Спутник ФКИ. INTEGRAL. [Редактировать]

Космический аппарат "INTEGRAL" является гамма-телескопом "INTEGRAL" (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory - "международная астрофизическая гамма-обсерватория"). Российская Федерация по соглашению с Европейским Космическим агентством произвела запуск этой международной астрофизической гамма-лаборатории, созданной совместными усилиями ряда европейских стран, в рамках Федеральной космической программы России в обмен на предоставляемое время наблюдения.

 "INTEGRAL" был выведен РКН "Протон-К" с РБ "ДМ-2" на переходную наклонную эллиптическую орбиту с параметрами Ha=152 тыс. км и Hn=687 км и наклонением 51.5 градусов. Перевод на рабочую орбиту, отличающуюся перигеем в 9000 км и периодом обращения в 72 часа, будет осуществлен собственной двигательной установкой КА.

Это ключевой проект следующего десятилетия в области гамма-астрономии и астрофизики высоких энергий, направленный на проведение сверхтонкой гамма-спектроскопии космических излучений и построение детальных изображений неба в диапазоне энергий от 15 кэВ до 10 МэВ с одновременным мониторингом космических источников в рентгеновском (3-35 кэВ) и оптическом (V-полоса, 550 нм) диапазонах.

"INTEGRAL" станет первой ядерной лабораторией в космосе, т.е. лабораторией, способной исследовать излучение в линиях аннигиляции электронов-позитронов и в ядерных гамма-линиях. Начальный перигей орбиты будет превышать 9000 км, что позволит проводить со спутника практически непрерывные наблюдения в условиях постоянного фона вне радиационных поясов Земли. Номинальное время жизни миссии - 2 года с возможным продлением до 5 лет. Комплекс научной аппаратуры включает охлаждаемый германиевый гамма-спектрометр (SPI), гамма-телескоп (IBIS) и рентгеновский телескоп (JEM-X), способные строить изображения неба с разрешением несколько минут дуги, а также небольшой оптический телескоп (OMC).

В 1993 г. проект ИНТЕГРАЛ был выбран для реализации как второй проект среднего класса в научной программе Европейского Космического Агентства (ЕКА). Проект разрабатывался ЕКА в кооперации с Российским Авиационно-Космическим Агентством (Росавиакосмос) и НАСА. Участие России в проекте было инициировано Российской Академией Наук (РАН) в 1991 г. и закреплено Соглашением между Росавиакосмосом и ЕКА, подписанным Генеральным Директором Росавиакосмоса Ю.Коптевым и Генеральным Директором ЕКА А.Родотой 18 ноября 1997 г. и введенным в действие распоряжением Правительства РФ от 17 сентября 1999 г., подписанным В.Путиным.

Российские ученые получат приблизительно 25% данных всех наблюдений (24% в Основной программе и 27% в Общей программе) через Российский Центр Научных Данных Проекта (РЦНД), организованный в Институте Космических Исследований РАН (ИКИ РАН).

"INTEGRAL" станет проектом типа "национальная обсерватория". Это значит, что любой ученый из любого российского научного института, университета или обсерватории сможет подать заявку на проведение конкретного наблюдения и в случае успеха (если заявка будет одобрена Российским и Европейским Комитетами по Распределению Наблюдательного Времени) - получить данные наблюдений для обработки и анализа. При этом ученый будет обладать исключительным правом на проведение анализа данных наблюдений и публикацию всех полученных научных результатов в течение года с момента поступления данных. По прошествии года данные будут переправлены в архив, где они станут доступными для всех.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics LaboratoryНайтиНайти
227540НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - Европа
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США
3Страна оператор(владелец) - Россия
4Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
5Тип орбиты - Элиптическая
6Страна производитель - Италия
7Страна производитель - Международные

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12003-10-26. Один из инструментов перешел в режим безопасности поскольку датчики указали на повышенную радиациюТэги: INTEGRAL

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг4100.0
2Масса (полезная нагрузка), кг2000
3Диаметр, метра3.7
4Высота, метра5

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град56.8
2Апогей, км155420.5
3Перигей, км7386.2
4Период, минут4313.3
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км87774

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2002-048A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (аппарат), млн. долл.330
2Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2003-01-0111.9
3Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2003-01-0151.2

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром Байконур
2Дата пуска2002-10-17 at 04:41:00 UTC
3Полезная нагрузка 1xINTEGRAL
4Ракета-носитель 1xПротон-К с РБ «ДМ-5»

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... error (2) (2) Gain error (2) Differential linearity Integral linearity error (2) error (2) Conditions Typ...(2) |ED| Differential linearity error(2) |EL| Integral linearity error(2) Conditions Typ Max... and the ideal one. EL = Integral linearity error: maximum deviation between...



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... Noah lives in plays an integral role in the novel. In... Allie every day are all integral parts of this novel. And...



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... RECAUDACION R18782 B18594234 MEZQUITA DISEñO INTEGRAL SL RESOLUCION APLAZAMIENTO/FRACCIONAMIENTO: 0999075446572...ón censal integral - Acuerdo 0999063970831 GESTION G23600 B23296247 HALMAN-J SL Depuración censal integral - Acuerdo 0999064518595 GESTION G23600 B23296346 P R SYSTEM SL Depuración censal integral... integral - Acuerdo 0999055546335 GESTION G23600 B23495047 WINZEP SISTEMAS SL Depuración censal integral...ón censal integral - Acuerdo 0999055546115 GESTION G23600 B23505886 PADAMAJO SL Depuración censal integral... 0999105434442 GESTION G26600 B26298489 MANTENIMIEN INTEGRAL ESTABLECIMIENTOS NOTIFICACION ACUERDO DE INICIO... INTEGRAL UNICOR SL EXIGENCIA REDUCCION PRACTICADA 0999104577872 GESTION G03066 B53155180 CENTRO INTEGRAL UNICOR SL EXIGENCIA REDUCCION PRACTICADA 0999104577881 GESTION G03066 B53155180 CENTRO INTEGRAL... R29600 B92939784 JUPITER GESTION AUDIOVISUAL INTEGRAL S LIQ. EN EJECUTIVA A2960109536001310 0999064005766... J.J. E. IMPORTACION-EXPORTACION, S.R.L CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999100769966 GESTION G46222 B97412936 PINTURAS... INTEGRAL NOVOCONSULTING SL EXIGENCIA REDUCCION PRACTICADA 0999108981933 GESTION G50600 B99012825 GESTION INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089067048 GESTION G03063 E03407681 BAR CABALLO, CB CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089064179 GESTION G03063 E03442738 CONSTRUCCIONES JOYMA CB CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089066561 GESTION G03063 E53023073 SERVIRAPIT CB CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089067020 GESTION G03063 E53317665 FONT Y ANDRADE CB CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089065535 GESTION G03063 E53330635 ZEUS CB CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089065562 GESTION G03063 E53402723 MAR BLAU CB CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089068038 GESTION G03063 E53414090 ART CONSTRUCCIONES CB CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089068880 GESTION G03063 E53467049 MADAME BUTTERFLY CB CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089068065 GESTION G03063 E53674529 KARIAN CB CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089068624 GESTION G03063 E53678009 CARRILLO TEAM, CB CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089069165 GESTION G03063 E53951224 PARTY TIME CB CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089068010 GESTION G03063 G53360541 THE WORLD OUTREACH CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089069412 GESTION G03063 J03791076 XABIA MEDITERRANEA SC CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089065609 GESTION G03063 J53633368 MALOCEKE SOCIEDAD CIVIL CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089065672 GESTION G03063 J53704946 MOUNTAIN CONSTRUCTION SC CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089065681 GESTION G03063 J53745527 REEF, S.C. CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089068083... CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089069037 GESTION G03063 J54034376 LASATA PROPERTIES CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089069046 GESTION G03063 J54058268 LA CASCADA SC CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... EXPORTACIONES ACEITERAS FEDEOLIVA A I Depuración censal integral - Acuerdo 0999053611527 GESTION G23600 V23405582... CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089066341 GESTION G03063 X0659868K MUNIAGURRIA JOAQUIN CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089066350 GESTION G03063 X0679392H THOMAS JEAN MARY CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089067726 GESTION G03063 X0771756Z SPEIGHT TERRY CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089064637 GESTION G03063 X0866055J CALDERON NESTOR CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089067680 GESTION G03063 X0902149C WASER FRANZ CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089066250 GESTION G03063 X1080749W OSBORN ANTHONY VICTOR CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089067616 GESTION G03063 X1389531D REELY ROBERT NORMAN CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089067560 GESTION G03063 X1481184F WARDLE ANDREW JONATHON CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089064884 GESTION G03063 X1508917W MILLER ELIAN FERGUS CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089067717 GESTION G03063 X1523081K BARRETT THOMAS HENRY CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089066130 GESTION G03063 X1545873C SCHMIDT HERBERT CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089067643 GESTION G03063 X1652795S BERNHARDT DIETER ERICH CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089065068 GESTION G03063 X1864395S BROWN JUSTIN TERENCE CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089065131 GESTION G03063 X1998352C WEDDALL RICHARD FRANCIS CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089065187 GESTION G03063 X2148615R CROUCH JONATHAN CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089069239 GESTION G03063 X2239277C CRAMER MANFRED REIMUND CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL 0999089065214 GESTION G03063 X2239506L ESSBACH MANFRED KARL E CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL... INTEGRAL 0999089067919 GESTION G03063 X2652212J HOLKE KURT JURGEN CARTAS DEPURACION CENSAL INTEGRAL...



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...% The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements...% The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements...% The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements...% The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements...% The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements...) The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements.... The accompanying notes form an integral part of these financial statements...



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... , (1.10.6) where IR ≡ 1 νR σ (ν) dν , (1.10.7) the integral being taken over a small range... which case a(t) ∝ t1/2 , and the integral converges. The proper distance 1 W. Rindler... × t2/(2+α/2) ), so for any α ≥ 0 the integral (1.13.6) again converges. If a source... to be constant in the integral over t , so that a(t)/a(t ) = 1 − H(t)(t − t), where H(t) = a˙ (t)/a(t). It... to convert the integral over time to an integral over temperature, again... normalized probability distribution, with unit integral. Values12 of O (T ) for M h2 = 0.15... proportional to B h2 / M h times an integral of T while the approximate formula... of fermions is 3/4 the corresponding integral for bosons, and after neutrinos... integral (3.2.4) that runs from q = −∞ to q = −Q−me . Likewise, the part of the integral... q = Eν . Similar remarks apply to the integral (3.2.5). With the rates (3.2.4)–(3.2.5) known in... ∓ 1)2 ni − n¯ i = 8πgi kB T 2π h¯ sinh The integral over x has the value π 2 /3 for... selection rules the integral converges even faster. Because the integral converges, the... through observations made by the INTEGRAL (International GammaRay Astrophysics Laboratory) satellite... a linear integral equation with D If we write Dij as a Fourier integral Dij...: D1q (t) = 1 , ∞ D2q (t) = t dt . a3 (t ) (The integral in the second solution converges... δρ, δp, A, B, etc.) is written as a Fourier integral and a sum over modes, as... calculate these perturbations is the integral of δnγkk (x, p, t) over photon energy... the dynamical equations.) Similarly, the integral over pˆ appearing on the right... . Integrating Eq. (6.1.36) over pˆ yields integral equations:6 expressions for (q, t) and (q, t) as... us to express J(x, pˆ , t) as a Fourier integral of the form J (x, pˆ , t) = (S) ˆ ν (q, q α(q) To derive...) as another line-of-sight integral: (S) ν (q, µ, t) t = −2 t1 + t exp −iqµ t (S) ν (q, µ, t1 ) dt... of the integral in Eq. (6.4.43), we can rewrite this integral as...) may be expressed as the integral t q 0 2qt dt → √ = √ a 3(1 + R) a 3 . Hence the linear... qˆ with qˆ i eij = 0 and eii = 0. The integral gives (q, t) = − d 2 pˆ 4π 3 2 − + (ˆp · qˆ )2 + 1 1 − (ˆp · qˆ )2 8 1 1 − (ˆp · qˆ )2 8 2 (T ) ˆ · qˆ , t) T (q, p 2 (T ) ˆ · qˆ , t) P (q, p . (6.6.20) Inserting the partial... on both sides gives the integral equation (q, t) = 3 2 t t dt exp − t1 ωc (t ) dt.... (6.6.33), as a line of sight integral (T ) ν (q, µ, t) t = −2 t dt exp −iqµ t1 t dt... individual terms, including even the integral of (∂N/∂t)r=s(t) . 6 This result is essentially... (x, t) can be expressed as a Fourier integral (5.2.21) d 3 q eiq·x eij (ˆq, λ)β(q, λ) Dq (t) , Dij... R neglected, and K = 1 − earlier that the integral over β is dominated by values... of B h and M h . Aside from the integral, dSilk 2 −7/2 2 −1/2 proportional to ( B h ) ( Mh ) . 2 depends...) while the factor multiplying the integral is 4πT02 N 2 e−2τreion = 519.7 µK2... + (β /97.6) S 2 (β /97.6) (β /97.6) . (7.2.52) The integral over β converges very rapidly, and... 1 π ±2 nˆ i nˆ j eij (ˆz, ±2) = √ sin2 θ e±2iφ = 4 Y (ˆn) . 15 2 2 (7.3.7) The integral over nˆ is given by a special... CTT , we encounter an angular integral ( ) ( ) d 2 qˆ Dm,±2 S(ˆq) Dm ,±2 S(ˆq) 365 ∗ . 7 Anisotropies in... alternative procedure, based on the integral equation (6.6.27):5 (q, t) = 3 2 t t dt exp − t1... S (κ, y) where S depends only on the integral equation S (κ, y) = × −2 + 3 2 Mh y 2 and 0 2 as well... the Fourier integral (6.1.18) and the line-of-sight integral (6.1.36): Jij... rapidly with q, so that the integral is dominated by S β ≈ 1, this approximation... by the Fourier integral (6.6.9) and line-of-sight integral (6.6.24): d 3 q eiq·x β(q, λ) Jij...ρµ ∂µ2 π(2 + 1) ( − 2)! 8 ( + 2)! = −δm,±2 × 12 + 8ρ +1 −1 dµ P (µ) ∂2 ∂ ∂ − ρ 2 + ρ 2 2 ∓ 8iρ ∓ 2iρ 2 ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂2 × 1+ 2 ∂ρ 2 ρ 2 eiρµ The integral over µ is now simply +1 −1 dµ ei...), for any plausible nS this integral is convergent at k = 0, where T (κ) → 1, but... k + O(1)]2 , so the part of the integral (8.1.28) for the correlation function... T (κ) falls off like ln k/k 2 . The integral (8.2.19) then varies only logarithmically... second integral in Eq. (9.4.15) converges for r → ∞, but the first integral diverges... first integral in Eq. (9.4.17) vanishes and the second integral is independent... matrix: d 2 θ L(θ )θa θb . (9.5.11) Qab ≡ d 2 θ L(θ ) Here the integral is over the transverse displacement... |δφq (t 0 /q )| ∞ 2 2 g ( /q) 2 j (qr) + j (qr) dr , 0 (9.5.59) The integral of j (qr) gives7 ∞ 0 √ π j (qr) dr... δϕ n (x, t) and (x, t), is given by a Fourier integral ∗ (t) , d 3 q eiq·x a(q, N)zNq (t) + e−iq·x a∗ (q, N)zNq Z(x, t) = N where..., because on such a trajectory the integral u2 gµν (x(u)) u1 dxµ (u) dxν (u) du... three dimensions. In particular, the integral of √ −Detg J 0 over a finite three... approached sufficiently rapidly, the u integral would converge even without the... of a number density, that the integral 551 Appendix H The Relativistic Boltzmann... gives no contribution to the integral over pˆ 1 .) *** In an important application... σR2 ≡ 1 √ ( πR)3 3 d x δM (x, t) e −x2 /R2 2 where the integral extends over all space. At...



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... and 2 π ( exp − X 2 ) The error function integral has no closed form solution...



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... of the pages is an integral part of the reading experience...