Спутник ДЗЗ. IRS-1A. [Редактировать]

Запуск ИСЗ IRS-1А осуществлен 17 марта 1988 г. советской РН SL-3 «Восток» с полигона Тюратам. Спутник был выведен на околокруговую солнечно-синхронную орбиту высотой 867 х 913 км с наклонением 99.03° и местным временем пересечения экватора в нисходящем узле орбиты 10 ч 25 мин, причем после двух лет эксплуатации местное время пересечения экватора изменилось до 10 ч 10 мин. Пролет над одним и тем же участком поверхности происходит каждые 22 дня), расстояние по экватору между двумя последовательными витками равняется 2872 км. Разработка космического аппарата осуществлялась под руководством спутникового центра национального космического агентства (ISRO Satellite Centre) с участием фирмы Hindustan Aeronautics (конструкция ИСЗ) и центра космических применений ISRO (ISRO Space Applications Centre, аппаратура построения изображений). Общая стоимость спутника составила 650 млн рупий. Масса ИСЗ в начале функционирования составляет 975 кг. Космический аппарат имеет форму параллелепипеда с размерами 1.6 х 1.56 х 1.1 м. Солнечные батареи с панелями общей площадью 8.58 м2 обеспечивают мощность энергетической установки 620 Вт в конце активного срока существования. В области тени электроэнергия обеспечивается двумя никель-кадмиевыми батареями емкостью 40 А-час. Стабилизация ИСЗ трехосная с точностью 0.5° по углу рыскания и 0.3° по углам тангажа и крена. Для определения дальности до ИСЗ используется когерентный ответчик S-диапазона, а для измерения радиальной скорости спутника — двухканальная доплеровская система. Расчетная точность определения параметров орбиты составляет 1 км (реальная точность определения параметров орбиты ИСЗ Irs-1A не хуже 400 м). Периодически, в среднем 1 раз за 45 суток, выполняются коррекции орбиты, благодаря которым отклонение трассы ИСЗ от определенной опорной точки на поверхности Земли не превышает 12 км. В качестве целевой аппаратуры на спутнике установлены три оптико электронные камеры на ПЗС: одна камера LISS-1 и две камеры LISS-2. Передача изображений со всех трех камер была начата 7 апреля 1988 г. после проведения цикла орбитальных испытаний космического аппарата. С тех пор по состоянию на конец 1992 г. было передано более 480 тыс.сцен. Записывающая аппаратура на борту ИСЗ отсутствует, все снимки передаются в реальном масштабе времени. Температура датчиков получения изображений поддерживается постоянной в диапазоне 15—20°С, аккумуляторных батарей 0—10°С, а остального радиоэлектронного оборудования 0—40°С. Помутнение отражателей теплозащиты, предположительно вызванное дегазацией космического аппарата, и изменение местного времени пересечения экватора привело в 1990 г. к возрастанию температуры отдельных бортовых систем и по некоторым показателям эксплуатационные характеристики спутника приблизились к технологическому пределу. 

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...-MSS Infra-Red Multispectral Scanners IRS Indian Remote-Sensing Satellite ISAS... their first rocket, the SS-1a Scunner, which is thought to... placed three other satellites (Diapason-1A in 1966 and Diadème...-2, the Indian Remote-Sensing Satellite (IRS), and the Stretched Rohini Satellite... radar, has been considerable. The IRS-1A [Indian Remote Sensing] was launched... 1988, and the follow-on IRS-1B in August 1991 by... optical spectrum. A third version, the IRS-1E, was lost through PSLV... rocket. The second generation IRS-1C and IRS-1D was launched in late-1997. The IRS-C is much more advanced than... market. For example, India provides IRS 1A and 1B satellite data with... multispectral resolution data from its IRS C which was launched on 28... by a Russian Molniya rocket.396 IRS C data became officially commercially available... Trade, 1987, Verification Brochures. 396/ “IRS-1C launched,” Press Release, ISRO... 1997, a follow-on satellite, the IRS D, was successfully launched thus ensuring... Indian satellites include the IRS-P5 and IRS-P6. IRS-P5 is scheduled... case of India. With its IRS 1A and 1B, Indian satellite imagery... the imagery provided by both IRS 1C and 1D, as well as the future IRS P-6 spacecraft. With 5.8 m resolution data in... value of the future Indian IRS P-5 satellite. Canadian, ESA, Japanese, and... such as the Indian IRS satellite system: probably IRS 1A and 1B satellites... Slovenia. but certainly the planned IRS C and D 5.8 m panchromatic and 25 m multispectral spacecraft. While the IRS-P6 will provide continuity in 5.8 imagery, the IRS-P5 would considerably boost the... LANDSAT satellites and present Indian IRS spacecraft (the latter providing imagery... km by 100 km $1550 IRS-1C,D PAN 5.8 m 70 by 70... Public Relations Unit, February 1995. “IRS-1C launched,” Press Release, ISRO...



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... its renowned Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) and Indian National Satellite System... search and rescue missions. The IRS satellites comprise the largest State... consultancy services. Global Marketing of IRS data Taking advantage of the... to market Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite data at very competitive... to directly access data from IRS satellites. Sustaining this segment of... Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IRS). The next milestone was in... Station. The launch of INSAT 1A and 1B in 1982-83... of IRS-1A carrying 70m and 35m-resolution CCD cameras. The IRS programme... the Landsat satellites, to market IRS data globally. Indian users also... and promote new technologies. The IRS programme was conceptualised and launched... to use the data from IRS. NNRMS was established in 1983... began almost in conjunction with IRS, and by 1989 GIS had... access of foreign entities to IRS data, can also enter into... plans for privately operated telecommunications.1A compromise was reached, which is... caters mainly to the Ministry. (1A) The National Atlas and Thematic... from India’s remote sensing satellite IRS-P3 to National Aeronautics and... purposes. The Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites are a series of Earth... Exploring the use of YAL-1A airborne laser by the US... earlier ones such as IRS-1C and IRS-1D had limited application... first navigational satellite, the IRNSS-1A, aboard the PSLV-C22 from... launch of an Indian satellite IRS-1C by a Russian Molniya rocket...’s. The Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS) including RISAT, CARTOSAT, RESOURCESAT and...’s best civilian remote sensing satellites, IRS-1C and 1D, new generation... satellites, besides ocean observation satellites IRS-P3/P4. Kazuto Suzuki is...



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... 3 MLV 1 Indonesia-Indostar 1 1 Japan-BSat 1A HLV 1 Japan-SCC-Superbird C ILV... 6.7 2 5 1.7 2 6 2.0 5 17 5.7 1 ESA-Artimis 1 Japan-DRTS 1A 1 China-DFH 401 1 China-Sinosat... 1 US-Early Bird 2 1 India-IRS 1D 1 India-IRS P4 1 India-Domestic Molniya... 1 India-Insat 2A 1 Spain-Hispasat 1A 1 US-GE Satcom C3 1 Arabsat... 1D1 Mexico-Solidaridad 2 1 Turkey-Turksat 1A 1 Turkey-Turksat 1B 1 US-AT...-Thaicom 3 1 Indonesia-Indostar 1 1 Japan-BSat 1A 5 6 1 Japan-SCC- Superbird C 1 Eutelsat-Hotbird... B3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Philippine-Mabuhay 1 1 China-APStar 1A 1 China-Chinasat 7 1 China-APStar 2R... 1 China-FSW 1-01 1 China-FenYun 1A 1 China-FenYun 2 1 China-FSW 1-02... C 1 1 India-IRS 1E 2 0 1 India-IRS P2 1 India-SROSS C 1 1 1 India-IRS P3 1 India-IRS 1D... 3 MLV 3 Russia-Domestic MLV 1 India-IRS 1A 1 Russia-Domestic HLV 1 Russia-Cosmos... 8 8 Russia-Domestic 3 3 Russia-Domestic 1 India-IRS 1B Soyuz 23 HLV 20...



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... 1. Original Kolkata Image taken from IRS-1A ♥ ♣❖✿❲q ✸r✸r✸ ✿ ✁ ♥ ✆ ✰ ✠s✢❡❀✔✁ ✸ ❆ ✆✦✹ ❆ ✠✦✆ ❋ ✢ € ✆ ❍ ✆✟✥✟✥✎✥r❑❲❅ ♥ ✆ ♠t♥ , 1. number of pixels on the... ❷ 2. Extracted regions in Kolkata Image(IRS-1A) with ♥ ➁Figure = 16, = 14, ✰ = 1.2 connected... 3. Extracted regions in Kolkata image(IRS-1A) by K-means algorithm with ➁ ➃ ➁ eliminating... Satellites (IRS) are given. Two image frames, one from IRS-1A and one... an IRS-1A image occupies, approximately, area on earth whereas, in IRS-1C..., green and blue bands. In IRS-1A, the grey values of each... from 0 to 127 whereas in IRS-1C, they vary from 0 to... the Kolkata city taken by IRS-1A and Fig.4 shows the enhanced... part of Kolkata, taken by IRS-1C. The values considered for... coarser (i.e., the image taken from IRS-1A), and the threshold is taken... 4. Original Barrackpore Image taken from IRS-1C ❧ the value of Trace... are 1.2 for the IRS-1A images, and 24 for IRS-1C image. These... the values of Trace( ) in IRS-1A and IRS1C images are significantly... the values of for Kolkata (IRS-1A) image is significantly smaller than... transform for region extraction from irs images. Patt. Recog. Lett., 19...



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... Image Receiving and Processing Systems IRS Indian Remote Sensing satellites ISAC..., the Terra/Aqua (MODIS), the IRS (OCM), the QuickBird, and the... 2007, comprises four satellites: Beidou-1A, Beidou-1B, Beidou1C, and Beidou... (INSAT); and (2) Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites. INSAT is designed for... 2014. 264 communication services, whereas IRS satellites is aimed at natural... communications satellite, known as INSAT 1A, was launched on 10 April... and tele-education.440 The IRS satellite system consists of a series... operational earth observation satellite was IRS-1A, launched on 17 March 1988... August 1991, the next satellite, IRS-1B, was launched. It was... including IRS-1C (1995), IRS-1D (1997), and others.441 The IRS system...-1 (17 October 2003), IRS P5/CARTOSAT-1 (5 May 2005), IRS P7/CARTOSAT-2 (10...://www.isro.org/satellites/insat-1a.aspx, accessed: 1 March 2013. 439...://eoedu.belspo.be/en/satellites/irs.htm, accessed: 1 March 2013. 442... 2013).443 Data from the IRS satellites are used in several....isro.org/scripts/currentprogrammein.aspx#IRS, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki... for communication services) and the IRS satellites (designed for earth observation... satellites.518 They are: Thaicom 1A, Thaicom 2, Thaicom 3, Thaicom 4, and Thaicom... communications satellite project.519 Thaicom 1A is Thailand’s first satellite and... Malaysia, 1992), 5.01. 520 Thaicom 1A was relocated between May to.... For more information on Thaicom 1A, refer to http://tcns.thaicom... launched six major satellites (Thaicom 1A, Thaicom 2, Thaicom 3, Thaicom 4, Thaicom 5 and...



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CONTRIBUTION OF THE INDIAN IRS PROGRAM TO THE EUROPEAN DATA ... Publication SP-686 ABSTRACT The IRS program includes a series of EO... the sensor characteristics of commercial IRS systems which are currently being... possible future role of upcoming IRS EO satellites for European data... Sensing (IRS) satellite system was commissioned with the launch of IRS-1A [3]. ISRO..., and the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites for management of natural resources [1]. The IRS satellite system is one of... today. The IRS programme, commissioned with the launch of IRS-1A in 1988... exclusively distribute data from IRS-P6 Resourcesat-1 and IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 in...), historical (IRS-1C, IRS-1D) and recent (Resourcesat-1, Cartosat-1) worldwide IRS data and... user community. Through Euromap, the IRS program significantly contributed to activities... remote sensing missions IRS-1C, IRS-1D, IRS-P6 Resourcesat-1 and IRS-P5 Cartosat..., and to integrate the Neustrelitz IRS ground segment into ESA’s Coordinated..., processing, marketing and distribution of IRS data. The data reception is... currently receives data from IRS-P6 Resourcesat-1 and IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 for... Model (DEM) products based on IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 in flight stereo...-S_V1.0_S2S3_P_004]. 3. CONTRIBUTION OF THE IRS PROGRAM TO EUROPEAN DATA REQUIREMENTS... the European Union, Euromap contributed IRS data to several EU projects... agreement European and world-wide IRS data are accessible to the... data from the current IRS-P6 Resourcesat-1 and IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 missions, as well as historical data from IRS-1C and IRS-1D. 3.1. Historical Data Optical remote sensing data from the missions IRS-1C and IRS-1D were acquired through... from all sensors. Table 1: IRS-1C and IRS-1D payload characteristics Sensor... red NIR SWIR red NIR 2.3. IRS and GMES Space Component Data... of Euromap to integrate the IRS ground segment into the GSC-DA infrastructure and to make IRS data therewith accessible to the... is the migration of the IRS catalogue service and its interfacing... respect to the orthorectification of IRS data. An XDibias-based ortho... 7 188 810 7 3.2. Data from Current IRS Missions The series of optical EO missions within the IRS program was continued with the launch of IRS-P6 Resourcesat-1 in October 2003... 5 days at the equator. Table 2: IRS-P6 Resourcesat-1 payload characteristics Table... green red NIR SWIR With IRS-P5 Cartosat-1, launched in May... in Table 3 and [11]. Table 3: IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 payload characteristics Sensor... 2.5 30 10 -5 2.2 27 10 3.3. Upcoming IRS EO Missions The next mission... added to the fleet of IRS EO missions is Resourcesat-2, whose..., Euromap provided a large amount of IRS-P6 Resourcesat-1 LISS-III data...-DA agreement, ESA ordered two IRS-P6 Resourcesat-1 LISS-III coverages... look mosaics 5. CONCLUSIONS With the IRS program, ISRO has established one... data from several IRS missions in Europe, the IRS program has significantly.... Considering the upcoming IRS EO missions, the IRS program has the potential... High Quality DSM Based on IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 Stereo Data. ESA...-2008, Orthorectification of SPOT and IRS-P6 Products, Final Report, Issue... Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad (1995). IRS-1C Data Users Handbook, Issue... Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad (1997). IRS-1D Data Users Handbook, December... Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad (2003). IRS-P6 Data User’s Handbook, October....isro.org/scripts/currentprogrammein.asp x#IRS (as of 9 June 2010) 5. d'Angelo...



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... northeast of the central cluster (IRS 1) are probably photodissociation fronts, although... is observed associated with the IRS 9 CO outÑow. In AFGL... N, NGC 7027, or NGC 7538 IRS 1 and compared with a catalog of... near-IR source IRS 1 (labeled here in Fig. 1a ; see also Fig... a Ñow centered on (or near) IRS 1 and inclined at a position angle... N IRS 1 . . . . . . . . . . . S140 N (star 1) . . . . . . . . . . NGC 7538 IRS 1 . . . . . . . AFGL 5180 IRS 1 . . . . . . AFGL 437 W . . . . . . . . . . . AFGL 490 IRS... northeast and southwest of W75 N IRS 1 are indicated ; in (b) the HH... marked ; in (c) 2 the NGC 7538 IRS 9 ““ H jet ÏÏ is indicated, and in... were obtained toward the (0, 0) position (IRS 1) and toward peaks in the... a compact clump coincident with the IRS 1 source in our map. However...Ñection nebulosity associated with the IRS sources and H II regions (see... outÑow associated with W75 N IRS 1. The redshifted emission (15 to.... 2 The o†sets are in arcseconds ; IRS 1 is at the (0, 0) position. and... of H II regions, of which IRS 1, 2, and 3 (with a combined far-IR... brightest. The nearby massive pro_ IRS 9 (luminosity D6 ] 104 L , also at... also included in our mosaic. IRS 1 and IRS 9 are, furthermore, identiÐed... to the northwest of the IRS 1È3 cluster are particularly striking. These... cavity swept out by the IRS 1 outÑow. The many Ðlaments... and to the south of IRS 1 and (2) in the northeastern corner..., and the two bows near IRS 1 with the compact bipolar out... and ionized wind associated with IRS 1 are certainly oriented at roughly... shocks. In addition to the IRS 1 Ñow, Kameya et al. (1989... associated with IRS 11 (IRS 11 is situated D1@ south of IRS 1), which... though roughly aligned with the IRS 1 CO outÑow, coincides with... H knots (to the south of IRS 1) that may be related. The.... As was the equidistant from IRS 9 in the northern S140N H 2 + continuum... at p.a. \ 309¡. case with the IRS 1 outÑow, the H ““ jet and... associated with a conds west of IRS 9. These could be second Ñow that extends perpendicular to the IRS 9 outÑow axis. This scenario..., Davis et al. 1997a). This ““ IRS 9Èwest ÏÏ outÑow may even... unidentiÐed knots south of IRS 1. We have also obtained a new... CO outÑows driven by IRS 1 [at the (0, 0) position in our map] and IRS 9 [at o†sets of (]120A, ]43A... seen in H emission northwest of IRS 1 (Fig. 7). This structure will be2... centrosymmetric about the bright source IRS 1 (Tamura et al. 1991). The... of IRS 1, IRS 9, and IRS 11 are marked with crosses (IRS 1 is central ; IRS 9 is in the bottom left ; IRS 11 is... 2-1 contours 2.122µ image IRS9 IRS1 IRS 11 b) FIG. 8.ÈIntegrated intensity CO... o†sets are in arcseconds from IRS 1 (in the rotated CO map... cometary nebula associated with the IRS source in AFGL 490, careful... outÑow driven by the IRS source. 4. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Comparison... 5180 (Centre) N B D A C S S1 2 20" a) H 2 + contin. IRS 1 20" b) FIG. 9.ÈImages of the... deviation (white). The position of IRS 1 is marked with a cross in... only a compact peak coincident with IRS 1 is observed at blueshifted velocities... ÏÏ observed to the southwest of IRS 1 (see also Figs. 2c and... the northeast of IRS 1 (Fig. 3), which suggests that IRS 1 may not be... the rotated map frame) from IRS 1 by (]20A, ]20A), then the... as a bipolar Ñow powered by IRS 1. Note that the o†sets of... emission to the northeast of IRS 1 could also simply be due... the northeast of IRS 1 also supports this interpretation (Figs. 1a, 2a, and... D200A to the northwest of IRS 1 (note the rotated CO map... the blueshifted CO lobe from IRS 1 is compact, it is oriented... molecular material very near to IRS 1 that could be entrained by.... Notably, all three outÑows (IRS 1, IRS 9, and No. 3, 1998 OUTFLOWS FROM... the central AFGL 5180 deviation. IRS 11) are oriented in approximately... bipolar CO outÑows from IRS 9 and IRS 1 are closely associated with...È254 (star 2) . . . . . . NGC 7538 IRS 1 . . . . . . . . . NGC 7538 IRS 9 . . . . . . . . . M (M ) _ 272 3.9 4.1 82.8 100 P (M km...È254 (star 2) . . . . . . NGC 7538 IRS 1 . . . . . . . . . NGC 7538 IRS 9 . . . . . . . . . 1.7 1.1 1.5 4.2 M0 (10~3 M yr~1) _ 16... W75 N, NGC 7538 IRS 1, and NGC 7538 IRS 9 outÑows are considerably... N IRS 1a . . . . . . . . . . . . HH 251È254 (star 2) . . . . . . NGC 7538 IRS 1b . . . . . . . . NGC 7538 IRS 9b... literature : For W75 N IRS 1 and NGC 7538 IRS 1, we list the total..., since in both regions the IRS 1 sources contribute most of the... that W75 N IRS 1, NGC 7538 IRSbol1, and NGC 7538 IRS 9 are indeed... W75 N, S140 N, and NGC 75348 IRS 1 the outÑow source is... 15 K arcsec ; NGC 7538 IRS 1 and IRS 9, 10 and 40 K arcsec. lobe... a cavity to the northwest of IRS 1 that was perhaps swept out... the blueshifted lobe of the IRS 1 outÑow (Fig. 8). We estimate... 13CO integrated intensities observed toward IRS 1 to correct for extinction (see... region. In particular with the IRS 9 outÑow, as well as... bow shocks in both the IRS 1 and IRS 9 Ñows. These are closely... both CO and H emission, an 2 IRS 1. extensive cavity to the northwest...



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... the following: (1) Two protostellar sources, IRS 1 and IRS 2, with a separation of ∼17... molecular outflow. The outflow from IRS 1 is much larger in extent... spatially with their CO outflows. (4) IRS 1 is associated with centimeter continuum... KЈ image is shown in Figure 1a, and the narrowband 2.12 mm... on the KЈ image in Figure 1a, labeled as “ISO 7 mm.” Two... with the emission. Source 1 (hereafter IRS 1) lies at the apex of... large blueshifted CO outflow lobe. IRS 1 is also coincident with the... counterpart exists for source 2 (hereafter IRS 2), which is the weaker 1 The... box, and the embedded protostars IRS 1 (“1”) and IRS 2 (“2”) are labeled. (b) Narrowband 2.12... 7 mm. The fluxes for IRS 1 and IRS 2 in the ISO LW2 (7 mm...) bands are listed in Table 1. IRS 2 is not seen directly at... NIR feature coincident with IRS 2 in Figure 1a is nonstellar, by comparison... coincides with the position of IRS 1 and has a spectral index at... and Fluxes Position (B1950) Name R.A. IRS 1a . . . . . . . . . . . . . IRS 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 59 02.7 11 59... arcseconds. a s The 3 cm position of IRS 1 is R.A. (B1950) p 11h59m02.61 , decl... the NIR emission associated with IRS 2, while HH 321 is coincident... the NIR emission associated with IRS 1. In Figure 2a is shown... locations of the ISO sources IRS 1 and IRS 2 (open squares). Overlaid on..., oriented approximately north-south with IRS 1 lying between them. On scales... systemic velocity. The positions of IRS 1 and IRS 2 are marked with open... this position due to IRS 1 (redshifted) and IRS 2 (blueshifted) is clearly seen... ISO sources visible in Figure 1a and not associated with NIR... driving its own molecular outflow. IRS 1 and its large-scale outflow... extended 1.3 mm emission associated with IRS 1 and suggested that this is due to a massive circumstellar disk. IRS 2 has been noted previously (Myers... the channel maps of the IRS 1 outflow presented in B97. Their..., and the outflow associated with IRS 2 can be seen in the... the I-band image and the IRS 1 outflow suggests that its blue... the blue lobe of the IRS 2 outflow suggests that this outflow... and red outflow lobes of IRS 1 suggests that the red lobe of the IRS 1 outflow has not penetrated the... (B97). It is likely that IRS 1 and IRS 2 are located at a similar... reveal a redshifted lobe to the IRS 2 outflow. Due to the large inclination of the IRS 1 outflow to the line of... the southeast part of the IRS 1 outflow (B97), which probably masks... the redshifted lobe of the IRS 2 outflow. However, the NIR image... is a possible counterflow to the IRS 2 blueshifted outflow lobe. A line drawn... knot through and extending past IRS 2 bisects the limb-brightened conical reflection nebulosity (connecting IRS 2 and HH 320) at the... the blue outflow lobe of IRS 2. Taking this to define the outflow axis, the IRS 2 outflow has a position angle of ∼Ϫ36Њ. Combining the IRS 2 CO J p 2 r 1 data with the CO J p 1 r 0 data of B97 for IRS 2 allows for an estimation of... the blueshifted emission in the IRS 2 outflow is ∼0.004 M,, significantly less... the southeast lobe of the IRS 1 outflow (B97—using CO J p 1 r 0 data... assuming optically thin conditions). The IRS 1 outflow is moderately optically thick... the optical depth of the IRS 2 outflow would have to be... less massive than the IRS 1 outflow, the IRS 2 outflow is still able... B97 show that IRS 1 is a class 0 protostar. Compared to IRS 1, IRS 2 is much... (§ 4.2). This suggests that IRS 2 is more evolved than IRS 1 and is most... highly peaked on IRS 1, and no obvious extension including IRS 2 is seen... 7 mm emission compared to IRS 1 suggests that IRS 2 is not surrounded by... angular resolution to determine if IRS 1 and IRS 2 are each associated with... following: 12 1. Two protostellar sources, IRS 1 and IRS 2, with a separation of ∼17... by ISO mid-infrared observations. IRS 1 is the brighter of the... 12CO J p 2 r 1 observations. The outflow from IRS 1 is much larger in extent... spatially with their CO outflows. 4. IRS 1 is associated with centimeter continuum... within BHR 71. IRS 1 is a class 0 protostar, while IRS 2, associated with much... are required to determine if IRS 1 and IRS 2 are a physically bound binary...



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... I   ‫‪www.irangeomorphology.ir‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮان ‪ ..............................................................................................................................................‬ﺻﻔﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‪1................................................................................................................................................... :‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻮارﻫﻬﺎي ﺳﺮي ﻟﻨﺪﺳﺖ )‪3 ................................................................................................................(Landsat‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪه ﻫﺎي ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ﻟﻨﺪﺳﺖ‪3 .............................................................................................................. :‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ﻟﻨﺪﺳﺖ ‪6 ..................................................................................................................................... :7‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره اﺳﭙﺎت )‪7 ................................................................................................................................ (SPOT‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ﻫﺎي ‪9 ....................................................................................................................................... IRS‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره اﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮس )‪12 ........................................................................................................................(IKONOS‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ﺗﺮا)‪14 ................................................................................................................................ (TERRA‬‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪه اﺳﺘﺮ ‪17...‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ﻫﺎي ‪IRS‬‬ ‫‪IRS1A    ‬و ‪ IRS‐1B‬ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺸﻮر ﻫﻨﺪوﺳﺘﺎن ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ در ﺳﺎﻟﻬﺎي ‪ 1988‬و ‪ 1991‬ﺑﻪ ﻓﻀﺎ ﭘﺮﺗﺎب ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻃﻴﻔﻲ و زﻣﻴﻨﻲ آﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ﻟﻨﺪﺳﺖ از ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪه ‪ MSS‬اﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪه ‪ LISS‬ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻃﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫در ﭼﻬﺎر ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺪرت ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ زﻣﻴﻨﻲ ‪ 72/5‬ﻣﺘﺮ) ‪ (IRS-1A/LISSI ‬و ‪36/25‬ﻣﺘﺮ)‪ (IRS-1B/LISSII‬اﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪، IRS‐1C‬اوﻟﻴﻦ ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ﻧﺴﻞ دوم ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ‪ IRS‬اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ در ‪ 28‬دﺳﺎﻣﺒﺮ ‪ 1995‬ﺑﻪ ﻓﻀﺎ ﭘﺮﺗﺎب ﺷﺪ‪IRS-1C .‬‬ ‫داراي ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﭘﺎﻧﻜﺮوﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺪرت ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ زﻣﻴﻨﻲ ‪ 5/8‬ﻣﺘﺮ و ﻋﺮض ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺮداري ‪ 70‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪه ﭼﻨﺪ ﻃﻴﻔﻲ ‪ LISSIII‬داراي ﺑﺎﻧﺪﻫﺎي ﻣﻌﺎدل ﺑﺎﻧﺪﻫﺎي ‪ TM2‐TM3 ‐TM4‐TM5‬و ﻗﺪرت ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ ﻃﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫زﻣﻴﻨﻲ ‪ 23/5‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺎﻧﺪﻫﺎي ﻧﻮر ﻣﺮﺋﻲ و ﻣﺎدون ﻗﺮﻣﺰ ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ و ﻋﺮض ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﺑﺮداري ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ‪ 140‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ IRS‐1D   ‬ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ ‪ IRS-1C‬اﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻛﻪ در ‪ 29‬ﺳﭙﺘﺎﻣﺒﺮ‪ 1997‬ﺑﻪ ﻓﻀﺎ ﭘﺮﺗﺎب ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮر ﻛﻠﻲ ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ﻫﺎي ﺳﺮي‬ ‫‪) IRS‬ﻫﻨﺪي( ﺗﻮاﻧﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﻧﻘﺸﻪﺑﺮداري‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ‪ MSS‬و ‪ TM‬ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ﻟﻨﺪﺳﺖ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ و‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼف زﻳﺎدي در ﺑﻬﺒﻮد ﻗﺪرت ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ زﻣﻴﻨﻲ )ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﭘﺎﻧﻜﺮوﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ ‪ IRS-1C‬ﺑﺎ ﻗﺪرت ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ زﻣﻴﻨﻲ ‪ 5/8‬ﻣﺘﺮ(‬ ‫دارﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٩‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪www.irangeomorphology.ir‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ :6‬ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ‪  IRS‐1C‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره‬ ‫ﻧﺎم ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره‬ ‫‪IRS...‬و ‪ 5‬روز‪  WIFS&PAN‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪١٠‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪www.irangeomorphology.ir‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ :7‬ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ‪IRS‐1D‬‬ ‫‪IRS-1D‬‬ ‫ﻧﺎم ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮر ﺳﺎزﻧﺪه‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺪوﺳﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ ﭘﺮﺗﺎب‬ ‫‪1997‬‬ ‫ﺳﻜﻮي ﭘﺮﺗﺎب‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫وﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻓﻌﻠﻲ‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﻧﺎم ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪه‬ ‫‪WIFS‬‬ ‫‪LISS_III...‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ‪(Resource sat-1) IRS-P6‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ‪ IRS‐P6‬ﻛﻪ ﺑﻨﺎم ‪ Resource ‐sat-1‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﺧﻮاﻧﺪه ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ و ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ﻫﺎي‬ ‫‪ IRS‬ﻫﻨﺪ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ در ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ ‪ 17‬اﻛﺘﺒﺮ ‪ 2003‬در ﻣﺪار ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪ .‬اﻳﻦ ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﺎﻫﻮارهﻫﺎي ﺳﺮي‬ ‫‪ IRS‐P1‬و ‪  IRS-1D‬داراي ﺳﻪ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪه اﻣﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺪرت ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪:15‬ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ‪(Resource sat-1) IRS...‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻀﻮي ﺷﺒﻪ ﻗﻄﺒﻲ‬ ‫‪ 28/3‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫)‪ (0/5-1‬ﭘﺎﻧﻜﺮوﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪه‬ ‫ﻗﺪرت ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ زﻣﻴﻨﻲ‬ ‫)‪ (2-3‬ﭼﻨﺪ ﻃﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪاد ﺑﺎﻧﺪ‬ ‫‪٣١‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪4‬ﺑﺎﻧﺪ‬ ‫‪www.irangeomorphology.ir‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ‪(IRS-2a) CARTOSAT-2‬‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره دوازدﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ﻫﺎي ‪ IRS‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺪرت ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ ‪ 1‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ زوج اﺳﺘﺮﻳﻮ و‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدﻫﺎي ﺳﻪ ﺑﻌﺪي ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪:24‬ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ‪CARTOSAT-2‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ ﭘﺮﺗﺎب‬ ‫‪2007 JAN10...‬در ﻟﻨﺪﺳﺖ ﻫﺎي ‪4‬و ‪5 ........................................................5‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ :3‬ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﻣﺤﺪوده ﻫﺎي ﻃﻴﻔﻲ ﺑﺎﻧﺪﻫﺎي ‪TM‬و ‪5 .............................................................. ETM‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ :4‬ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪه ‪6 ................................................................................ ETM‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ :5‬ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪه ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره اﺳﭙﺎت ‪8 ....................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ :6‬ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ‪10.............................................................................. IRS-1C‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ :7‬ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ‪11.............................................................................. IRS-1D‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ :8‬ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ‪13 .............................................................................IKONOS‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول‪:9‬ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره ﺗﺮا )‪14...



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... Satellite), and the Argentinian SAOCOM-1A. The same goes for oceanographic...-3 NOAA-4 NOAA-5 NOAA-17 FY-1A FY-1B FY-1C FY...-1 SPOT-2 SPOT-3 SPOT-4 SPOT-5 H´elios-1A H´elios-1B Pl´eiades-1 Pl...:15 22:20 IRS-1A IRS-1B IRS-1C IRS-1D IRS-P2 IRS-P3 IRS-P6 TES...