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12006-07-30. Отказ электроники инструмента ACSТэги: Hubble Space Telescope
22007-01-27. Перешел в режим безопасности после отказов инструмента ACS. ВосстановленТэги: Hubble Space Telescope
32008-09-28. Отказ Hubble Control Unit/Science Data Formatter (Side A)Тэги: Hubble Space Telescope
42008-10-30. Востановленна работаТэги: Hubble Space Telescope
52015-01-26. Полярное кольцо галактики Arp 230.
Полярное кольцо галактики Arp 230 Галактика Arp 230 является звездным образованием необычной формы. Исследования объекта Arp 230 показали, что выглядящая одиноко эта спиральная галактика является результатом столкновения двух спиральных галактик. Это медленное столкновение длится уже более 100 миллионов лет.
В результате взаимодействия галактик произошла вспышка звездообразования, которая теперь начала стихать.
Подробнее...Тэги: Hubble Space Telescope
62015-01-30. Представлены снимки сталкивающейся галактики NGC 7714.
NGC 7714Астрономы, работающие с данными космического телескопа "Хаббл", опубликовали снимок галактики NGC 7714.
NGC 7714 является спиральной галактикой, расположенной на расстоянии около 100 миллионов световых лет от нашей планеты. Однако, она выглядит не так, как другие галактики подобного типа
Это объясняется тем, что в процессе своего движения галактика подошла слишком близко к галактике NGC 7715. Это привело к взаимодействию и последующему столкновению галактик.
По расчетам астрономов столкновение галактик началось около 100-200 миллионов лет назад. В результате этого сформировалось кольцо и два длинных рукава, которые вышли из общей структуры NGC 7714. Также между галактиками образовался поток вещества которое перетекает от более легкой NGC 7715 к более тяжелой галактике. Подробнее...Тэги: Hubble Space Telescope
72015-02-02. Представлены снимки галактики NGC 7814.
NGC 7814НАСА предоставила съемки спиральной галактики NGC 7814.
Спиральная галактика NGC 7814 находится на расстоянии около 40 миллионов световых лет от Земли в созвездии Пегас.
C Земли эта спиральная галактика видна с ребра. Таким образом внешне она похожа на сомбреро. По сравнению с уже заснятыми галактиками подобного типа она выглядит меньшей, однако это не так, видимые размеры объясняются ее удаленностью от Земли. Подробнее...Тэги: Hubble Space Telescope
82015-02-09. Телескоп Хабл сфотографировал галактический кластер SDSS J1038+4849.
Кластер галактик SDSS J1038+4849 Космический телескоп Хабл сфотографировал искривления светового потока, возникшие в результате сильного гравитационного воздействия со стороны массивного тела.
В данном случае объектом, искривляющим своим гравитационным полем направление распространения проходящего мимо него излучения является галактической. Этот эффект тяготения называют «гравитационной линзой» по той причине, что параллельный пучек излучения, пройдя мимо массивного тела, концентрируется позади него, подобно тому, как концентрируется световой луч, проходя сквозь стеклянную положительную линзу. В принципе, роль гравитационной линзы может играть любое тело, но на практике заметное искривление лучей способно вызвать лишь очень массивное тело, например, крупная планета или звезда, а также крупная система тел, такая как галактика или скопление галактик. Гравитационная линза одинаково влияет на все виды электромагнитного излучения и потоки релятивистских частиц.
Эффект гравитационной линзы был предсказан А.Эйнштейном, который в 1915 в рамках общей теории относительности впервые правильно вычислил угол отклонения луча света в гравитационном поле компактного объекта. Во время полного солнечного затмения 29 мая 1919 года английские астрономы измерили отклонение света звезд, проходящего вблизи поверхности Солнца: смещение изображений звезд составило 1,75І в полном согласии с предсказанием Эйнштейна.
Подробнее...Тэги: Hubble Space Telescope
92015-02-16. НАСА опубликовало изображение скопления звезд Palomar 12.
Palomar 12 Звездное скопление "Паломар 12" представляет собой шаровое скопление звезд, которое расположено на расстоянии около 60 тысяч световых лет от Земли в созвездии Козерога. Данное скопление Было обнаружено астрономами Робертом Дж. Харрингтоном и Фрицом Цвикки в 1953 году. Несмотря на то, что сейчас "Паломар 12" находится на окраине нашей галактики, "родился" он совершенно в другом месте. После проведения первых измерений было установлено, что скопление на 30% моложе, чем многие шаровые скопления Млечного Пути: его возраст составляет всего 6,5 млрд. лет. Более подробные наблюдения показали, что местом рождения скопления является карликовая галактика в Стрельце. Около 1,7 млрд. лет в ходе взаимодействия Млечного пути и карликовой галактики скопление было захвачено нашей галактикой. В настоящее время наша галактика медленно меняет структуру "Паломар 12".
Подробнее...Тэги: Hubble Space Telescope
102015-03-04. Телескоп Хаббл снял звезду, окутанную облаком пыли.
С помощью космического телескопа "Хаббл" ученые получили изображение окутанной облаком космической пыли звезды в созвездии Лебедь.
Звезда известна под наименованием V1331 Лебедя. Она образовалась в темном облаке LDN 981. V1331 Лебедя является сравнительно молодой, по меркам вселенной, звездой. Температура в ее центре недостаточна для реализации термоядерных реакций. Интересной особенностью снимка является то, что мы смотрим на нее сверху.
Подробнее...Тэги: Hubble Space Telescope
112015-03-12. На Ганимеде может быть больше воды, чем на Земле.
Полученные космическим телескопом Hubble данные, свидетельствуют о том, что на Ганимеде (самый большой спутник Юпитера) существует подводный соленый океан. Спрятанный под поверхностью он может содержать больше воды, чем все океаны и моря на Земле. Ганимед – единственный из известных спутников, имеющий магнитное поле. Даная особенность вызывает сияния в регионах рядом с северным и южным полюсами. Наблюдая за изменениями сияний на спутнике Юпитера, ученые смогли выявить наличие большого количества соленой воды под корой Ганимеда, оказывающей воздействие на магнитное поле. Ученые подсчитали, что глубина океана на Ганимеде составляет 100 км, в 10 раз больше максимальной глубины земного океана. Океан на спутнике Юпитера скрыт под 150-километровой корой, состоящей, в основном из льда. Тэги: Hubble Space Telescope
122015-03-16. Карликовая голубая галактика PGC 51017.
НАСА предоставила новые изображения полученные с помощью телескопа Хабл. В новых данных от космического спутника, представлена карликовая галактика PGC 51017.
Галактика PGC 51017 (SBSG 1415 + 437) относится к классу голубых компактных карликовых галактик. Такой тип галактик достаточно хорошо известен и изучен астрономами. Отличительной чертой таких галактик являются идущие в них активные процессы звездообразования. На это указывает цвет галактики, основной вклад в цвет который вносят массивные голубые звезды.
Подробнее...Тэги: Hubble Space Telescope
132016-06-24. Космический телескоп "Хаббл" будет работать еще в течении пяти лет .
Согласно сообщению НАСА, контракт на продолжение работ с телескопом получила Ассоциация университетов для астрономических исследований. При этом, дополнительные пять лет работы обсерватории обойдутся в 196.3 млн. долл. Таким образом, с учетом запуска в середине 2020-х годов космического аппарата WFIRST НАСА обеспечит непрерывность наблюдений за космосом. Тэги: Hubble Space Telescope

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг11600
2Масса (сухая), кг10683
3Диаметр (зеркала телескопа), метра2.4
4Энергия, Вт2400
5Границы спектрального диапазона (нижняя), мкм115
6Границы спектрального диапазона (верхняя), мкм1000

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, градусов28.5
2Тип орбитыНОО
3Расчетный срок функционирования, год10
4Апогей, км599
5Перигей, км555
6Период, минут95.8

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Средство выведения 1xСпейс Шатл
2Дата пуска1990-04-25

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Страна (производитель)США
2Стоимость , млн. долл.2500
3Стоимость программы (начальная), млн. долл.2000-01-01657
4Стоимость программы (утвержденная), млн. долл.2001-01-01767
5Стоимость КА , млн. долл.968
6Заказчик Европейское космическое агентство
7Заказчик Космическое агентство США

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... and Space Administration Hubble Space TelescopeHubble’s History • Observatory Design • Operating HubbleHubble News Taken from: Hubble 2010: Science Year in Review National Aeronautics and Space Administration Hubble 21: science Year in review TakenProduced from: by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Space Telescope Science Institute. Hubble 2011: Science Year in Review Hubble 21... book include Hubble science articles, an overview of Producedthe by telescope, NASA... and more. complete and the Space Telescope Science Institute. available for download... book include Hubble science articles, an overview of the telescope, and more... at: Hubble Science Year In Review National Aeronautics and Space Administration Hubble Science... Lyman Spitzer first proposed a large space telescope in 1946—more than a decade... than any ground-based telescope. A tireless advocate of space astronomy, Spitzer was... proponent of space-based astronomy, helped usher the concept of a space telescope through Congress. The result of that work, the Hubble Space Telescope, is... behind him. 9 HUBBLE 2011: SCIENCE YEAR IN REVIEW the space shuttle, when... the dream of a working telescope in space could be realized. On April...-31 mission deployed Hubble  into orbit from the Space Shuttle Discovery  with... mirror on Hubble ’s other instruments. Called the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement... improved Hubble ’s spectroscopic capabilities with the insertion of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph...) openedOn Hubble ’ s view theSpace universe toDiscovery a new spectral regime—those Space Center carrying a crew of five astronauts and the Hubble Space Telescope. slightly... final servicing mission to Hubble—brought the telescope to the apex of... SM2: • Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) • Space Telescope Imaging Spectograph (STIS) • Near Infrared... final servicing mission to Hubble—brought the telescope to the apex of... Hubble Space Telescope mission has combined the best of NASA’s robotic and human space.... 13 HUBBLE 2011: SCIENCE YEAR IN REVIEW The Hubble Space Telescope 14 HUBBLE HUBBLE 2011: 2011: SCIENCE SCIENCE YEAR INYEAR REVIEW IN REVIEW The Hubble Space Telescope 1. Primary mirror Hubble’s primary mirror is 7.8 feet... place of the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement The most sensitive... first formed. 11. STIS The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph principally performs spectroscopy... 360 miles above Earth, the Hubble Space Telescope  is positioned high above the... thermal environment of space. Unlike most other spacecraft, however, Hubble was designed... building the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). STIS was installed on Hubble in... Hubble ’s tube-shaped body, known as the forward shell, houses the telescope... the telescope’s four 100-pound reaction wheels—the spinning flywheels Hubble uses... (NICMOS), and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). (Left) Hubble’s three original data... the observatory. Hubble ’s electrical power comes from sunlight. Flanking the telescope’s body..., Hubble ’s six nickel-hydrogen batteries contain enough energy to sustain the telescope in normal 20 HUBBLE 2011: SCIENCE YEAR... the telescope’s angular motion and also provide this information to Hubble ’s central.... For Hubble, the science operations function is conducted from the Space Telescope Science... Hubble ’s view also makes it a challenge to schedule the telescope efficiently. Awarding Telescope Time The process of observing with Hubble begins... of Hubble form an image in the focal plane of the telescope... of telescope time. Snapshots are used to fill in gaps within Hubble... time. 27 HUBBLE 2011: SCIENCE YEAR IN REVIEW DATA Hubble Space Telescope Tracking and Data Relay Satellite LIGHT DATA Space Telescope Science..., NM Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD The Hubble Space Telescope uses NASA’s Tracking... is then transmitted to the Space Telescope Science Institute, where it is... operate in the high space-radiation areas of Hubble ’s orbit; and the... processing, calibration, and archiving. The Space Telescope Operations Control Center at Goddard... observations in Hubble’s 21st year—and certainly among the telescope’s top observational... of the telescope. 32 HUBBLE 2011: SCIENCE YEAR IN REVIEW 33 HUBBLE 2011... Riess, a tenured astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute and the KriegerEisenhower..., the first director of the Space Telescope Science Institute, and John Mather... scientist for NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope. (Above) This greatly simplified graphic... telescope tracked the moving asteroid, thus blurring the background stars.) A second Hubble... Space Agency and astronomer Bob Fosbury, the former head of the Space Telescope...



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... Observatory— The Hubble Space Telescope Allan R. Cohen and David A. Bearden The Hubble Space Telescope has been...: A Hubble Space Telescope image of an intricately detailed star-forming region in space located... to many of these. The Hubble Space Telescope, for example, has been observing... Winter 2008/2009 Hubble program office at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center... to Hubble can be found in “NASA’s Greatest Observatory—The Hubble Space Telescope” on... Mission 2B Successful Hubble Up and Running The Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission scheduled.... To recover operation of the telescope, NASA engineers switched from the... the Hubble Space Telescope. Aerospace analysis recommended against using robotic servicing to repair Hubble... orbit. But the Space Station is too far from Hubble, so NASA.... NASA’s Greatest Observatory— The Hubble Space Telescope The Hubble Space Telescope has been sending back spectacular... help keep Hubble flying. Allan R. Cohen and David A. Bearden T he Hubble Space Telescope is an orbiting astronomical observatory developed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight... Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and operated by the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. One of NASA’s most successful missions, Hubble..., ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team. Acknowledgment: B. Whitmore (Space Telescope Science Institute). map.... Not only a marvel of space systems design, Hubble can also be periodically... be significantly improved if the telescope performing the observations was beyond... studies of a modern Earth-orbiting telescope were conducted in the late... project—then called the Large Space Telescope Program—was approved by Congress.... Requirements called for a stable optical telescope incorporating a 2.4-meter primary mirror with... Hubble Space Telescope, renamed after the noted astronomer Edwin Hubble, was launched by space shuttle... a new device, the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement, to refocus the... two older instruments with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and the Near... information essential to pointing the telescope at the desired point in... 200 150 F10.7 Vision for a Space Telescope 100 50 MSAFE F10.7 Schatten... NASA’s ability to access space and placed the Hubble in a precarious state..., NASA canceled Hubble SM4. Only missions where the International Space Station could... orbital lifetime showed that the telescope was likely to remain in... to keep Hubble operating while its replacement, the James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST), could be built. JWST will be larger than Hubble... mirror than Hubble’s to enable it to look deeper into space and... NASA to keep Hubble operating until the new telescope was ready without... a truly international asset like the Hubble Space Telescope makes doing this mission the... likely be the last Hubble retrofit because the space shuttle fleet is... that have previously failed, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and the Advanced... and final chapter for the Hubble Space Telescope. Aerospace continues to support this... No.TOR-2004(2187)3622D, “Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Analysis of Alternatives Executive...(8180)-3, “Life Projection for the Hubble Space Telescope Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries” (The Aerospace... Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope, National Research Council, “Assessment of... Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope: Final Report,” www.nap.edu... notional approaches to implement future space telescope missions is an example of... of different alternatives for the Hubble Space Telescope Robotic Servicing Module Analysis of... has ever harbored water. Future Space Telescope Mission Aerospace also supports NASA... to implement future medium-class space telescope missions capable of performing a broad... Earth orbiters, such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the Tracking Data Relay... the space shuttle, International Space Station, and science missions such as the Hubble Space Telescope... of space missions including the space shuttle, the International Space Station, the Hubble Space Telescope, Atlas..., GRAIL, and the James Webb Space Telescope. Mars Exploration Rover The Mars... James Webb Space Telescope The James Webb Space Telescope, successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, is an ambitious project to place a 6.5 meter diameter infrared detecting telescope... James Webb Space Telescope will not be serviceable by astronauts (unlike Hubble). Thus... infrared detectors and shield the telescope assembly from the sun, must.... GSFC, the center developing the telescope, asked Aerospace to review requirements... 2008/2009 • 61 Contributors The Hubble Space Telescope David A. Bearden, Principal Director, NASA... President’s Award for leading the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Analysis of Alternatives. He..., including direct support to the Hubble Space Telescope Program Office. He has an... Corporation President’s Award for the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Analysis of Alternatives in...



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... human ventures into space, landing NASA’s Space Shuttle, officially called Space the first... actual human beings traveling to space, the space environment makes this mode... was the development of the telescope, which initial furor has passed... exactly who made the first telescope, but the feat unless some... first person to use the telescope for significant astronomical the newly... only used (and improved) the telescope targets of exploration. One example... of observational use film. Instead, space telescope use electronic astronomy, and they... using a rocket to carry a telescope to space, and in camera; while commercial... telescope Universe benefits from (and in return can influence into space where... Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, and development of the telescope that would later be the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, known as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST... used to actually form the telescope was named after the American... sites and in newspapers. Edwin Hubble, who is considered the founder... glimpse it wasn’t the first space telescope, the hundreds into the history... history. possibly the most important telescope in the history finding out... Internet NASA named an infrared space telescope launched has become an invaluable... 2003 after him; the Hubble and Spitzer Space information, sometimes the information.../office/pao/History/sputnik/ NASA Hubble Space Telescope http://hubblesite.org/ NASA Mars... Space Shuttle http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/main/ NASA Spitzer Space Telescope... Institution National Air and Space Museum Space Race Exhibition http://www.nasm... of SOHO/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) consortium. SOHO is a project... be safely imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope, the planet has remained largely... Alaska Anchorage), Z. Levay and L. Frattare (Space Telescope Science Institute) and National Optical... on (or near) the Earth (e.g., Hubble Space Telescope, top left), by having robotic... 1608, when the first telescope planning for space travel to investigate another... makes who made the first telescope, but the feat is usually.... While much can be learned Telescope designers race to make new....) that are mounted on the telescope to make the actual observations... Hawaii. Probably the best known space telescope is the Still, even the... Plan Resources Answer Key GER Hubble Space Telescope (HST; see Fig. 3), which from... astronomy. The telescope has taken hundreds based and space telescopes can quickly..., and the launch of the telescope. Five additional Shuttle missions have... of the Hubble Space Telescope significantly. There are many other important space-based observatories; for example, Figure 3. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was placed into orbit around the Earth by the Space... important telescope in the history of astronomy. (Picture credit: NASA; http://hubble.nasa.gov/hubble/full/img94.jpg) NASA... XRay Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope, which study the Universe using... Earth or in space near For example, the Hubble Space Telescope has many the... capturing system, such as a (small) telescope the properties of particle radiation... http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/galileo/ Hubble Space Telescope http://hubblesite.org/ Keck Observatory... Alaska Anchorage), Z. Levay and L. Frattare (Space Telescope Science Institute) and National Optical... would be similar to using a space telescope located near the Earth. What...-distance camera Digital camera with a telescope; takes images of the target... lowest cost (unless the telescope is large or space-based, but even... mounted on the telescope. ▼ Can easily point the telescope to observe many... of a it is. Technically, all telescope observations of even river carving...; NASA/ESA/M.Robberto(STScI/ESA)/Hubble Space Telescope Orion Treasury Project Team: http... directly in images taken with a telescope; instead, a variety of methods have... Orion nebula taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. Stars and planets are being...: NASA/ ESA/M.Robberto(STScI/ESA)/Hubble Space Telescope Orion Treasury Project Team; http... bends and focuses light in a telescope. Through this effect, the light... much like in a lens of a telescope. If the lens star has... have interested scientists as Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes, which and philosophers... students have access to a suitable telescope, either through school, a local observatory... Planets Encyclopaedia http://exoplanet.eu/ Hubble Space Telescope Gallery of Nebulae (Note that... Orion Nebula taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. Stars are being formed inside...: NASA/ESA/M.Robberto (STScI/ESA)/Hubble Space Telescope Orion Treasury Project Team; http... spacecraft through NASA’s Deep Space Network (a Deep Space Network antenna in Goldstone... features of planets seen through a telescope. The results were dependent on... features of planets seen through a telescope, to capturing pictures on photographic...



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... Space Law Progress in space science, technology and applications, international cooperation and space... developments in space science, technology, space applications, international collaboration and space law has...…… ............................................................................ 121 vi I. OVERVIEW Space Transportation. The major space transportation events of 2009... nine major components of the Hubble space telescope, extending its useful life by... instruments, raised the investment in Hubble’s 24 years of operation to... of Objects launched into Outer Space. II. SPACE TRANSPORTATION A. Current Launch Activities... antibiotics are in space. Experiments aboard the International Space Station have indicated... of a planned launch by a Space Exploration Technology (Space-X) Falcon 1 rocket from Omelek... located at the Swedish Space Corporation’s Esrange Space Center in Kiruna. 10... and refurbishment mission to the Hubble Space Telescope, the first since 2002. Due... by space debris, which is far more dense in the Hubble’s orbit... the 11-tonne, 13.3-m-long Hubble on 13 May, and astronaut... responsible for many of the telescope’s most dramatic images, along with... space walk of the mission, replacing the six gyroscopes of the telescope... space walk ever, astronauts John Grunsfeld and Drew Feustal repaired the Hubble... Spectrograph. They then replaced the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph during a fourth spacewalk... on the outside of the Hubble. 47 In five days the... minutes space walking, replaced or fixed nine major components of the telescope, and extended the Hubble's useful life by... in Hubble’s 24 years of operation to $10 billion. The telescope was... much lower than at the Hubble’s altitude of 575 km. Atlantis... first images from the refurbished telescope were released on 9 September, showing... 2008 observations using NASA’s Spitzer space telescope (see last year’s report) detected... previously been identified by the Hubble 52 telescope’s Near Infrared Camera and... in mid-May, resulting in a telescope temperature rise from 2.2 Kelvins to... of the value of the Hubble constant, search for ancient galaxies... the Earth's moon. NASA's Kepler space telescope was moved to its launch... Earth. Kepler’s 0.95-m diameter Schmidt telescope, with its 1.4-m primary mirror and... segments of NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Hubble’s successor, completed their first... engineering test model of the telescope’s 200-kg Near Infrared Spectrograph... spacecraft that will use a solar telescope and spectrograph to investigate the... spacecraft will carry a specialized X-ray telescope to study neutron stars, black... infrared space telescope has a 3.5-m silicon carbide main mirror, 50% larger than NASA’s Hubble telescope... kg, a third that of the Hubble mirror. Its advanced-technology cryostat... its instruments at 1.7 Kelvins. The telescope was tested under cryogenic conditions... Kourou on 18 February. Its telescope, with a 1.5-m primary mirror and cooled... and Germany for a high-energy space telescope mission was signed on 20... (Extended Roentgen Survey with Imaging Telescope Array). They will be launched... Camera (LROC). The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation... mission-duration test of Space Exploration Technologies Corporation’s (Space-X’s) Falcon-9 core-stage... company for the James Webb Space Telescope, whose Mid-Infrared Instrument requires... for the heat shield of Space-X’s Dragon space capsule (see above) was.... 77 H. Environmental Effects of Space Flight (1) Space Debris The French Parasol satellite... the space shuttle. Indeed, risk of a debris impact during the Hubble telescope repair... 1.3 km of the Space Shuttle Discovery and international space station on 4 September... 400th year since Galileo used a telescope. Its purpose was to emphasize... a space hotel for tourists, space architect Daniele Bedini hopes to pitch the space... via Microsoft’s free World Wide Telescope Internet portal introduced in May... space policy, said “We need more security in space and from space. Our space... for Space (Space IGT) will examine Britain’s regulatory environment for the space sector... industry contractors on human space flight, exploration, space science, and Earth science... human space flight. The U.S. delegation, organized by the U.S. Space Foundation, visited Beijing Space... systems. The Israel Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency signed a bilateral... for Encouraging Space Commerce; Recent Developments in Space Law. Manfred Lachs Space Law... and international litigation), national space legislation, registration, space debris (following the UNGA... Space Shuttle. The European Space Agency hosted the 5th European Conference on Space Debris at ESA's Space... Space Explorers (ASE) to review the member states' space programs and promote space.... Astronomy Ireland hosted the Dublin Telescope Nights, as part of the... space research; and lastly, space policy and the government’s role in setting space... repay other corporate debt. Space tourism Space tourism seems to be off...



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0.25/5
... Photo of the quarter: International Space Station astronaut Terry Virts (@AstroTerry... through the window. Hubble Space Telescope celebrates 25 years in space this April. On... the cover: 2 | Roundup LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER NASA/PHOTO 3 ISS Science... Regeneration investigation aboard the International Space Station. As flatworms age, or...-healing done by cells in space during the Flatworm Regeneration investigation... to flatness aboard the International Space Station, but this outpost currently... investigation aboard the International Space Station. LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER Roundup |3 Lead... SPENDING ONE YEAR IN SPACE aboard the International Space Station, NASA astronaut... Research Program and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute through NASA...-year mission aboard the International Space Station. NASA astronaut Scott Kelly... Unit spacesuit. 4 | Roundup LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER the Human Exploration Research... the remaining space shuttle missions, the first half of International Space Station... first U.S. space station Skylab, Apollo/Soyuz and and 76 Space Shuttle Program... become tomorrow’s reality. LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER Roundup |5 Lead Human Exploration... other NASA/PHOTO BEFORE THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE (HST) was released into its... NASA astronauts. In fact, the telescope had been built with the... in the hazardous environs of space—as necessary through precisely orchestrated... of EVA.’” Building a behemoth space station in space, piece by piece, would... get them experience,” Seaman said. Hubble and spacewalks would go hand... fuse plugs. 6 | Roundup LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER By Catherine Ragin Williams... Earth Hubble Space Telescope shares 25 years of scientific discovery thanks to spacewalkers Hubble is released by space shuttle Atlantis after... of space. The mission was the last astronaut visit to the telescope... advantage of the fact that Hubble had been designed for EVA... what we did initially with Hubble and then what we proved... started thinking about it differently.” A TELESCOPE WITHOUT WINGS Sue Rainwater, chief... came to Johnson Space Center and worked with the telescope on the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) side. To prepare for Hubble’s unveiling in space meant a lot of travel... become very familiar with the telescope while on the ground. “You... suits—actually hands on the telescope—which was really a special experience... say they’ve been inside Hubble. But being able to put... we had remaining with the telescope to ensure that we were... clear—the images Hubble beamed down lacked clarity. The telescope that had... made it sound like the Hubble Space Telescope was completely nonfunctional after the... still better than any groundbased telescope on the planet.” HST MISSIONS... Hubble repairs and the spacewalks it would take to make the telescope... team of people The issue? Hubble’s primary mirror had a “spherical aberration... can’t take care of this telescope, how in the world are... mission aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Hubble is released by space shuttle Atlantis... against the background of space. LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER Roundup |7 Lead Human... to thoroughly prepare for that.” Hubble got the instruments it needed... telescope. “It literally was like putting a pair of glasses on the telescope... to highest orbit possible using space shuttle • 11 middeck lockers containing..., do no damage—leave the telescope in “as good or better..., Hubble revealed the universe to a world hungry for answers and inspiration. “Hubble... who worked with Hubble, on the ground and in space, at JSC... with a love for astronomy, the Hubble really is one of the... space and ready to peer into the vast unknown. Since then, Hubble... of the telescope’s most awe-inspiring images. 8 | Roundup LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER... one year aboard the space station. The space station also serves as...” Wilmore ventured outside the International Space Station for their third spacewalk... new antenna. #spacewalk” LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER Roundup |9 NASA/PHOTO observe... complex, Wilmore ventured outside the space station with NASA astronaut Terry... his time in space. Having completed his second space station mission, Samokutyaev... 178 days in space. Serova spent 167 days in space on her first flight. For more information about the International Space... Serova of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) touched down southeast... Earth from space. Q: When did you first become interested in space, and... SPACE CENTER Snapshots NASA/BILL STAFFORD Engineers and technicians at Johnson Space... Lone Star legislators, public Johnson Space Center, along with aerospace industry... Congress members and highlighted future space developments at a special Astronauts and...-withair spacewalking mascot. LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER Roundup | 11 Excel in... the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, and... for Earth Observation for Space Shuttle and International Space Station Programs, where...



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0.03/5
... exploration of deep space. Space Operations Space Shuttle/International Space Station The Space Shuttle flew... space components of the networks that provide space communications for NASA’s Space Network (DSN)—continued to meet the space... use of space observatories and space probes that view Earth from space, observe...: Astrophysics, Planetary Science, Heliophysics, Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program office. In FY... 26, 2011, astronomers pushed NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope to its limits by finding... 13.2 billion years to reach Hubble, roughly 150 compact galaxy of... Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a reflecting telescope with an effective diameter of... object. NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope first detected the outburst, A c t i v i t i e s On... anniversary of the Hubble Space Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, pointed Hubble’s eye at..., known as A e r o n a u t i c s a n d R e p o r t Telescope’s deployment into space, astronomers at the Space Telescope Science S p a c e o f t h e P r e s i d e n t 32 pair... Arp 273. The newly released Hubble image showed a large spiral galaxy... May 26, 2011, NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope observed that tiny crystals of...’s point of view. The WISE telescope scanned the entire sky in... with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii... Space Telescope Program The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large, infrared-optimized space telescope... Moorestown, New Jersey. The Webb telescope has 21 mirrors, with 18... coating will allow the Webb telescope’s “infrared eyes” to observe extremely... Defense space and Defense elements of National Security Space (NSS) to streamline space... space priorities and strategic guidance for Defense space systems and for Defense space... spacecraft once on orbit. The Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) achieved first light... NASA’s land- and space-based missions, including the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray... and tested at the HobbyEberly Telescope at the MacDonald Observatory in... Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), the next-generation U.S. ground-based solar telescope. The... the world’s flagship ground-based telescope designed specifically for the study... and fabrication of the major telescope subsystems and instruments are under... of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and starting the process... a purpose-built wide-field survey telescope and use the attached 3.3-gigapixel.... The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is a 6-meter-diameter millimeterwave telescope located at.... ACT is a dedicated special-purpose telescope and is equipped with a state... zero. During FY 11, the telescope continued to operate successfully in... polarization measurement capability. The POLARBEAR telescope, funded by AST, is a new... on the Atacama plateau. The telescope will be used to measure.... POLARBEAR is a 3.5-meter-diameter microwave telescope, custom designed and fabricated by..., and looks most like a radio telescope or satellite dish. Unlike previous... the system in California, the telescope was disassembled and shipped to... manage the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope being constructed in Hawaii. Also... 10-meter off-axis radio telescope at the U.S. Amundsen-Scott South... December 2011, the South Pole Telescope successfully completed five-yearlong austral... space, including such issues as orbital space debris, meteorology, astronomy and astrophysics, space transportation, nuclear power sources in space... European Space Agency (ESA) on space weather as part of ESA’s space situational... future NASA space-radiation dose models. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the...-ray Space Telescope 2 0 1 1 development of techniques to conduct fundamental physics in space to... of operations for NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, whose Infrared Array Camera (IRAC... include Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and all telescope activities. Outlay information... Arctic Coastal Plain Atacama Cosmology Telescope Antarctica Data Acquisition Automatic Dependent... Civil Aircraft Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Automated Transfer Vehicle-2 Automatic Ground... Systems Network Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Federal Information Processing Standard Fourier... Fighter James Webb Space Telescope kelvin kilopounds-force Kennedy Space Center L Landscape Fire... Launch Abort System Large Area Telescope Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing... Services Program Large Synoptic Survey Telescope M MAGIC MANPADS MAR MC3E MDIS... Observatory National Space Organization (Taiwan) NASA Space Radiation Laboratory National Security Space National Science and Technology Council National Space... recommended practices Space Based Infrared System Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Space-Based Space Surveillance Office of Science (DOE) Space Communications and... Material System Requirements Review Space Situation Awareness Space Surveillance Telescope Center for Satellite...



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0.18/5
Hubble Space Telescope’s Top Science Findings The Hubble Space Telescope is one of the most ... above Earth, Hubble sees farther and sharper than any previous telescope, producing... planetary science to cosmology. The telescope has imaged more than 30... missions to Hubble have made it the longest-operating space observatory ever built. Thanks to routine maintenance and upgrades Hubble... addition to its scientific importance, Hubble brings cosmic wonders into millions... observatory. Here are some of Hubble’s top science discoveries. 2 Hu bbl... light from faraway exploding stars, Hubble helped astronomers discover dark energy... (STScI) STScI-2004-12 The telescope also provided evidence that dark...’s seat. By studying distant supernovae, Hubble traced dark energy all the... seems, is no different. Before Hubble was launched, astronomers had been... called the Hubble constant. Their values for the Hubble constant were highly... STScI-1999-19 One of Hubble’s key duties was to help... age for the universe. The telescope’s keen vision helped astronomers accomplish... related analyses, astronomers determined the Hubble constant and the universe’s age... From the Ground Up Hubble’s surveys of deep space showed that the... galaxies we see today. The telescope snapped images of galaxies in... observations, including the Hubble Deep Fields and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field... into the universe’s farthest regions, Hubble’s newly installed Wide Field Camera... evolution. The galaxies spied by Hubble are smaller and more irregularly... children from infancy to adulthood. Hubble also probed the dense, central.... The telescope provided indirect, yet compelling, evidence of their existence. Hubble helped... them. Hubble Reaches the “Undiscovered Country” of Primeval Galaxies Hubble broke the... HUDF09 Team STScI-2010-02 Hubble’s census of more than 30... Sun At the time of Hubble’s launch in 1990, astronomers had... Hubble has made some unique contributions to the planet hunt. The telescope... of our Milky Way Galaxy, Hubble observed 180,000 stars and... least two extrasolar planets. The Hubble observations showed that the atmosphere... too hot for life. The Hubble observations demonstrate, however, that the... planets orbiting other stars. Finally, Hubble made the first visible-light... Sun. Hubble Finds First Organic Molecule on an Exoplanet Hubble made the... on Dark Matter Astronomers used Hubble to make the first three... Technology). STScI-2007-01 Using Hubble’s sharp view, astronomers used the...-matter filaments. Astronomers also used Hubble to observe dark matter’s distribution.... In one case, a combination of Hubble and Chandra X-ray observations suggests... as the Bullet Cluster. In a Hubble gravitational lensing study of another... and pile up. For more Hubble Space Telescope images and information, visit our.../ The complete collection of every Hubble Space Telescope news release and its supporting... other special venues. http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/ Online educational activities...



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0.09/5
... denver post B denverpost.com The Space Shuttle 30 years, 135 missions... miles to get there) The space shuttle era comes to a close... Atlantis this week. The three space shuttle orbiters in the fleet...-5 ’81 Satellites deployed SATELLITES The space shuttle has deployed 94 satellites... miles traveled by all the space shuttles. This is enough to... first American woman to fly in space ■ STS-6 ■ STS-7 ■ STS-8 ■ STS-9 ’83... meet the needs of each spaceflight. Miles per hour the... more people than any other space fleet – 355 people from 16... ■ STS-33 ’88 Failed ●●● ● ●● Hubble telescope Launch of space probes ● ● STS-8 Guion S. Bluford... the first AfricanAmerican to fly in space. ■ STS-37 ■ STS-31 ■ STS...) was a Soviet and later Russian space station that flew in low... for the longest single human spaceflight, of Valeri Polyakov at... sitting member of Congress in space. Designated as “mission specialist,” Garn... for medical experiments on space motion sickness. The space sickness he experienced... in space: Mae Jamison, STS-47 (1992) First Canadian in space: Marc...-60 (1994) First Mexican in space: Rodolfo Neri Vela, STS-61B... tribal-registered Native American in space: John Herrington, Chickasaw, STS-113 (2002) First Japanese in space: Mamoru Mohri, STS-47 (1992... to Earth. First Israeli in space: Ilan Ramon, STS-107 (2003... • SOURCES: NASA, National Air and Space Museum, Medgadget, U.S. Department of the... 1 millionpound orbiting laboratory, the international space station ■ STS-101 ■ STS-106...). The Tiles To protect the space shuttle from the searing heat... flight — by Atlantis — of the space shuttle program ■ STS-119 ■ STS... to upgrade the Hubble Space Telescope. In March of that year, “Hubble 3D” was... location from Earth’s surface. International space station fl flights ights Fun Facts..., Saudi, Muslim and Arab in space. The Oldest 1962 GEO/GSO... MILES OUT The Hubble Space Telescope, Mir and the international space station all fly (or... shuttle launches happened at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. California's Edwards... preferred landing site was Kennedy Space Center in Florida, which saved...-48 ■ STS-44 ■ SHUTTLE The space shuttle flew relatively close to... of the Earth. Although the space shuttle can fly between 115 and...,000 pounds. 15.75 feet ●●●●● telescope that was carried into orbit... 1990. Although not the first space telescope, Hubble is one of the largest... ■ STS-39 ’90 THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE is a space The Youngest At 77, John... and the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, and investigated space flight and the aging process. Glenn returned to space almost...-56 The Orbiter Atlantis: Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex in Florida... ever was the Chandra X-ray Telescope, right, at 50,000 pounds... 3 million pounds of cargo into space. Endeavour: California Science Center in.... ■ STS-42 The Cargo The space shuttle is the world’s first... 30-year history of the space shuttle program. Enterprise, the first.... 6,000°F Hubble Space Telescope deployed «5A Discovery: Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum Steven... NEWS Enterprise: Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York STS... 39 missions, has spent in space. The Numbers ● Spacelab experiments ● Classi... closely associated with the U.S. manned spaceflight program in the 1960s..., in a variety of ways. The space shuttle program has generated more... M. Collins Frozen pee contributes to space junk. Over the years, most... hits the cold vacuum of space, it quickly freezes into tiny... ever to be launched into space seven times. He was joined... (7). Franklin Chang-Dìaz THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION is an internationally developed... as a joint venture between the space agencies of the United States... orbit and is the largest space station ever constructed. On-orbit... In the field of transportation, space shuttle spinoffs have included environmentally... form Rehydratable apple drink A typical space meal from 2003 Note: Irradiated... course of 30 years, the space shuttles have flown some peculiar... on space shuttle Discovery’s STS-120 mission. Consumer Goods The space shuttle... Tool Based in part on space shuttle fuel pump technology, a miniature... 450 patients. Materials from the space shuttle thermal protection system are... of parts used for the space shuttle, a new system uses laser...



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0.33/5
..., and Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of Human Resources... Education Working Group NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas This publication... Affairs Liaison Teaching From Space Program NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, TX... Educational Materials Specialist Teaching From Space Program NASA Headquarters Washington, DC... Space Station NASA Johnson Space Center Flint Wild Technology Specialist Teaching From Space Program Oklahoma State University Cathy A. Gardner Teacher Intern, Teaching From Space... and Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The Outer Space Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Spacewalking History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 The Space Shuttle EMU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Working In Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 EVAs on the International Space... those first tentative probings outside a space capsule, astronauts and cosmonauts have... servicing the Hubble Space Telescope and retrieving satellites. The new International Space Station will...-112-HQ The Outer Space Environment Outer space is just what its... environmental factors encountered in outer space include: microgravity, radiation of electrically... Joe Tanner works on the Hubble Space Telescope during the STS-82 mission... In Space One of the great advantages of working in space is... stabilized Shuttle orbiter or International Space Station. EVA As Apollo spacesuits... employ during Shuttle and International Space Station missions. Several criteria are... some ofthe instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope. 32 • Suited for Spacewalking An... multiple spacewalks to service the Hubble Space Telescope. During each flight, crew members... International Space Station. During the nearly 40 American and Russian space flights... in the insulation of the Hubble Space Telescope. Detailed work like this will... Docking Module ofthe Russian MIR space station.Similar docking modules (Pressurized... operational phase of the International Space Station, spacewalkers will replace orbital... the scientific instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope, that are designed to be... brought up to the Space Station on the Space Shuttle. • Suited for... to service the Hubble Space Telescope. The original design of the Space Shuttle EMU... suits in space is vital for operations on the International Space Station. There, crew members will remain in space for... hours of extravehicular activity in space. Mission planners correctly foresaw the... success. With the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station, it is... becomes a small, short-term spacecraft. Space-suited crew members can manipulate... and unforgiving environment of outer space. • Suited for Spacewalking An Activity... near-Earth space environment has the additional problem of space debris such... Moon. Space Shuttle spacesuits are worn only in microgravity during space walks... • 65 Exploration Brief Micrometeoroids and Space Debris Context Astronauts on spacewalks... International Space Station. A lost bolt or nut could damage a future space mission... protecting astronauts from micrometeoroid and space debris impacts to other protective... multi-day servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope, have two EVA crews that... 6.Measurements for Space Helmet 30 cm 7. Paper Maché Space Helmet Inflate a large... Assembly NASA project that pioneered space flight technologies for spacecraft rendezvous... Service and Cooling Umbilical First U.S. space station Secondary Oxygen Pack Self... International Space Station Reusable spaceship currently used for all U.S. manned space missions... Allen, J.P. with Martin,M.(1984), Entering Space, An Astronaut’s Odyssey, Stewart, Tabori... Headquarters, Washington, DC. Kozloski, L. (1994), U.S. Space Gear, Outfitting The Astronaut, Smithsonian... Educator Resource Center Space Center Houston NASA Johnson Space Center 1601 NASA... 1200 NASA John C. Stennis Space Center Stennis Space Center, MS 39529-6000... Code ERL NASA Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899-0001... protect astronauts from the hostile space environment, explains what the components...



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0.05/5
.../UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS CENTER FOR SPACE RESEARCH/GFZ, POTSDAM SATELLITE MAPS... 2003 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. CANADIAN SPACE AGENCY (top); OSCAR BURRIEL SPL... possible by the Hubble Space Telescope. Unhampered by Earth’s atmosphere, Hubble could resolve distant...— into individual star clusters. When Hubble examined galaxies undergoing starbursts, it... the penetrating vision of the Hubble Space Telescope, they have seen the lights... astronomers. Two years ago the Hubble Space Telescope took this picture of NGC.... Since we made this prediction, Hubble and ground-based telescopes have... by Brad Whitmore of the Space Telescope Science Institute, Arunav Kundu— now... European Southern Observatory, EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY, NASA (Hubble image); LUCY READING (diagram... as a postdoctoral researcher at the Space Telescope Science Institute. Zepf is now..., Whitmore, Paul Goudfrooij of the Space Telescope Science Institute, and others focused... COPYRIGHT 2003 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. HUBBLE HERITAGE TEAM (AURA/STScI/NASA...— HUBBLE HERITAGE TEAM (M80); EUROPEAN SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY (NGC 4365); BRAD WHITMORE Space Telescope... the extreme temperatures of outer space, for example, artificial muscles might... sunlight, which consequently escapes into space and does not contribute to... nation to send people into space. Although representatives of three dozen... become the newest superpower in space SHENZHOU 5, China’s first manned spacecraft... into space. www.sciam.com COPYRIGHT 2003 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. space experts... Russian Soyuz vessel. But China’s space agency built several key systems... program, the Chinese Academy of Space Technology, has been secretive about... near Qing- Within a decade, China’s space activities may cessful, China will... its own space station in Earth orbit. Within a decade, China’s space activities... European Space Agency. And if China becomes the most important space power after the U.S., an entirely new “space race” may... nitrogen tetrox- Overview/China’s Manned Space Program Since 1992 China has.... ■ China’s government expects its manned space program to enhance the nation...-degree inclination of the International Space Station. To return to Earth... Harvey, author of The Chinese Space Programme: From Conception to Future... of misperceptions about the Chinese space program,” Harvey says, referring to... articles on the U.S. and Russian space programs. His interests include spaceflight... and reliability, the contribution of space activities to national power, and... world’s space programs. Since February he has been the space consultant for...: “After China and Russia signed a space cooperation agreement in 1996, the... manned spaceflight. Russia’s experience in space technology 80 spacecraft, which then... Mir space station, the APAS89 is used to dock NASA’s space shuttles to the International Space Station (ISS). Although..., has a limited amount of cabin space, small stature is a requirement: each... still in dispute. One Chinese space enthusiast coined the term taikonaut... space.” Chinese officials and newspapers prefer yuhangyuan, which roughly translates as “space... and training. The new China Space Center in Aerospace City, a southwestern... to a collection of pressure chambers, space-vehicle simulators, a centrifuge and a landing... Beijing, has spacecraft-integration halls, space-environment chambers (including the world... a different inclination than the International Space Station’s, the Namibian base could... government anticipates that a successful manned space program will enhance China’s world... commercial power. Furthermore, China sees space technology as critical to quickly... in areas such as computers, space materials, manufacturing technology, electronic equipment... build an impressive stand-alone space capability on a narrow technological base... on the space shuttle every year. The burgeoning Chinese space program is already beginning to eclipse the European Space Agency... docking the Shenzhou with a small space laboratory. The aforementioned 2002 article... for communications, weather, navigation and space research. Chinese officials have also... ESA’s second-ranked position in space research (after the U.S.). Otherwise, Bonnet... the Europeans within a decade. Many space experts agree that China’s drive... Europe into space later.” As evidence of their determination, China’s space officials... technology for manned spacecraft and space vehicles, and will launch a skylab... manned space station to resolve problems related to large-scale space science... development of outer space.” Phillip S. Clark, a British space consultant specializing in Russian and Chinese technology, expects China’s space agency to launch a small 12... only incrementally more. According to space experts such as Harvey, boosting.... Basic Books, 1996. The Chinese Space Program: A Mystery within a Maze. Joan... Publishing Company, 1998. The Chinese Space Programme: From Conception to Future... “‘since it uses the available space efficiently and permits a simplified design...