Спутник связи. Innovation 1. [Редактировать]

Микроспутник CX-1 (Chuangxin-1, Innovation 1) является первый китайский экспериментальный телекоммуникационный микроспутник. Его задача – отработка технологии передачи данных на низкой орбите. В состав аппарата входят следующие системы: телекоммуникационный транспондер, бортовой компьютер, система управления, СЭП, система терморегулирования.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1Chuangxin 1НайтиНайти
229058НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - Китай
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Тип орбиты - НОО
4Страна производитель - Китай
5Все спутники связи

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг100

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата (сведения с орбиты)2006-04-26

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2003-049B

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2003-10-21 at 00:00:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xCBERS-2A
3Полезная нагрузка 1xInnovation 1
4Ракета-носитель 1xВеликий поход 4B

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Innovation 1». [Перейти к поиску]


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... entrepreneurial and innovative mindset. Innovation in Andalusia Innovation in Andalusia The regional... 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 145 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 145 Chapter 3: Regional innovation Chapter 3: Regional innovation The regional dimension of innovation... – © OECD 2010 146 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 146 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Introduction Introduction In 1986... – © OECD 2010 148 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 148 –REGIONAL INNOVATION number of research groups..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 149 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 149 produced in collaboration... – © OECD 2010 150 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 150 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Box 3.1. The University of..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 151 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 151 and more students... – © OECD 2010 152 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 152 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Box 3.2. The NURI programme... INNOVATION – 155 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 155 Box 3.3. Business involvement in the Andalusian regional innovation... INNOVATION 156 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Box 3.3. Business involvement in the Andalusian regional innovation system..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 157 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 157 Furthermore, the large... – © OECD 2010 158 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 158 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 3.3 Research infrastructure 3.3 Research infrastructure..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 159 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 159 important share of... project Cheque Innovation to encourage SMEs to engage in innovation activities. Innovation vouchers were launched by the Regional Ministry of Economy, Innovation... project Cheque Innovation to encourage SMEs to engage in innovation activities. Innovation vouchers were launched by the Regional Ministry of Economy, Innovation... – © OECD 2010 160 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 160 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Box 3.4. Knowledge Voucher Programme..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 161 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 161 the bureaucratic burden... – © OECD 2010 162 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 162 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Box 3.5. OTRIs in Andalusia..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 163 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 163 programme called MASTRIX... – © OECD 2010 164 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 164 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Box 3.6. Technological Corporation of..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 165 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 165 While these intermediary... – © OECD 2010 166 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 166 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Box 3.7. Öresund region and... – © OECD 2010 168 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 168 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Table 3.3. Participation of research..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 169 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 169 could be more... – © OECD 2010 170 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 170 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Knowledge exchange programmes based..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 171 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 171 of their forum... – © OECD 2010 172 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 172 –REGIONAL INNOVATION economic development. The creation..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 173 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 173 the State of... – © OECD 2010 174 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 174 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Box 3.12. Hull Logistics..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 175 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 175 which impact higher... – © OECD 2010 176 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 176 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Figure 3.2. HERD as a percentage..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 177 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 177 A key objective of... – © OECD 2010 178 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 178 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Box 3.13. The Spanish..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 179 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 179 Box 3.13. The... – © OECD 2010 180 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 180 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Another important PROFIT-programme..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 181 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 181 Spanish government has... – © OECD 2010 182 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 182 –REGIONAL INNOVATION This plan complements the..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 183 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 183 CSIC (creation of... – © OECD 2010 184 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 184 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Table 3.4. Andalusia's competitiveness framework... – © OECD 2010 186 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 186 –REGIONAL INNOVATION number of patents and..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 187 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 187 • In the light... – © OECD 2010 188 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 188 –REGIONAL INNOVATION important, but this commitment..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 189 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 189 university indicators should... – © OECD 2010 190 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 190 –REGIONAL INNOVATION NOTES NOTES 1. The Regional..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 191 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 191 5. The operative nucleus..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 193 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 193 References References Albuquerque... – © OECD 2010 194 –REGIONAL INNOVATION 194 –REGIONAL INNOVATION Granados-Cabeza, V. (2010b), A diagnostic..., SPAIN – © OECD 2010 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 195 REGIONAL INNOVATION – 195 Shaffer, D.F. and D.J. Wright...



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0.56/5
....oecd.org/sti/innovation/reviews 3 OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Luxembourg 2015....oecd.org/sti/innovation/reviews 4 OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Luxembourg 2015... innovation and entrepreneurship ............................................ 44 2.3. The role of innovation in future development .................................................................. 52 2.4. Innovation performance .................................................................................................... 54 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ 65 CHAPTER 3. INNOVATION... of recently developed national innovation strategies in small innovation-intensive OECD economies...: a business driven “innovation cluster” ................................................... 131 Box 4.5. Examples of innovation agencies in Europe... Luxembourg’s research and innovation performance. 9 OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Luxembourg 2015... differentiation of the innovation system and the role innovation was expected to... technologies (ICTs), eco-innovation and biohealth. The Neobuild innovation cluster supported by... research organisations to innovation  provide stronger incentives for accumulating innovation capabilities within... task of Luxembourg innovation policy is to strengthen innovation as a driver of... ambitious innovation projects. While neutral innovation support is certainly helpful to promote innovation... characteristics of Luxembourg’s innovation system. 37 OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Luxembourg... for strong innovation performance of individual innovation actors and the innovation system as a whole. Moreover, framework conditions for innovation... designed to foster innovation. Favourable framework conditions facilitate innovation throughout the economy... dedicated science, technology and innovation (STI) policies affect innovation performance, both separately... groups. 2.4. Innovation performance Innovation inputs The ability to mobilise resources for innovation differs markedly across countries. Advanced innovation systems devote... of actors in an innovation system. Data on innovation inputs show that... of countries with advanced innovation systems (Figure 2.14). Innovation-intensive countries such... OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Luxembourg 2015 CHAPTER 3 INNOVATION ACTORS IN LUXEMBOURG... their contributions to innovation. 69 OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Luxembourg 2015... Innovation and Research. (http://www.innovation.public.lu/application/catalogue/entreprises/goodyear-innovation... Reviews of Innovation Policy: Luxembourg 2015 Innovation and R&D performance Firms’ average innovation expenditure.../organisational innovation). 76 OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Luxembourg 2015 Figure 3.6. Innovation in... product or process innovation only organisational or marketing innovation only product or... product or process innovation only organisational or marketing innovation only product or... a mature innovation system requires. Innovation policy and the emergence of a mature innovation system... of Innovation Policy: Luxembourg 2015 (ICTs), eco-innovation and biohealth. The Neobuild innovation... of Research and Innovation (responsible for national and international innovation policies affecting... international R&D and innovation programmes. Luxinnovation provides information on R&D and innovation programmes sponsored... firms.  Promoting innovation and research. Luxinnovation informs and promotes innovation and research... and managing the national innovation web portal of innovation and research. Performance... of recently developed national innovation strategies in small innovation-intensive OECD economies... education for innovation; iii) framework conditions and infrastructure for innovation; iv) innovative...% 100% n.a. n.a. 1 000 000 EUR Innovation advice and innovation support n.a.** 200 000 EUR...: Luxembourg Portal for Innovation and Research, www.innovation.public.lu There was....3 Number of projects n/a 6 3 6 9 Innovation advisory services and innovation support services Budget allocated... innovation projects. While “sector-neutral” innovation support is certainly helpful to promote innovation... rather than innovation. This distinguishes Luxinnovation from innovation agencies in innovation-intensive countries that typically fund ambitious innovation projects... into a fully-fledged innovation agency that funds innovation programmes via competitive mechanisms... a diversified range of innovation support services: from funding innovation projects to providing... of research and innovation. 137 OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Luxembourg 2015...: Luxembourg Portal for Innovation and Research, http://www.innovation.public.lu. The...



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... TIP), Aurelija Kazlauskien (Head, Innovation Policy Division, Innovation Department, Ministry of Economy... Donata Gustaite (Chief Official, Innovation Policy Division, Innovation Department, Ministry of Economy... .............................................................................................................................................57 Chapter 3. Innovation performance in Lithuania ................................................................................59 3.1. Innovation inputs ............................................................................................................................60 3.2. Innovation outputs ..........................................................................................................................68 References .............................................................................................................................................73 Chapter 4. Innovation actors in... and innovation RIO RIS3 Research and Innovation Observatory Research and Innovation for Smart... Structural Funds – Lithuania’s innovation performance, notably business innovation, remains low overall. Foster the quality of human resources for innovation Innovation... quality of human resources for innovation Innovation performance critically depends on highly... Innovation Development Programme 2014-20. The Innovation Development Programme – a continuation of the Innovation... firms in engaging in innovation activities and innovation performance, as opposed to... example through process and organisational innovation. Innovation can also benefit all firms... OF INNOVATION POLICY: LITHUANIA © OECD 2016 3. INNOVATION PERFORMANCE IN LITHUANIA – 59 Chapter 3. Innovation...’s innovation system. OECD REVIEWS OF INNOVATION POLICY: LITHUANIA © OECD 2016 60 – 3. INNOVATION PERFORMANCE IN LITHUANIA 3.1. Innovation inputs... innovation system. Data on innovation inputs show that Lithuania is accelerating its innovation... for science, technology and innovation (STI) Innovation performance critically depends on highly... certain types of innovation activity: typically R&D-based, technological innovation. Such limitations mean... OF INNOVATION POLICY: LITHUANIA © OECD 2016 4. INNOVATION ACTORS IN LITHUANIA – 75 Chapter 4. Innovation... innovation activities in Lithuania’s business sector. Although investments in innovation are increasing, innovation... in basic forms of innovation (e.g. non-technological innovation such as new management.../sciencetechnology-innovation/data/database. OECD REVIEWS OF INNOVATION POLICY: LITHUANIA © OECD 2016 4. INNOVATION... (vertical innovation policies) include: sectoral funds for innovation, (industry-focused) innovation networks, technology/industry clusters, industry-focused innovation or....eu/eurostat/web/sciencetechnology-innovation/data/database. Figure 4.5. Innovation expenditure by type.../sciencetechnology-innovation/data/database. Constraints to business innovation According to the innovation survey, the four most important factors discouraging innovation... innovation policy increased. OECD REVIEWS OF INNOVATION POLICY: LITHUANIA © OECD 2016 118 – 5. INNOVATION... EU Innovation Scoreboard. OECD REVIEWS OF INNOVATION POLICY: LITHUANIA © OECD 2016 5. INNOVATION POLICY... relates to innovation. OECD REVIEWS OF INNOVATION POLICY: LITHUANIA © OECD 2016 5. INNOVATION POLICY... Lithuanian Innovation Policy. OECD REVIEWS OF INNOVATION POLICY: LITHUANIA © OECD 2016 5. INNOVATION POLICY... about technology and innovationInnovation support, increasing demand for innovation services (for example... technology innovation – Advice on innovation management methods, and establishment of new innovation companies... innovation vouchers. General R&D and innovation support targets the needs of R&D and innovation-intensive..., identifying local demand for innovation, business and innovation enhancement services and exploring... use it. Public procurement for innovation Innovation-oriented public procurement is not... innovation (see https://www.innovation-procurement.org). Key challenges in effectively implementing innovation... may entail some level of innovation). Procuring innovation entails risks additional to... conditions for innovation in Lithuania Chapter 3. Innovation performance in Lithuania Chapter 4. Innovation actors in Lithuania Chapter 5. Innovation policy...



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0.35/5
... of Technology (MIT)   MIT Innovation Diplomats  MIT Innovation Initiative  MIT Regional Entrepreneurship..., Mongolia  to investigate the Mongolian innovation and entrepreneurship ecosystem.  Our project... MIT Innovation Diplomat program began as part of MIT’s Innovation Initiative.  The...  Innovation Diplomats conducted interviews and research in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.   The Mongolia­Innovation..., and colleges  Information communication technology   Innovation driven enterprise  International Finance Corporation...  Intellectual property right  Information technology  Innovation capacity  Mongolian Academy of Sciences...   World Intellectual Property Organization   Definitions    Innovation  Entrepreneurship  Startup I­cap E­cap  IDE... are  driven by innovation: as such, they build innovation­driven  entrepreneurial advantage...  Executive Summary……………………………………………………………………… 4   Introduction………………………………………………………………………...……. 8  Methodology ………………………………………………………………………….....10  Innovation Ecosystem Stakeholders…………………………………….…………….....13  A. Government……………………………………………………………………....13...  References…………………………………………………………….……………….....68  Acknowledgements …………………………………………..……………………….....76  Appendix 1: Innovation Ecosystem Map ………………………….………………….....77  Appendix 2: Resources... new officials will  take towards innovation and entrepreneurship.     Corporation  Corporate representatives... and education on  entrepreneurship and innovation.     Challenges and Recommendations  Under the... rich  interactions between the stakeholders, innovation and entrepreneurship development may be... Mongolia’s innovation ecosystem.  We aim to  provide useful information on the innovation... organization has on entrepreneurship and innovation.   10    Figure III­1. Interview Questions...  values.                 11  Analysis    Figure III­2. Innovation Ecosystem Stakeholder Model. Diagram depicts... a thriving innovation ecosystem.     Our analysis has its foundations in the Innovation Ecosystem... “risk” capital.            12  IV. Mongolia’s Innovation Ecosystem Stakeholders     A. Government    In July....     Mongolian legal framework relating to innovation and entrepreneurship   There are several... which the government should promote  innovation and entrepreneurship, most interviewees generally... a technology  network for technology and innovation support centers throughout Mongolia.  This... investigate the legal framework surrounding innovation and  entrepreneurship.      References  1. Sindelar, Daisy... significantly influencing the innovation ecosystem. As a result,  the innovation efforts of three... business systems innovation. For example, Wagner contains an analytics and  innovation division... education [27].      Conclusions and recommendations  Innovation in the corporate stakeholder seems... for research and development and innovation before implementing educational  policies [1]. Out... Innovation Week with different ministries to better engage policymakers in  promoting innovation... have limited university development of innovation and  entrepreneurship. Although universities have..., universities can better foster their  innovation and entrepreneurial capacities.    Methods  The... publicize and  encourage entrepreneurship and innovation, startups have become trendy.  Nearly... entrepreneurs’ contributions to entrepreneurial and innovation capacities  in the region.      Trends...    An additional stakeholder to the innovation and entrepreneurial ecosystems includes  community... – Mongol Accelerator. Prototyping space – Open Innovation Lab. Special  Initiatives – Green Nation... members and young entrepreneurs.     Building innovation and entrepreneurship capacity  Startup Mongolia... education on both entrepreneurship and  innovation.   With current formal university curricula... much needed practical training for innovation and entrepreneurship. For  example, Development... likely emerge, further strengthening  Mongolia’s innovation ecosystem.     Method  When possible, we... development of innovation and entrepreneurship through  the nurturing of a healthy innovation ecosystem... stakeholder as  a key source of innovation.      Dynamic Governance    Government personnel are... rate  of innovation.  It would also be beneficial to innovation and entrepreneurship... rich  interactions between the stakeholders, innovation and entrepreneurship development may be... can help further  develop Mongolia’s innovation ecosystem. Primarily, these suggestions focus... practical knowledge towards the  approaching innovation and entrepreneurship. Outside of these...  of the center in the innovation ecosystem.       References   1. National Statistical Office... Mongolia’s greatest strengths in developing  innovation and entrepreneurship.  Interviewees described Mongolia... the MIT Innovation Initiative; Carolyn Fu, Program Coordinator of the Innovation  Diplomat... opportunity to be MIT­Mongolia Innovation Diplomats.   7. Nomin Khishigsuren, a rising fourth....    76    X. Appendix 1: Innovation Ecosystem Map    To visualize the innovation ecosystem, we mapped...



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... OF THE THIRD INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION INNOVATION SCENARIOS ........................................................................................................................ 420 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................... 420 FRAMEWORK... TIR INNOVATION SCENARIOS ....................... 434 REVIEWING THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE TIR INNOVATION... and Innovation Community (KIC), co-funded by the European Institute of Innovation... as global technology innovations). 2. Innovation Proposals. The Innovation Proposals summarized in this...; business model innovation (BMI); educational; and research, development, and innovation (RDI). Many... the overall analysis. Clusters fostering innovation Luxembourg benefits from active national... to neighboring countries. 1.2 Business Model Innovation (BMI) 1.2.1 A fast and smart charging... last-mile delivery 3.2 Business Model Innovation 3.2.1 Redefining “Mobility as a Service’ Mobility... ultimately increase productivity. 4.2 Business Model Innovation 4.2.1 Integrate transport policies, strategic regional... Economy,’ conducted by the European Innovation Partnership for agricultural productivity and... alternative approach. 3. Set up a collaborative innovation network (COIN). An Internet networking... Bioplastics Value and Innovation The value and innovation chainChain Value chain Chemical... Bioplastic Consumer Products Recycling Composting Innovation chain Agricultural Feedstock R&D Knowledge Policies... Technology Push (R&D) Tech Transfer & Deployment (Innovation) Source: Carrez, Dirk (2011) 145... technologies, social media, and collaborative innovation networks, naturally absorbing this radically... tourism. PROPOSALS 1 Business Models and Innovation 1.1 Establish a public-private partnership between... urban organic gardening. Establish a collaborative innovation network platform that enables citizens... production and consumption, establish a collaborative innovation network (COIN) platform that enables... productive, healthy farms. 7 Research, Development & Innovation 7.1 Increase the engagement of farmers... business stability, employment, and dampening innovation. Innovation flourishes, trade expands, businesses thrive... Efficiency, 2) Research, Development & EXECUTIVE SEMINAR Innovation (RDI), and 3) Smart Industry and... “Energy & Resource efficiency,” “Research, Development & Innovation” and “Smart Industry.” Binding legislation... with applied research, development and innovation (RDI) initiatives, and continuing through.... DOMESTIC LEARNING CURVE BUSINESS MODEL INNOVATION (BMI) Luxembourg’s Industry sector – constituting... construction sectors. PROPOSALS 1 Business Model Innovation 1.1 Leverage and empower the “Haut..., to foster serendipity innovation, risk sharing of research and innovation, and mutual... in product/service lines; 
valorize innovation in different industrial applications, market...; International Experts and Mentors; Lux Innovation – Fit 4 Start Program; University researchers....hellofuture.lu/. 7 Research, Development & Innovation 7.1 Foster innovation and R&D in the field of..., Luxembourg’s research institutes in manufacturing innovation in specialized industries should expand.... 7.5.4 Open Innovation: promote the open innovation process by designing the collaborative innovation network... such opportunities, seizing on regulatory innovation and reform opportunities to encourage... a hotbed of opportunities, talent and innovation. A comprehensive strategy should focus on... Consulting Group PROPOSALS 1 Business Model Innovation 1.1 Foster and focus applied research....”293 1.6 Digital Innovation Cluster for Autonomous Driving. This innovation cluster will shape... as mentees. 7 Research, Development and Innovation 7.1 Strengthen partnerships with applied science... on Innovation and Technology (UNU-MERIT) as part of the European Innovation... Consulting Group PROPOSALS 1 Business Model Innovation 1.1 Develop an Internet platform and... the circular economy. 2.3 Support a collaborative innovation network (COIN) platform for designers... Revolution Consulting Group Catalyzing Collaborative Innovation Networks FITs HVAC LEDs APP... wind Albedo surfaces LEED ++ standards innovation networks collaboration Architecture Financing Windows... a specific mission PROPOSALS 1 Business Model Innovation 1.1 Promote energy sharing cooperatives for... sufficient financial capital. The collaborative innovation/collective intelligence network (COIN) platform... this document a Third Industrial Revolution Innovation Scenario—is a function of perspective... 2. Conceptual Framework for Evaluating TIR Innovation Scenarios Source: John A. “Skip” Laitner... Executive Master in Technology and Innovation Management. Kathleen GAFFNEY Kathleen Gaffney..., climate change policy, diffusion of innovation, transition management, and community utility... spearheaded the first Internet collaboration innovation network connecting state regulatory utility... emphasized how Internet-based collaboration innovation networks (COINs) can leverage valuable...



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0.33/5
... RTD and innovation systems......................................................................... 92 4.1 Overview of national RTD and innovation systems... 4.3 Mapping of national research and innovation programmes .................................................... 164 5 Annexes........................................................................................................................................... 193 3 Annex... and innovation; • The Agency for Innovation by Science and Technology (IWT) stimulates innovation... and Innovation (VRWI) is a strategic advisory board for science and innovation policies... and innovation (3 councils; independent research, strategic research and technology and innovation) as... development activities and innovation policy related to business. The Innovation Policy Committee... the Lithuanian innovation policy have been defined in the Lithuanian Innovation Strategy... of entrepreneurship and innovation. Objectives and goals of innovation development following to... develop broad-based innovation, • to implement a systematic approach to innovation. It is an umbrella strategy encompassing all innovation-related... Institution Lithuanian Innovation Centre (LIC) is a non-profit organisation, providing innovation support... to innovation. Innovation White paper on Innovation POLAND86 In Poland RTD and innovation system... and innovation. PORTUGAL87 General information on the national RTD and innovation system.../wmstext/101220m000 1.htm Innovation and research The Government innovation and research strategy (https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/government-innovation... and Innovation SPAIN Spanish Strategy for Science and Technology and Innovation Analys... that will enable research and innovation.  Innovation Supporting Programme – targeted specifically at... Research and Innovation Strategy for Ireland 2007-2013 Research and Innovation Sector... for Research, Development and Innovation National research & innovation strategy (2007 – 2013). At... Science and Technology and Innovation Research and Innovation 2013-2020 NR Table... Innovation ROMANIA SPAIN Yes Spanish Strategy for Science and Technology and Innovation... and Innovation Spanish Strategy for Science and Technology and Innovation Analys av... Science, Technology and Innovation, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (DASTI) Website... and Innovation Acronym: RTI Website: http://fivu.dk/en/research-and-innovation/councils-and-commissions/the-danish-councilfor-technology-and-innovation Leading authority: Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (DASTI) Website... and Innovation (RTI) Website: http://fivu.dk/en/research-and-innovation/councils-and-commissions/the-danish-councilfor-technology-and-innovation Time... Science, Technology and Innovation, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (DASTI) Website... and innovation activities. The focus of the programme is on innovation. Projects... to create implementation mechanisms INNOVATION Increasing the innovation, technological development and production... Technology and Innovation Are marine and maritime RTD and innovation activities specifically... the BONUS Innovation All policies related to blue growth and innovation call, which is a combination of RTD and Innovation Yes... and Innovation (2007 – 2013) Are marine and maritime RTD and innovation activities... Innovation (2007 – 2013) National Plan of Scientific and Technological Research and Innovation...: Priority 1: Promote transnational entrepreneurial and innovation networks Objective 1.1. – Develop knowledge transfers... following priority axes: Priority 1: Strengthening innovation capacities The Mediterranean region’s technological... the capacity for innovation, development of systems for innovation and strengthen competitiveness.... To stimulate innovation within identified clusters and research and innovation networks Creating the right conditions for an innovation orientated...: Innovation, Environment, Accessibility and Sustainable Growth Areas. Priority Axis 1 : Facilitation of innovation and entrepreneurship. The objective is fostering innovation, entrepreneurship, the... 1: Knowledge, Innovation and Skills for Growth Development of the knowledge, R&D/innovation and... development. Priority 1. Innovation and knowledge economy This priority addresses innovation and the knowledge economy, focusing mainly on innovation, research... support for innovation and new technologies, strengthening research and innovation in order... Sicily (Measure 1.2); • Promoting research and innovation (Measure 1.3); • Supporting Institutional cooperation (regional... Science, Technology and Innovation, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (Denmark) Belgium...



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... a Consistent Definition of Innovation ................................................. 36 2.2.1a Conceptual Diversity of Innovation .................................................................. 38 2.2.1b..., Technology and Innovation Policy in Portugal ................... 101 5.2.1 Science, Technology and Innovation Policy... 13 [A]ll innovation presupposes change, but not all change presupposes innovation (J-A Johannessen, B. Olsen and G. T. Lumpkin 'Innovation as newness: what... that all innovation presupposes change, but not all change presupposes innovation, which... between innovation and change. It stresses the distinct differences between innovation-enhancing... relationship of innovation to development. In other words, a consideration of ‘innovation and... works on innovation diffusion in the seminal work on Innovation Diffusion: A New... include the European ‘Community Innovation Survey’ and ‘Innovation Scoreboard’, notwithstanding the innumerous... agencies of innovation diffusion. It emphasized the processes by which innovation and... impact on innovation diffusion itself. He considered these impacts of innovation diffusion... of Innovation An enthusiastic rush to explore the role of innovation toward... a common definition of innovation. And without a clear definition of innovation, they argue... of innovation potential. A determinant 7 The emphasis on economic forms of innovation in... and regional systems of innovation on the innovation process and activity in... important for distinguishing innovation from mere change’ […] ‘because all innovation presupposes change, but not all change presupposes innovation’ (2001... systems of innovation-oriented approaches. Nonetheless, one may reason that innovation is... consistency between the definitions of innovation and innovation measurement where efforts have... to innovation as opposed to the more complex interpretation of innovation-systems... which innovation is ‘new’ returns to the issue of an innovation phenomenon... extent of innovation occurs along a continuum between ‘incremental’ and ‘radical’ innovation. ‘Radical... innovation. However, the preferred industry-framework for determining the relevance of innovation... industry. 2.2.1a Conceptual Diversity of Innovation Innovation discourse has been traditionally diverse... of innovation is paired with another element commonly associated with innovation. The... that ‘all innovation presupposes change, but not all change presupposes innovation’, Johannessen... the inconsistency between definitions of innovation and innovation measurement. Though, it remains.... 2.4 CONCLUSION: INNOVATION, SYSTEMS AND SPATIAL JUSTICE What does a successful innovation diffusion process... technoeconomic innovation-informed transformation, what becomes of the particularities of marginal innovation practices, or those firms that do not exhibit innovation potential... processes of innovation. Technology is knowledge. That is, ‘technological innovation […] is the... to technical innovation, other factors behind institutional and organizational innovation may concern... of industry and innovation dynamics include among others ‘innovation systems’ (Freeman 1988... [innovation] systems’ (Malerba 2004), ‘technological [innovation] systems’ (Carlsson 1995, 1997), ‘spatial [technological innovation... and market focus National Innovation Systems (NIS) Regional Innovation Systems (RIS) Freeman... focus Multiple levels of innovation Sectoral systems of innovation Malerba (2002, 2004... National sectoral systems innovation Oosterwijk (2003) Technological systems of innovation Carlsson et... technoeconomic innovation-informed transformation, what becomes of the particularities of marginal innovation practices, or those firms that do not exhibit innovation potential... that ‘all innovation presupposes change, but not all change presupposes innovation’ (Johannessen... from that of ‘innovation’, arguing thereby that ‘all innovation presupposes change, but not all change presupposes innovation’ (Johannessen... of Economy and Innovation. 65 Ministry of Economy and Innovation 66 Integrated... change and innovation. As noted in earlier chapter discussions, ‘innovation requires change... 145 innovation. This concern for the distinction between change and innovation rests... with ‘constant innovation’, notwithstanding their recognition of the importance of ‘innovation’, is... Theories of Innovation: the Practical use of the Particular', Innovation and Engineering... Innovation Brussels: EC. EC. Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General (2005) Annual innovation... in systems of innovation'. In Edquist, C. (ed.) Systems of Innovation: Technologies, Institutions... of Innovation Management, 4 (1). Jones, L. R. (1978) 'Fiscal strategies to stimulate instructional innovation and... innovation: towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning. London: Pinter. Lundvall, B.-A. A. (2002) Innovation...



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... Business Environment .............................................................................................................. 80 6. Technology and Innovation............................................................................................................. 85 7. Trade and FDI Policies... .................................................................................................................... 108 Page | 2 CHAPTER 2 – FACTORS AFFECTING INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY USAGE IN THE... ................................................................................................................................... 110 DESCRIPTION OF THE NATIONAL INNOVATION SYSTEM IN JAMAICA ...................................................... 114 Policy... TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN JAMAICAN FIRMS ............................... 124 ASSESSMENT OF THE NATIONAL INNOVATION SYSTEM... Indicators (2011) 2.1 – Indicators of Technological Innovation in Jamaican Firms 2.2: MSMEs Employing... of ICT 2.3 – Indicators of Technological Innovation by the Jamaican Government 2.4 – Selected... ‘which fuels economic transformation through innovation, creativity and high performance.’3 These... evidence on innovation in services, with the concomitant emphasis on innovation in... innovation’.59 59 Tacsir et al (2011) 111 ‘Nowadays, technology and innovation... studies highlight four categories of innovation:  Product innovation – changes in the things... process of innovation, which must become the targets of innovation policies for..., innovation will not be driven solely by forward-thinking entrepreneurs. Innovation and... Innovation System (NIS). This chapter seeks to identify the factors affecting innovation... fostering innovation. Subsequent sections will then assess the use of technological innovation... THE NATIONAL INNOVATION SYSTEM IN JAMAICA ‘The concept of national innovation systems... innovation, the government has to ensure that the products of such innovation... TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN JAMAICAN FIRMS The success of Jamaica’s national innovation system is best assessed in terms of whether increased technological innovation... comparisons. Table 2.1 – Indicators of Technological Innovation in Jamaican Firms Jamaica B'dos... levels of innovation. Because of this low capacity for innovation, the country... of technological innovation by the GOJ. Table 2.3 – Indicators of Technological Innovation by... elderly.” A country’s advancement through technological innovation is not only critically constrained... to enhance competitiveness through technological innovation, because of human resource deficiencies... responsibility for directing technology and innovation policy and coordinating the efforts... in Selected Areas Area Technology/Innovation/Creativity Efficiency Research & Development Capital... advancement for product and process innovation; 2. Businesses that are technology developers... of a country’s innovation framework are policies to build an innovation culture and... and succeeded through a commitment to innovation and technological advancement;  Teaching the... involvement in innovation. One of the most important impediments to innovation highlighted... clusters through which knowledge of innovation opportunities can be diffused Participation... in innovation are not only accrued through product and process innovation, but... innovation system; the formation of commercial and academic strategies to promote innovation... sharing the costs of innovation; By organizing innovation networks within supply chains... function for innovation and technology. A high-level champion for innovation and technology... FOR CHAPTER 2 Box A.1 - Innovation in the Service Sectors Innovation in the service.... Innovation, thus, is a much broader notion than R&D. Additionally, many times the innovation...) 164 Box A.2 Types of Innovation:     Product innovation – changes in the things (products... organization does. Strategic Advantages through Innovation:            Novelty in product or service... institutions involved specifically in supporting innovation and technological adoption in the... area, including:          A low capacity for innovation Low degree of sophistication of... Howitt, Peter (2005), ‘Competition and Innovation: An Inverted-U Relationship’, The Quarterly..., L., & Ulwick, A. (2008). The Customer-Centered Innovation Map. Harvard Business Review: May... Terrell, Katherine (2008) ‘Globalization and Innovation in Emerging Markets’, Forschungsinstitut zur..., Catherine L (2007), ‘The Globalization of Innovation and Entrepreneurship’, http://www.kauffman.../research-and-policy/globalization-of-innovation-andentrepreneurship.aspx National Commission on...), (2005). Agricultural, Science and Technology Innovation Systems in Jamaica: A Case Study...). Innovation and Productivity in Services: Industry, Services and Trade. OECD, (2005). Innovation... Sector (2008)’ Ventura, A. (2005). Promoting Innovation through Education, Science and Technology..., Technology and Innovation Sector Plan.The Jamaica National Innovation System: Catalyzing Jamaica...



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.../Centre for Innovation Research, Stavanger, Norway; CIRCLE (Centre for Innovation, Research and...: An innovation driven economic diversification strategy for Kuwait ...............15 4. Understanding innovation - the 'high road strategy' of competition .................................24 5. Towards an innovation driven... and innovation represent the key mechanism for a successful transformation. 5 An innovation driven diversification strategy Internationally, there is a strong agreement that innovation is... innovation policy is in line with the innovation system approach of defining innovation as interactive learning combining a R&D and an experience based. Innovation capacity... strengthening of the innovation capacity, i.e. the exploitation side. A broader innovation policy will...-active innovation policy, is the bearing idea behind the 'innovation system approach.../innovation system policy and be responsible for designing and implementing concrete innovation... 23 4. Understanding innovation - the 'high road strategy' of competition Innovation means creating... innovatio ecosystem. 4.1 Types of innovation - a short overview Innovation is a broad and comprehensive... innovation are critical for sustained growth  Multiple factors influence productivity and innovation... creative classes of innovation and upon business model innovation. According to the..., demand (social innovation)) as well as employee driven innovation) have to be... innovation policy is in line with the innovation system approach of defining innovation as interactive learning combining a R&D (Science, Technology, Innovation... for innovation policies as R&D intensity is not the same as innovation capacity... the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF), an innovation ecosystem is not... institutions impacting innovation. A way to conceptually organize multiple factors determining innovation in a country is to think of innovation as a process... expedite ease of doing innovation and business.  Innovation procurement: Using public procurement... sector innovation.  Organisational learning and institutional innovation: Continuous organizational learning and institutional innovation... innovation driven policy for economic diversification and international competitiveness. 5. Towards an innovation... talking about an innovation based diversification strategy that innovation and knowledge is... of a broader innovation policy, following a linear model of innovation, is the major shortcoming of EUs innovation policy, explaining... called 'Strong research and innovation milieus'. A broader innovation policy will also make...-active innovation policy, is the bearing idea behind the 'innovation system approach... about an innovation system. Consequently, not all countries have an innovation system... have an innovation system policy, and hardly nor an innovation policy with... increased innovation capacity of firms and countries. This broader understanding of innovation... in the STI/innovation system policy can boost innovation, how such a cooperation within the framework of an innovation system... the triple helix model of innovation (THI), i.e., innovation stemming from cooperation between.../innovation system policy and be responsible for designing and implementing concrete innovation... the STI/innovation system, which are in line with an innovation system... innovation in societies' (p. 1), thus, seeing government as a dynamic player in promoting innovation... key barriers to innovation. Table 13: Barriers to Innovation Barrier Description Knowledge... understanding innovation, managing change reluctance to collaborate Source: Northern Ireland Innovation Strategy Team (verbatim) 77 Figure 6: Innovation Ecosystem Key Players Image Source: InterTradeIreland (2012) 'Leveraging the Innovation Ecosystem for Business Advantage: A Cross Border Study Innovation ecosystems are... has a global reputation for innovation, the innovation leaders are Sweden, Germany, Denmark... established and leading innovation players like Tekes, the Kuwaiti innovation ecosystem will... in supporting thematic innovation campaigns that suit the Kuwaiti innovation ecosystem. Finland... Action Item 4 ‘Innovation Kuwait’ Portal Launch a portal called ‘Innovation Kuwait’ that will... a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship in Kuwait. Essentially, the ‘Innovation Kuwait’ portal... Bases and Varieties of Regional Innovation Systems. Innovation – The European Journal of... M. Gertler (2005): The Geography of Innovation: Regional Innovation Systems. In Fagerberg, J., Mowery...): Combining Innovation Policy: Linking Scientific and Practical Knowledge in Innovation Systems. European...): National Innovation Systems – Analytical Concept and Development Tool. Industry & Innovation 14(1), 95...



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... for innovation ict, energy and biotechnology are PRIOrity AREAS for innovation spending in all transition countries CHAPTER 5 POLICIES supporting INNOVATION Countries..., technology and innovation policies (henceforth simply referred to as “innovation policies”) in... of innovation. It then discusses the main characteristics of the innovation policies... knowledge-based growth Stages of innovation development Transition countries differ significantly... economies Institutions 6 5 Markets 3 Conditions for innovation Thus, as countries develop, the... innovation, illustrates the importance of such a systemic approach to innovation (see Box 5.1). Innovation policies: one size fits all? Innovation policies can play a crucial role in improving the conditions for innovation... innovation policies in transition countries, the government bodies in charge of innovation... favourable assessments. CHAPTER 5 POLICIES supporting INNOVATION capacity to efficiently adapt and... preferred policy instruments for supporting innovation. The three instruments most frequently... and public research organisations into innovation, together with initiatives strengthening research... 5.3. Relative importance of objectives of innovation policy in transition countries Enhance... the country's innovation performance Improve the business environment for innovation Support R&D Support the financing of innovation Provide educated... important Not important Source: EBRD innovation policy questionnaire and authors’ calculations... 5.4. Economic and financial instruments of innovation policy Competitive funding of R&D (applied... grants for collaborative R&D) Cluster policies, innovation vouchers, technology platforms and forums... important Not a priority Source: EBRD innovation policy questionnaire and authors’ calculations... innovation policies rely on the careful identification of key bottlenecks preventing innovation. This is important, because policies need to evolve as a country’s innovation... September 2014). CHAPTER 5 POLICIES supporting INNOVATION digital services and healthcare. There... policies which address bottlenecks affecting innovation (such as corruption, inadequate skills... overlooked by innovation policies (which tend to target cutting-edge innovation in... important Not a priority Source: EBRD innovation policy questionnaire and authors’ calculations... transition countries have surprisingly similar innovation policies, despite the underlying differences... design and implementation of effective innovation policies requires a sophisticated public administration... of a country’s innovation policy mix. CHAPTER 5 POLICIES supporting INNOVATION Box 5.1. Knowledge-based... for Estonian research, development and innovation (RDI) were (i) userfriendly information technology... and dissemination of scientific information Innovation awareness programme Training programme focusing... the Community Innovation Survey and includes product and process innovation, but not organisational or marketing innovation. 25 ccording... 5 POLICIES supporting INNOVATION Box 5.4. Location-based policies Location-based innovation policies can... (SEZs) focused on innovation, and the Skolkovo innovation centre.38 In some... countries Other countries Innovation centres 1 10 Source: EBRD innovation policy questionnaire and... 5.4.2. Performance of innovation-oriented SEZs and hubs in Russia (a) Innovation-oriented SEZs... for innovation or result in higher rates of product innovation among local...). CHAPTER 5 POLICIES supporting INNOVATION Box 5.5. ICT-oriented innovation policies in Armenia, Azerbaijan... law and encouraging innovation Competition policy and private-sector innovation lie at... innovation – either by curtailing or preventing conduct that is detrimental to innovation..., greater competition reduces rents post innovation, thereby discouraging firms from innovating... the difference between pre-innovation and post-innovation rents. The authors model the relationship between competition and innovation... interaction between competition policy and innovation. For example, Montenegro’s Agency for... the innovation environment. The role of competition policy in fostering innovation should... for fostering innovation. This is especially true when thinking about innovation more... and P. Howitt (2005) “Competition and Innovation: An Inverted-U Relationship”, Quarterly Journal...: Opportunities and Challenges for Regional Innovation Policy, Routledge. D. Foray, P. A. David and... INNOVATION RUSSEZ (2014) “Innovation Zones”. Available at: http://eng. russez.ru/oez/innovation... firm innovation? Evidence from Russia’s regions”, mimeo. C. Shapiro (2011) “Competition and Innovation... fits all? Towards a differentiated regional innovation policy approach”, Research Policy, Vol... the level of national innovation systems”, Economics of Innovation and New Technologies...