Спутник связи. Horizons 1. [Редактировать]

Космический аппарат Galaxy-13/Horizons принадлежит совместно американской компании Pan Am Sat Corporation и японской компании JSAT Corporation. КА изготовлен компанией Boeing Satellite Sistems на основе базового блока Boeing GO1HP и будет иметь 48 активных ретрансляторов. Космический аппарат будет использоваться для передачи программ цифрового телевидения, передачи данных и предоставления Интернетуслуг в регионах Северной и Центральной Америки, а также на Аляске и Гавайских островах. Galaxy-13 займет позицию 127 градусов западной долготы. РКН «Зенит-3SL» вывела космический аппарат Galaxy-13 на переходную к геостационарной орбиту с высотой апогея 35786 км и высотой перигея 2380 км.
Космический аппарат модели 601 HP, выпущенный отделением Boeing Satellite Systems, крупнейшим в мире производителем спутников, будет использоваться для передачи программ цифрового телевидения, передачи данных и предоставления Интернет-услуг в регионах Северной и Центральной Америки, а также на Аляске и Гавайских островах. Оборудование спутника Horizons-1, работающее в Ku-диапазоне, было создано для фирмы Horizons, совместного предприятия компаний PanAmSat и JSAT. Оно будет являться совместной собственностью двух указанных компаний. Оборудование спутника Galaxy XIII, работающее в С-диапазоне, установленное на новом аппарате, будет эксплуатироваться отдельно. Оно войдет в состав кабельной сети Galaxy, принадлежащей компании PanAmSat, которая предоставляет услуги кабельным телекомпаниям, работающим на внутреннем рынке США.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1Galaxy 13НайтиНайти
227954НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Страна оператор(владелец) - Япония
3Тип оператора(владельца) - коммерческий
4Тип орбиты - ГСО
5Страна производитель - США
6Все спутники связи

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12015-05-15. Компания Lepton начала предоставление услуг на территории Северной Америки.
Компания Lepton начала предоставление спутниковых услуг на территории Северной Америки с использованием емкости космического аппарата Horizons 1 который принадлежит компании Intelsat. Компания предлагает свои услуги совместно с принадлежащим ей хабом iDirect который совмещен с используемым оператором телепортом который расположен на территории Гавайских островов. Lepton видит в качестве целевого рынка потребителей которым важны защищенные каналы связи.Тэги: IntelsatHorizons 1
22016-04-16. Intelsat и BBC заключили соглашение.
В некоторых регионах телеканалы BBC World News станут распространяться посредством возможностей орбитальной группировки компании Intelsat. В частности, в соответствии с новым контрактом между компаниями, планируется задействовать следующие спутники оператора связи:
Galaxy 13 - для передачи контента кабельным сетям в Северной Америке.
Intelsat 19 - для передачи DTH контента кабельным сетям в районе Тихого океана.
Intelsat 20 - для передачи телесигналов из Европы на территорию Юго-Восточной Азии и Индию.
Intelsat 21 - для передачи контента кабельным сетям в Латинской Америке.
Тэги: IntelsatHorizons 1Intelsat 19Intelsat 20
32016-09-07. Intelsat получил дополнительный заказ от Ecompass.
Encompass Digital Media расширила свои взаимоотношения с Intelsat и арендовала емкость на космическом аппарате Galaxy 13 с целью предоставления потребителям своих и 4-х ТВ каналов НАСА. В основном с помощью новой емкости компания планирует передавать спортивный контент. К настоящему времени Galaxy 13 передает около 80 каналов в HD качестве, а в будущем Intelsat планирует использовать его и для трансляции UHD ТВ.Тэги: IntelsatHorizons 1Космическое агентство США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг4060
2Масса (сухая), кг2600
3Платформа 1xBSS-601HP
4Количество (Ku-стволов), шт.24
5Количество (C стволов), шт.24
6Мощность, Вт9900

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град0.0
2Апогей, км35806.6
3Перигей, км35780.0
4Период, минут1436.1
5САС, год15
6Длинный диаметр эллипса, км42164

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2003-044A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор SKY Perfect JSAT Corporation
2Оператор Intelsat
3Производитель BOEING COMPANY

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром Морской пуск
2Дата пуска2003-10-01 at 00:00:00 UTC
3Полезная нагрузка 1xHorizons 1
4Ракета-носитель 1xЗенит 3SL

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... satellite. NASA’s long-planned New Horizons mission to Pluto, its moon... Atlas-V that launched NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft to Pluto on 19... year. NASA’s long-planned New Horizons mission to Pluto, its moon..., controllers will check out New Horizons’ seven instruments by observing the...,000 space enthusiasts’ names. New Horizons is scheduled to spend five... measure surface temperatures. The New Horizons spacecraft transmitted its first images... selected to honour the New Horizons mission. In Greek mythology Nix... is still quite uncertain. New Horizons, NASA’s New Frontiers mission to... counter operated by students. New Horizons’ primary goals are to characterize... (the first being the New Horizons mission now on its way... to 2025 in the Cosmic Horizons programme. Fundamental physics missions are... 19 January 2006 NASA’s New Horizons mission to Pluto (Category II... on the piano-sized New Horizons probe will shed light on... NCEP Nd:YAG NEA New Horizons NICMOS NLC NLTE nm NOAA...



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... Thanatourism 80 3.1 Introduction………………………………………………….... 81 3.2 New horizons in tourism & niche tourism………….………… 84.... Niche tourism and the new horizons in tourism research will be... in Singh‘s 2004 book, New Horizons in Tourism and Novelli‘s Niche... by the tourist board. 3.2 New horizons in tourism & niche tourism Like... al released a book entitled New Horizons in Tourism, a fascinating examination of... (Novelli, M., Ed., 2005) complements New Horizons in Tourism, examining some of... appeared to study these new horizons. Firstly it is important to... incomprehensive list, illustrates the broad horizons of what has become one... further exploration to broaden its horizons. He offers the idea that... Apartheid For Entertainment, in New Horizons In Tourism, Strange Experiences And... and Alterior Desires, in New Horizons In Tourism, Strange Experiences And...-183 Singh T. (ed.) (2004) New Horizons In Tourism, Strange Experiences And...



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... Thanatourism 80 3.1 Introduction………………………………………………….... 81 3.2 New horizons in tourism & niche tourism………….………… 84.... Niche tourism and the new horizons in tourism research will be... in Singh‘s 2004 book, New Horizons in Tourism and Novelli‘s Niche... by the tourist board. 3.2 New horizons in tourism & niche tourism Like... al released a book entitled New Horizons in Tourism, a fascinating examination of... (Novelli, M., Ed., 2005) complements New Horizons in Tourism, examining some of... appeared to study these new horizons. Firstly it is important to... incomprehensive list, illustrates the broad horizons of what has become one... further exploration to broaden its horizons. He offers the idea that... Apartheid For Entertainment, in New Horizons In Tourism, Strange Experiences And... and Alterior Desires, in New Horizons In Tourism, Strange Experiences And...-183 Singh T. (ed.) (2004) New Horizons In Tourism, Strange Experiences And...



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... Thanatourism 80 3.1 Introduction………………………………………………….... 81 3.2 New horizons in tourism & niche tourism………….………… 84.... Niche tourism and the new horizons in tourism research will be... in Singh‘s 2004 book, New Horizons in Tourism and Novelli‘s Niche... by the tourist board. 3.2 New horizons in tourism & niche tourism Like... al released a book entitled New Horizons in Tourism, a fascinating examination of... (Novelli, M., Ed., 2005) complements New Horizons in Tourism, examining some of... appeared to study these new horizons. Firstly it is important to... incomprehensive list, illustrates the broad horizons of what has become one... further exploration to broaden its horizons. He offers the idea that... Apartheid For Entertainment, in New Horizons In Tourism, Strange Experiences And... and Alterior Desires, in New Horizons In Tourism, Strange Experiences And...-183 Singh T. (ed.) (2004) New Horizons In Tourism, Strange Experiences And...



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... soil with very distinct horizons. The contrasting soil horizons, the grey eluvial... spits corresponding to the soil horizons. The site was excavated in... spits, based on the soil horizons, and the locations of all..., but because of the soil horizons the upper boundary was difficult...ņš Abbreviations Mesolithic Horizons – S. McCARTAN, R. SCHULTING, G. WARREN, P. WOODMAN, eds. Mesolithic Horizons. Papers presented... in western Norway. In: Mesolithic Horizons, 414-421. BĒRZIŅŠ, V., GRASIS, N., VASKS... Strandvägen, Sweden. In: Mesolithic Horizons, 430-435. BALTICA 13 Several... on Bornholm, Denmark. In: Mesolithic Horizons, 436-442. GIRININKAS, A., 2009. Lietuvos...å 10, eastern Denmark. In: Mesolithic Horizons, 465-472. JUODAGALVIS, V., 1992. Mezolitin...



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... Hamelin 75116 PARIS – France FUTURE HORIZONS 44 Bethel Road Sevenoaks, Kent... Intentionally Left Blank) DECISION/Future Horizons 2/140 th SMART 2010/062... Manufacturing Infrastructures ......... 55 DECISION/Future Horizons 3/140 th SMART 2010/062... In Europe .......................................................................................... 97 DECISION/Future Horizons 4/140 th SMART 2010/062... On Scenarios ........................................................................................ 126 DECISION/Future Horizons 5/140 th SMART 2010/062... 2) Impact Assessment ........................................................ 121   DECISION/Future Horizons 6/140 th SMART 2010/062... Of Impact) .................................... 125   DECISION/Future Horizons 7/140 th SMART 2010/062... DECISION in partnership with Future Horizons. It has been conducted from... following study team: DECISION: Future Horizons: - - Malcolm Penn: Chief Executive Officer... Intentionally Left Blank) DECISION/Future Horizons 12/140 th SMART 2010... DECISION in partnership with Future Horizons to undertake a study on the... Task Flow Source: DECISION/Future Horizons The questions used during the... findings and scenarios). DECISION/Future Horizons 14/140 th SMART 2010... has been derived from Future Horizons’ and DECISION’s interviews with members.... Figure 2 – Project Interviews DECISION/Future Horizons 15/140 th SMART 2010... Intentionally Left Blank) DECISION/Future Horizons 16/140 th SMART 2010...’s 450mm transition reality. DECISION/Future Horizons 18/140 th SMART 2010... etched. Numerous techniques DECISION/Future Horizons 19/140 th SMART 2010... their current supplier(s). DECISION/Future Horizons 24/140 th SMART 2010... 300mm fabbed counterparts. DECISION/Future Horizons 29/140 th SMART 2010... Toshiba UMC Source: Future Horizons DECISION/Future Horizons 33/140 th SMART... volume Summary & Conclusions (c) 2011 - Future Horizons 450mm Roadmap & Roll Out-V02... Intentionally Left Blank) DECISION/Future Horizons 38/140 th SMART 2010... multiple patterning techniques. DECISION/Future Horizons 45/140 th SMART 2010... and environment issues. DECISION/Future Horizons 48/140 th SMART 2010... some considerable size. DECISION/Future Horizons 53/140 th SMART 2010... regarding Samsung’s position. DECISION/Future Horizons 54/140 th SMART 2010... and software development. DECISION/Future Horizons 57/140 th SMART 2010... Intentionally Left Blank) DECISION/Future Horizons 60/140 th SMART 2010... a significant commercial advantage. DECISION/Future Horizons 61/140 th SMART 2010.../volume deposition chambers DECISION/Future Horizons 62/140 th SMART 2010... Intentionally Left Blank) DECISION/Future Horizons 66/140 th SMART 2010...-patterning etc. However, DECISION/Future Horizons 69/140 th SMART 2010... Value) Source: Company Reports/Future Horizons (2010) 12.3. Manufacturing Crucial For...: CATRENE White Book, DECISION, Future Horizons, Malier Report (2010) Some of... execution, not a reprieve. DECISION/Future Horizons 77/140 th SMART 2010... Intentionally Left Blank) DECISION/Future Horizons 78/140 th SMART 2010..., 2008 & 2010 Source: WSTS/Future Horizons (February 2011) By comparison, Japan... of integrating industries. DECISION/Future Horizons 81/140 th SMART 2010... existing manufacturing systems DECISION/Future Horizons 85/140 th SMART 2010... Intentionally Left Blank) DECISION/Future Horizons 86/140 th SMART 2010... Cost Trends Source: Future Horizons DECISION/Future Horizons 87/140 th SMART...’s 450mm strategic vision. DECISION/Future Horizons 91/140 th SMART 2010... Intentionally Left Blank) DECISION/Future Horizons 92/140 th SMART 2010... and technology clustering. DECISION/Future Horizons 95/140 th SMART 2010... R&D SWOT Source: Future Horizons/DECISION DECISION/Future Horizons 99/140 th SMART... of budgetary restrictions DECISION/Future Horizons 106/140 th SMART 2010... of industrial activities: DECISION/Future Horizons 107/140 th SMART 2010... statements confirming that DECISION/Future Horizons 109/140 th SMART 2010... not currently available. DECISION/Future Horizons 110/140 th SMART 2010... equipment & material suppliers. DECISION/Future Horizons 113/140 th SMART 2010... Expenditure Operation Expenditure DECISION/Future Horizons 115/140 th SMART 2010.../dollar conversion = 1.32 DECISION/Future Horizons 116/140 th SMART 2010... 3 (Option 1) Impact Assessment DECISION/Future Horizons 120/140 th SMART 2010... 3) Impact Assessment – Eurofab450 DECISION/Future Horizons 122/140 th SMART 2010... IC production activities DECISION/Future Horizons 124/140 th SMART 2010... and cooperative development. DECISION/Future Horizons 127/140 th SMART 2010... identical transistor design) DECISION/Future Horizons 130/140 th SMART 2010... Intentionally Left Blank DECISION/Future Horizons 132/140 th SMART 2010... the strictest confidence. DECISION/Future Horizons 134/140 th SMART 2010... size substrate handling? DECISION/Future Horizons 136/140 th SMART 2010... on Equipment & Material DECISION/Future Horizons 137/140 th SMART 2010... Intentionally Left Blank DECISION/Future Horizons 139/140 DECISION 17 rue... Hamelin 75116 PARIS – France FUTURE HORIZONS 44 Bethel Road Sevenoaks, Kent...



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... ReadingHorizons IN ELEMENTARY SETTINGS Reading Horizons helps beginning and struggling readers... Overview of the Reading Horizons Approach Reading Horizons is a program designed to.... Reading Horizons Discovery™ was created to teach the Reading Horizons method to students in kindergarten to third grade. Reading Horizons.... Both the Reading Horizons Discovery and Reading Horizons Elevate programs correlate with... Effectiveness of the Reading Horizons Approach Reading Horizons recognizes the importance of... Horizons implementation on the reading outcomes of elementary students. Resources Reading Horizons direct instruction materials, Reading Horizons interactive software, teachers trained in the Reading Horizons method, and... method. Resources Reading Horizons direct instruction materials, Reading Horizons interactive software, teachers trained in the Reading Horizons method, support... Outcomes Students who received Reading Horizons instruction displayed continuous improvement over... Horizons instruction in early elementary grades (Visual 1): • Nearly 75% of Reading Horizons... use Reading Horizons. • 27% more students who used Reading Horizons met or... use Reading Horizons. After five years of including Reading Horizons instruction in... use Reading Horizons. • Nearly 35% more students who used Reading Horizons met... test INSTRUCTED IN READING HORIZONS NOT USING READING HORIZONS STUDENTS AT THE... in in the Reading Reading Horizons Percent Horizonsintensive intensivephonics phonicsmethod method... INSTRUCTEDIN INREADING READINGHORIZONS HORIZONS INSTRUCTED NOT NOTUSING USINGREADING READINGHORIZONS HORIZONS STUDENTS ATTHE...% INSTRUCTION15% *READING HORIZONS BEGAN IN GRADE 2 25% REDUCTION *READING HORIZONS INSTRUCTION BEGAN... Horizons instruction. Additionally, more than 90% of students who received Reading Horizons... who was average. Resources Reading Horizons direct instruction materials. Implementation Outcomes... were also not receiving Reading Horizons instruction. ASSESSMENT TOOLS Standard Achievement... Horizons as compared to the progress they made prior to Reading Horizons...) NUMBER OF STUDENTS 5 students READING HORIZONS MATERIALS Direct instruction and interactive... Reading Horizons instruction were reported. Resources Reading Horizons direct instruction materials, Reading Horizons interactive software, a teacher trained in the Reading Horizons method, and... Horizons as compared to the progress they made prior to Reading Horizons... Reading Horizons: gained 4 levels in three school years [A(1) to E(8)]. • With Reading Horizons... Horizons: gained 4 levels in 1.5 school years [non-reader(0) to D(6)]. • With Reading Horizons... STUDENTS BEFORE AND AFTER READING HORIZONS INSTRUCTION Student 2 - grade 3 Student 3 - grade... and after Reading Horizons Instruction BEFORE AND AFTER READING HORIZONS INSTRUCTION -- Grade... and after Reading Horizons Instruction BEFORE AND AFTER READING HORIZONS INSTRUCTION -- Grade... and after Reading Horizons instruction AND AFTER READING HORIZONS INSTRUCTION KEY: AT... after Reading Horizons DIBELS SCORES BEFORE AND AFTER READING HORIZONS Instruction - 4th... after Reading Horizons instruction DIBELS SCORES BEFORE AND AFTER READING HORIZONS 3rd... Study A and Study B). Resources Reading Horizons direct instruction materials and interactive... after Reading Horizons instruction to assess the impact of Reading Horizons instruction... a first grade level after Reading Horizons instruction (Visual 2). VISUAL 1 QUALITATIVE READING... Horizons was a primary program element in Webster schools. Resources Reading Horizons direct instruction materials, Reading Horizons interactive software, teachers trained in the Reading Horizons program, a district-wide commitment to implementation of Reading Horizons. Implementation The Reading Horizons program was implemented... LEVEL BEFORE AND AFTER READING HORIZONS INSTRUCTION | ASSESSMENT: GATES-MACGINTIE PERCENTAGE..., more students who received Reading Horizons instruction moved from G R A D E benchmark 1 : G R A D CHART... gains 34 WITH READING HORIZONS NO READING HORIZONS PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS 100... Horizons instruction than of the group who did not receive Reading Horizons... MADE GAINS WITH READING HORIZONS NO READING HORIZONS AVERAGE GAINS [RANGE] % STUDENTS... who did not receive Reading Horizons instruction (Visuals 4–6). VISUALTITLE 4 CHART PERCENTAGE... Reading Horizons interactive software with second grade struggling readers. Resources Reading Horizons... AFTER IUSE SOFTWARE N T OF E R READING A C T I V E HORIZONS S O F T W AINTERACTIVE RE ( G(SECOND R A D E 2GRADE T A R TARGET..., J. (2014). The implementation of “Reading Horizons Discovery” interactive software with struggling...



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... Laboratory Policy/Program Management New Horizons Nuclear Safety Mission Management Spacecraft... Belt? The Science of New Horizons ............................... 7 NASA’s New Frontiers Program ........................................................................................14... ....................................................................20 Mission Overview ..................................................................................................................25 New Horizons Nuclear Safety............................................................................................35 Program/Project....nasa.gov. New Horizons on the Web New Horizons information – including an....gov/newhorizons. Various downloadable New Horizons presentations and pictures can be... HORIZONS Why Pluto and the Kuiper Belt? The Science of New Horizons... and the Kuiper Belt 9 NEW HORIZONS Furthermore, Pluto’s surface temperature varies.../radiometer and a dust sensor – New Horizons expects to exceed these requirements... Belt 11 NEW HORIZONS During closest approach, New Horizons’ imagers will map...fic community and the public. New Horizons will provide invaluable insights into... the Kuiper Belt NEW HORIZONS The New Horizons Science Team Principal Investigator... polar magnetosphere. Historic Selection New Horizons was proposed to AO-OSS... around the world – the New Horizons spacecraft is a robust, lightweight observatory...’s coldest, darkest frontiers. The New Horizons science payload was developed under... – a single radioisotope thermoelectric generator – New Horizons needs less power than a pair... Kuiper Belt NEW HORIZONS A first-generation version of New Horizons’ Alice (smaller... called Alice in the New Horizons remote-sensing package – a reference familiar... Horizons telecommunications system. Because the telecom system is redundant within New Horizons... Objects during New Horizons’ long journey. Officially a New Horizons Education and Public... of dust particles along New Horizons’ entire trajectory and produce information... Systems and Components Structure New Horizons’ primary structure includes an aluminum.... New Horizons carries a redundant IEM as a backup. Thermal Control New Horizons is... Fahrenheit) throughout the journey. New Horizons’ sophisticated, automated heating system monitors... mission. Guidance and Control New Horizons must be oriented in a particular... determination – knowing which direction New Horizons is facing – is performed using... thrusters. Riding Along The New Horizons spacecraft carries a compact disc containing... a second. If data shows New Horizons is outside a predetermined position, small... that guide New Horizons toward its targets. New Horizons will spin – typically... instrument-system checkouts. Communications New Horizons’ X-band communications system is the... antenna structure itself. Power New Horizons’ electrical power comes from a single... plutonium dioxide fuel. The New Horizons RTG, provided by the U.S. Department... Spacecraft Block Diagram NEW HORIZONS Mission Overview New Horizons will help us... fastest spacecraft ever launched. New Horizons will reach lunar orbit distance... Load Reactor New Horizons/Atlas V Expanded View New Horizons Spacecraft/ Star 48B... NEW HORIZONS Jupiter Gravity Assist Launching before Feb. 3, 2006, allows New Horizons... Trajectory (not to scale) �������� �������� �� ������� ������ ���������� �������������� New Horizons will fly just outside of the.... From this closer-range, New Horizons will perform a ����� number of Jupiter... a jetliner throughout its journey, New Horizons will be the fastest spacecraft... 5 billion kilometers (3 billion miles), New Horizons must thread a celestial needle and... to guide New Horizons along the way. As New Horizons gets closer... the Kuiper Belt ���������� ������������ ����� NEW HORIZONS surface. New Horizons will also sample material... precisely pre-programmed in New Horizons’ redundant flight computers. In fact... desirable targets within New Horizons’ range. As New Horizons travels in space... farthest operating range of New Horizons’ antennas. Navigators will use pictures... propellant. At any KBO, New Horizons would follow a science timeline similar... the Kuiper Belt NEW HORIZONS Mission Operations New Horizons mission operations are... with the New Horizons Mission Operations Center. New Horizons Mission Trajectory Launch... 33 NEW HORIZONS Education and Public Outreach The New Horizons education and... learning materials – based on New Horizons science and engineering goals, and... Kuiper Belt NEW HORIZONS New Horizons Nuclear Safety The New Horizons spacecraft derives... electrical power for the New Horizons mission. Radiation Hazards of Plutonium...), Boulder Colo., leads the New Horizons mission as principal investigator. The... New Horizons program executive and Dr. Denis Bogan is the New Horizons... New Horizons project manager and Dr. Harold Weaver is New Horizons project... Institute, San Antonio. The New Horizons science team includes co-investigators.../APL) Jim Burch (SwRI) New Horizons Project Organization Administrative Support Kerri...



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... Formation section including eleven sampling horizons (indicated by yellow pins). ......................................................... 14... sampling horizons 8-11. ... 31 Figure 17. Cluster Analysis for sampling horizons 1-11... showing the relationship of all horizons based on two axes. ........................................................ 32... 19. Alpha diversity of sampling horizons 1-11. .................................................... 34 Figure 20. Mean... was present in all sampling horizons. .......................................... 35 Figure 22. Comparison of... in sampling horizons 1-7 and relative abundance of individuals in sampling horizons 8-11... the individuals in sampling horizons 1-7 and sampling horizons 8-11, displaying various life... the individuals in sampling horizons 1-7 and sampling horizons 8-11, displaying various salinity... of the lower horizons (red) and the upper horizons (green). Modified from... Formation section including eleven sampling horizons (indicated by yellow pins). colleagues..., with some horizons exceeding this count. For sampling horizons exceeding 50 counts... sampling horizons 1-6 were located (lateral to the measured section). Some sampling horizons were vertically clustered together, such as sampling horizons 1, 2, and... horizons 4 and 5; sampling horizon 6 was located farther away from the clustered horizons. The stratigraphic positions of these sampling horizons were projected... invertebrate fossils found within these horizons include gastropods, bivalves, corals, crinoids.... 9). This facies contained sampling horizons 911, with sampling horizons 9 and 10 sampled... horizons 1-6 were located within the first measured stratigraphic column and sampling horizons 9-11 were located within the second stratigraphic column; sampling horizons... lower 6 horizons and horizon 8 was grouped with the upper 3 horizons due to similarities in lithology and taxonomic composition. Sampling horizons 1-7 resided..., hyoliths, corals, and polyplacophora. Sampling horizons 8-11 resided in a wavy, laminated... of sampling horizons. Sampling horizons 1-7 were grouped together and sampling horizons 8-11 were... horizons and horizons 2 and 7 are very similar in taxa. Sampling horizons 8 and 9 and horizons... between sampling horizons 1-7 and sampling horizons 8-11 (Fig. 18). Sampling horizons 1-7 grouped closely together based on both axes; however, sampling horizons... the eleven sampling horizons. Alpha diversity for sampling horizons 8-11 remained consistent... in sampling horizons 1-7 and relative abundance of individuals in sampling horizons 8-11... noticeable trends throughout the sampling horizons 1-7. Sampling horizons 8-11 represented a different community... 4.3.2 Ecological Analysis The lower sampling horizons showed a numerical dominance in sessile... sampling horizons were more diverse than those in the upper sampling horizons, with a small percentage of detrital feeders (sampling horizons 1, 2, 3, 5, and... horizons were also compared. Stenohaline organisms dominated both sampling horizons 1-7 and sampling horizons... euryhaline organisms present in sampling horizons 1-7 at 37%, whereas euryhaline organisms... the individuals in sampling horizons 1-7 and sampling horizons 8-11, displaying various life... the individuals in sampling horizons 1-7 and sampling horizons 8-11, displaying various salinity... of the lower horizons (red) and the upper horizons (green). Modified from... sampling horizons. All cluster analyses performed grouped sampling horizons 1-7 and sampling horizons 8-11... horizons” (8-11) were dissimilar in taxa compared to the “lower sampling horizons... upper and lower sampling horizons. The lower horizons were clustered closely together... in the lower horizons compared to the upper horizons was statistically significant... sampling horizons than it had been in the lower sampling horizons. Freshwater... sampling horizons greater than the upper sampling horizons. The lower sampling horizons contained... brachiopods dominated the upper sampling horizons horizons, while bivalves remained absent (excluding... horizons appeared to have been more stable than the lower sampling horizons... different organisms dominating the sampling horizons (Fig. 30). Paleoecommunities from this... sampling horizons in this study. Environments observed in the upper sampling horizons in this study and in Dineen’s (2010) sampling horizons are... horizons sampled in Pauls’ (2014) study (Fig. 32). Pauls’ (2014) sampling horizons... 4 of the 6 sampling horizons. The upper sampling horizons in Pauls’ (2014) study... 0.4 Pauls, 2014 0.3 Dineen, 2010 0.2 0.1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Sampling horizons 9 10 11 Figure 31. Comparison... and lower sampling horizons, suggesting the upper sampling horizons experience less fluctuations... 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Sampling Horizons Suspension Feeder Comparision % of suspension... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 10 11 Sampling Horizons Sessile, epifaunal suspension feeder comparision...



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... in transitionary horizons between top- and subsoil (i.e., 'frontier'), For subsoil horizons, it..., wet and dry topsoils, 'frontier' horizons and the subsoil were differentiated... leading to a conception of'frontier' horizons. These gradients were explained by... been determined in the namely horizons. Significant greater values of microbial... the rnicrobial community stnicture. Subsoil horizons were characterized by anaerobic conditions... better aerated upper or adjacent horizons (e.g., SLOBODKIN et al., 1992; SCHIMEL... i.e., 2.65 g ~ r n for ' ~ mineral horizons, 1.30 g ~ r n for ' ~ organic horizons The proportion of the... 0.5% W.W.of glucose for organic horizons or mineral horizons respectively had been considered... solution) were added to organic horizons (S.T. > 12% Corgdepending On clay content...) were added to the mineral horizons. C a h l a t i o n of results The heat output... iron ( ~ e ~ 'was ) determined in subsoil horizons. As was described before, non... (80% coverage) and humus rich A-horizons developecl in carbonatic colluvial sediments... features occasionally occurred in subsoil horizons. Thus, Aquic Umbriturbel (Turbic Cryosol... permafrost table. Usually organic topsoil horizons were 6 to 12 centimetses (GUNDELWEIN... was charactesized by thinner organic horizons overlying the mineral subsoil. The... polygon, profile 3 and 4 showed organic horizons (6 to 8 cm thickness) over a mineral... AChorizon weakly developed. The organic horizons of the vegetation ring were....1196) AC-horizons could develop. In the respective horizons roots were found... The soil clearly showed interwoven horizons, which indicated csyoturbation. The latter... the dry site, differentes between horizons in C-contents were preserved. Soil... centimetres of organic topsoils (i.e., Oi-horizons). This relationship was also marked....1 D Organic topsoil horizons with predominant fungal population A Various horizons with high ATP... wetter organic horizons (tussock and wet sedge tundra) and subsoil horizons of... 60 centimetres. Activehgi In soil horizons with predominating fungi, ATP content... held true for subsoil horizons and few organic horizons in the non... iüngabiomass were always found in horizons that showed absolute or relative... sensitive micro-organisms. In subsoil horizons, increasing substrate quantity was found... found under anaerobic conditions, i.e., soil horizons with chroma of 2 or less... both unvegetated soils and aerated 0-horizons. Since ATP concentrations were also... extraction snethods (DILLY,1994). Subsoil horizons in particular showed up to... when looking at the organic horizons alone. Furthermore, all Parameters linked... discussed, the uppermost centimetres of 0-horizons or unvegetated soils showed high... of this study. The respective horizons indicated reducing conditions (i.e., chroma of... topsoils, the Trontier' and subsoil horizons. 6.3.1.1 Wet topsoils Wet topsoils represent... of organic horizons of vasying thickness and the upper mineral horizons. In... higher abundance in these upper horizons. Although generally decreasing with depth... degrees of clecomposition, the organic horizons showed a more distinct profilc differentiation... ranged from 0.4 g ~ r n for ' ~ OiIA-horizons to 0.9 g c n ~ for ' ~ A-horizons. Porosity was lower than... weakly decomposed to humitied organic horizons into the mineral topsoil. This... determined for the upper mineral horizons, in which nutrient solutes accumulate... occurred during decomposition spatially (between horizons) and temporally. 6.3.2 'Frontier' The conception... structure between topsoil and subsoil horizons (see Sects. 6.1 . l and 6.2). Within a depth... it is concluded that 'frontier' horizons represent a Stratum of redox potential... underlying horizons. During soil sampling odour of hydrogen sulphide in anoxic horizons... produced in contrary, SLOBODKIN underlying horizons or adjacent micro-sites is... higher ATP concentrations below 'frontier' horizons suppoit the hypothesis, that these...' and to a lesser degree subsoils horizons contain a substantial amounts of hyphae... compounds as described for topsoil horizons. Root exudates are typically simple.... Although microbial biomass in 'frontier' horizons was significantly higher than in... for the habitats. 6.3.3 Subsoil Subsoil horizons generally represent anaerobic mineral hosizons.... Accordingly, the proportion of subsoil horizons within a profile was gseater in... table (ibid.). In the respective horizons, bactesia prevailed over fungi, which... between individual 'fsontier' or subsoil horizons. As a consequence, variability between sites...; efflux originales fiom the respective horizons (SOMMERKORN, 1998), which corresponds to... result in a shift of 'fsontier' horizons. Depending 011 the physical properties...;] 6.1 Permafrost table Profile showed irregular horizons with respect to thickness and... substrate parameters in wet topsoil horizons. Coefficients in bold letters mark... substrate parameters in dry topsoil horizons. Coefficients in bold letters mark... as substrate Parameters in subsoil horizons. Coefficients in bold letters mark...