..., 64, 321 Hubble E. P., 1927, The Observatory, 50, 276 Ibar E. et al..., Valpara´ıso, Chile 9 Australian Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 915, North Ryde... 1670, Australia 10 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching..., VIC 3010, Australia 16 Leiden Observatory, PO Box 9513, 2300RA Leiden...



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..., L3 5RF, UK 6 Australian Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 915, North Ryde... Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ..., DH1 3LE, UK 19 Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, Niels Bohrweg...´ıso, Chile 21 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching... 35 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD...: GALEX, SDSS, VISTA, WISE, and Herschel, with the GAMA regions currently... fields observed by the Hubble Space Telescope (e.g., the HST GOODs, Giavalisco... from a variety of ground and space-based facilities. These surveys collectively...), and the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (Herschel-ATLAS; Eales et... raised from the GAMA and Herschel-ATLAS Consortium to reactivate and... the VLT telescopes at Paranal Observatory. VISTA is owned and operated... survey prioritised the GAMA and Herschel-ATLAS survey regions. The VIKING... Unit (WFAU) at the Royal Observatory Edinburgh. The WFAU combines the... a 256 × 256 pixel filter. 2.5 Herschel-ATLAS The Herschel Space Observatory (Pilbratt et al. 2010) is operated by the European Space... Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (HerschelATLAS; Eales et al. 2010). Herschel-ATLAS images were obtained using Herschel’s fast-scan parallel...), and finally mosaiced by the Herschel-ATLAS data reduction team who... later. Note that as the Herschel-ATLAS data have not yet... or updates. To date the Herschel-ATLAS data have been used... SWarps. Also noticeable in the Herschel-ATLAS data is the reduced... VISTA WISE WISE WISE WISE Herschel Herschel Herschel Herschel Herschel Dataset or survey MIS+GO... value incorporates this aspect. For Herschel-ATLAS SPIRE we note that..., MNRAS 000, 2–30 WISE, and Herschel) or a 4sq deg section from... not uniform), 10 (WISE and Herschel), or 3 (SDSS and VIKING). We... size given in Table 2. and (u − g) < 1.5 (Herschel-ATLAS) to isolate star-forming... objects in the GAMA regions (e.g., Herschel-ATLAS team). However, note that... adopt a strategy developed by the Herschel-ATLAS team (Bourne et al... to regions where no known 5σ Herschel-ATLAS detection exists nor any... aperture-matched photometry against the Herschel-ATLAS 5σ catalogue produced by Smith... data points derived by the Herschel-ATLAS team from the initial... datasets from three space missions (GALEX, WISE and Herschel), c 2010 RAS, MNRAS 000, 2–30 Note that the Herschel data... be made available following the Herschel-ATLAS final data release. GAMA... acknowledges support from EC FP7 SPACE project ASTRODEEP (Ref.No: 312725... from the NASA operated GALEX space mission. We also acknowlc 2010... G23 and Herschel ATLAS SGP regions: The Australian-Astronomical Observatory (AAO), the..., Durham University, the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the University of Central... Moore University, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Universit´e Paris Sud... Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the... University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington... at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under the programme ID 179... Space Administration. The Herschel-ATLAS is a project with Herschel, which is an ESA space observatory..., VST KiDS, VISTA VIKING, WISE, Herschel-ATLAS, GMRT c 2010 RAS, MNRAS... GALEX, SDSS, VIKING, WISE and Herschel data. The black box denotes... GALEX, SDSS, VIKING, WISE and Herschel data. c 2010 RAS, MNRAS 000... GALEX, SDSS, VIKING, WISE and Herschel data. c 2010 RAS, MNRAS 000... for GALEX, VIKING, WISE and Herschel data. c 2010 RAS, MNRAS 000...



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..., L3 5RF, UK 6 Australian Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 915, North Ryde... Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ..., DH1 3LE, UK 19 Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, Niels Bohrweg...´ıso, Chile 21 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching... 35 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD...: GALEX, SDSS, VISTA, WISE, and Herschel, with the GAMA regions currently... fields observed by the Hubble Space Telescope (e.g., the HST GOODs, Giavalisco... from a variety of ground and space-based facilities. These surveys collectively...), and the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (Herschel-ATLAS; Eales et... raised from the GAMA and Herschel-ATLAS Consortium to reactivate and... the VLT telescopes at Paranal Observatory. VISTA is owned and operated... survey prioritised the GAMA and Herschel-ATLAS survey regions. The VIKING... Unit (WFAU) at the Royal Observatory Edinburgh. The WFAU combines the... a 256 × 256 pixel filter. 2.5 Herschel-ATLAS The Herschel Space Observatory (Pilbratt et al. 2010) is operated by the European Space... Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (HerschelATLAS; Eales et al. 2010). Herschel-ATLAS images were obtained using Herschel’s fast-scan parallel...), and finally mosaiced by the Herschel-ATLAS data reduction team who... later. Note that as the Herschel-ATLAS data have not yet... or updates. To date the Herschel-ATLAS data have been used... SWarps. Also noticeable in the Herschel-ATLAS data is the reduced... VISTA WISE WISE WISE WISE Herschel Herschel Herschel Herschel Herschel Dataset or survey MIS+GO... value incorporates this aspect. For Herschel-ATLAS SPIRE we note that..., MNRAS 000, 2–30 WISE, and Herschel) or a 4sq deg section from... not uniform), 10 (WISE and Herschel), or 3 (SDSS and VIKING). We... size given in Table 2. and (u − g) < 1.5 (Herschel-ATLAS) to isolate star-forming... objects in the GAMA regions (e.g., Herschel-ATLAS team). However, note that... adopt a strategy developed by the Herschel-ATLAS team (Bourne et al... to regions where no known 5σ Herschel-ATLAS detection exists nor any... aperture-matched photometry against the Herschel-ATLAS 5σ catalogue produced by Smith... data points derived by the Herschel-ATLAS team from the initial... datasets from three space missions (GALEX, WISE and Herschel), c 2010 RAS, MNRAS 000, 2–30 Note that the Herschel data... be made available following the Herschel-ATLAS final data release. GAMA... acknowledges support from EC FP7 SPACE project ASTRODEEP (Ref.No: 312725... from the NASA operated GALEX space mission. We also acknowlc 2010... G23 and Herschel ATLAS SGP regions: The Australian-Astronomical Observatory (AAO), the..., Durham University, the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the University of Central... Moore University, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Universit´e Paris Sud... Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the... University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington... at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under the programme ID 179... Space Administration. The Herschel-ATLAS is a project with Herschel, which is an ESA space observatory..., VST KiDS, VISTA VIKING, WISE, Herschel-ATLAS, GMRT c 2010 RAS, MNRAS... GALEX, SDSS, VIKING, WISE and Herschel data. The black box denotes... GALEX, SDSS, VIKING, WISE and Herschel data. c 2010 RAS, MNRAS 000... GALEX, SDSS, VIKING, WISE and Herschel data. c 2010 RAS, MNRAS 000... for GALEX, VIKING, WISE and Herschel data. c 2010 RAS, MNRAS 000...



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... 91125, USA 8 National Radio Astronomy Observatory Post Office Box 2, Green Bank... UK Astronomy Technology Center, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, UK... Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory,Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, UK 20..., Germany 23 Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, European Space Agency (ESA... CA 94602, USA 29 Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt... 94035, USA 38 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt... Colorado, Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO... 91101, USA 48 Institute for Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace..., Preston PR1 2HE, UK 51 Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford... 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany 55 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Post Office Box... used early data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey... Pole Telescope (SPT) (9) and the Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel) (10), the second is still... conducted before the advent of Herschel were either limited to small... of gravitationally-lensed objects. The Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey... survey being currently undertaken by Herschel. H-ATLAS uses the Spectral and... 2009 as part of the Herschel Science Demonstration Phase (SDP). The... to ∼7 to 9 mJy/beam. The Herschel/SPIRE 500 µm channel is favourable... California Institute of Technology Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). The data revealed several..., 1099 (2009). 56. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided... 39953-F and 39548-F. The W.M. Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership... of California and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the... project between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Academia Sinica Institute... obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope, which is owned... were obtained with the William Herschel Telescope which is operated on...) Datum is from the William Herschel Telescope (35) Datum is from... is from the Apache Point Observatory (35) 18 (CO) zspec 1.577... dots) are from PACS/Herschel, SPIRE/Herschel, SMA and Max-Planck Millimeter...)/IRAM. Upper limits at PACS/Herschel wavelengths are shown at 3 σ. ID130...-arm spectrograph on the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT). The R158B and..., 2010, with the Apache Point Observatory’s 3.5-meter telescope and the DIS.... The quoted errors on the Herschel flux densities include statistical errors...



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... HerMES (Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey) collaboration, performed with the Herschel Observatory SPIRE... – submillimetre: galaxies. 1 I N T RO D U C T I O N ⋆ Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided... in the submillimetre bins. The Herschel survey catalogue has been cross... HERMES WIDE SAMPLE HerMES is a Herschel Guarantee Time Key Programme (Oliver... the largest single project on Herschel, for a total 900 h of observing.... These fields are the widest Herschel HerMES fields where imaging data... the most serious challenge for Herschel and SPIRE source extraction and... et al. 2010) on the Herschel Space Observatory (Pilbratt et al. 2010). They... Survey (XFLS) fields of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES... 15 deg2 observed during the Herschel Science Demonstration Phase (SDP), and... of the IR SEDs of Herschel sources. In this work, we... source extraction algorithms optimized for Herschel purposes. The XID technique makes... by simulation performed using pre-Herschel empirical models (e.g. Fernandez-Conde et... has been used to validate Herschel SDP observations within the HerMES... literature, and our own Spitzer/Herschel proprietary followup programmes. We thus... represents the maximum volume of space which is available to such... distribution of the objects in space and the way in which... surveys performed by Spitzer and Herschel, in this paper we have.... Dye et al. (2010) used Herschel SDP data to compute the... out very early during the Herschel mission and relied on shallower... in regions of the data space that are poorly sampled by... Franceschini acknowledge support from ASI ‘Herschel Science’ Contracts I/005/07/1 and... Commission Research Executive Agency (FP7-SPACE-2013-1 GA 607254) and the.... Padua (Italy); IAC (Spain); Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); Imperial College London, RAL...); ASI (Italy); MCINN (Spain); Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); STFC (UK); and NASA... the widest area Spitzer and Herschel extragalactic surveys to select IR... them. Thanks to Spitzer and Herschel observations, we are now able... selected in wide fields by Herschel SPIRE imaging. We fully exploited... Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ... 13 Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of... 80309, USA 14 Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de... UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ... BN1 9QH, UK 23 Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London... RH5 6NT, UK 24 RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot... 32 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, NL-9747...



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.... 1, D-85741 Garching, Germany 6 Australian Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 915, North Ryde..., 8140, NZ 10 Australian Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 296, Epping, NSW... Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ 16 INAF..., 1290 Versoix, Switzerland 19 RAL Space, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell..., Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK 26 European Southern Observatory... et al. ABSTRACT We combine Herschel/SPIRE sub-millimeter (submm) observations... the Herschel Space Observatory (Pilbratt et al. 2010)1 . Thus, the data collected by Herschel... late-type systems. 1 Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided...). However, submm data provided by Herschel have enabled us to study.... 2013). Among various surveys, the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey... survey undertaken in submm with Herschel. The large coverage of H-ATLAS... redshift galaxies, all detected with Herschel in the SPIRE 250µm submm... were processed by using the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) based... NUV up to all available Herschel bands. The SED of each... nearby galaxies from the HRS (Herschel Reference Survey; Cortese et al...-right corner. Overlaid are HRS (Herschel Reference Survey; Cortese et al... -E galaxies clearly occupy a different parameter space from blue spiral galaxies. Panel... et al. 2001) and from space using the Infrared Astronomical Satellite... al. 1989) and the Spitzer Space Telescope (Rocca-Volmerange et al...). The Herschel-ATLAS is a project with Herschel; which is an ESA space observatory with..., VST KIDS, VISTA VIKING, WISE, Herschel -ATLAS, GMRT and ASKAP providing...



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... February 24 ABSTRACT We combine Herschel/SPIRE submillimetre (submm) observations with... A. Dariush et al. 1 Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided... (2016) Among various surveys, the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey... survey undertaken in submm with Herschel. The large coverage of H-ATLAS...-redshift galaxies, all detected with Herschel in the SPIRE 250 μm submm... the Herschel Space Observatory (Pilbratt et al. 2010),1 Thus, the data collected by Herschel...). However, submm data provided by Herschel have enabled us to study... were processed by using the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) based... NUV up to all available Herschel bands. The SED of each... nearby galaxies from the HRS (Herschel Reference Survey; Cortese et al...-right corner. Overlaid are HRS (Herschel Reference Survey; Cortese et al...-E galaxies clearly occupy a different parameter space from blue spiral galaxies. Fig... et al. 2001) and from space using the Infrared Astronomical Satellite... al. 1989) and the Spitzer Space Telescope (RoccaVolmerange et al. 2007...). The Herschel-ATLAS is a project with Herschel; which is an ESA space observatory with..., VST KIDS, VISTA VIKING, WISE, Herschel-ATLAS, GMRT and ASKAP providing... M´exico, D.F., M´exico 26 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching... Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK 30 RAL Space, STFC Rutherford... Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ... 5RF, UK 12 Australian Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 915, North Ryde... 2006, Australia 14 Australian Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 296, Epping, NSW...



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... exploration of deep space. Space Operations Space Shuttle/International Space Station The Space Shuttle flew... 11 was the Glory climate observatory mission launching on an Orbital... use of space observatories and space probes that view Earth from space, observe..., 2011, NASA’s Aquarius/SAC-D observatory rocketed into space from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The SAC-D observatory is a collaboration between NASA and Argentina’s space agency, Comisi.... In addition to Aquarius, the observatory carries seven instrudata. Other mission... NASA’s twin Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft, launched in 2006... September 7, 2011, NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provided scientists with new..., astronomers using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory found evidence of the youngest... of our universe. Similarly, the Herschel Space Observatory, on February 6, 2011, revealed how.... Herschel is also an ESA mission supported with important NASA contributions. Herschel... is the world’s largest airborne observatory. It is a joint program between... German Aerospace Center (DLR). The observatory is a heavily modified Boeing 747SP... Space Telescope first detected the outburst, A c t i v i t i e s On April 6, 2011, NASA’s Stratospheric Observatory... with a microscopically thin layer the observatory’s science instruments. The coating will...- and space-based missions, including the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, and the Spitzer Infrared Observatory...), and the second Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO II). NIST F i s c a l climate variable... (EVE) aboard NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and others. NIST performed... observed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory and other x-ray missions. NIST... HobbyEberly Telescope at the MacDonald Observatory in Texas. The initial prototype... together again at the MacDonald Observatory to begin a systematic search for... satellites, the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory can forecast the descent path... Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), the Arecibo Observatory (AO), the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), and the National Solar Observatory... executive agency for the Gemini Observatory—an international partnership operating optical... private funding was Arizona’s Steward Observatory Mirror Lab started preliminary figuring... neutrinos with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory (ICNO), fully completed and commissioned... space debris, meteorology, astronomy and astrophysics, space transportation, nuclear power sources in space... European Space Agency (ESA) on space weather as part of ESA’s space situational... second ARM Mobile Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Science/Validation Team has..., together with the Harvard College Observatory in Cambridge, 2 0 1 1 The Smithsonian Institution...’s Great Observatories, the Chandra X-ray Observatory studies the high-energy universe... made by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in FY 11. For example... and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. SAO continued to play a leading... 10 seconds. Y e a r The Solar Dynamics Observatory provides better-than-HD-quality.... The Submillimeter Array (SMA), a pioneering observatory for radio astronomy, continued to... popular monthly Observatory Night lectures and observing sessions. Begun by observatory director...  11, attendees routinely filled the observatory auditorium and a nearby overflow room... 2 Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 Arecibo Observatory Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Animal... Navigation Satellite Systems IceCube Neutrino Observatory International Production Assessment Division Integrated... Atmospheric Administration National Optical Astronomy Observatory nitrogen oxides nanophase iron National... Research Announcement National Radio Astronomy Observatory Natural Resources Conservation Service National... Boom Sensor System Orbiting Carbon Observatory Organization for Economic Cooperation and... Solar Observatory National Space Organization (Taiwan) NASA Space Radiation Laboratory National Security Space National Science and Technology Council National Space... Observatory standard and recommended practices Space Based Infrared System Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Space-Based Space Surveillance Office of Science (DOE) Space Communications and Navigation Solar Dynamics Observatory... Space Network Sandia National Laboratory superconducting nanowire single photon detector Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Space Exploration Technologies Special..., and mathematics Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory Space Test Program Super Dual Auroral...



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... the detailed analysis ...................................................... 3  2.2  Space Based Earth Observation ......................................................... 4  2.3  Space Science and Exploration ........................................................25... in space meets the needs of Canadians for scientific knowledge, space technology and information. Space Based Earth Observation (EO) Space Science and Exploration (SE) Satellite Communications (SC) Space Awareness and... (1 Program) Space Mission Development EO (1 Program) Space Mission Development SE (1 Program) Space Mission Development SC (1 Program) Space Mission Development GTA (1 Program) Learning (1 Program) Space Mission Operations EO (1 Program) Space Mission Operations SE (2 Programs) Space Mission Operations SC (0 Program) Space Mission... by Strategic Outcome -3- 2.2 SPACE BASED EARTH OBSERVATION SPACE BASED EARTH OBSERVATION 2009...-Activities: Enabling Research, Space Mission Development and Space Mission Operations. Program Sub... and early operations of space systems. Expected Result #1 Space mission proposals that... 36.9 25.0 SPACE MISSION DEVELOPMENT – EARTH OBSERVATION One EO Space Miss ion... Outcome - 21 - SPACE MISSION OPERATIONS – EARTH OBSERVATION One EO Space Miss ion... by Strategic Outcome 2.3 SPACE SCIENCE AND EXPLORATION SPACE SCIENCE AND EXPLORATION 2009... Ja mes Webb and Indian Space Agency space telescopes. This participation has... in Section 2.8 – List of Space Missions. Space Science and Exploration (SE) missions... * PRET In development Space Medicine * Radi-N In development Space Medicine * SPIDER In..., Space Mission Development and Space Mission Operations. Program Sub-Activity: Enabling Research – Space... w as travelling to space on a vehicle o ther than th e U.S space shuttle. During... - 41 - Program Sub-Activity: Space Mission Development - Space Science and Exploration Objective... develop ment of Space Scien ce and Exploration (SE) space m issions in... and early operations of space systems. Expected Result #1 Space mission proposals that....2 SPACE MISSION DEVELOPMENT – SPACE SCIENCE AND EXPLORATION One Science and Exploration Space Mission... W ebb Space Telesco pe (JW ST), a m ajor facility-class space obs ervatory... docking of the space shuttle to the Intern ational Space Station. Du... Eu ropean Space Agency's Fluid Science Laboratory on the International Space Station. Program Sub-Activity: Space Mission Operations – Space Science and... Outcome SPACE MISSION OPERATIONS – SPACE SCIENCE AND EXPLORATION Three Science and Exploration Space... and Human Space Flight Mission Operations – Objective: Operate th e space and ground segment for SE missions and human space flight missions. EXPECTED RESULT #1 SE Space Mission Operations... Far Infrared (HIFI) on ESA's Herschel satellite was launched in 2009... Research, Space Mission Development and Space Mission Operations. However, no Space Mission Operations... and early operations of space systems. Expected Result #1 Space mission proposals that... 14.2 8.1 SPACE MISSION DEVELOPMENT – SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS One Satellite Communications Space Mission Development... Research, Space Mission Development and Space Mission Operations. However, no Space Mission Operations... the Canadian Space Plan – Objective: Provide world-class space qualification services on.... ed including o James Webb Space Telescop e Space Teles cope (JW ST): The... ace and n on-space programs and projects including: o Space Systems Loral and... Strategic Outcome - 77 - 2.6 SPACE AWARENESS AND LEARNING SPACE AWARENESS AND LEARNING 2009... access to space science and technology -focused educational resources.  Targeted space-focused... Exp loration Agenc y (JAXA) X-ray Space Observatory spacecraft. The satellite will be... these 13 days in space, the crew of Space Shuttle Discovery continued... and expensive space and ground communication and navigation assets from space weather... and surveying. ESA - Herschel-HIFI/Spire The Herschel Space Observato ry will help... xies formed and evolved. The observatory has three instruments and Canada... Space Agency medium-sized mission that will be launched with the Herschel Space... X-ray Observatory (IXO) is aimed as the next generation large X-ray observatory...-class space observ atory will be a successo r to the Hubble Space Teles... th space is also essential to support long-duration human space flights... an improvement in sensitivity over Herschel Space Observatory by two orders of magnitude... International Space Station (ISS) and to track it while the Space Shuttle... is a Multi-wave length Space Borne Observatory for carrying out as tronomical...