Спутник ФКИ. Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration. [Редактировать]

КА IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopauseto Aurora Global Exploration) предназначен для исследования магнитосферы Земли и ее реакции на солнечный ветер. В качестве полезной нагрузки аппарата выступают:

  • Камера нейтральных атомов высоких энергий (HENA, High Energy Neutral Atom Imager) - предназначена для определения вектора скорости, энергии и массы нейтральных атомов в диапазоне 10–500 кэВ на нуклон.
  • Камера нейтральных атомов средних энергий (MENA, Medium Energy Neutral Atom Imager). Рассчитана на регистрацию атомов водорода и кислорода с энергиями 1–30 кэВ для наблюдения кольцевого тока, плазменного слоя, границы инжекции, а также ионов в каспе. 
  • Камера нейтральных атомов низких энергий (LENA, Low Energy Neutral Atom Imager). Рассчитана на энергии 10–500 эВ и предназначена для съемки потока ионов низких энергий из полярной ионосферы.
  • Камера крайнего УФдиапазона EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet Imager) разработана в Университете Аризоны в Таксоне для регистрации резонансного рассеяния солнечных фотонов на ионах гелия (длина волны 30.4 нм) в плазмосфере с разрешением 0.5°.
  • Сборка камер дальнего УФдиапазона FUV (Far Ultraviolet Imager) состоит из трех сенсоров который работают в диапазаонах 140–160, 121.82 и 121.6 нм. 
  • Радиозонд плазмы RPI (Radio Plasma Imager) - предназначенный для определения плотности и скорости плазменных облаков в пределах от внутренней границы плазмосферы до ударной волны по отраженному резонансному радиоизлучению.    

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
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2Explorer 78НайтиНайти
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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Страна производитель - США
3Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12005-12. Отказ системы энергоснабжения. Полностью потерянТэги: Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг536

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град92.9
2Апогей, км45170.3
3Перигей, км1715.0
4Период, минут853.9
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км29813

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2000-017A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость , млн. долл.154

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2000-03-25 at 20:34:43 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xImager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2 7326

Найдено 162 документов по запросу «Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration». [Перейти к поиску]


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... exploration .....................................................................................35 Technology – implementation and advances...............................................................46 Space and society ........................................................................................................51 Global... to conduct research into global climate change. >> On 30 March, Space Exploration Technologies... Exploration of Tempel) spacecraft fired its engines for 22 minutes 53 seconds to... innovative path for human space exploration that strengthens its capability to extend human... a fundamental reference for future scientific and human exploration missions to the moon,” said.... MDA will develop solutions for future space exploration missions including a universal docking... Earth observation, astronomy and planetary exploration probes for the next decade. NASA... Panel on Exploration (PEX) published a report titled “Toward a Global Space Exploration Programme: A Stepping... eager for the agreement since the Israel Network for Lunar Science and Exploration... can meet the special requirements for exploration in outer space. China sent... responsible for space activities met in Brussels to discuss Europe's goals for space exploration... the exploration and use of the outer space for peaceful purposes for 2011... Exploration Vehicle and its Ares 1 launcher offered no compelling reason for NASA to... justification for its plan to substitute commercial space taxis for the Orion crew exploration vehicle and its Ares I launcher as a route to... believe the technology has application for planetary exploration. After a year of economic... O. Paine Award for the Advancement of Human Exploration of Mars to Steve Squyres... of the Moon, and to survey resources for future exploration. The SMART-1 mission... to undertake survey measurements of the lunar surface as a preparation for future exploration... history. II.3 Mars Exploration Recent missions MGS (Mars Global Surveyor), NASA’s mission... of radiation, a pre-requisite for future human exploration because of its potential... ever flown on a planetary exploration mission for homing in on details of... readied for testing before launch in 2011. For the MEJI (Mars Exploration Joint Initiative), ESA and NASA have agreed to a framework for joint exploration of... for future solar system exploration is currently under way with results expected to... priority for EJSM and identify the future targets for outer solar system exploration... planet. More ambitious plans for the exploration of the Jupiter system are... environment will have significant consequences for future exploration activities that utilize radio... X-ray imager for the diagnosis of plasmas having temperatures of 0.5 to 10 million... produce a roadmap related to Advanced Life Support Systems for space exploration. 2. The 40th... Access to space opens up new frontiers for scientific research and human exploration... to be undertaken consequent to bilateral or multilateral agreements for joint solar-system exploration missions, and has been employed for agreements...-on workshop to develop foundational ethical principles applicable to planetary exploration. XIV.1 Significant Mission Events In general, events are reported for... the Moon, and to develop technology for future lunar exploration. Kaguya consists of... currently defining roadmaps and exploration architectures to plan ahead for future decades. At... a pillar to support a sustainable global space exploration programme. The COSPAR Panel on Exploration (PEX... is to provide independent science input to support a global space exploration programme while working to... June 2010 entitled: ‘Toward a Global Space Exploration Programme: A Stepping Stone Approach’, which... preparing for planetary exploration, an International Space Station (ISS) exploitation programme enabling exploration... of actors from the global space community. Space exploration is a multifaceted endeavour... years are leading to important decisions for a future global space exploration programme. In October... plan includes new destinations for human space exploration such as near-Earth... programmatic goals for Mars exploration. Launch opportunities during the 2016 to 2020 time...) is providing science directions for US space exploration in the next decade... in global space exploration programmes while enabling mature space actors to tap into a global robotics talent pool. COSPAR’s Exploration Panel will...-up approach to strengthen a longterm global space exploration programme, by offering opportunities to integrate... Global Ultraviolet Imager High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program Highly Advanced Laboratory for... a Star program Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration Indian National Balloon Facility National Institute for Space Research...



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... of the images, which NASA’s Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft had produced, appeared... interests in Russian space exploration continued to adjust to postcommunist operations. The Khrunichev... him to leave retirement to lead its effort to restructure its Mars Exploration Program... systems for propulsion, considered fundamental building blocks for sustained robotic and human exploration... that could “lead to revolutionary propulsion capabilities for space exploration missions throughout the... Scientists studying data from NASA’s Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite and ESA’s four...’s Magnetopause,” Nature 426, no. 6966 (4 December 2003): 533–537; Maggie Fox for... policy for the United States, which he called the Vision for Space Exploration. President Bush’s new policy called for the completion... for robotic exploration of the Moon by 2008, followed by crewed missions to... newspapers described the Vision for Space Exploration as a response to the Columbia disaster... to meet its new objectives under the Vision for Space Exploration, the blueprint for... Vision for Space Exploration, which formally changed the duration of operations for both... they expect to work together on President Bush’s exploration strategy for Mars and... W. Bush had established for NASA in his Vision for Space Exploration, announced in January 2004. Those objectives included human flights to... had established for NASA in his Vision for Space Exploration. According to major media... Jr., endorsed the Vision for Space Exploration’s goals―to explore Mars and the... to render it better able to implement President George W. Bush’s Vision for Space Exploration. Among many other announced changes, NASA planned to restructure... efforts to meet the objectives of President George W. Bush’s Vision for Space Exploration, NASA awarded contracts to 11 companies to provide research on human lunar exploration... to replace the Space Shuttle. The Vision for Space Exploration called for NASA to engage in human and robotic exploration of... NASA, “NASA Selects Contractors for Vision for Space Exploration Studies,” news release C04... Scientist for NASA’s lunar and Mars exploration programs. As Chief Scientist for all... about how to accomplish President George W. Bush’s Vision for Space Exploration. Experts and... toward the goals of global security and space exploration―China’s presence at... United States. According to analysts, Chinese contributions to space exploration could include expendable... released the Vision for Space Exploration, the new policy for transportation in space... a robust program for space exploration. The policy called for astronauts to return to the Moon by 2020, planned for... 2 phase, NASA intended to begin to expand human space exploration to the Moon and...’s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate issued a request for proposals (RFP) for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that NASA intended to use to... intended to apply for a FAA launch 752 NASA, “NASA Issues Solicitation for Crew Exploration... from the Radio Plasma Imager aboard the Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft, combining that... how to implement future aspects of the President’s Vision for Space Exploration.757... and postlaunch support for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument... to promote technical innovation in support of the Vision for Space Exploration and... Satellite (POES) and from the Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft had discovered that... W. Bush’s Vision for Space Exploration, which included returning humans to the Moon and... provide advice and recommendations to NASA’s Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems, including input... the Vision for Space Exploration does not address major obstacles to the United... NASA’s plans for human and robotic space exploration, the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV... Vision for Space Exploration, the U.S. space policy calling for human and robotic missions to... for meeting goals established under the Vision for Space Exploration, including transporting humans to...’s master plan for meeting the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration. Moreover, Congress also directed NASA to make more... for internal communications―to promote public knowledge about and interest in space exploration... the Vision for Space Exploration. Moreover, the law specifically authorized appropriations for only... Gathering Satellite International Launch Services Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration International Space Station Management and...



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..., from January 1984 to September 1984.) Project Manager for the Space Physics...) project (October 1980 to March 1984). Project scientist for the Space Physics...) project (March 1984 to September 1990). U.S.A delegate for Commission H USNC/URSI General... Distribution Service Contract for the Space Telescope (August 1986 to December 1987... Distribution Service Contract for the Space Telescope (August 1988 to March 1993... of Solar-Terrestrial Research in Global Geoscience." Appointed member of the.... NASA delegate to the Inter-Agency Consultative Group for Space Science (IACG... to June 30, 1992 and reappointed member for a second term July 1, 1992 to... to April 1995). Appointment extended for a second three-year term (September 1995 to... Project Scientist for Mission Operations and Data Analysis for the Global Geospace Science... NASA Headquarters, for a one-year term (September 1993 to September 1994), recommended... Scientist for the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) by A. Diaz, Director GSFC, (March 2000 to present... (October 1987 to October 1989). NASA graduate research advisor for Denis Donohue, Stanford (April 1987 to December 1990... advisor for Dr. Constanze la Dous (October 1989 to October 1990). Sponsor for the Senior NRC research associateship awarded to Dr. Owen Storey (November 1989 to February 1992). Sponsor for the Senior NRC research associateship awarded to... (July 1991 to July 1992). NASA graduate research advisor for Leonard Garcia... (September 1994 to October 1996). NASA graduate research advisor for Daniel Moorer... to April 1999). NRC associate advisor for Dr. Anton Koekemoer (June 1999 to... graduate research advisor for David Berube, UCLA (July 2001 to July 2003... graduate research advisor for Erin Selser, Stanford (July 2005 to July 2007.... GSFC Certificate of Appreciation for "contributions leading to the success of the... Achievement Award for "sustained achievements that have contributed significantly to Goddard's mission... D/L Project team for which Dr. Green "… greatly contributed to enhance the international cooperative studies in the exploration of Earth... Group Achievement Award to the SPAN management team for "… dedicated service and... development of the GSFC proposal to OSSA for the full project management..., 2000. NASA Group Achievement Award, for Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) Mission Team, "in recognition..., Best Mission Data System for 2002, awarded to the IMAGE data system... over fifty recommendations for improvement “that will enable Goddard to win more... of the IMAGE Radio Plasma Imager Team, for pioneering advanced space-based... Outreach Team, for the outstanding education and outreach efforts to engage the... & Support, for exceptional management and execution of the global events for the Mars... Education Opportunity for K-12 grades," with W. W. L. Taylor. February 1995 to February 1998.... May 1996 to Present Co-Investigator on the "Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration." Launched on March... (PI). April 1997 to April 1998 Co-Investigator for the "Restoration of... waves generated at the dayside magnetopause, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 15403-15410..., 1996. 45. Fung, S. F., and J. L. Green, Global Imaging and Radio Remote Sensing..., Application of magnetospheric imaging techniques to global substorm dynamics, Proceedings of the..., J. Perez, P. Reiff, J. Burch, and T. Moore, Global-scale imaging: New approaches in..., D. L. Gallagher, and P. Reiff, Radio Plasma Imager simulations and measurements, Space Science..., and P. Reiff, The Radio Plasma Imager investigation on the IMAGE spacecraft... model of the high latitude magnetopause, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 23193-23220... Results from the Radio Plasma Imager on IMAGE, Geophys. Res. Lett... the IMAGE satellite radio plasma imager, Adv. Space Res., 30(10... plasmas by the radio plasma imager (RPI) on the IMAGE Mission... Magnetosphere: Observations by Radio Plasma Imager on IMAGE, Geophys. Res. Lett... B. Lopez-Swafford, A communications model for an ISAS to NASA SPAN link, NSSDC..., J. L., The use of SPAN for rapid access to International Ultraviolet Explorer Data.... 707-711, 1996. 45. Green, J. L., Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) Project Data Management Plan... J. L. Green, Automated Detection of the Magnetopause for Space Weather from the IMAGE... Traces from the Radio Plasma Imager on IMAGE, Ukrastro-2000 Conference... Z modes by the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) instrument on the IMAGE.... Green, J. L., The Struggle to get the Radio Plasma Imager instrument on the..., The use of SPAN for rapid access to IUE data, Information Systems...), October 19-23 1998. 26. Global-Scale Imaging: New Approaches in..., Sapporo, Japan, The IMAGE Mission - Global Views of a Geomagnetic Storm, (invited... Observations from the Radio Plasma Imager on IMAGE, (invited) December 17...



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... 3.3. Global imaging on KuaFu B1+B2 ..................................................................................44 3.3.1. Electron and proton aurora continuous... 4.2.1. Far Ultraviolet aurora monitoring cameras (UVAMC) .......................................92 4.2.2. Far Ultraviolet Spectro-Imager (FUVSI... geospace science and space-weather exploration. This component of the mission... FUV imager for LBL-L and S observations (UVAMC); z FUV Imaging Spectrograph (FUVSI) for global proton auroral imaging; z wide field of view FUV imager for nearly global perigee imaging (WFAI); z ENA imager for ring current observations (NAIK); z fluxgate magnetometer for...: z exploration of the consequences of solar variability on geospace, leading to understanding... are needed to carry out in-situ observations essential for the exploration of..., and will be used for space weather exploration and forecasting purposes. Most... component (i.e., opposite to the Earth's field at the magnetopause subsolar point) magnetic reconnection will occur leading to enhanced... measurements from SuperDARN and global magnetometer networks, allow for a global specification of the... as storms. The source/sink exploration by KuaFu enables quantitative assessment... continuous global aurora and ring current imaging, and an excellent platform for high... geospace processes in the global electron and proton aurora, and the ring... aurora cameras for LBH-long and short bands; z Far ultraviolet spectro-imager for proton aurora; z Wide field of view FUV aurora imager for perigee aurora; z Energetic Neutral Atom imager... will facilitate exploration of the response of geospace to varying solar and... global scale spatial resolution would be sustained for over 2 years. Also plotted for.... The aurora exhibits spatial structure on scales ranging from global down to tens...) KuaFu-B will provide global observations of the electron aurora with spatial resolution... aurora (typically 1keV or less). KuaFu-B will provide the first-ever global... the electron aurora, global time-evolving maps of the proton aurora, and the.... 38. McEntire, R.W. and Mitchell, D.G., Instrumentation for global magnetospheric imaging of energetic neutral..., F.R., High energy neutral atom HENA imager for the IMAGE mission, Space Sci..., C., Medium Energy Neutral Atom (MENA) imager for the IMAGE Mission, Space Sci... minute. 3.3. Global imaging on KuaFu B1+B2 3.3.1. Electron and proton aurora continuous imaging 3.3.1.1. FUV Auroral Monitoring Cameras (UVAMC) Global auroral... for the first time imaging of the aurora on the dayside. Global imagers... addition to VIS, Polar carries a UV imaging package (UVI for Ultraviolet Auroral Imager), which provides images of the entire auroral oval for... with a global imager. Fig. 3.2: Left: ISIS II image of the global aurora obtained in... the diffuse aurora. Global electron auroral images have been used to map the..., global auroral images are used for essential context for other studies. As global auroral... a global scale [motivates isolation of LBH-L and LBH-S]; 2. The need for global images with ~30 km spatial resolution to facilitate studies... admitting enough light for reasonable signal to noise for dim aurora (i.e., in the tens... the global auroral distribution. Furthermore, it will image even dim aurora (~20 Rayleigh features). 3.3.1.2. FUV Spectro-Imager (FUVSI) Scattering... Auroral Imager is to provide such systematic coverage. The science case for systematic... aurora during northward IMF, trans-polar arcs, and the global auroral response to... desirable to carry a light-weight wide FOV imager designed specifically for qualitative global imaging from near perigee. In other words, this imager...) aboard SOHO to measure ENAs (Hovestadt et al. 1995). (3) The Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE... the TBB for Doppler ranging can provide a scientific data source for a global map... (geocentric distances) proposed for KuaFu allows for continuous global imaging with excellent spatial... required for the flight software. Facilities exist at all photon imager institutions to... to the apogee cameras onboard KuaFu, to allow like-for-like comparison between aurora... to facilitate conjugate imaging with the wide field of view (FOV) imager. For... objectives is to study magnetic storms, we want to observe the global aurora even...: Far Ultraviolet Aurora Monitoring Camera FUVSI: Far Ultraviolet Spectro-Imager FWHM: Full...: International Living With a Star IMAGE: Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration 130 of 133 “KuaFu” mission...-Terrestrial Physics JAXA: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency KH: Kelvin-Helmholtz Ku...: Vacuum Ultraviolet WFAI: Wide Field Aurora Imager 133 of 133



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... City, Iowa, USA T. J. Stubbs Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics, NASA Goddard Space... 2001 and 2002, when the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite had its apogee... opportunity to study the aurora in the conjugate hemispheres simultaneously. Owing to the... auroral features were imaged on a global scale in both hemispheres. We... of local time ($1500 km). For southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF...—inner; KEYWORDS: substorm onset, conjugate, aurora, IMF, asymmetry, nightside reconnection Citation... sometimes defined as nonconjugate phenomena. For example, in the study by... aurora seems to be conjugate, the discrete aurora seems to be nonconjugate. In order to account for... the term asymmetric geomagnetic locations for phenomena, like substorm onset, that... Viking also observed the nightside aurora simultaneously in the two hemispheres... IMF controls the dayside aurora and cusp aurora location [e.g., Sandholt et al... the location of the nightside aurora [Elphinstone et al., 1990; Liou... observations and studies are needed to resolve to what extent and how... Polar and Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft offered a unique opportunity to study the aurora simultaneously in the conjugate hemispheres. Owing to the... auroral features were imaged on a global scale from the Southern (VIS... times, types, and IMF conditions for all the observations. 2.1. The 13... taken to be 130 km and apex magnetic coordinates are used for... 1. The 13 September 2001 event. (a) – (c) Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC... contour (thin) local time location for the substorm onset in the... times are 10 s and 32.5 s for IMAGE WIC and VIS Earth... 50% intensity contour (thin line). For the first 5 – 10 min after... the magnetopause during this event, we only have ACE data to determine... asymmetry. We have therefore looked for auroral features that can be.... In Figure 3a an S-shaped aurora is seen in the 2200... min dawnward displacement was found for the southern auroral breakup. One... by both Wind and ACE for hours, and we feel confident... the values we have used. For all the events we have... are used for the onsets and diamonds are used for the features.... ACE data (grey) were available for all the events, while data... the satellite is outside the magnetopause and not too far from... fits to the data versus clock angle give a 0.72 correlation coefficient for... Figure 2. Same as Figure 1 but for 15 November 2001. 5 of 10... the satellite is inside the magnetopause or far off the Sun... polar cap plasma convection patterns for different signs of By [e.g., Kelley... the highest correlation is found for DMLT versus clock angle. A similar... explain the difference in discrete aurora locations in the two hemispheres... (south) to south (north) for By < 0 (By > 0) that would add to (subtract from... By and Bz are important for the IMF control of the.... [12] The poor correlation found for DMLT versus dipole tilt angle... will not lead to a systematic displacement but only affect aurora with source...., 2001] and on longitudinal displacement for auroras with source regions on... (À0.1 nT) and could be responsible for an eastward (or dawnward) displacement... dusk sector. Consequently, the displacement for this event may be more... a dawnward displacement of the duskside aurora in the Southern Hemisphere [Tsyganenko... then become DMLT ¼ À0:017qC þ 3:44: ð2Þ For the event on 5 July 2001... AURORAL FEATURES merging, and cusp aurora location [Sandholt et al., 1998... importance of the IMF orientation for this coupling has been well... affects the location of the aurora [Elphinstone et al., 1990; Liou...., 2001]. Owing to the very few observations of conjugate aurora from space... the relative displacement of the aurora in the conjugate hemispheres. [16... from global scale images in both hemispheres. We have documented that for... of Iowa. We thank R. Lepping for the WIND magnetic field data, A. Lazarus for the WIND solar wind data, C. Smith for the ACE magnetic field data, and D. McComas for the ACE solar wind data... World Data Center for Geomagnetism (T. Kamei), Kyoto, Japan for providing the preliminary... Natsuo Sato and another reviewer for their assistance in evaluating this...), Optical auroral conjugacy: Viking UV imager-South Pole station ground data..., and K. Ogilvie (1998), Timing accuracy for the simple planar propagation magnetic... configuration of the auroral distribution for interplanetary magnetic field-Bz northward... (1999), Conjugate observation of optical aurora with Polar satellite and groundbased... (1999), On the dynamic cusp aurora and IMF By, J. Geophys. Res..., D. Sibeck, K. Liou, and C. I. Meng (2001), Aurora conjugacy during substorms: Coordinated Antarctic...@ssl.berkeley.edu) T. J. Stubbs, Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics, NASA Goddard Space...



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... to express my deepest gratitude to my principal supervisor, Doc. Anita Aikio for.... I am also grateful to Prof. Tuomo Nygr´en for all support as a co-supervisor. Plenty of thanks go to.... I also would like to thank Dr. Reijo Rasinkangas for helping in computer... assistant. I am very grateful to the Department for this possibility, since besides... like to thank my parents and my sister’s family for all support... Analyzer International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects or Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration IGRF/DGRF IMF... Network Substorm Current Wedge Spectrographic Imager 12 Super Dual Auroral Radar...ø Ultra High Frequency UltraViolet UltraViolet Imager Very High Frequency Westward ElectroJet... it is deflected around the magnetopause, which is the boundary that... dayside, the nose of the magnetopause is typically located at a distance... place also on the dayside magnetopause and it is controlled by.... The eastward flowing magnetopause current on the dayside magnetopause is induced by... neutral sheet current closes via magnetopause currents, or tail currents, flowing... km to 1010 m−3 at 90 km, and the region disappears for the... the dayside, the PCB maps to the magnetopause. The auroral oval and... provide an open access for the plasma to move between the ionosphere... sources of aurora and are used in global observations of aurora by space... conditions, which gives a rise to the global circulation pattern of plasma and... low latitudes on the dayside magnetopause. The newly created open field... from the MIRACLE International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects (IMAGE) magnetometer... and Sugiura, 1966] data characterizing global auroral electrojet activity in the... RE upstream) were used [Paper V]. Global optical images of the northern... images by the Polar Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) [Torr et al., 1995... III, respectively. In Paper IV, global observations by the two IMAGE...] were used. The FUV Spectral Imager SI12 detects Lyman-α (121.8-nm... sensitive to the dayglow. The Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC) is sensitive for... field accuracy varies from 8 pT to 0.5 nT for ± 64 nT and ± 4096... orbital periods do not allow global or continuous detection of the... emission (PAE) boundary from the global auroral images. Either a fixed threshold... used to correct the discrepancy and hence get more reliable estimate for..., also for this proxy, the particle PCB is often found to be... together with global auroral images by the IMAGE FUV WIC to locate... the dayside magnetopause and in the nightside magnetotail drives global plasma convection allowing energy, momentum and plasma to transfer... events both on the dayside magnetopause [Russell and Elphic, 1978] and... measurement makes it possible to determine the PCB for both of the... reconnection rate on the dayside magnetopause exceeds the nightside flux closure... auroral activations appear without developing to global expansion. These are called pseudobreakups...) onset for the SCW to reach the PCB, which we interpret to be the time for reconnection at the NENL X line to reach...], and local transient activations of aurora [Nakamura et al., 2001a]. Nakamura... and the IMAGE satellite proton aurora measurement agreed, but in one...: association to global magnetospheric circulation, relationship to ionospheric activity and direct evidence for localization... by DMSP and the Ultraviolet Imager, J. Geophys. Res., 105, A9, 21... spatial and temporal structure of magnetopause and magnetotail reconnection from the..., H. A. Gallagher, and S. B. Mende, Groundbased signatures for the nightside polar cap boundary... by free electrons with applications to space exploration by radar, Proc. Inst..., T. B. Jones et al., DARN/SUPERDARN A global view of the dynamics of... magnetopause, magnetotail, and magnetic reconnection, in Kivelson M. G. and C. T. Russel (Eds.), Introduction to..., New York, 1995. Hultqvist B., The aurora, in Kamide Y. and A. C.-L. Chian (Eds... electric field at the noon magnetopause, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 17 137... the magnetotail to substorm onet on the ground, Abstracts for Chapman Conference... its association with morning-sector aurora, J. Geophys. Res., 99, A3, 4115..., Plasma acceleration at the Earth’s magnetopause: evidence for reconnection, Nature, 282, 243... R. C. Elphic, Initial ISEE magnetometer results: magnetopause observations, Spac. Sci. Rev., 22..., P. T. Newell, F. Creutzberg, and B. Xu, Proton aurora and substorm intensifications, Geophys. Res... C. T. Russell, Evidence for magnetic field reconnection at the Earth’s magnetopause, J. Geophys. Res..., B. Tsurutani, and J. Spann, A far ultraviolet imager for the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics... Environment (2nd Ed.), Air Force Global Weather Central, Offutt AFB, Neb...., 93, 10, 2004. Vallance Jones A., Aurora, Dordrecht-Holland/Boston-U.S.A.: D. Reidel Publ... the ionosphere and their relation to nightside aurora, J. Atmos. Sol-Ter. Phys...



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... turn to Lockheed Martin Corporation’s Advanced Technology Center (ATC) for answers to their complex scientific and technical problems. Committed to advancing... pave the way for pioneering technical achievements, contribute to the body of... throughout the ATC to build unique space instrumentation for monitoring the Sun... and mathematical foundations. For example, the ability to understand the wavelength-dependent... pursuits allows us to develop specific technical solutions for a wide array of... present demanding optical challenges. For example, the requirement to focus a highenergy laser... signals are propagated outward to meet requirements for missions such as communications... observables—from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared—for such diverse applications... analyzing overhead data to define spectral characteristics useful for early fire detection... optics and electronics to rapidly track and correct for wave front distortions...- and ground-based applications to deep space exploration. We also support a broad... services—from initial concepts for proposed systems to operation and maintenance of... to X-band, and dielectric lenses for horn antennas to shape the beamwidth and to... from developing polymers for RF and optical processing to monitoring the properties... Materials and Structures for Applications from Radio Frequency to Rockets Virtual modeling... wishes to utilize them in exotic locales, for instance, Mars. We seek to... rhenium nanoparticles used to economically produce protective coatings for parts with 2000... technological innovation to create possibilities for our customers and new opportunities for the... on a distant spacecraft to less than 5 Kelvin, for several years of continuous... space, cooling the science instrument to 1.8K for 16 months. 26 Solid... including human-robotic teams for warfighting and space exploration The ATC develops... Target Engagement Because increasingly complex global networks may include multiple ground... a need to assess and analyze the optimal configuration for these networks to ensure... combined to synthesize optimal network topologies for given nodal capabilities and locations. For... (s) Global Network Emulation Test Bed (GNET) GNET can analyze network topologies for... to emulate actual, real-time, IP networks conforming to the topologies. For that... monitoring, homeland defense, robotic space exploration, missile defense and other critical... Control 30 Advanced Concepts in Global Situational Awareness New visualization concepts... sensor systems to improve the perception, comprehension and prediction necessary for global situational... enable rapid formation and exploration of tradespaces to perform integrated engineering analysis... implications for day-to-day life on Earth. The ATC continues to be... (ISAS) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Examining Our Place... ATC built the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), flying on the Solar...’s IBEX mission will determine the global nature of the heliopause, where... shock interactions. Variations in these global images will illuminate flow patterns... new insight into our heliosphere. Aurora Captured by the FUV aboard..., this image shows Earth’s northern aurora during a major geomagnetic storm. The...). 34 SXI The Solar X-Ray Imager aboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental... instrument packages aboard the NASA Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration—the Far Ultraviolet Imaging System... Atom (LENA) imager—determine the response of Earth’s magnetosphere to variations in the solar wind. MDI The Michelson Doppler Imager aboard... agencies on a global scale, we have made major contributions to understanding the... carry the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI), adding to the helioseismic database of... / Solar and Astrophysics Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) Orbiting the Sun aboard... launched by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). It gave unprecedented... of building and flying instruments for missions to examine a wide range of... a staring imager optimized to locate and detect lightning with storm-scale resolution (4 to... Ionospheric X-Ray Imaging Experiment (PIXIE) Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) Launched on the Polar... 1996, PIXIE provided the first global images of the precipitating energetic... Earth’s magnetosphere and aurora. It has produced global images of the effects... on IMAGE: the Far UltraViolet imager of the Wideband Imaging Camera... (UARS), CLAES provided the first global, annual cycle view of many.... Together, these measurements contributed to compelling evidence for the definitive link between... are used to understand the processes occurring at the magnetopause. Changes in... and momentum transfer across the magnetopause and of electrodynamic coupling within... this protective barrier is the magnetopause. Space Sciences and Instrumentation / Space... to national security, space exploration and environmental awareness, and make fundamental contributions to... systems and test facilities to provide solutions for both small and large...



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... Vision for Space Exploration and the course that President Bush set for us to.... NASA Headquarters To achieve NASA’s Mission and the Vision for Space Exploration, NASA... on-orbit resources for research to support U.S. human space exploration. Green Strategic Goal... to support the Nation’s exploration program and achievement of the Vision for Space Exploration... countermeasures for long-duration human space exploration. All four Mission Directorates contribute to... satellites. Using data from NASA’s Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft, the research team... beyond. Robotic exploration lays the groundwork for future human missions to the Moon... mission to conduct exploration of the solar system. This challenging mission, planned for... way for future missions to planetary surfaces and directly benefit eventual human exploration... exposed to the microgravity, radiation, and the isolation of space for Exploration Systems... still needs to be done to implement the Vision for Space Exploration. The Human... track to develop critical technologies in time for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle... spacecraft for human space exploration. It will carry four crewmembers to the Moon and serve as the primary exploration vehicle for future... advanced planning to support NASA’s evolving launch requirements for lunar exploration. In FY... these technologies today to support achieving the Vision for Space Exploration tomorrow. Reaping... exploration research and execution—to the commercial sector to serve public, national, and global needs. In the past, technologies developed for space exploration have yielded... Exploration Systems Mission Directorate plans to conduct the Critical Design Review for LRO... architecture study to identify the systems needed for lunar surface exploration and to determine when the systems must be available to..., a necessary capability for long-duration lunar exploration. • NASA will continue to test in... programs and projects related to the Vision for Space Exploration. NASA’s Budgetary Authority increased by $408 million (2.3%) in 2006, to... and on Budget To achieve the Vision for Space Exploration, NASA is focusing... to provide cargo transportation services for the ISS after Shuttle retirement. Space Exploration Technologies plans to begin... to completing the ISS on schedule to fulfill the Vision for Space Exploration and to meet the Agency’s commitments to... ON-ORBIT RESOURCES FOR RESEARCH TO SUPPORT U.S. HUMAN SPACE EXPLORATION. FY 2006 FY... to focus on exploration. The Vision for Space Exploration directs NASA to send human explorers to... fallen victim to age. For example, the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE), which was designed for a two... to conditions necessary for life. Moreover, NASA scientists gain knowledge from robotic exploration.... Risks to Achieving Sub-goal 3C Interplanetary spacecraft for solar system exploration are..., and to discover their potential as raw materials for future space exploration. In... for human exploration rely on national and international partnerships that enable NASA to... undersea laboratory to test technologies and capabilities for future human space exploration. During... Requirements Review to define detailed interface requirements for the Crew Exploration Vehicle, the... requirements for future human and robotic exploration and development of space to all... to work together autonomously for assembly and maintenance, important capabilities for future lunar exploration... lunar poles are particularly important for exploration due to the possible presence of... test technologies to enable affordable pre-positioning of logistics for human exploration missions... experiment opportunities to validate the performance of critical technologies for exploration missions. None... Propulsion Program to better align it with the Vision for Space Exploration and... Innovative Partnerships Program To achieve the Vision for Space Exploration in an affordable... experiment opportunities to validate the performance of critical technologies for exploration missions. 6ESRT7... solicitations where appropriate to address the priorities for lunar exploration. The Exploration Technology Development... solicitations where appropriate to address the priorities for lunar exploration. Increase annually, the... and position it to better implement the Vision for Space Exploration. The nine... for crew transportation to Earth orbit. Theme: Exploration Systems Research and Technology The Exploration... to develop an advanced technology capability for more complex operations and exploration of... Vision for Space Exploration. The ISS provides a unique, continuously operating capability to develop medical countermeasures for...



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... dayside, 30 and 100 kV for high- and low-latitude reconnection... line lengths of 1 and 5.5 RE for northward and southward interplanetary magnetic... will be dawnward for By < 0 nT and duskward for By > 0 nT; however... reconnection at the low-latitude magnetopause (that is, by reconnection of... estimates have been made from, for instance, ionospheric flow data [Huang... the polar cap, as theta aurora (Frank et al. [1982, 1986... nightside auroral oval, with ramifications for magnetotail structure that have been... observations of the polar aurora from the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) FUV/Wide-band...] to quantify reconnection rates at the low- and high-latitude magnetopause and... time lagged by 75 min to account for the propagation delay from... near the L1 Lagrangian point, to the magnetopause and the subsequent Figure... period of interest by the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) FUV/Wide-band Imaging... indicates brighter aurora. Locations of three Canadian Auroral Network for the OPEN...; otherwise, darker shades indicate brighter aurora. The sequence of images shows... of the Canadian Auroral Network for the OPEN Program Unified Study... photometer, which we use to supplement the spaceborne imager. [7] To gain a better understanding... into the nightside substorm breakup aurora at 1300 UT. This feature... dayside auroral luminosity, as expected for this reconnection scenario. The two... to these data, found using the (b) reconnection rates shown (see text for..., calculated from equations (2) and (5), respectively, for effective X-line lengths LA and... pattern, solid and dashed contours for negative and positive potentials, respectively... tend to be directed east-west for By < 0 nT and west-east for... point, FPC began to increase rapidly as subsolar magnetopause reconnection commenced, driving... pattern characteristic of southward IMF. For instance, in Figure 5f, flow... of the associated convection velocity (for brevity not shown in the... a topic for further investigation. Further study is also needed to understand why... magnetotail before and after reconnection, for (a) IMF By = 0 and (b) IMF By... indicated as solid (dotted) lines for the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere. Convection... cross-wind scale of the magnetopause is of the order of..., before and after tail reconnection, for the cases of no imposed... < 0 (Figure 6b), the situation appropriate for the start of the interval... observations to date, and we leave this as an avenue for further... a strong westward (eastward) convection jet for By < 0 (By > 0), consistent with the... the northern and southern lobes, for the reasons outlined above we... RESPONSE TO RECONNECTION Figure 9. Expected ionospheric convection patterns for IMF Bz > 0, for the...; the patterns shown are appropriate for By > 0; for By < 0 the patterns would.... We show here the situation for By > 0, jByj < Bz, appropriate some... dayside magnetopause. This open flux is not destroyed but is carried to... solar wind (for jByj < Bz) and laid on the magnetopause as two protuberances. Pressure exerted on the magnetopause by the surrounding solar wind causes the tail to revert to... transpolar arc to move. If the picture was to be redrawn for the... flux would be displaced to dawn (dusk) for By > 0 nT (By < 0 nT... the ionospheric flow patterns expected for jByj < Bz and jByj > Bz, in these cases for By > 0. The redistribution of flux... LB = 0.5 RE is a good fit for the observations; Figure 4b shows... (5) for LB = 0.5 RE, as shown in Figure 4b. We consider this to be strong evidence for the validity of our... these estimates, giving an overall magnetopause merging line length of $1 RE... radar observations to measure a lobe reconnection rate of $15 kV, for a period... points to a high-latitude reconnection efficiency of $25%, similar to that deduced for... be expected to occur preferentially in the northern (southern) lobe for IMF... been added to both northern and southern lobes, as required for low-latitude reconnection. The flows which redistribute the flux to... be from dawn to dusk, and vice versa for By < 0 nT. However... between twin reverse convection cells. For jByj > Bz, a single lobe cell... should form at dawn for By < 0 and dusk for By > 0 (in the... like to acknowledge the principle investigators of the SuperDARN project for use... Harald Frey and Lie Zhu for their assistance in evaluating this...), Polar views of the Earth’s aurora with Dynamics Explorer, Geophys. Res..., L. A., et al. (1986), The theta aurora, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 3177 – 3224..., R. A., et al. (1995), DARN/SuperDARN: A global view of the dynamics of... electron proton alpha monitor (SWEPAM) for the Advanced Composition Explorer, Space...), Observations of non-conjugate theta aurora, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(21... reconnection and auroral proton spot for northward IMF, Geophys. Res. Lett... in the dayside magnetosphere: 2. A global model for northward and southward IMF, J. Geophys...



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RADIO PLASMA IMAGER SIMULATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS J. L. GREEN1 , R. F. BENSON1 , S. F. ..., MD, U.S.A. 3 University of Massachusetts, Center for Atmospheric Research, Lowell, MA, U.S.A. 4 Observatoire... Imager (RPI) will be the first-of-its kind instrument designed to... will fly on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) mission to be launched early in... modern digital processing techniques perfected for ground-based ionospheric sounding over...−1 to 105 cm−3 . Ray tracing calculations, combined with specific radio imager instrument... quite successfully to measure a wealth of magnetospheric phenomena such as magnetopause boundary... will provide a truly exciting opportunity to study global magnetospheric dynamics in a way.... (1998b). These simulations provide a roadmap for understanding the resulting echo spectrum... the electron plasma frequency (see, for example, Stix, 1962). The term... fg = + 2 fg 2 1/2 2 + fp2 . (2) For a space plasma sounder to operate properly, it must... in a region of RADIO PLASMA IMAGER SIMULATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS 363 space... the refractive index for that mode then goes to zero. The radio... ionosondes has been carried out for seven decades using the radio... instrument on IMAGE is designed to perform repetitive remote sensing measurements... cavity extending from the plasmapause to the magnetopause. When in the magnetospheric Ne cavity, RPI will be able to simultaneously receive echoes from the magnetopause and the plasmapause. RPI is called an imager rather than a sounder because, in addition to measuring echo... plasmapause to the magnetopause. The RPI on IMAGE will be able to simultaneously perform radio sounding upward toward the magnetopause and... curved targets for a sounder located between the plasmapause and the magnetopause. In... echo power return due to defocusing, whereas the magnetopause is a concave target... power is approximately 2.5 for both the magnetopause and for the plasmapause when compare... the plasmapause due to defocusing does not pose a problem for RPI on IMAGE because the antenna RADIO PLASMA IMAGER SIMULATIONS... increased echo power due to focusing at the magnetopause is helpful because... that RPI will be able to detect magnetopause echoes within a distance of...-tracing equations that were suitable for integration by standard numerical methods... formulations for N. The expression for N used in the RPI simulations is for radiation... Ondoh (1971) and of the magnetopause by Roelof and Sibeck (1993... (left scale), as RADIO PLASMA IMAGER SIMULATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS 367 Figure...-coded and has been calculated for each echo in this figure. The location of the spacecraft for this simulation is at approximately... have occurred (i.e., the plasmasphere, plasmapause, magnetopause, polar cap, and polar cusp... motions, simulated echoes from the magnetopause boundary layer have been isolated... ET AL. Figure 3. Two representative magnetopause boundary layers (A and C) and the... in the boundary layer and magnetopause under different solar wind and... simulated plasmagrams. For comparison, the echo structure of the magnetopause boundary layer... transmitted wave going toward the magnetopause initially propagates into a region of... then decreases with increasing frequency for a short frequency interval, even though... maximum plasma frequency at the magnetopause, the echo trace stops. The... panel C. Panels A and RADIO PLASMA IMAGER SIMULATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS 369 C show..., instantaneous locations of magnetospheric boundaries (magnetopause and plasmapause) and density profiles... long-range magnetospheric echoes suitable for remote Ne measurements near the.... For example, rocket-borne ionospheric relaxation-sounders using short antennas (4 m tip-to... interpretations have been put forward to explain the observations (Osherovich et... also operate passively in order to receive natural magnetospheric emissions. The... sounding, was found to be extremely valuable for the identification of natural... phase velocity becomes RADIO PLASMA IMAGER SIMULATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS 371 very...-thermal electrons. This analysis technique, for the determination of Ne and... environments and serves as a reference for other techniques (see the review... spacecraft had not been designed for this kind of study. Because... local Debye length. In addition, for measurements of the thermal Te... variations in these coupling processes to be investigated under different magnetic... quasi-thermal noise spectroscopy. (A) is for the X and Y-axis antenna and (B) is for the Z-axis antenna. In the... shown in Figure 4. Panel A is for the X- and Y-axis antenna, and panel B is for the Z-axis antenna. The domains... isocontours of the spectral density for each decade, showing the limit... of Te measurements. RADIO PLASMA IMAGER SIMULATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS 373 5. Expected...