Спутник ДЗЗ. IRS-1C. [Редактировать]

ИСЗ IRS-1С 28 декабря 1995 г. выведен на солнечно-синхронную орбиту высотой 817 км. Контракт на запуск ИСЗ с помощью российской РН SL-3 с полигона Тюратам был подписан 18 января 1991 г. Головным разработчиком ИСЗ IRS-1С является спутниковый центр ISRO Satellite Center, кроме того, в разработке космического аппарата участвуют центр космических приложений ISRO (аппаратура построения изображений) и фирмы Hindustan Aeronautics (конструкция корпуса ИСЗ), Thomson Tubes Electroniques (усилители Х-диапазона на ЛБВ), ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (гироскопы системы стабилизации). На космическом аппарате устанавливаются многоспектральная (LISS-3) и панхроматическая оптико-электронные камеры, а также широкоугольная камера WiFS. По сравнению с запущенными ранее спутниками, ИСЗ IRS-1С позволяет получать изображения с более высоким пространственным и спектральным разрешением, обеспечивает запись изображений на борту (продолжительность записи информации ДЗЗ до 24 мин) и более частый обзор заданного участка поверхности Земли. 
Спутник выводится на круговую солнечно-синхронную орбиту высотой 817 км, с наклонением 98.69°. Пересечение экватора в нисходящем узле орбиты происходит в 10 ч 30 мин по местному времени, повторный пролет над одним и тем же районом для камеры LISS-3 осуществляется каждые 24 дня), а для панхроматической и широкоугольной камер — каждые пять суток. Масса спутника в начале орбитального функционирования составляет 1350 кг. Космический аппарат имеет размеры 1.6 х 1.56 х 1.1 м. Каждая из двух панелей солнечных батарей состоит из трех пластин 1.1 х 1.46 м. Мощность бортовой энергетической установки в конце активного срока существования достигает 830 Вт. В области тени энергию обеспечивают две никель-кадмиевые батареи мощностью 21 Ачас. Стабилизация трехосная с точностью 0.2° по углу рыскания и 0.15° по углам тангажа и крена. 

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...İK TEZİ HÜSEYİN TOPAN YÖRÜNGE DÜZELTMELİ IRS-1C/1D PANKROMATİK MONO GÖRÜNTÜSÜNÜN GEOMETR...ından hazırlanan “YÖRÜNGE DÜZELTMELİ IRS-1C/1D PANKROMATİK MONO GÖRÜNTÜSÜNÜN GEOMETR... Yüksek Mühendislik Tezi DÜZELTİLMİŞ IRS-1C/1D PANKROMATİK MONO GÖRÜNTÜSÜNÜN GEOMETR... for Topographic Mapping and Indian IRS-1C/1D Satellite; Chapter 3, Important Parameters... HİNT IRS-1C/1D UYDUSU ............................................................................................................. 5 2.1 TARİHSEL SÜREÇ ....................................................................................... 5 2.2 DOĞRUSAL DİZİ ALGILAYICILAR.......................................................... 8 2.3 IRS-1C/1D...üleme sistemi ....................................................................... 10 2.5 IRS-1C/1D donanımları ........................................................................................ 12 2.6 IRS-1C/1D pan algılayıcısının CCD yapısı .......................................................... 13 2.7 IRS-1C/1D taray...ü düzlemindeki düşey konumları (sağ)................................... 13 2.8 IRS-1C/1D görüntü çeşitleri ................................................................................. 13 3.1 Pankromatik...ğeri farkı dağılım grafiği....................................................................................................... 20 3.3 IRS-1C/1D yörünge düzeltilmiş pankromatik görünt...................................................... 26 5.1 IRS-1C/1D görüntüsü ve önemli yerleşim birimleri............................................. 33 5.2 IRS-1C pankromatik... derlenen YKN’lerin dağılımı ............................................................................................... 35 5.3 IRS-1C/1D pankromatik görüntüsü üzerinde Küme... IRS-1C/1D pankromatik görüntü parçaları ................ 46 5.9 Kenar belirleme etkinliğinin IRS-1C... 2.1 IRS serisi uydular ve taşıdıkları algılayıcılar ........................................................ 11 2.2 IRS-1C/1D... çalışmada, yörünge düzeltmesi getirilmiş IRS-1C/1D pankromatik mono görüntüsü kullan...ı IRS-1A IRS-1B IRS-1C IRS-1D IRS-1E (IRS-P1) IRS-P2 IRS-P3 IRS P5 (CartoSat 1) IRS P6...-0.68 0.77-0.86 13x13 2048 7 IRS-1C/1D uydusu, düşük radyometrik çözünürlüğe sahip...ılayıcı yapmak zor olduğu için, IRS-1C sistem mühendisleri, aralarında küçük bindirmeler... Merkez Yörünge doğrultusu Şekil 2.7 IRS-1C/1D tarayıcıların görüntü düzlemindeki...ın görüntü düzlemindeki düşey konumları (sağ). IRS-1C/1D görüntüleri, pazarlamacı şirket... Getirilmiş Harita Kuzeyine Çevrilmiş Şekil 2.8 IRS-1C/1D görüntü çeşitleri. • Radyometrik Düzeltilmi... ile yeniden örneklenmektedir (EUROMAP, 2004b). IRS-1C görüntüleri için iki çeşit... boyutu, 6.0 m olarak bulunmuştur. Haliyle IRS-1C/1D pankromatik görüntüsü için etkin... boyutunu koruduğunu göstermektedir. Şekil 3.3 IRS-1C/1D yörünge düzeltilmiş pankromatik görünt... katmak gerekir. 1:25000 ölçekli Şekil 5.2 IRS-1C/1D görüntüsü üzerinde 1:25000 ölçekli...’lerin IRS-1C/1D görüntüsü üzerindeki dağılımı Şekil 5.3’de gösterilmektedir. Şekil 5.3 IRS-1C/1D... dağılımı Şekil 5.4’de gösterilmektedir. Şekil 5.4 IRS-1C/1D pankromatik görüntüsü üzerinde GPS... tür kontrol noktaları, 25x25 km’lik IRS-1C/1D görüntü parçasının rektifikasyonunda... düzeylerinden ayrılamayacağını göstermektedir. IRS-1C 1:25000 Afin IRS-1C 1:25000 ATRC 10 10... 10 ATRC 1. derece polinom IRS-1C 1:25000 DLT IRS-1C 1:25000 Satellite Orbital Modeling... 80 70 60 1. derece polinom IRS-1C Yol DLT 9 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 60 50 YKN... 2.37 2.34 2.38 2.55 - IRS-1C GPS ATRC IRS-1C GPS Afin 10 10... 20 15 10 5 ATRC IRS-1C GPS SOM IRS-1C GPS DLT 10 10... sonuçları. 5.4 BİLGİ İÇERİĞİNİN ANALİZİ IRS-1C/1D yörünge düzeltmesi getirilmiş pankromatik...-5 Pankromatik a) IRS-1C Pankromatik Şekil 5.8 Aynı alana ait SPOT-5 ve IRS-1C/1D pankromatik...ır. b) SPOT-5 pankromatik a) IRS-1C Pankromatik Şekil 5.9 Kenar belirleme etkinliğinin IRS-1C/1D ve SPOT-5 görüntüleriyle karşılaştırılması. 46 a) IRS-1C... belirlenebilirken, IRS-1C/1D Kentsel Bölge Kırsal Bölge b) SPOT-5 pankromatik a) IRS-1C Pankromatik Şekil... şu noktayı da vurgulamak gerekmektedir: Bölüm 3’de IRS-1C/1D görüntüsünün etkin piksel boyutu... yorumlamalar da göz önüne alınmalıdır. IRS-1C/1D görüntüsü, pankromatik bir görünt...ına oldukça yardım ettiği görülmektedir. a) IRS-1C Pankromatik b) Ikonos RGB Şekil 5.12... Bu çalışmalar kapsamında, IRS-1C yörünge düzeltmesi getirilmiş pankromatik görünt... söz edilebilir. Görüldüğü gibi, değerlendirilen IRS-1C/1D görüntüsü için ulaşılan... piksel altı düzeyine ulaşılamamıştır. IRS-1C/1D görüntüsünün bilgi içeriği, benzer... sıkıntılara yol açacağı söylenebilir. IRS-1C görüntüleri 5.8 m yer piksel çözünürl... ve keskin tanımlanabildiği görülmüştür. IRS-1C/1D görüntüsü, 5 m düzeyinde normal piksel... KAYNAKLAR (devam ediyor) EUROMAP (2004b) IRS-1C, EUROMAP A GAF Company, http://www..., Germany. Jacobsen, K. (1998) Mapping with IRS-1C-images, ASPRS-RTI Annual Conference...



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....P. INDIA BALANAGAR,Edition HYDERABAD 500037, IRS-P6 DATA USER’S HANDBOOK DOCUMENT... : A reference document containing information regarding IRS-P6 mission, sensors, data reception.... : 1 / October - 200333 3.2.5.2 Telecommand nrsa 29 4 IRS-P6 DATA USER’S HANDBOOK Section... Control Centre 3.2.6.1 Computer Configuration for IRS-P6 3.2.6.2 Flight Dynamics operations 3.2.6.3 Multi... 4.2.1.1 New features of IRS-P6 with respect to IRS-1c, relevant for referencing... referencing scheme 4.2.6 Comparison between IRS-P6 and IRS-1C referencing scheme 4.2.7 LISS-III... 121 121 DATA DISSEMINATION 6.5.1 Introduction 6.5.2 IRS-P6 Data Distribution 6.5.3 Data Down... ocean applications. 1.1.2 Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Programme 1.1.2.1 Scope Remote sensing is... (PSLV-D2). IRS-P2 carried a modified LISS camera. IRS-1C and IRS-1D : These... routing and snow mapping. 1.1.2.3 Future IRS satellite Missions Encouraged by the.... : 1 / October - 2003 14 IRS-P6 DATA USER’S HANDBOOK 1.2 IRS-P6 MISSION OVERVIEW... overview IRS-P6 (RESOURCESAT) is envisaged as a continuation of IRS-1C/1D with..., as in the case of IRS-1C/1D. The new feature in... resolution of 23.5 m unlike in IRS-1C/1D (where the spatial resolution... the WiFS camera on-board IRS-1C/1D, in terms of spatial... the LISS-III flown in IRS-1C/1D spacecraft except that the... the WiFS camera flown in IRS-1C/1D. AWiFS operates in four... 2.2.1 Overall specifications of IRS-P6 nrsa Document No : IRS-P6/NRSA/NDC... 2.2.2 Isometric view of IRS-P6 (2) nrsa Document No : IRS-P6/NRSA/NDC... of the PAN camera of IRS-1C/1D) and 12,000 pixels... Figure 3.2.1 IRSTRAC functional organisation for IRS-P6 mission support redundancy at... Edition No. : 1 / October - 2003 33 IRS-P6 DATA USER’S HANDBOOK 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Operating... Control Centre 3.2.6.1 Computer configuration for IRS-P6 The spacecraft Control Centre... technical facilities for carrying out IRS-P6 spacecraft health monitoring, analysis... IRS-P6 in the multi mission environment along with IRS-1C, IRS-P3, IRS-P4, IRS.... nrsa The computer configuration of IRS-P6 comprises of: ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ Workstations for... 3.2.2 shows the computer configuration for IRS-P6 mission operations support. 3.2.6.2 Flight... Edition No. : 1 / October - 2003 35 IRS-P6 DATA USER’S HANDBOOK W.S. W.S. W.S. W.S. W.S. TO... Room Figure 3.2.2 Computer configuration for IRS-P6 mission operations support ◆ ◆ ◆ Transmission... remote sensing satellites like IRS-1C/1D, IRS-P4, IRS-P3, Landsat5, ERS and... receive data from IRS-P6 satellite. The existing IRS terminal provides backup... two X-band carriers transmitted from IRS-P6 satellite * A 7.5 m diameter Antenna System... given in Table 3.3.3. 3.3.3.4 Receiving System IRS-P6 satellite transmits LISS-IV... Edition No. : 1 / October - 2003 46 IRS-P6 DATA USER’S HANDBOOK 3.3.4.7 3.3.4.9 Backup... 3.4 DATA PRODUCTS GENERATION FACILITY 3.4.1 Introduction IRS-P6 Data Processing and Data..., a video GCP chip generated using IRS-1C/1D LISS-III/PAN data.... During IRS-P6 time frame a reference image-map database using IRS-1C/1D... is same as that of IRS-1C i.e., the satellite operates in a circular... of IRS-1C, in the visible bands is 141 Km. Unlike IRS-1C, the... to that of PAN of IRS-1C with 70 Km swath in... resolution compared to WiFS of IRS-1C. 341 24 days 817 Km... 810 Km of WiFS of IRS-1C. There is an overlap of...’. The orbit being similar to IRS-1C, the satellite completes 341 orbits... the same as that of IRS-1C. Path number one is assigned... IRS-1C Though the payloads of IRS-P6 are similar to that of IRS-1C, there are improvements with respect to IRS-1C. * The resolution... of IRS-P6, whereas it is 70 m in case of IRS-1C. * AWIFS... that of WiFS (188 m) of IRS-1C. * The high resolution multi spectral... size. As in case of IRS-1C, LISS-III is the primary... be same as that of IRS-1C as the orbit is same... much similar to that of IRS-1C. With respect to each scene... between IRS-P6 and IRS-1C referencing scheme The referencing scheme of IRS-P6 is almost similar to that of IRS-1C as... is same as that of IRS-1C. i.e. 142 Km x 141 Km. But... to IRS-1C as the line integration time is different. Unlike IRS-1C where... IRS-1C. The resolution of AWIFS is better compared to WIFS of IRS-1C... centre as in case of IRS-1C. But the size of AWIFS... as compared to 1 Km of IRS-1C. The overlap between A (or B) and... as compared to 1 Km of IRS-1C. 4.2.7 LISS-III referencing scheme and..., as in the case of IRS-1C four mono scenes A, B, C and D are... to 5 Km from 1 Km of IRS-1C to ensure overlap taking into... Orbital Calendar of IRS-P6 nrsa Document No : IRS-P6/NRSA/NDC... %. Quadrant : Twelve quadrants, similar to IRS-1C/1D Table 5.1.1 LISS-III Standard... 96 IRS-P6 DATA USER’S HANDBOOK ANNOTATION LINE NUMBER 1 (TOP) IRS-1C A CODES... format of IRS-P6 digital products is same as IRS-1C/1D fast... USER’S HANDBOOK 6.4 PAYLOAD PROGRAMMING 6.4.1 Introduction IRS-P6 Payload Programming System (PPS... 133 IRS-P6 DATA USER’S HANDBOOK 7 APPLICATIONS Introduction The launch of IRS-1C... with illustrations using IRS-1C/1D data. Document No : IRS-P6/NRSA/NDC... been accomplished using IRS-1C/1D data, the more versatile IRS-P6 data...



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...-use ................................................................................................ 26 3.2 IRS-1C Satellite Imagery Data.................................................................................... 26 3.2.1 Background .......................................................................................................... 26 3.2.2 IRS1C satellite imaging systems........................................................................ 27 3.2.3 Payload sensors and IRS-1C imagery data... Classification Methods ....................................................... 35 4 Preprocessing of IRS-1C Imagery ................................................................................. 35 4.1 Rectification................................................................................................................ 35 4.1.1 Global... System (GPS)........................................................................ 37 4.1.2 Rectification of IRS-1C panchromatic image using DGPS ................................. 39... Results........................................................................................ 54 5 Multispectral Classification of IRS-1C Imagery Data................................................. 56 5.1 Supervised Classification... Methods ............................................. 79 Contextual Classification of IRS-1C Imagery .............................................................. 79 VIII 6.1 Contextual Classification... 6.4.2 Results.................................................................................................................. 90 7 Edge Extraction from IRS-1C PAN Imagery Data ...................................................... 92 7.1 Edge... area....................................................................................... 23 Figure 3-2 Overview of IRS-1C mission ................................................................................. 28 Figure 3-3 PAN off... the IRS-1C imaging systems ...................................... 29 Imaging sensor characteristics on board IRS-1C..................................................... 29 Overview of IRS-1C data products.......................................................................... 32... of selected IRS-1C satellite data............. 32 Explanatory notes on IRS-1C data product... and coordinate system used for IRS-1C images ...................... 37 Table 4-2 The source... this study. The preprocessing of IRS-1C imagery data, including image rectification... module (Fritz 1996). The Indian IRS-1C has incorporated an advanced imaging...-use information using high-resolution IRS-1C imagery data. We proposed a new... Weinstraße. 3.2 IRS-1C Satellite Imagery Data This study uses the Indian IRS-1C satellite..., IRS-1C, was successfully launched using a Russian launch vehicle. One month later IRS-1C was declared operational (http://www.comlinks.com/satcom/srsintro.htm). IRS-1C... sensing data commercially available today. IRS-1C data is currently being received... Africa. 3.2.2 IRS-1C satellite imaging systems Figure 3-2 shows an overview of IRS-1C mission... (IRS-1C Data Users Handbook 1995). The important technical parameters of the IRS-1C imaging systems are listed in Table 3-1. 3.2.3 Payload sensors and IRS-1C imagery data IRS-1C offers the remote sensing... Figure 3-2 Overview of IRS-1C mission (Source: after IRS-1C Data User’s Handbook 1995... 3-1 Key technical parameters of the IRS-1C imaging systems Type Orbit Altitude... 3-2 Imaging sensor characteristics on board IRS-1C Sensor Spatial resolution Swath-width... 7 bit Radiometric Resolution, Quantisation Source: IRS-1C Data User’s Handbook 1995 WiFS... (Table 3-3). 31 Table 3-3 Overview of IRS-1C data products Level 0 Level 1 Raw... like merging, enhancement, etc. Source: IRS-1C Data User’s Handbook 1995 p.96... Classification Methods Chapter 4 Preprocessing of IRS-1C Imagery The purpose of image... and coordinate system used for IRS-1C images Map projection Transvere Mercator... postprocessing correction. 38 4.1.2 Rectification of IRS-1C panchromatic image using DGPS The... multispectral data higher spectral resolution. IRS-1C satellite system offers both types... 55 Chapter 5 Multispectral Classification of IRS-1C Imagery Data 5.1 Supervised Classification Supervised... Techniques Chapter 6 Contextual Classification of IRS-1C Imagery 6.1 Contextual Classification Techniques In... 91 Chapter 7 Edge Extraction from IRS-1C PAN Imagery Data 7.1 Edge Extraction... multispectral imagery data. In an IRS-1C multispectral image, a pixel footprint is.... Current Science, 1996. Special Section: IRS-1C, Vol. 70, No. 7. 124 DeKruger..., K., 1996. Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS)-1C-The Beginning of a New Era.... National Remote Sensing Agency, 1995. IRS-1C Data Users Handbook, Hyderabad. Needham...



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... Teknik Kurultayı Mart 2005, Ankara IRS-1C DÜZEY 1B GÖRÜNTÜSÜNÜN GEOMETRİK ANAL... büyüklüklü yörünge düzeltmesi getirilmiş IRS-1C pankromatik mono görüntüsünün sağlad... üzerinde durulmuştur. Çalışmada IRS-1C/1D görüntüsünün etkin piksel boyutu... edilmiştir. Anahtar Sözcükler: IRS-1C Uydusu, Yörünge Düzeltmesi Getirilmiş Görünt... Piksel Boyutu ABSTRACT ANALYSIS OF IRS-1C LEVEL 1B IMAGERY WITH RESPECT... POINTS The geometric accuracy of IRS-1C panchromatic mono image which covers... original ground pixel size. Keywords: IRS-1C Satellite, Path Oriented Image, Geometric... (Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner) ve IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) serisi...ışmada görüntüsü ele alınan IRS-1C uydusu pankromatik bandda 5.8 m yer piksel... üç farklı algılayıcı taşımaktadır. IRS-1C/1D’nin yörünge bilgileri, ta..., 2004; Kasturirangan et. al., 1997). IRS-1C/1D DÜZEY 1B GÖRÜNTÜSÜNÜN GEOMETR... 13x13 6000 2100 2048 7 7 7 Tablo 1: IRS-1C/1D’ye ait yörünge bilgileri...ılayıcıların bazı teknik özellikleri IRS-1C uydusu, düşük radyometrik çözünürlüğe sahip olmas...ında olduğu belirtilmektedir (Jacobsen, 1999). IRS-1C görüntüleri, pazarlamacı şirket taraf...ırlar (EUROMAP, 2004). Ayrıca IRS-1C görüntüleri için iki çeşit...üler için kullanılan, ancak IRS-1C ve SPOT gibi orta çözünürl... etkiler dikkate alınmaktadır. Bu IRS-1C/1D DÜZEY 1B GÖRÜNTÜSÜNÜN GEOMETR..., görünür ve kızılötesi (Landsat 5 ve 7, SPOT, IRS, ASTER ve KOMPSAT gibi) ve... alanının büyük bir kısmını örtmektedir. Uygulamada IRS-1C’ye ait yörünge düzeltmesi getirilmi... YKN-BDN verileri kullanılmıştır. IRS-1C uydu görüntüsüne ait teknik... Projeksiyonu ve Elipsoidi Yan Bakış Açısı IRS-1C 04.09.2000 14848 / 14170...ılan YKN-BDN kümeleri Şekil 1: IRS-1C/1D pankromatik görüntüsü üzerinde GPS... sayısallaştırılan YKN’ler, IRS-1C görüntüsünün geometrik analizi amaçlı daha... (2004)’de 25x25 km2’lik IRS-1C görüntülerinin değerlendirilmesi, bu... tür kontrol noktaları, 25x25 km’lik IRS-1C görüntü parçasının rektifikasyonunda kullan... ölçekli haritalardan üretilen YKN’lerle IRS-1C yörünge düzeltmeli uydu görüntüsünün geometrik... taşımamaktadır. Bu, özellikle parametrik IRS-1C/1D DÜZEY 1B GÖRÜNTÜSÜNÜN GEOMETR... doğruluk değerleri BDN IRS-1C 1:25000 Afin 10 YKN mx... 20 10 YKN sayisi Afin IRS-1C 1:25000 ATRC 10 YKN mx... sayisi 30 20 10 ATRC IRS-1C 1:25000 DLT 10 YKN mx... 40 30 20 10 DLT IRS-1C 1:25000 Satellite Orbital Modeling 10...ğruluk değerleri YKN BDN IRS-1C Yol Afin 10 YKN mx... 40 30 20 10 Afin IRS-1C Yol ATRC 10 YKN mx... sayisi 30 20 10 ATRC IRS-1C Yol DLT 10 YKN mx... 40 30 20 10 DLT IRS-1C Yol SOM 10 YKN mx..., T., 2004. Unlocking the Potential for IRS-1C Data Geometric Correction and Data..., IRS-1C, http://www.euromap.de/ docs/doc_002.html, 01 Nisan 2004 IRS-1C... doğruluk değerleri BDN IRS-1C GPS Afin 10 YKN mx... 15 10 5 YKN sayisi Afin IRS-1C GPS ATRC 10 YKN mx... 25 20 15 10 5 ATRC IRS-1C GPS DLT 10 YKN mx... 25 20 15 10 5 DLT IRS-1C GPS SOM 10 YKN mx..., M. G., 1997. Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS)-1C-The beginning of new era.... 21. Topan, H., 2004. Yörünge Düzeltmeli IRS-1C/1D Pankromatik Mono Görüntüsünün Geometrik..., A. O., 2004. Geometric correction accuracy of IRS-1D PAN imagery using topographic...



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... Teknik Kurultayı Mart 2005, Ankara IRS-1C DÜZEY 1B GÖRÜNTÜSÜNÜN GEOMETRİK ANAL... büyüklüklü yörünge düzeltmesi getirilmiş IRS-1C pankromatik mono görüntüsünün sağlad... üzerinde durulmuştur. Çalışmada IRS-1C/1D görüntüsünün etkin piksel boyutu... edilmiştir. Anahtar Sözcükler: IRS-1C Uydusu, Yörünge Düzeltmesi Getirilmiş Görünt... Piksel Boyutu ABSTRACT ANALYSIS OF IRS-1C LEVEL 1B IMAGERY WITH RESPECT... POINTS The geometric accuracy of IRS-1C panchromatic mono image which covers... original ground pixel size. Keywords: IRS-1C Satellite, Path Oriented Image, Geometric... (Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner) ve IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) serisi...ışmada görüntüsü ele alınan IRS-1C uydusu pankromatik bandda 5.8 m yer piksel... üç farklı algılayıcı taşımaktadır. IRS-1C/1D’nin yörünge bilgileri, ta..., 2004; Kasturirangan et. al., 1997). IRS-1C DÜZEY 1B GÖRÜNTÜSÜNÜN GEOMETRİK ANAL... 13x13 6000 2100 2048 7 7 7 Tablo 1: IRS-1C’ye ait yörünge bilgileri ve...ılayıcıların bazı teknik özellikleri IRS-1C uydusu, düşük radyometrik çözünürlüğe sahip olmas...ında olduğu belirtilmektedir (Jacobsen, 1999). IRS-1C görüntüleri, pazarlamacı şirket taraf...ırlar (EUROMAP, 2004). Ayrıca IRS-1C görüntüleri için iki çeşit...üler için kullanılan, ancak IRS-1C ve SPOT gibi orta çözünürl... (Turkey), 25 March - 1 April 2005 IRS-1C DÜZEY 1B GÖRÜNTÜSÜNÜN GEOMETRİK ANAL..., görünür ve kızılötesi (Landsat 5 ve 7, SPOT, IRS, ASTER ve KOMPSAT gibi) ve... alanının büyük bir kısmını örtmektedir. Uygulamada IRS-1C’ye ait yörünge düzeltmesi getirilmi... YKN-BDN verileri kullanılmıştır. IRS-1C uydu görüntüsüne ait teknik... Projeksiyonu ve Elipsoidi Yan Bakış Açısı IRS-1C 04.09.2000 14848 / 14170...ılan YKN-BDN kümeleri Şekil 1: IRS-1C pankromatik görüntüsü üzerinde GPS noktalar... sayısallaştırılan YKN’ler, IRS-1C görüntüsünün geometrik analizi amaçlı daha... (2004)’de 25x25 km2’lik IRS-1C görüntülerinin değerlendirilmesi, bu... tür kontrol noktaları, 25x25 km’lik IRS-1C görüntü parçasının rektifikasyonunda kullan... ölçekli haritalardan üretilen YKN’lerle IRS-1C yörünge düzeltmeli uydu görüntüsünün geometrik... (Turkey), 25 March - 1 April 2005 IRS-1C DÜZEY 1B GÖRÜNTÜSÜNÜN GEOMETRİK ANAL... doğruluk değerleri BDN IRS-1C 1:25000 Afin 10 YKN mx... 20 10 YKN sayisi Afin IRS-1C 1:25000 ATRC 10 YKN mx... sayisi 30 20 10 ATRC IRS-1C 1:25000 DLT 10 YKN mx... 40 30 20 10 DLT IRS-1C 1:25000 Satellite Orbital Modeling 10...ğruluk değerleri YKN BDN IRS-1C Yol Afin 10 YKN mx... 40 30 20 10 Afin IRS-1C Yol ATRC 10 YKN mx... sayisi 30 20 10 ATRC IRS-1C Yol DLT 10 YKN mx... 40 30 20 10 DLT IRS-1C Yol SOM 10 YKN mx..., T., 2004. Unlocking the Potential for IRS-1C Data Geometric Correction and Data....htm. EUROMAP, EUROMAP A GAF Company, IRS-1C, http://www.euromap.de/ docs... (Turkey), 25 March - 1 April 2005 IRS-1C DÜZEY 1B GÖRÜNTÜSÜNÜN GEOMETRİK ANAL... doğruluk değerleri BDN IRS-1C GPS Afin 10 YKN mx... 15 10 5 YKN sayisi Afin IRS-1C GPS ATRC 10 YKN mx... 25 20 15 10 5 ATRC IRS-1C GPS DLT 10 YKN mx... 25 20 15 10 5 DLT IRS-1C GPS SOM 10 YKN mx..., M. G., 1997. Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS)-1C-The beginning of new era.... 21. Topan, H., 2004. Yörünge Düzeltmeli IRS-1C/1D Pankromatik Mono Görüntüsünün Geometrik..., A. O., 2004. Geometric correction accuracy of IRS-1D PAN imagery using topographic...



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... HYDERABAD 500037, BALANAGAR, A.P.. INDIA BALANA IRS-P6 DATA USER’S HANDBOOK DOCUMENT... : A reference document containing information regarding IRS-P6 mission, orbit and coverage... Remote Sensing Satellite Missions 1.1.2.3 Future IRS Satellite Missions 12 12 12... Control Centre 3.2.6.1 Computer Configuration for IRS-P6 3.2.6.2 Flight Dynamics operations 3.2.6.3 Multi... 4.2.1.1 New features of IRS-P6 with respect to IRS-1C, relevant for referencing... referencing scheme 4.2.6 Comparison between IRS-P6 and IRS-1C referencing scheme 4.2.7 LISS-III... 121 121 6.5 DATA DISSEMINATION 6.5.1 Introduction 6.5.2 IRS-P6 Data Distribution 6.5.3 Data Down...’S HANDBOOK Description Overall specifications of IRS-P6 Major specifications of LISS... ocean applications. 1.1.2 Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Programme 1.1.2.1 Scope Remote sensing is... (PSLV-D2). IRS-P2 carried a modified LISS camera. IRS-1C and IRS-1D : These... being disseminated to users. OCEANSAT-1 (IRS-P4) : This satellite was launched... routing and snow mapping. 1.1.2.3 Future IRS satellite Missions Encouraged by the... overview IRS-P6 (RESOURCESAT-1) is envisaged as a continuation of IRS-1C/1D with... the case of IRS-1C/1D. The new feature in IRS-P6 LISS... resolution of 23.5 m unlike in IRS-1C/1D (where the spatial resolution... the WiFS camera on-board IRS-1C/1D, in terms of spatial... the LISS-III flown in IRS-1C/1D spacecraft except that the... the WiFS camera flown in IRS-1C/1D. AWiFS operates in four...) Overall specifications of IRS-P6 nrsa Document No : IRS-P6/NRSA/NDC... of the PAN camera of IRS-1C/1D) and 12,000 pixels... ANALYSIS IRSTRAC functional organisation for IRS-P6 mission support redundancy at.../03 Edition No. : 1 / August - 2003 IRS-P6 DATA USER’S HANDBOOK 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Operating... Control Centre 3.2.6.1 Computer configuration for IRS-P6 The spacecraft Control Centre... technical facilities for carrying out IRS-P6 spacecraft health monitoring, analysis... IRS-P6 in the multi mission environment along with IRS-1C, IRS-P3, IRS-P4, IRS.... nrsa The computer configuration of IRS-P6 comprises of: X X X X X Workstations for... 3.2.2 shows the computer configuration for IRS-P6 mission operations support. 3.2.6.2 Flight... Division Room Computer configuration for IRS-P6 mission operations support X X X Transmission... remote sensing satellites like IRS-1C/1D, IRS-P4, IRS-P3, Landsat-5, ERS and... receive data from IRS-P6 satellite. The existing IRS terminal provides backup... given in Table 3.3.3. 3.3.3.4 Receiving System IRS-P6 satellite transmits LISS-IV... Simulator 3.3.4.9 Backup Management System The IRS-P6 Data Simulator is a standalone... 3.4 DATA PRODUCTS GENERATION FACILITY 3.4.1 Introduction IRS-P6 Data Processing and Data..., a video GCP chip generated using IRS-1C/1D LISS-III/PAN data.... During IRS-P6 time frame a reference image-map database using IRS-1C/1D... is same as that of IRS-1C i.e., the satellite operates in a circular... of IRS-1C, in the visible bands is 141 Km. Unlike IRS-1C, the... to that of PAN of IRS-1C with 70 Km swath in... resolution compared to WiFS of IRS-1C. 341 24 days 817 Km... 810 Km of WiFS of IRS-1C. There is an overlap of...’. The orbit being similar to IRS-1C, the satellite completes 341 orbits... the same as that of IRS-1C. Path number one is assigned... IRS-1C Though the payloads of IRS-P6 are similar to that of IRS-1C, there are improvements with respect to IRS-1C. X X X X X The resolution... is 70 m in case of IRS-1C. AWiFS is designed with a better... that of WiFS (188 m) of IRS-1C. The high resolution multi spectral... size. As in case of IRS-1C, LISS-III is the primary... be same as that of IRS-1C as the orbit is same... much similar to that of IRS-1C. With respect to each scene... between IRS-P6 and IRS-1C referencing scheme The referencing scheme of IRS-P6 is almost similar to that of IRS-1C as... referencing scheme of IRS-P6 is adopted from IRS-1C itself. The size... is same as that of IRS-1C. i.e. 142 Km x 141 Km. But... to IRS-1C as the line integration time is different. Unlike IRS-1C where SWIR band has a size of Document No : IRS-P6... IRS-1C. The resolution of AWiFS is better compared to WIFS of IRS-1C... centre as in case of IRS-1C. But the size of AWiFS... scene, like PAN scenes of IRS-1C. But the overlap between the... as compared to 1 Km of IRS-1C. The overlap between A (or B) and... as compared to 1 Km of IRS-1C. 4.2.7 LISS-III referencing scheme and..., as in the case of IRS-1C four mono scenes A, B, C and D are... to 5 Km from 1 Km of IRS-1C to ensure overlap taking into... Orbital Calendar of IRS-P6 nrsa Document No : IRS-P6/NRSA/NDC... behind the products identified for IRS-P6 mission is : X X X Provide continuity... %. Quadrant : Twelve quadrants, similar to IRS-1C/1D LISS-III Standard Products... 96 ANNOTATION LINE NUMBER 1 (TOP) IRS-P6 A CODES: A B C D E F G H I J K STD B FIXED FULI... format of IRS-P6 digital products is same as IRS-1C/1D fast...’S HANDBOOK 120 6.4 PAYLOAD PROGRAMMING 6.4.1 Introduction IRS-P6 Payload Programming System (PPS... Web site : www.spaceimaging.com 3. IRS International Ground Stations operating in...



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... C-band satellites (Arabsat-1A, -1B, -1C, -1D and -1E) provided television... countries of Arab league. Arabsat-1C, launched on 26 February 1992... been launched; Astra-1A, -1B, -1C, -1D, -1E, -1F, -1G, -1H... the Sub-Saharan Africa. Astra- 1C, -1D Development Agency : Hughes Space... Boeing Satellite Systems) Launch Astra-1C : 12 May 1993 Astra-1D... Kourou in French Guiana. Astra-1C was launched on Ariane42L and... on Ariane-42P Orbit Astra-1C : GEO 19.2 °E Astra-1D : GEO 23.5 °E Weight Astra-1C : 2790 kg Astra-1D : 2924... : 3-axis stabilization Operational life : Astra 1C has a design life of 15... the operational ISRO satellites like IRS and INSATs. GSAT-3 or EDUSAT... satellites namely Hispasat-1a, -1b, -1c and -1d have been launched... communicating with Spanish forces. Hipsasat-1c and -1d provide civil communication... 41 and 42 show Hispasat-1c and -1d satellites respectively during... and Satellite Launch Vehicles Hispasat-1c, -1d Development Agency : Alcatel Space Systems, France Launch Hispasat-1c : 3 February 2000 Hispasat-1d : 18... Orbit : GEO 30°W Weight Hispasat-1c : 3113 kg Hispasat-1d : 3250 kg Payload Hispasat-1c : 24 Ku Band transponders Hispasat... 15 years Fig.41 Hispasat-1c construction (Courtesy: Hispasat) Fig.42... last two decades. INSAT-1B, -1C and -1D followed INSAT1A. They... abandoned in Sept 1983 INSAT-1C Development Agency Launch Launch Vehicle... and 1-S band Mobile Service Transponders, 1C band mobile communication feeder link... stabilization Payloads : 20 S band and 1C band transponders Operational life : Design... is also referred to as IRS-P5 satellite. CartoSat-1 Same as IRS-P5 satellite. CartoSat-2, -2A Cartosat-2 ...) Fig.102 Ikonos-2 (Courtesy: GeoEye) IRS Series The Indian remote sensing... operational remote sensing data services. IRS system was established with the... IRS-1A in March 1988. IRS-1A satellite was followed by IRS-1B, IRS-1E (P1) and IRS-P2 satellites launched.... Then came IRS-1C, IRS-1D, IRS-P3, IRS-P4, IRS-P5 and IRS-P6 satellites. Slated for future launch are IRS...-2/CLIMATSAT-1/ATMOS-1) and the IRS-3 series. IRS-2 series will be an integrated... of climate, ocean and atmosphere. IRS-3 series will have all weather... payloads and other passive instruments. IRS-1C Development Agency Launch Launch Vehicle... bands : Design life of 3 years IRS-P3 Development Agency Launch Launch... experiment : Design life of 1 year IRS-1D Development Agency Launch Launch... : same as IRS-1C : Design life of 3 years IRS-P4 (OceanSat-1) IRS-P4 (Fig... : Design life of 5 years IRS-P6 (Resourcesat-1) IRS-P6 (Fig.104) is... : Design life of 5 years IRS-P5 (Cartosat 1) IRS-P5 (Cartosat-1) (Fig.105... IRS-P4 (Courtesy: ISRO) Fig.104 IRS-P6 (Courtesy: ISRO) Fig.105 IRS... is also referred to as IRS-P4 satellite. OceanSat-2 is envisaged... the water. OceanSat-1 Same as IRS P4 OceanSat-2 Development Agency Launch... its own remote sensing satellites (IRS series) into sun-synchronous orbits... maiden flight of PSLV with IRS-I E satellite on 20 September 1993... October 1994 which launched the IRS-P2 satellite into the prescribed...



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... Satellite Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 IKONOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 IRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Landsat 1-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Landsat 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64... (Surfer: ASCII/Binary) • • IRS-1C (EOSAT Fast Format C) • IRS-1C (EUROMAP Fast Format C) • JFIF... Format • TM Landsat IRS Fast Format • TM Landsat IRS Standard Format • TM... µm Source: Space Imaging 1999 IRS IRS-1C The IRS-1C sensor was launched in December... 1995. The repeat coverage of IRS-1C is every 24 days. The... a 744 km swath width. The IRS-1C satellite has three sensors on... µm Source: Space Imaging 1999 IRS-1D IRS-1D was launched in September... resolution of 5.8 m. IRS-1D’s sensors were copied for IRS-1C, which was launched in December 1995. Imagery collected by IRS... Norman, Oklahoma has been obtaining IRS-1D data since 1997. For... and wavelength data on IRS-1D, see "IRS-1C" on page 59. Source... reference to the SPOT and IRS-1C satellites. The SPOT satellite provides...’s rotation. The Indian Remote Sensing (IRS-1C) satellite utilizes a pushbroom sensor consisting... sensor. Both the SPOT and IRS-1C satellites collect imagery by scanning... scanned within the SPOT and IRS-1C sensors, there is a unique perspective... Satellite—(IRS) satellites operated by Space Imaging, including IRS-1A, IRS-1B, IRS-1C, and IRS... spectrum. See also electromagnetic spectrum. IRS—see Indian Remote Sensing Satellite... Field Sensor—(WiFS) sensor aboard IRS-1C with 188m spatial resolution. WiFS... , 30 September 1999. Space Imaging. “IRS-ID Satellite Imagery Available for Sale Worldwide: IRS-ID Satellite Imagery Available for... 1999. Space Imaging. “Space Imaging—IRS: IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite).” at...://www.spaceimage.com/aboutus/satellites/IRS/IRS.html , 17 September 1999. Space... 3 IRS 59 IRS-1C 59 IRS-1C (EOSAT Fast Format C) 51 IRS-1C (EUROMAP Fast Format C) 51 IRS... Standard Format 52 TM Landsat IRS Fast Format 52 TM Landsat IRS Standard Format 52 TM Landsat ...



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... satellites . . . . . 1.4 Rohini satellites . . . . . . . . . 1.5 INSAT program . . . . . . . . . 1.6 IRS satellites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 3 4 8 13 32 2 Indian... for Rohini rockets • GSAT-1 dimensions; IRS-P6 dimensions • Aryabhata end-of... • End of operation dates for IRS? Are they all still working... radiometer covers, etc. • RS, SROSS, IRS control from ISAC? INSAT, GSAT... ISTRAC Bangalore Tracking SAC Ahmedabad IRS sats? MCF Hasan Insat control... - (2004+) 1B 2A 1D 3C 1C 1B 2B 2C 3A Insat...) Met data relay channel • Insat 1C (1988-63A) The third Insat... lock and was abandoned. Insat 1C Date 1988 Jul 21 Time... Orbit 638.6 282 x 36089 x 7.3 Insat 1C Date 1988 1988 1988 1988... altitude was lowered. Meanwhile, Arabsat 1C was bought from the Arabsat... Aug 31 1993 Aug Insat 1C Insat 1C Ariane CSG 1988 Jul...-36A 31 Table 32: Payload 1.6 IRS satellites The Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS) were built by ISRO to... resources of India. • IRS-1A (1988-21A) IRS-1A took off from... 975 kg. If like later IRS, the bus was 1.6 x 1.6 x 1.1m with solar panel span about 12m? IRS-1A Date 1988 Mar 17..., 80 kg prop • IRS-1B (1991-61A) The IRS-1B satellite had... from Bangalore. In 2001 the IRS-1B cameras were still operating... being used for systems tests. IRS-1B Date 1991 Aug 29... 32m res • IRS-P1 (1993-F03) The IRS engineering model, IRS-1E, was.... It was also known as IRS-P1. 32 During stage 2 separation... about -3300 x 348 km. IRS-1E/IRS-P1 Date 1993 Sep 20... Earth radiance monitor • IRS-P2 (1994-68A) The IRS P2 satellite was... satellite entered polar orbit successfully. IRS-P2 Date 1994 Oct 15... PSOM 5-6 cutoff Orbit SHAR 33 IRS-P2 Date Time 0506 0506... • IRS-1C (1995-72A) IRS-1C was the first of an improved generation of IRS... solar panel span about 12m? IRS-1C Date 1995 Dec 28 Time... x 98.6 Payload PAN LISS-3 WFS • IRS-P3 6-m res panchromatic camera, swath... with 189m res. (1996-17A) IRS-P3 was launched by PSLV... transient GRS 1915+105. 34 IRS-P3 Date Time Event Orbit IRS-P3 Date 1996 Mar 21 ... x 98.8 Payload WiFS MOESS IXAE • IRS-1D Wide Field Sensor Modular... keV. (1997-57A) IRS-1D is a duplicate of IRS-1C, with a LISS-3 sensor..., now 2 fire at T=0 and 4 later. [?]. IRS-1D Date 1997 Sep 29....38 727 x 826 x 98.6 35 IRS-1D Date 1997 Oct 18..., 70 km swath. (1999-29A) IRS-P4 was launched by PSLV... 2.8 x 2.0 x 2.6m with 11.7m span. IRS-P4 Date 1999 May 26... Satellite positioning experiment • IRS-P6 (2003-46A) IRS-P6, or Resourcesat-1, was... PSLV in 2003. It replaces IRS-1C and IRS-1D, carrying three improved... IRS Name Launch Veh. Site Launch Date Reentry Date IRS-1A IRS-1B IRS-1E IRS-P2 IRS-1C IRS-P3 IRS-1D IRS-P4 IRS-P6 IRS-1A IRS-1B IRS-P1 IRS P2 IRS-1C IRS P3 IRS...



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..., February 1999 60 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... of the report Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... onboard the Indian Resource Satellite, IRS-1C, was evaluated for defoliation assessments... defoliation in the verification set. IRS-1C LISS-3 is fully comparable to.../Keywords Skogsvitalitet, fjärranalys, gran, IRS, LISS-3, Västernorrland Bibliografiska uppgifter/Bibliographic... 31 Stockholm, Sweden Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... effects ............................................................................................................... 7 1.3.2. Forest stand parameters......................................................................................................... 7 1.3.3. Topography ............................................................................................................................ 7 1.4. IRS LISS-3.................................................................................................................................. 10 2. Material and methods... assessment algorithm and verification ..................................................................... 19 3.4. IRS LISS-3 versus Landsat TM .................................................................................................. 20... ........................................................................................................................................ 22 References.............................................................................................................................................. 23 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... onboard the Indian Resource Satellite, IRS-1C, was evaluated for defoliation assessments... defoliation in the verification set. IRS-1C LISS-3 is fully comparable to... be significantly improved. 4 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway.... The Indian remote sensing satellite IRS-1C was launched in December 1995... technical aspects. If data from IRS LISS-3 could be used as... to evaluate the performance of IRS-1C LISS-3 for assessing defoliation in... between mean stand defoliation and IRS-1C LISS-3 data. 2. To determine which... of IRS-1C LISS-3 and Landsat TM for defoliation studies 3. 5 Evaluation of IRS-1C... domain (Ekstrand, 1993). 6 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... factors are constant. 7 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... site (º) n = ‘relative azimuth’ (º) s- n 8 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... data was applied. 9 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway...-rapport B1321 1.4. IRS LISS-3 The orbital characteristics of IRS-1C/1D are listed... 2, 3, 4 and 5. More details of the IRS-1C and 1D spacecrafts and their... km for bands 2, 3, 4 185 km IRS-1C Landsat 4, 5 Orbit type Near-polar...). LISS-3 Table 2: Orbital characteristics of IRS-1C and Landsat 4 and 5 (modified from... 25 degrees. 10 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... Inventory, 1998). 11 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... selection. 2.3. Satellite data preprocessing An IRS-1C LISS-3 scene acquired on 25.... 2.3.1. Geometric transformation To transform the IRS data to a map grid, an... digital number 12 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... TM (Markham and Barker, 1987). IRS-1C LISS-3 Landsat TM Band 2, green... 0,4 percent respectively. 13 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... 9 (Ekstrand, 1996) 14 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... photo interpretation. 15 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... (b) and slope (d). 16 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... 60 % deciduous trees Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... -0,89 respectively. 18 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... composition on IRS data. Correction coefficients developed specifically for IRS data would... loss, % Figure 6: The relationship between IRS-1C LISS-3 band 3 (near-infrared) and... (mWcm-2sr-1µm-1) 19 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... would yield a slightly lower correlation. 3.4. IRS LISS-3 versus Landsat TM This... indicates that the performance of IRS LISS-3 for defoliation studies of... defoliation assessments. 20 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... completely new coefficients from the IRS data set. This however required... in Sweden. 21 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway... the near infrared band of IRS-1C LISS-3 and Norway spruce defoliation... Landsat TM data were used. IRS LISS-3 data may very well... was 3,1 percent. 22 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway..., R.,1995. Indian remote sensing spacecraft – 1C/1D. International Journal of Remote...:65-79. 23 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway...:2281-2297. 24 Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway...