Спутник ФКИ. Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration. [Редактировать]

КА IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopauseto Aurora Global Exploration) предназначен для исследования магнитосферы Земли и ее реакции на солнечный ветер. В качестве полезной нагрузки аппарата выступают:

  • Камера нейтральных атомов высоких энергий (HENA, High Energy Neutral Atom Imager) - предназначена для определения вектора скорости, энергии и массы нейтральных атомов в диапазоне 10–500 кэВ на нуклон.
  • Камера нейтральных атомов средних энергий (MENA, Medium Energy Neutral Atom Imager). Рассчитана на регистрацию атомов водорода и кислорода с энергиями 1–30 кэВ для наблюдения кольцевого тока, плазменного слоя, границы инжекции, а также ионов в каспе. 
  • Камера нейтральных атомов низких энергий (LENA, Low Energy Neutral Atom Imager). Рассчитана на энергии 10–500 эВ и предназначена для съемки потока ионов низких энергий из полярной ионосферы.
  • Камера крайнего УФдиапазона EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet Imager) разработана в Университете Аризоны в Таксоне для регистрации резонансного рассеяния солнечных фотонов на ионах гелия (длина волны 30.4 нм) в плазмосфере с разрешением 0.5°.
  • Сборка камер дальнего УФдиапазона FUV (Far Ultraviolet Imager) состоит из трех сенсоров который работают в диапазаонах 140–160, 121.82 и 121.6 нм. 
  • Радиозонд плазмы RPI (Radio Plasma Imager) - предназначенный для определения плотности и скорости плазменных облаков в пределах от внутренней границы плазмосферы до ударной волны по отраженному резонансному радиоизлучению.    

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1MIDEX/IMAGEНайтиНайти
2Explorer 78НайтиНайти
326113НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Страна производитель - США
3Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12005-12. Отказ системы энергоснабжения. Полностью потерянТэги: Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг536

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град92.9
2Апогей, км45170.3
3Перигей, км1715.0
4Период, минут853.9
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км29813

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2000-017A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость , млн. долл.154

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2000-03-25 at 20:34:43 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xImager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2 7326

Найдено 213 документов по запросу «Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Model for Lunar Dust”; and contributors, too numerous to list, in a Lunar Exploration... Related to Optimal Implementation of Science in the Vision for Space Exploration, 74... forward to the newly established Vision for Space Exploration (VSE), scientists are able to... exploration program providing global access is central to the next phase of scientific exploration of the Moon and is necessary both to prepare for the... underequipped to harvest these data and produce meaningful THE SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT FOR EXPLORATION... essential data for science and for human exploration. NASA should be prepared to recover data lost due to... robotic and human exploration, have the potential to be a cornerstone for lunar and... be selected for return to Earth. Nurturing a new approach to lunar exploration must be... CONTEXT FOR EXPLORATION OF THE MOON Zircons (which are incredibly difficult to alter... the exploration of the Moon, it will be necessary to use global remote... night to day from about 100 K to 400 K. 32 THE SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT FOR EXPLORATION... readily useful deposits. Exploration to determine the hydrogen distribution for resource purposes will... to the Moon’s thermal and compositional evolution. 38 THE SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT FOR EXPLORATION... details close to the center. 40 THE SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT FOR EXPLORATION OF THE... of the Vision for Space Exploration presents an opportunity to characterize the cratering... THE SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT FOR EXPLORATION OF THE MOON close to the total mass... necessarily easy to obtain. As has been the case for the exploration of... to study lunar origin and evolution and to develop technology for future lunar exploration. It carries an array of modern remote sensing instruments for the global... to the statement of task for the Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (see Appendix A):   The current study is intended to... Vision for Space Exploration. . . . [T]he primary goals of the study are to:   1.  Identify... relate to the near-term implementation of the Vision for Space Exploration, which... to extremely small lunar seismic signals. 57 58 THE SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT FOR EXPLORATION... essential data for science and for human exploration. NASA should be prepared to recover data lost due to... robotic and human exploration, have the potential to be a cornerstone for lunar and... Vision for Space Exploration The Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) and the returns to the... SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT FOR EXPLORATION OF THE MOON but they fail to provide phase... Since the launch of the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite in 2000, images..., as it would appear to a proposed second-generation Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE)-Extreme Ultraviolet..., not shown here.) Data from Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE)-far-ultraviolet instrument. SOURCE... keV to 50 keV from an equatorial perspective. Data from Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE)-high-energy neutral-atom imager instrument. SOURCE...) pertaining to the optimal implementation of science in the Vision for Space Exploration... RELATED TO OPTIMAL IMPLEMENTATION OF SCIENCE IN THE VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION Concept... “prepare for exploration.” Although a sortie capability is currently stated as continuing to be... a selected mode for early exploration missions (currently, sortie capability of up to 7 days... surface exploration tools provided to lunar crews. 80 THE SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT FOR EXPLORATION OF... exploration program providing global access is central to the next phase of scientific exploration of the Moon and is necessary both to prepare for the... for Exploration of the Inner Planets: 1977-1987 (1978) Update to Strategy for Exploration of... to inform early decisions about system design and operations planning for human exploration... lunar exploration component of the Vision for Space Exploration should be compared to other... to support an exploration strategy drafting meeting being planned by ESMD for mid... to 100 astronomical units from the Sun 90 THE SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT FOR EXPLORATION... 23 to 27 July 2006 for the 8th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and.... For the subsequent phase of Lunar Global Robotic Village and preparation for human exploration, we further recommend:   9. To promote... their attention to the protection of the Moon for sustainable exploration, research and... propose to use milestones of lunar missions for public outreach events promoting exploration... as the PI for the NASA Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration mission, which provided global images of... rover navigation for planetary surface exploration to intelligent terrain assessment algorithms for landing on...



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... the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (prepublication) (2002) Review of... ON THEORY, MODELING, AND DATA EXPLORATION GARY P. ZANK, University of California... on Theory, Modeling, and Data Exploration addressed basic issues that transcend..., and theory, computation, and data exploration. Because it was charged with... on Theory, Modeling, and Data Exploration) and the Virtual Sun initiative... aurora. 1 Frequency-Agile Solar Radiotelescope Wide-frequency-range (0.3-30 GHz) radiotelescope for... program to provide global-scale ionospheric and upper atmospheric measurements for input to global physicsbased... and power technologies required for the EXECUTIVE SUMMARY exploration of the outer... questions of global scope and inevitably require international participation for their success... strategies for mitigating the harmful effects of such disturbances. Second, global climate... been responsible for a large fraction of the changes in global mean surface..., the Moon). For example, Mars has no strong global magnetic field, and.... A current sheet known as the magnetopause separates the magnetospheric plasma from... Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) far-ultraviolet imaging team and NASA. MILESTONES: FROM STONEHENGE TO... the new era in the exploration of space was the startling... the existence of a boundary (the magnetopause) separating the magnetosphere from the... allow researchers to view for the first time the global structure of the...—and, in two cases, the exploration—of planetary environments has gone... the plasmasphere and transported to the dayside magnetopause, where it is lost... are the existence of the magnetopause, the existence of the extended... of heliospheric properties. Although direct exploration of interstellar space remains an... immediate goal for exploration. The complex solar 43 44 THE SUN TO THE... also begin to learn more about the next frontier of exploration, the... magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and in the magnetotail; particle... next decade will see extensive exploration of the magnetosphere of another... magnetopause? What processes are responsible for the rapid acceleration of charged particles to...? What process is responsible for the pulsating x-ray aurora at Jupiter? MILESTONES... the Vela satellites in the exploration of the magnetosphere and the... the Sun, making possible the exploration of the complete life cycle... field lines at the dayside magnetopause and reconnection of open field...) is designed to probe the reconnection process at the magnetopause and in... has become a standard tool for assessing the global activity of the magnetosphere... THE SUN TO THE EARTH—AND BEYOND magnetosphere (bow shock, magnetopause, magnetotail... the charged particles responsible for the Jovian aurora and determine how these... tools that have facilitated the exploration of the dynamics of complex... Theory, Modeling, and Data Exploration is designed to fill this need. This... aurora. 1 Frequency-Agile Solar Radiotelescope Wide-frequency-range (0.3-30 GHz) radiotelescope for... program to provide global-scale ionospheric and upper atmospheric measurements for input to global physicsbased... Magnetospheric Imager (STP), and MagCon (STP) will provide opportunities for a coordinated approach to..., Modeling, and Data Exploration in the companion volume to this report ((2003... to the development of advanced propulsion and power technologies required for the exploration... and navigation (e.g., for the use of single-frequency global positioning devices in... of the excitement of space exploration, the beauty of auroral displays... the newest results from spacecraft exploration of the Sun and of... excitement of scientific exploration (Figure 6.2). At Augsburg College, for example, a student analyzed... Flight Center, for example, a summer intern analyzed Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer data... driven intellectual musings and scientific exploration over the millennia. The space... the space environment and space exploration. Efforts to expand understanding, driven initially... listening to a lecture). • It could harness the excitement of space exploration through... in considerable cost savings. The exploration of such possibilities is strongly... as aurora production. Finding: Suborbital flight opportunities are very important for advancing... early days of solar system exploration, large missions such as Pioneer... questions of global scope and inevitably require international participation for their success... panels: • theory, computation, and data exploration, and • education and society. APPENDIX... Satellite Global Oscillations Network Group Geospace IMAGE IMF IMP-8 ISAS ISM Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration... Explorer Stereo Magnetospheric Imager Solar Orbiter Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Solar... for the NASA Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) mission, which is providing the first-ever global... imager on the IMAGE spacecraft, with particular emphasis on the proton aurora...



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... $8.15-billion contract for development of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), now... programme for resuming its robotic exploration of the Moon in June. Planned for... first in a series planned to develop a global exploration strategy for the Moon, Mars, and... issued a “Call for Improvements” on proposals submitted for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV... Vehicle (CaLV) planned for Moon and Mars exploration missions by the RS...-kg international Payload for Antimatter Exploration and Lightnuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) to study antimatter... GB/sec, are an optical imager for three-dimensional stereoscopic mapping at... -31- planned for launch in 2008. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA... laying the groundwork for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit, for long-duration lunar stays, and especially for... for an integrated plan for using the ISS to support NASA’s human space exploration... and Atmospheric Physics NASA’s Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite, launched to a highly elliptical Earth...’s future Mars exploration plan: a stationary lander called Phoenix, scheduled for launch in... Mars exploration funding through 2010 by over $2 billion, also calls for a competitively... ambitious programme for resuming its robotic exploration of the Moon. Planned for launch... 2020. Funding for Russia’s ambitious new lunar and planetary exploration programme, which...-lander exploration project. OHB is designing potential scenarios for German industry to play... the preparation for a sizable German contribution to a European or international lunar exploration programme. Japan’s Hayabusa spacecraft, launched on 9 May 2003, was scheduled for... propellants. Originally planned for use with the Crew Exploration Vehicle Orion, the... for Space Exploration and Propulsion announced contract awards of $30,000 each to... universities for nuclear power and propulsion research applicable to lunar and planetary exploration... classrooms to inspire students’ interest in space exploration. The Universe Awareness Programme for... a panchromatic stereo imager; (3) Monitor-O: a mission with a high-resolution (1 m) imager for the operational -108... SYSTEM Lunar Exploration SMART-1, the first ESA Small Mission for Advanced Research... of the Moon, and to survey resources for future exploration. SMART-1 lunar science... studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission addressed... and a demonstration of technologies for future lunar exploration) is under discussion. The... 2008 for survey measurements of the lunar surface as preparation for future exploration... context of preparations for future human exploration. The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILWEG) has coordinated a forum for... to Venus, concentrating on plasma and atmospheric studies. Mars Exploration NASA’s Mars Global... and continues to evolve with the Mars Exploration Programme. Principal goals for the... measurement of radiation, a prerequisite for future human exploration because of its potential... material for examination by instruments onboard. The findings from the Mars Exploration... ever flown on a planetary exploration mission for homing in on details of... scientifically worth-while landing sites for future exploration. Other science instruments on... Mars in preparation for robotic missions and then human exploration. Data from... maximum to solar minimum. The four TIMED instruments are the Global Ultraviolet Imager... X-ray imager for the diagnosis of plasmas having temperatures of 0.5 to 10 million..., with good prospects for applications for Lunar and Mars exploration missions. Some tasks... as a test bed and springboard for exploration. The research programmes, such as... microgravity research programmes to NASA’s new Exploration Systems programmes (for example, cryogenic fluid... a significantly low ballistic coefficient for future planetary exploration. The capsule successfully separated... spacecraft continues to act as a communications relay for the Mars Exploration Rovers on..., is intended to dig on Mars. ESA’s Aurora programme for future Mars exploration envisages a series of missions to land on Mars and ascertain its suitability for future human exploration. ESA has undertaken payload selections for a ‘Pasteur’ instrument suite for... consequent to any bilateral or multilateral agreements for joint solar-system exploration missions, and all international parties to date... for space agencies conducting solar system exploration missions on understanding the potential for... Center Global Solutions in Science and Learning Global Scale Wave Model Global Ultraviolet Imager... Lunar Exploration Working Group International Living With a Star program Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration Institute for Biomedical...



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... exploration .....................................................................................35 Technology – implementation and advances...............................................................46 Space and society ........................................................................................................51 Global... to conduct research into global climate change. >> On 30 March, Space Exploration Technologies... Exploration of Tempel) spacecraft fired its engines for 22 minutes 53 seconds to... innovative path for human space exploration that strengthens its capability to extend human... a fundamental reference for future scientific and human exploration missions to the moon,” said.... MDA will develop solutions for future space exploration missions including a universal docking... Earth observation, astronomy and planetary exploration probes for the next decade. NASA... Panel on Exploration (PEX) published a report titled “Toward a Global Space Exploration Programme: A Stepping... eager for the agreement since the Israel Network for Lunar Science and Exploration... can meet the special requirements for exploration in outer space. China sent... responsible for space activities met in Brussels to discuss Europe's goals for space exploration... the exploration and use of the outer space for peaceful purposes for 2011... Exploration Vehicle and its Ares 1 launcher offered no compelling reason for NASA to... justification for its plan to substitute commercial space taxis for the Orion crew exploration vehicle and its Ares I launcher as a route to... believe the technology has application for planetary exploration. After a year of economic... O. Paine Award for the Advancement of Human Exploration of Mars to Steve Squyres... of the Moon, and to survey resources for future exploration. The SMART-1 mission... to undertake survey measurements of the lunar surface as a preparation for future exploration... history. II.3 Mars Exploration Recent missions MGS (Mars Global Surveyor), NASA’s mission... of radiation, a pre-requisite for future human exploration because of its potential... ever flown on a planetary exploration mission for homing in on details of... readied for testing before launch in 2011. For the MEJI (Mars Exploration Joint Initiative), ESA and NASA have agreed to a framework for joint exploration of... for future solar system exploration is currently under way with results expected to... priority for EJSM and identify the future targets for outer solar system exploration... planet. More ambitious plans for the exploration of the Jupiter system are... environment will have significant consequences for future exploration activities that utilize radio... X-ray imager for the diagnosis of plasmas having temperatures of 0.5 to 10 million... produce a roadmap related to Advanced Life Support Systems for space exploration. 2. The 40th... Access to space opens up new frontiers for scientific research and human exploration... to be undertaken consequent to bilateral or multilateral agreements for joint solar-system exploration missions, and has been employed for agreements...-on workshop to develop foundational ethical principles applicable to planetary exploration. XIV.1 Significant Mission Events In general, events are reported for... the Moon, and to develop technology for future lunar exploration. Kaguya consists of... currently defining roadmaps and exploration architectures to plan ahead for future decades. At... a pillar to support a sustainable global space exploration programme. The COSPAR Panel on Exploration (PEX... is to provide independent science input to support a global space exploration programme while working to... June 2010 entitled: ‘Toward a Global Space Exploration Programme: A Stepping Stone Approach’, which... preparing for planetary exploration, an International Space Station (ISS) exploitation programme enabling exploration... of actors from the global space community. Space exploration is a multifaceted endeavour... years are leading to important decisions for a future global space exploration programme. In October... plan includes new destinations for human space exploration such as near-Earth... programmatic goals for Mars exploration. Launch opportunities during the 2016 to 2020 time...) is providing science directions for US space exploration in the next decade... in global space exploration programmes while enabling mature space actors to tap into a global robotics talent pool. COSPAR’s Exploration Panel will...-up approach to strengthen a longterm global space exploration programme, by offering opportunities to integrate... Global Ultraviolet Imager High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program Highly Advanced Laboratory for... a Star program Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration Indian National Balloon Facility National Institute for Space Research...



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... Energy Electron Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Electron Sources for Instrument Calibrations . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1.1 Ultraviolet Photocathode Electron... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.5.2 Calibration Runs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.6 How to use the Calibrations for Post-Launch Data Processing... Thermal Gas Systems . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.4 Gases Used for Thermal Gas Calibration . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Low Energy... Use of Artificial Signal Injection for Instrument Performance Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relative and... . . . . . . . 4.4.2.2 Calculating Particle Moments and Correcting for Spacecraft Charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2.3 Charge Neutrality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2.4 Gyrotropy...-Flight Relative and Absolute Calibration for Energetic Particles . . . . 4.5.1 Absolute Energy Response...-Flight Relative and Absolute Calibration for ENA Instruments . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 303... Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 New Techniques to Improve Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.1 Challenges for Small Series Production . . . . . . . . . 5.5.2 Instrument... Intelligence Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 Machine Learning Methods for Automated Calibration . . . . . 5.6.1 Current State-of... Ray Tracing Program . . . . . . . . . . A.3 Display Programs for Characterizing Analyzers A.4 Raytracing Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography... parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CEM relative detection efficiency for ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CEM relative detection efficiency... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Absolute detection efficiency of MCP for neutrals and ions . . . . . . Absolute MCP... a quadrupole mass spectrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability curve for a quadrupole mass spectrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . Bennett IMS... 3.23 3.24 3.25 Coordinate system for ion source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dead time effects... ELS . . . . . . . . ESA voltage-angle spectrograms for all azimuthal sectors . . . . . Lyman-α response... . . . . Calibration results for the SIS instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System used for the thermal gas... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermal gas pressure system used for ROSINA/Rosetta calibration . . . . Gas mixture inlet system for CASYMIR calibration system . . . . . . . . Vacuum system used for testing NGIMS... setup for the Apollo Lunar Orbiter Mass Spectrometer . . . . System to produce an... system . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neutral beam velocity distribution for a metastable time-of-flight system... 4.38 4.39 Comparison of transmission for different analyzer surface treatments . . . MCP... dependence of Geotail CEM efficiency for electrons . . . . . . . Extracting final sensor corrections... electron to infer spacecraft potential . . . . . . . . . . Energy dependence of Wind MCP efficiency for electrons . . . . . . . . . Wind 3D electron spectra used to correct MCP... relative MCP efficiencies for CODIF . . . . . . . . . . Pressure balance check for CODIF on Cluster... accelerator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSFC REF: Test chamber for the instrument Van de Graaff... 2.1 Background problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Key radioisotopes used for γ -ray calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 4.1 List of... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G.1 Atomic weights and isotopic compositions for all elements . . . . . . . . 545 H.1 H.2 H.3 H.4 Atmospheric gases... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NIST neutral gas fragmentation patterns for gases of aeronomic interest NIST... universe around us. However, for this to happen effectively, it is essential... always good intentions to set aside sufficient time for a thorough calibration, experience... available to check on-board calibration. This underscores the need for better... due to contamination (e.g. outgassing), environmental effects (e.g. atomic oxygen, radiation), or aging. For... particularly important for in situ autonomous systems that are intended to provide... space (e.g., for particular masses and energies) will become necessary to properly interpret... that are vital to progress in the field and, for that reason..., the material concentrates upon instruments for atomic and molecular particle measurements... is in space and to identify and compensate for instrument degradation that... available to support this project. We especially thank the ISSI staff for... case. Turning to neutral gas measurements, Figure 1.3 demonstrates, for the case of... either has to divide 1 2 1. I NTRODUCTION Figure 1.1: Typical oxygen spectra for different populations..., or provide a means to change geometric factors. For electrons the dynamic range... case for ions in the solar wind, particle velocities are constrained to...



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... Energy Electron Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Electron Sources for Instrument Calibrations . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1.1 Ultraviolet Photocathode Electron... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.5.2 Calibration Runs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.6 How to use the Calibrations for Post-Launch Data Processing... Thermal Gas Systems . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.4 Gases Used for Thermal Gas Calibration . . . . . . . . . . Low Energy... Use of Artificial Signal Injection for Instrument Performance Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relative and... . . . . . . . 4.4.2.2 Calculating Particle Moments and Correcting for Spacecraft Charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2.3 Charge Neutrality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2.4 Gyrotropy...-Flight Relative and Absolute Calibration for Energetic Particles . . . . 4.5.1 Absolute Energy Response...-Flight Relative and Absolute Calibration for ENA Instruments . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary and... Ray Tracing Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.3 Display Programs for Characterizing Analyzers . . . . . . . . A.2 Raytracing Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3 High... Standard . . . . . . . . . . New Techniques to Improve Calibration . . . . . . . . 5.5.1 Challenges for Small Series Production . . . . 5.5.2 Instrument... Intelligence Methods . . . . . . . . . Machine Learning Methods for Automated Calibration 5.6.1 Current State-of... parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CEM relative detection efficiency for ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CEM relative detection efficiency... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Absolute detection efficiency of MCP for neutrals and ions . . . . . . Absolute MCP... a quadrupole mass spectrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability curve for a quadrupole mass spectrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . Bennett IMS... 3.24 3.25 3.26 Coordinate system for ion source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dead time effects... ELS . . . . . . . . ESA voltage-angle spectrograms for all azimuthal sectors . . . . . Lyman-α response... . . . . Calibration results for the SIS instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System used for the thermal gas... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermal gas pressure system used for ROSINA/Rosetta calibration . . . . Gas mixture inlet system for CASYMIR calibration system . . . . . . . . Vacuum system used for testing NGIMS... setup for the Apollo Lunar Orbiter Mass Spectrometer . . . . System to produce an... system . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neutral beam velocity distribution for a metastable time-of-flight system... 4.39 4.40 Comparison of transmission for different analyzer surface treatments . . . MCP... dependence of Geotail CEM efficiency for electrons . . . . . . . Extracting final sensor corrections... electron to infer spacecraft potential . . . . . . . . . . Energy dependence of Wind MCP efficiency for electrons . . . . . . . . . Wind 3D electron spectra used to correct MCP... relative MCP efficiencies for CODIF . . . . . . . . . . Pressure balance check for CODIF on Cluster... and flight spare instruments Framework for automated calibration using transfer learning... accelerator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSFC REF: Test chamber for the instrument Van de Graaff... 2.1 Background problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Key radioisotopes used for γ -ray calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 4.1 List of... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atomic weights and isotopic compositions for all elements . . . . . . . Atmospheric gases of... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NIST neutral gas fragmentation patterns for gases of aeronomic interest NIST... universe around us. However, for this to happen effectively, it is essential... always good intentions to set aside sufficient time for a thorough calibration, experience... available to check on-board calibration. This underscores the need for better... due to contamination (e.g. outgassing), environmental effects (e.g. atomic oxygen, radiation), or aging. For... particularly important for in situ autonomous systems that are intended to provide... space (e.g., for particular masses and energies) will become necessary to properly interpret... that are vital to progress in the field and, for that reason..., the material concentrates upon instruments for atomic and molecular particle measurements... is in space and to identify and compensate for instrument degradation that... available to support this project. We especially thank the ISSI staff for... case. Turning to neutral gas measurements, Figure 1.3 demonstrates, for the case of... a 1 2 1. I NTRODUCTION Figure 1.1: Typical oxygen spectra for different populations of particles in... al. [1995]. means to change geometric factors. For electrons the dynamic range... case for ions in the solar wind, particle velocities are constrained to...



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0.09/5
... drew to a close, the Center continued to shine. Our employees prepared for every... the Executive Director for the Centennial of Flight Commission. To ensure a smooth.... Goddard offers opportunities for faculty members and students to work temporarily at... NASA Headquarters and assigned for technical guidance to each of the Centers... served as models nationwide for school districts seeking to improve Earth system... the Center’s resources for teacher training related to Earth and space science... Training by outside experts for employees who want to learn more about... and humaninduced changes on the global environment. Goddard is leading a pioneering...’s multidisciplinary approach for studying Earth science and understanding global climate change. Almost... each other on a daily and global basis. Terra’s wide array of... a new, 15-year global data set on which to base scientific investigations... sensors aboard the satellite, showed global surface temperatures and “spring greening... interactions, they must clearly understand global climatic processes and parameters. The... Forge, Pennsylvania, will add to the global archive of sunlit, cloud-free... want to monitor the state of our global climate may have to look... airborne laser altimeter and precision global positioning satellite receivers. Those same... relationship to hemispheric and global climate. The MODIS Airborne Simulator (MODIS stands for... the entire ice sheet, sufficient to raise global sea level by 0.005..., scientists have been trying to pinpoint its causes. For many years, researchers... carbon (soot) particles. Since 1975, global-surface temperatures have increased by... global temperatures to their highest level in the past millennium. Estimates of global... analysis to fully use the measurements. This SeaWiFS image of the global... of SeaWiFS is to provide quantitative data on global ocean bio-optical... SeaWiFS image above of the global biosphere depicts the ocean’s long... too strong for the gas to hold. It breaks out to the solar... an “invisible aurora,” which occurs along with the familiar visible aurora, also known as the aurora borealis (Northern Lights) in the Northern Hemisphere and the aurora... the presence of the invisible aurora by consistently detecting upward flows... aurora. The discovery provides the first detailed picture of how the aurora and its inverted companion function together to complete a huge... needed to account for them. Goddard researchers also reported finding a method to gauge... Mars Researchers with the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), a Mars-orbiting spacecraft... by instruments on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. New observations of..., which furl easily for launch and spring back to their original shape... Sun-Earth Connection spacecraft, the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration, lifts off from the Western... Vandenberg AFB, California. Called IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration), the spacecraft separated from the...’s initial pictures revealed that the global ebb and flow of hot... carries an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imager to detect solar EUV photons that..." (i. e., flows) sunward toward the dayside magnetopause, the cold, dense plasma of..., ice and life as a total global system, began with a flawless launch... to the edge of space for 100 days or more. In addition to... for doing scientific investigations. 2001 Launches HESSI - High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager... challenge in space exploration is access to data on the global interactions, structure... years as a tool for researchers to gain access to multiple mission data sets.... NASA used the instrument, for example, to develop the first farultraviolet prism... local produce growers to provide fresh fruits and vegetables for Goddard employees... JASON Project and the Institute for Exploration, discussing his explorations in oceanography... Center offers a location for Goddard’s engineers and scientists to share their work... treats its visitors to the latest in space exploration, space science and astronomy. Four large video screens are connected to...-connected computers invite visitors to investigate Mars exploration, the International Space Station... satellites for global, long-term forecasting. Both kinds of satellites are necessary for providing a complete global weather monitoring system. Andrews... For the Year Ended September 30, 2000 Notes to the Financial Statements For... centers established to assist NASA in its mission to provide for aeronautical and... is responsible for synthesizing, aggregating, and reporting accounting events to NASA Headquarters... tasks. R&D also provides for the institutional activities related to research and development..., NASA is permitted to assess depreciation charges for the use of facilities... S p a c e F l i g h t C e n t e r A n n u a l R e p o r t 2 0 0 0 49 Notes to the Statement of Financial Position For the Year Ended...



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0.11/5
... worked out and deployed for the first time for the MIRO measurements... measurements to be made to achieve this are: 2. THE U.S. ROSETTA PROJECT (1) Global characterization... inner coma (dust/gas interaction) (5) Global characterization of asteroids, including determination... Neutral Analysis (ROSINA); electronics package for the Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer... redundant sensors using different technologies for simultaneous and independent mass detection... contribution to ROSINA consists of a big part of the electronics package for the DFMS sensor. Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta... Rosetta mission requires telecommunications support for navigation, tracking, and telecom (command... is the sole U.S. interdisciplinary scientist for Rosetta. His tasks include modeling... in deriving a precise rotation period for the fluorescence and collision process...-photometric calibration; establishment and experiments for support. Supported investigations are: modeling... any identified resonances, and test for stable orbits. specific mission-critical... accounted for. Adjusting for all of these components were hidden challenges for the U.S. Rosetta project. A major component of the agreement to provide cross support for the Rosetta mission... been key to Rosetta support. DSMS Cross Support Services for Rosetta The application of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standards [7] applied to the acquisition and delivery of telemetry data, and for the radiation of telecommands for this mission. Two... not initially expected to commit DSN tracking assets for an ESA mission... of SLE used for Rosetta incorporates telecommand capability to a DSN station directly... used to make the connection are dedicated circuits established specifically for ESA... support for 5 On the telemetry side, return services are provided to ESA..., and provided the margin necessary for quality telemetry performance. Service Management... ESOC had time to resolve a number of outstanding issues, for example, the... is to be used for each defined track, could not be broadcast to... defined for a particular antenna and separate distribution mechanism had to be implemented to... the schedule, available to other users. 4. COMMISSIONING Commissioning for ESA missions has... spacecraft commissioning for Mars Express orbital operations. ESOC staff were to shift..., resulted in significant negotiations for DSN resources to insure the Project that.... 6 Table 2. Summary of Commissioning Milestones for the U.S. Rosetta Project Launch ........................................... March... 1 objectives of the commissioning exercise, for the U.S. Rosetta Project included the... information needed for mission science data acquisition, and allows for derivation of... uploaded to the instrument fully corrected the Figure 2 – MIRO pointing strategy for... pointing of MIRO to drive the pointing requirements for this exercise. On... expected to be doppler shifted out of the MIRO range. For this..., but the pointing specifications for these instruments remained to be validated. This... May 11-15. The rationale for prohibiting science observations inside a trajectory..., thus a second opportunity presented itself for science MIRO CTS — A potentially significant... software to switch the instrument to engineering telemetry. Diagnostics found inverted parameters for... power supply to the DFMS, the nominal output of 3 KV for the... a better time for the science instruments involved. commissioning activities to date and..., “ALICE: An Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer for the Rosetta Mission,” Advances in..., Y. Salinas, and C. Kahn, "Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter," in ESA... and D.T. Young, “Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis ROSINA..., Vancouver, Canada, 2004 [8] Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, Space Link... was responsible (as Co-Investigator) for prototype design and laboratory calibration... orbiter and for a NASA Medium Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission: Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE), launched... Leader for the Space Plasmas. He has served as Co-I on Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration... neutral analysis (ROSINA), developing instrumentation for a rendezvous with a comet. He assisted... aurora experiment. He was Project Manager for the LMMS participation in the Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration... for the ALICE UV instrument on the NASA New Horizons mission to Pluto/Charon and the Kuiper Belt scheduled for launch... as the Program Scientist for Solar System Exploration in the Space and... Science team chief for the Voyager dual mission to the outer planets... to these projects, he has served as the project manager for the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration... Alice ultraviolet imaging spectrometer delivered for spacecraft integration in September 2004...



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0.05/5
... of the images, which NASA’s Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft had produced, appeared... interests in Russian space exploration continued to adjust to postcommunist operations. The Khrunichev... him to leave retirement to lead its effort to restructure its Mars Exploration Program... systems for propulsion, considered fundamental building blocks for sustained robotic and human exploration... that could “lead to revolutionary propulsion capabilities for space exploration missions throughout the... Scientists studying data from NASA’s Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite and ESA’s four...’s Magnetopause,” Nature 426, no. 6966 (4 December 2003): 533–537; Maggie Fox for... policy for the United States, which he called the Vision for Space Exploration. President Bush’s new policy called for the completion... for robotic exploration of the Moon by 2008, followed by crewed missions to... newspapers described the Vision for Space Exploration as a response to the Columbia disaster... to meet its new objectives under the Vision for Space Exploration, the blueprint for... Vision for Space Exploration, which formally changed the duration of operations for both... they expect to work together on President Bush’s exploration strategy for Mars and... W. Bush had established for NASA in his Vision for Space Exploration, announced in January 2004. Those objectives included human flights to... had established for NASA in his Vision for Space Exploration. According to major media... Jr., endorsed the Vision for Space Exploration’s goals―to explore Mars and the... to render it better able to implement President George W. Bush’s Vision for Space Exploration. Among many other announced changes, NASA planned to restructure... efforts to meet the objectives of President George W. Bush’s Vision for Space Exploration, NASA awarded contracts to 11 companies to provide research on human lunar exploration... to replace the Space Shuttle. The Vision for Space Exploration called for NASA to engage in human and robotic exploration of... NASA, “NASA Selects Contractors for Vision for Space Exploration Studies,” news release C04... Scientist for NASA’s lunar and Mars exploration programs. As Chief Scientist for all... about how to accomplish President George W. Bush’s Vision for Space Exploration. Experts and... toward the goals of global security and space exploration―China’s presence at... United States. According to analysts, Chinese contributions to space exploration could include expendable... released the Vision for Space Exploration, the new policy for transportation in space... a robust program for space exploration. The policy called for astronauts to return to the Moon by 2020, planned for... 2 phase, NASA intended to begin to expand human space exploration to the Moon and...’s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate issued a request for proposals (RFP) for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that NASA intended to use to... intended to apply for a FAA launch 752 NASA, “NASA Issues Solicitation for Crew Exploration... from the Radio Plasma Imager aboard the Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft, combining that... how to implement future aspects of the President’s Vision for Space Exploration.757... and postlaunch support for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument... to promote technical innovation in support of the Vision for Space Exploration and... Satellite (POES) and from the Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft had discovered that... W. Bush’s Vision for Space Exploration, which included returning humans to the Moon and... provide advice and recommendations to NASA’s Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems, including input... the Vision for Space Exploration does not address major obstacles to the United... NASA’s plans for human and robotic space exploration, the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV... Vision for Space Exploration, the U.S. space policy calling for human and robotic missions to... for meeting goals established under the Vision for Space Exploration, including transporting humans to...’s master plan for meeting the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration. Moreover, Congress also directed NASA to make more... for internal communications―to promote public knowledge about and interest in space exploration... the Vision for Space Exploration. Moreover, the law specifically authorized appropriations for only... Gathering Satellite International Launch Services Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration International Space Station Management and...



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0.04/5
... for attitude determination. The testbed includes all the equipment necessary to allow for... Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer GPS Global Positioning System IC Initial Condition... IDE Integrated Development Environment IMAGE Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration IMU Inertial Measurement Unit ISS... per Square Inch RAX Radio Aurora Explorer RPM Revolutions Per Minute... operating characteristics are used to produce external torques for attitude control, but... first small satellite to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) for orbital position acquisition [51]. SNAP-1 was able to... star tracker, a thermosphere temperature imager, and a miniature imager for neutral Ionospheric atoms and... bus and payload integration system to allow for quick satellite design and... a relatively stable state. The Radio Aurora Explorer (RAX) satellite is a three... kilometers scales translate to drag forces on satellites” [1]. For attitude estimation, DANDE... sensors for attitude control [30]. In order 37 to prevent damage to the... were able to extend the satellite’s mission life. 39 NASA’s Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE... algorithm to account for the incorrectly located sun sensors, engineers were able to... a gravity gradient boom to maintain Nadir pointing. For active attitude estimation, FalconSat... for attitude estimation [48]. For attitude control, each air bearing is designed to... a closed loop ADCS system for these components to operate within. ❼ ADCS Algorithm... testbed must be able to provide measurements for use by the estimation..., and any additional support required to allow for closed loop ADCS testing... primary axes to be related to an independent angular acceleration command for each... a simulated continuous real-time environment for which to run a dynamic model with... structure similar to a flow chart. The block structure allows for easy to recognize... to the MATLAB workspace for post analysis. This feature allows the simulation to... be The equation is solved for Ω. combined to model the motion of... converge to constant matrices. If the system state is to be estimated for... regulator and constant derivative gain to account for errors between the commanded... process is very similar to the method for producing the Kalman gain... for control. This equation is very similar to the Riccati Equation used for... LQR controller is only required to account for state error. Therefore, the.... This eliminates the path for back EMF to travel and creates a force... ADCS testbed is designed to provide a versatile platform for testing small satellite... attached to the rotating hemisphere is responsible for securing the components necessary to... removing a SPHERES satellite. For smaller CM adjustments due to smaller component changes... for those components. The structure also allows for center of mass adjustment to reduce gravity disturbance torques and allows for... to power the air bearing for several hours before needing to be recharged to... power to operate the system for the length of time necessary to perform a complete test scenario to include test setup, modification, and iteration without needing to pause for... translates data from parallel to serial form for transmission across the communication... interface. SPI operates similarly to UART but allows for communication between a master... reaction wheels must be larger to compensate for these torques. 5 http://www... capability necessary to control the air bearing for enough time to complete a range... configured to allow for a series of tests on operating the wheels themselves to... all that need to be changed for a given test, modification to the provided... how to format spacing between data for clarity. For all variables chosen to be... the magnetometer for data to determine the reference magnetic field measurement for use... setup loop pauses for ten seconds to allow the wheels to reach steady... to a value that is less than the time required for the Arduino to... be characterized in order for the magnetometer to produce a useful measurement. Offset... are sent to the EKF to help determine an attitude estimate for the... by braking the wheel for short periods to slow it down. Though... packs should only be adjusted to compensate for adding or removing large... process for adjusting the center of mass to reduce torque due to gravity... tested in several configurations to create a baseline for expected results in the... sensing directly to the estimation and control algorithm using its global metrology... to allow some air flow through the filter. Allow air to flow for approximately ten seconds and repeat for each filter. To remove...(SLAVESELECT,HIGH); } // define spi global read to IMU function byte globe_read(byte....h file necessary to provide initial conditions to the Arduino code for use on...] Matt Bennett. RAX: The Radio Aurora eXplorer. Technical report, University of...