Спутник связи. Innovation 1. [Редактировать]

Микроспутник CX-1 (Chuangxin-1, Innovation 1) является первый китайский экспериментальный телекоммуникационный микроспутник. Его задача – отработка технологии передачи данных на низкой орбите. В состав аппарата входят следующие системы: телекоммуникационный транспондер, бортовой компьютер, система управления, СЭП, система терморегулирования.

Дополнительные наименования

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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - Китай
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Тип орбиты - НОО
4Страна производитель - Китай
5Все спутники связи

Технические характеристики

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1Масса, кг100

Характеристики орбиты

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1Дата (сведения с орбиты)2006-04-26

Пусковые характеристики

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1Код NSSDC2003-049B

Информация об удачном запуске

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1Дата пуска2003-10-21 at 00:00:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xCBERS-2A
3Полезная нагрузка 1xInnovation 1
4Ракета-носитель 1xВеликий поход 4B

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Innovation 1». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Capitalism – and Unleash a Wave of Innovation and Growth // Harvard Business Review... Capitalism – and Unleash a Wave of Innovation and Growth // Harvard Business Review...



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... of innovation diffusion .......................... 28 2.3.1- The Rogers Innovation Diffusion model ....................................................... 29 2.3.1.1- The innovation decision... 2.6- Innovation Resistance ........................................................................................... 73 2.6.1- Psychology of innovation resistance ............................................................. 76 2.6.2- Ram’s (1987) model of innovation... 3.5- Perceived Innovation Characteristics and Innovation Acceptance ..................... 118 3.6- Preliminary Model of Innovation Resistance ..................................................... 121... Innovation Resistance........................................ 248 7.4- Attributes of Innovation and Innovation Resistance .......................................... 249 7.5- Socio-Demographics and Innovation... investigating innovation resistance can also contribute to the innovation diffusion literature. Innovation resistance... adopting an innovation, they are exhibiting resistance to innovation. Resistance to innovation has... other related factors in innovation decisions (i.e. innovation adoption, innovation resistance) such as the... analysis Consumer Innovation N/A Conceptual characteristics, Resistance innovation, personal characteristics 1987 Ram innovation characteristics... making toward innovation and prefers to study innovation resistance than innovation adoption. Secondly... (innovation resistance as a special type of consumer behaviour) and innovation diffusion (innovation adoption... innovation resistance? 3 Innovation diffusion literature (i.e. Existing models of innovation diffusion and innovation decision process); innovation resistance literature Consumer innovativeness literature. Innovation resistance literature 2.2- The concept of innovation Certainly a scientist’s view of innovation is... of innovation, personal 2.4- Innovation classifications After defining the concept of innovation and explicating... between a radical innovation, a really new product innovation, and a discontinuous innovation? What is the difference between an incremental innovation... the resistance towards innovation is too high, then innovation dies. Innovation resistance is... reducing innovation resistance, innovation modification is another strategy to reduce resistance. Innovation modification... types of innovation decision can be identified during innovation diffusion: (1) optional innovation decision... to innovation resistance. 3.5- Perceived Innovation Characteristics and Innovation Acceptance The perceived characteristics of innovation... the innovation. The relationship between perceived attributes of innovation with innovation adoption and innovation... of innovation resistance concede the relationship between perceived attributes of innovation with innovation adoption and innovation resistance. For example... of innovation is positively related to innovation resistance. 3.6- Preliminary Model of Innovation Resistance... of innovation is negatively related to innovation resistance. Perceived compatibility of innovation is negatively related to innovation resistance. Perceived complexity of innovation is positively related to innovation resistance... of innovation is negatively related to innovation resistance. Perceived compatibility of innovation is negatively related to innovation resistance...; fatalism→Innovation Resistance; Traditionalism→ DSI; Traditionalism→ Innovation resistance; Perceived relative advantage→ Innovation resistance; Perceived compatibility→ Innovation resistance. After... Innovativeness Traditionalism→Innovation Resistance Perceived Relative Advantage→Innovation Resistance Perceived Compatibility→Innovation Significant... of innovation is negatively related to innovation resistance. Perceived compatibility of innovation is negatively related to innovation resistance... on innovation resistance; (2) consumer innovativeness and innovation resistance; (3) attributes of innovation and innovation resistance; (4) socio-demographics and innovation decisions.... 7.4- Attributes of Innovation and Innovation Resistance Initially three attributes of innovation – perceived relative...



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... indicator for technological innovation .... 157 © OECD 2013 9 INNOVATION-DRIVEN GROWTH IN REGIONS... industries and to stimulate innovation downstream including innovation in services (e.g. ICT services... are spent for innovation (the total investment for innovation in this period... operational elements of regional innovation strategies Regional innovation strategies for smart specialisation... of regional innovation systems and the rise of global innovation networks. The... that are "Innovation Leaders“. This means that the innovation challenge will vary... region’s economic and innovation base. © OECD 2013 29 INNOVATION-DRIVEN GROWTH IN... actors in the Finnish innovation system. An innovation is defined here as... for innovation. Institutional arrangements contributing to the co-ordination of innovation policies... Technology and Innovation Investment Strategy (Tekes) and the Regional Innovation Strategies. The..., where possible other European Innovation Regions (Regional Innovation Scoreboard top 20). The...), ‘Regions and Innovation Policy, OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation’. Paris, OECD Publishing... Mosaic of Regional Innovation System— Assessment of Thematic Regional Innovation Platforms Based... innovation priorities which focus Australia’s innovation efforts to strengthen the national innovation system... industries is essential. • Open innovation: Open innovation refers to the practice of... the process of innovation. The use of an open innovation model in... (Flanders Innovation Hub for Sustainable Chemistry). FISCH is a new innovation and entrepreneurial... transformation and innovation. The entrepreneurial discovery process starts from a 69 INNOVATION-DRIVEN... The governance of the innovation system The innovation system of Brainport is... the 2011 industrial and innovation policy reform, Innovation Contracts will set the..., where possible, other European Innovation Regions (e.g. Regional Innovation Scoreboard top 20). The...? • Business-driven innovation system: with a largely business-driven innovation system embedded in... the Ministry of Innovation. This way the regional innovation infrastructure is linked... of the national innovation systems. © OECD 2013 89 INNOVATION-DRIVEN GROWTH IN... processes; ii) Accelerating business innovation - strengthening the innovation capabilities of individual businesses... the “Innovation Assistant”. These are ‘intrapreneurs’ with a university background managing innovation projects..., Community Innovation Survey, company specific monitoring). © OECD 2013 101 INNOVATION-DRIVEN GROWTH... terms of innovation behaviour in Lower Austria, the Community Innovation Survey tells... largely engaged in innovation activities. Still below average are innovation activities in... into the innovation process and landscape. © OECD 2013 103 INNOVATION-DRIVEN GROWTH... for European Innovation Cross-Linking. Ploder, M.; Veres E.; Niederl A. (2010): Innovation - Wo steht... in R&D and Innovation in selected areas; iii) Facilitate innovation also in selected..., and technological innovation; preference is given to R&D and innovation activities potentially creating... well as process and organisational innovation. Also innovation in the public sector... for Technology and Innovation Investment Strategy, and the Regional Innovation Strategies. The... of action of innovation systems. © OECD 2013 123 INNOVATION-DRIVEN GROWTH IN... actors in the Finnish innovation system. An innovation is defined here as... in the innovation process; and v) Environmental expertise, design and innovation expertise will... ICT in the innovation system. © OECD 2013 127 INNOVATION-DRIVEN GROWTH IN... exist. The overall innovation service network and innovation infrastructure remain obscure. Finally... of innovation policy. Based on two regional innovation strategies (the “Land Brandenburg innovation concept 2006” and Berlin’s “Coherent innovation... clusters of the joint innovation © OECD 2013 129 INNOVATION-DRIVEN GROWTH IN...: the Małopolska Innovation Council (advisory body for innovation policy) the Ma... public services, based on innovation; iv) social innovation as a cooperative strategy to... per working Population and iii) Innovation, Innovation expenditure as a share of GDP... and academic innovation; iv) Insufficient opening up of the innovation system; and... for research and innovation activities. © OECD 2013 143 INNOVATION-DRIVEN GROWTH IN... goals; • Specific research and innovation programmes; • Innovation-driven public procurement policies; • Support..., where possible other European Innovation Regions (Regional Innovation Scoreboard top 20). The... or technology driven innovation, which other forms of innovation / economic transformation are... development of regional innovation strategies? Is there a shared regional innovation system governance? • Is your existing regional innovation policy framework... Research and Innovation Lead Institution: Universities, research and technology organisations, innovation & design...



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...: Innovation newness ________________________________ Appendix Two: Innovation area of focus _____________________________ Appendix Three: Innovation... of innovation. -5- General theory of innovation – pertaining to all types of innovation Mid... order for innovation type alpha Midrange theory for innovation type A Contextual innovation theory 1 Mid range theory of higher order for innovation type beta Midrange theory for innovation type B Contextual innovation theory 2 Contextual innovation theory 3 Midrange theory for innovation type C Contextual innovation theory 4 Contextual innovation theory 5 Midrange theory for innovation type D Contextual innovation theory 6 Contextual innovation...), innovation and service* and innovation and health. Between them the keywords ‘innovation’ and... 424 Innovation and Health 103 83 16 202 1.5 1.1 10.9 2.0 1.1 0.8 0.9 0.9 Innovation Service* Innovation and Service* as % of innovation Innovation and Health as % of innovation Infotrac... (1994) categorises as organisational innovation, innovation diffusion and innovation process research, began to... ways in which innovation has been conceptualised 3.2 Conceptualising Innovation Innovation is a broad church... (organisational innovativeness, innovation processes, innovation type and the output of innovation) in studies... to optimise opportunities for successful innovation. Innovation takes place within the context...: innovation newness, innovation area of focus, and perceived characteristics of the innovation. It... Rogers’ (1983) framework. Innovation newness Innovation area of focus Innovation attributes Novelty (narrow... into three types: innovation newness, innovation area of focus, and innovation attributes. Occasionally... innovation classification Classificatory approaches based on innovation newness, innovation area of focus and innovation... kinds of technicallyoriginal). based innovation. Innovation. Specified educational innovation. Relative advantage (cost) 4 items... of the innovation process. • The innovation is inherently risky • The innovation has been... developing the innovation • Individuals took risks in implementing the innovation • The innovation represents... innovation required significant external input • The innovation required minimal external input* • The innovation... the innovation The innovation requires co-ordination amongst many units The innovation has... alternative approaches to classification of innovation (‘Innovation area of focus’, ‘source’, ‘clinical... of innovation process (Source: Rothwell, 1992) innovation process is that managing innovation is... innovation studies. Wolfe (1994) argues for a move away from organisational innovation to ‘innovation... explanation for innovation 126, but innovation 178 was clearly a group effort. Innovation 22.... DTI (1998) An audience with innovation: innovation in management. URN 98/688... innovation: a cross case comparison of eight radical innovation projects. Journal of Product Innovation... complexityinnovation and size-innovation relationships based on dimensions of innovation. Innovation broadly conceptualised.... Newness (Radical, evolutionary market innovation, evolutionary technical innovation, incremental). Newness (radical, routine... organisational innovation that are felt to best explain adoption: type of innovation; innovation... of innovation in organisations: nature of innovation, processes of innovation, organisational characteristics and innovation... innovation not the characteristics of the innovation affect adoption. Proposed 5 attributes of innovation as those that explained innovation... use of the innovation. 4.1 The innovation is inherently risky 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4.2 The innovation has been... developing the innovation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4.5 Individuals took risks in implementing the innovation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4.6 The innovation represents... of the innovation 5.1 The innovation was developed entirely in-house 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5.2 The innovation required significant external input 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5.3 The innovation required minimal external input 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5.4 The innovation... innovation is effective in its use 8. Statements 8.1 – 8.4 Innovation scope. Does the innovation stand... the innovation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9.4 The innovation requires co-ordination amongst many units 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9.5 The innovation has... rendering (December 2000) Innovation type Innovation essence Innovation newness Innovation significance Innovation effectiveness Administrative Essentiality..., in your case…NAME OF INNOVATION Innovation core processes: areas to explore...



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..., O’Reilly AlphaTech Ventures, Founders Fund, Innovation Endeavors, Data Collective, and First... funding rounds                                                                                                                         165 Lowell W. Busenitz. "Innovation and Performance Implications of Venture... Capital; Founders Fund; Industry Ventures; Innovation Endeavors; Lux Capital Management; O’Reilly... Capital; Founders Fund; Industry Ventures; Innovation Endeavors; Lux Capital Management; O’Reilly... ‘active’ innovation policy whereby NASA both funded and ‘directed’ the innovation, within... change through mission-oriented innovation policy Innovation policy is often justified through... private sector innovation and experimentation can happen. 3 Horizontal approaches to innovation policy focus on (a) creating the framework conditions for innovation through... Earth-to-LEO innovation system, (ii) the associated innovation policy mix, and... a key position: (a) a ‘systems of innovation’ perspective to innovation policy; (b) the notion of... up the emerging space innovation system.8 2. SYSTEMS OF INNOVATION: CREATING & SHAPING MARKETS... of innovation’ viewpoint. 2.2. From market failures to system failures Systems of innovation (whether sectoral, regional, or national) embody dynamic links between various innovation... ‘systems of innovation’ approach (Freeman 1995) to understanding innovation policy, provides key... sectors that are crucial for innovation, and (4) promote infrastructural development (Freeman... exist between innovation, growth, and market structure, the systems of innovation view.... (just) facilitating it Investments in innovation involve choices regarding which innovations... and innovation. Due to its central position in the US space innovation... a transition from a vertical innovation policy to a more distributed innovation policy, where goals... a looser arrangement (including outsourcing) reducing innovation capacity within NASA itself? Is... for innovation led wealth creation, to the private sector. Table 2: Four innovation...’s internal innovation capacity, the four approaches show a considerable outsourcing of innovation, whether... and innovation, describes the private sector as a major driver of innovation with... policies. Successful innovation in different sectors, including the commercialization of innovation, has... national innovation system and (c) NASA’s organisational capacity to intervene and shape innovation in such a coupled LEO ecosystem ad national innovation system... about innovation”. She advises policy makers around the world on innovation-led... Innovation; and a permanent member of the European Commission’s expert group on Innovation... a PhD in Innovation Studies and currently focuses on innovation policy and technology.... Asheim, B. T., Nauwelaers, A., & C Tödtling, F. (2003). Regional Innovation Policy for SmallMedium Enterprises. Edward.... Block, F., & Keller, M. (2011). State of innovation: the U.S. government’s role in technology..., J., & Georghiou, L. (2007). Public procurement and innovation—Resurrecting the demand side. Research..., C. (2001). The Systems of Innovation Approach and Innovation Policy: An account of...). Public Procurement for Innovation as mission-oriented innovation policy. Research Policy, 41..., S. O., Kuhlmann, S., & Smits, R. E. H. M. (2007). Functions of innovation systems: A new approach for analysing...). Establishment and embedding of innovation brokers at different innovation system levels: Insights... innovation. In B. H. Hall & N. Rosenberg (Eds.), Handbook of the Economics of Innovation (vol..., R. R., & Rosenberg, N. (1993). Technical innovation and national systems. National innovation systems: a comparative analysis..., D. K. R. (2014) Anticipatory coordination around nanotechnology innovation systems and industries: successes, failures...). An Integrated Approach to European Innovation and Technology Diffusion Policy: A Maastricht... and diversity! Pluralising progress in innovation, sustainability and development. Available at..., G. M., & Courtney, R. (2007). The organization of innovation brokers: An international review. Technology... of innovation.2 The evolution of R&D portfolio management techniques, research consortia, “innovation clusters... the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI), which involves cooperative investment... research facilities, it needs a comprehensive R&D innovation management framework that moves beyond... national laboratories into their economies’ innovation infrastructures. Once thought of solely... research  Broader of support of innovation infrastructure (cluster models)  User facilities... process technology infrastructure • Capital formation innovation clusters) • Support STEM students through... through new research infrastructures (R&D consortia, innovation clusters), followed by more limited...  W.  Hansen,  and  Henry  G.  Grabowski  (2014)  “Innovation  in   the  Pharmaceutical  Industry:  New....     Food  and  Drug  Administration  (2004)  “Innovation  Stagnation:  Challenge  and   Opportunity  on...



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Innovation Contests for Sustainability-Oriented Product Innovation Findings from a Worldwide Shoe Innovation Contest... I - Innovation & Value Creation. Friedrich-Alexander-University ErlangenNuremberg 3 Center for Leading Innovation & Cooperation... Innovation and Sustainable Development (IJISD). CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 5 1.1 Corporate sustainability and eco innovation ................................................................. 6 1.2 Degree of innovativeness ............................................................................................. 7 1.2.1 Innovativeness in a conventional sense ............................................................ 7 1.2.2 Eco innovativeness ............................................................................................... 8 1.3 Open Innovation and Sustainability Innovation Contests .............................................. 9 2. RESEARCH APPROACH ...........................................................................................11...). Environmental innovation (or briefly ―eco innovation‖) is a subtype of sustainability-oriented innovation, directly... into an innovation. Overall, eco-innovation – as well as sustainability-oriented innovation more... innovation contests are restricted. Roth (2009) also introduces an crowdsourcing-based innovation... review introduces environmental innovation, classification systems of innovativeness and innovation contests. Second... sustainability and environmental innovation, environmental innovation classification systems and innovation contests. Each aspect... his eco innovation categories (product improvement; product redesign; function innovation; system innovation). Halila... Horte, 2006 (eco-innovation) Brezet, 1997 (eco innovation) Class Eco-efficiency improvement... improvement Function innovation max ~10 4 Functional innovation System innovation max ~20 5 System innovation 6 Scientific... ―open innovation‖ (Chesbrough, 2003) with external stakeholders is key in eco-innovation... elaborates this concept. 1.3 Open Innovation and Sustainability Innovation Contests Traditionally, new product... sources of knowledge and innovation. Among the open innovation processes used to... functional innovation account to roughly 6 and 7 percent respectively. System innovation or breakthrough innovation....2%) 3 Major product improvement 5 (7.6%) 4 Functional innovation 4 (6.1%) 5 System innovation - No actual environmental impact recognisable... 4 Functional innovation 4 (6.1%) 3.15 3.25 3.10 2.85 3.20 3.08 3.10 5 System innovation - - - - - - - - 6 Scientific... innovation 3.20 (3.15) 3.08 0.13 (0.07) Average 2.7 (2.6) 2.4 0.29 (0.15) Eco-innovation class Assessment and classification into both eco innovation classes and..., A.C. & REICHWALD, R. Eco innovation grid: Innovativeness and Eco impact Eco innovation class 5 4 3 Conventional... improvement;3= Major product improvement; 4=Functional innovation; 5=System innovation) In a further step, we... by innovativeness and eco-innovation class Eco innovation class Innovativeness [#] Low Low... the innovation funnel. Finally, limitations are discussed. High Niche eco innovation Mass market eco innovation Non-innovation Conventional innovation Eco innovativeness... the fields of open innovation and sustainable innovation. 28 HANSEN, E.G; BULLINGER, A.C. & REICHWALD... Concepts of Innovation (ICICI 2010): The Technological Dimension of Innovation, Stuttgart, Germany..., A. C., Haller, J., & Möslein, K. M. (2009). Innovation Mobs – Unlocking the Innovation Potential of Virtual Communities.... Community-based innovation contests: Where competition meets cooperation. Creativity and Innovation Management... technological innovation typology and innovativeness terminology: a literature review. Journal of Product Innovation... of Innovation and Sustainable Development. Hansen, E. G., Große-Dunker, F., & Reichwald, R. (2009). Sustainability Innovation Cube — A Framework to Evaluate Sustainability-Oriented Innovations. International Journal of Innovation...–318. Rennings, K. (2000). Redefining innovation – Eco-innovation research and the submission from... the social dimension of innovation. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development...) Perspective: User toolkits for innovation, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 18, 4, 247... Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 4(4), 314–329. Wagner, M. (forthcoming). Innovation for Sustainable Development, Competitiveness, Free Revealing and User Innovation: An Empirical Analysis. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable...



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... a developing context, a wider range of innovation obstacles implies broader external search.... Keywords: open innovation; search strategies; innovation obstacles; technological and nontechnological innovation; Nigeria JEL... Seminars are gratefully acknowledged. 1 Introduction Innovation is a systemic phenomenon that is... the research on innovation management and more specifically, open innovation. 3 manufacturing firms... "OPEN FOR INNOVATION THE ROLE OF OPENNESS IN EXPLAINING INNOVATION PERFORMANCE AMONG... average 0 Marketing innovation .8 0 .2 EU average 0 .2 .4 .6 Goods innovation .8 0 .2 .4 .6 Service innovation .8 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 Process innovation Proportions of firms... innovation survey Figure 2: Organisational and marketing innovation versus goods, service and process innovation... aspects of marketing and organisational innovation are especially important in a developing... that non-technological innovation occurs more frequently than technological innovation. The reverse... of research: economics of innovation, open innovation, innovation management and development economics. Sectoral... and management of innovation have repeatedly argued that the innovation processes differ... datasets include information on the innovation investments, sources, obstacles and outcomes... the African Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators Initiative [ASTII]. Some aggregate... for radical innovation and INNFIRM as proxy for incremental innovation. It has... for incremental and non-technological innovation than their developed country counterparts... innovation co-occur in the firms. This suggests that firm-level innovation... of innovation to be able to study the process of innovation within... 3 compares innovativeness, external search and innovation obstacles across the manufacturing and...-market innovation is far less common than new-to-firm innovation across... implemented new-to-market innovation suggests that innovation is not entirely beyond... statistically significant only for incremental innovation. Moreover, the directions of the... innovative performance only for incremental innovation [Model II]. The corresponding turning... more strongly associated with incremental innovation. Table 3: Explaining innovative performance among... the domestic innovation system may be limited. However, since incremental innovation represents... scope of innovation. In other words, a wider scope of innovation is strongly...-to-firm innovation as well as the scope of innovation. This indicates that on average, radical innovation and the overall scope of innovation are higher among...-firm innovation but not for the more radical new-to-market innovation... nature of the innovation process. By our definition, radical innovation occurs at... technological innovation, will help in building a more robust theory of open innovation, particularly with relevance for developing countries where nontechnological innovation is... 18 innovation, the widely reported importance of human capital in the innovation... new-to-firm innovation. This indicates that the domestic innovation system within..., T., and Caiado, J. (2013). Determinants of innovation in a small open economy: a multidimensional...: a new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1):128... Chesbrough, H. (2009). Open R&D and open innovation: exploring the phenomenon. R&D Management, 39... collaboration and innovation: towards a portfolio approach. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 22... constraints and knowledge impact open innovation. Strategic Management Journal, 34(9):1134..., 2007] Goedhuys, M. (2007). Learning, product innovation, and firm heterogeneity in developing...). Open for innovation: the role of openness in explaining innovation performance among..., W., and Lee, C.-Y. (2012). The alliance innovation performance of R&D alliances: the absorptive... – 292. [Lundvall, 1988] Lundvall, B.-Å. (1988). Innovation as an interactive process: From... systems of innovation in a globalized world economy. Industry and Innovation, 7(1):33–54. [NACETEM, 2010] NACETEM (2010). Assessment of innovation capability... for collecting and interpreting technological innovation data: Oslo Manual. Organisation for... portfolio diversity, radical and incremental innovation: the moderating role of technology...] Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, B. (2006). Systems of innovation and underdevelopment: an institutional perspective... McCormick, D., editors, Industrial clusters and innovation systems in Africa. United Nations..., B., Laditan, G., and Esubiyi, A. (1996). Industrial innovation in sub-Saharan Africa: the... Pellegrini, G. (2010). Knowledge, productivity, and innovation in Nigeria. Technical report, World... facilities No need for innovation due to prior innovation Lack of in... Nour  2014-32 Beyond  product  innovation;  improving  innovation  policy  support  for  SMEs... The  impact  of  innovation  support  programmes  on  SME  innovation  in  traditional  manufacturing...



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... Open Innovation” carried out by the OECD‟s Working Party on Innovation Policy... and greater openness in the innovation process, Denmark formulated a globalisation strategy... innovation in order to help Denmark participate more actively in global innovation networks. ‘Open innovation in the OECD Innovation Strategy’ by... between globalisation and innovation, but also the role innovation can play in..., energy security and health. ‘Metanational innovation: a framework to understand configuration and... leading technologies. SESSION 1: GLOBAL INNOVATION NETWORKS 6. Innovation strategies increasingly require more global... plays within this global innovation networks? ‘Open innovation on a global scale: main... OECD project „Globalisation and open innovation‟. He discussed the increasing internationalisation... global innovation networks and open innovation, following differences in modes of open innovation... clear in a recent survey. ‘Open innovation: technology leadership through collaboration’ by... ideas, IBM created a collaborative innovation tool called „Innovation Jam‟; a multiple-day, web... innovation network in the three different domains of research, development and innovation... up innovation for the customers. 12. The biggest challenges for open innovation... Credits for R&D;  Putting a focus on R&D &Innovation management tools (promoting new models... an open innovation point of view; and  Putting a focus on innovation in the service sector, where the open innovation model is evident. ‘Innovation... product and process innovation mainly on existing markets (incremental innovation) while „reaching... penetration of new markets (radical innovation). Reaching out internally involves developing... are increasingly included in global innovation networks. VTT Finland underwent a transition... innovation have also increasingly been used by companies such as venturing, innovation intermediaries, innovation campuses, etc. This session... innovation and source external knowledge in order to speed up the innovation... model of innovation to a more open innovation model. While incremental innovation is still done within the „traditional‟ product lines, domain innovation...-innovation with carmakers. The Domains are the main source of Open Innovation interactions with the surrounding “eco-system”. The organisation of innovation..., Novartis Switzerland) described how open innovation has become a standard practice within... organisation, Belgium) focuses on open innovation through precompetitive shared programs with....  Supporting Open Innovation Centres and innovation intermediaries.  Providing SMEs with innovation vouchers.  Avoiding... Vision, to analyse open innovation within established innovation system approaches and theory... from Community Innovation Surveys have been used to map open innovation and analyse its impact on innovation performance. Open innovation was... average open innovation has a positive and significant impact on innovation performance. The... FOR INNOVATION POLICY 37. Globalisation and the emergence of open innovation have several implications for science, technology and innovation policies. Many OECD governments are rethinking their innovation policies in...? (e.g. R&D tax credits for collaboration). Global innovation networks have also implications for... innovation in an international context: the Holst Centre and the innovation program... (Netherlands) 40. Sigrid Johanisse (Manager Innovation Programs High Tech Systems, Ministry... of R&D internationalisation and open innovation have changed innovation policy in the Netherlands... researchers, R&D subsidies, etc. ‘Open innovation at Oséo Innovation’ by Patrica Renaud (France... profits from innovation in Japan, notwithstanding the large investments in innovation (R&D, patents... of innovation collaboration in Japan is the large scale- eco-innovation based... in innovation policy was needed following the emergence of global innovation networks? Richard Hudson (ScienceBusinessNet) noted that the term „innovation‟ becomes... coordination between different policies impacting innovation. Also Dirk Pilat (OECD) argued... dispersed across different government departments. Innovation nowadays seems to be hindered... of innovation policies within public policies. Furthermore, he mentioned that innovation policies are still heavily based towards R&D and technological innovation. He sketched different fields where innovation policies could be... the internationalisation of R&D and open innovation:  Human resources, especially mobility of... the right framework conditions for innovation. Sometimes, the responsibilities for different...-based policies for innovation and showed how Community Innovation Surveys can be... for a smart innovation policy focusing on new types of innovation, analyzing policy...



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... of this insight. Keywords: sustainability, innovation, management, quantitative methods, family firms... environmentally and socially (particularly) beneficial innovation with various policy instruments with... opportunities arising from sustainability-related innovation for increasing competitiveness is complemented... environmental innovation (as one specific sub-category of sustainability related innovation), and by analogy, one 2 could generalise, that sustainability-related innovation... sustainability innovation and management activities. I then introduce a formal definition of sustainability innovation... product innovation only, process innovation only and simultaneous product and process innovation, respectively... here in particular open innovation processes and user innovation, especially in the... sustainable development, sustainability aspects in innovation processes have received increased intention... question whether sustainabilityrelated innovation is a special type of innovation in a qualitative sense, or just “better managed innovation”, i.e. innovation, where... categories of innovation success, rather than a qualitatively new form of innovation. The following Figure 1 conceptualises and defines further sustainability innovation in... benefit of an innovation (i.e. the cost reduction the innovation brings about for... an innovation to compensate for negative social effects of that innovation (e.g. because... social benefit of an innovation Pareto-superior innovation Private customer/producer benefit... benefit of innovation (€) Innovation cooperation and open innovation for sustainability-related innovation Co-operation (e.g. in terms of innovation networks, acquisition of innovation, open innovation or user innovation) seems to be relevant for sustainability-related innovation to the degree that such innovation is technologically... achieve a large improvement, sustainability-related innovation requires complementary changes to enable... based e.g. on open innovation processes und user innovation carried out by lead... the Novartis foundation. Open innovation and user innovation are discussed in this... corporations and societies. Open innovation and user innovation are (as will be... of processes of open innovation or user innovation (e.g. Harhoff et al., 2003... open innovation process. Open source software (OSS) also illustrates, that open innovation is not the same as user innovation, but that... innovation is both, a process of open innovation as well as an user innovation...) innovation if the company sells the product in which the open innovation... innovation and in this sense takes part in a process of open innovation. This relationship between open and user innovation, which is... of innovation processes, that are both user and open (i.e. freely revealed) innovation... there are innovation processes that are either open or user innovation and... innovation cooperation. FIGURE 2: The relationship between open and user innovation Open Innovation User Innovation... environmental innovation is a specific type of innovation that lends itself to user innovation or open innovation processes... concerns user innovation in this respect, sustainability-related innovation is by definition... user innovation activity. A specific example that illustrates such sustainability-related user innovation... concerns environmental innovation as a special case of sustainability-related innovation, there seem... innovation, ƒ the higher the improvement of production quality stemming from the innovation... sustainability performance with sustainability-related innovation? Next to capabilities as reflected... (addressing essentially product innovation) are firstly environmental Innovation as defined by KLD... association between innovation and management. TABLE 2: Quantitative link of environmental innovation and... corporate sustainability performance and sustainability innovation, Table 3 shows, that a significant positive... could drive sustainability innovation. TABLE 3: Quantitative link of sustainability innovation and sustainability... overproportionally often sustainability innovation. TABLE 4: Quantitative link of sustainability innovation and sustainability... innovation and hence what underlying capabilities are crucial to realise sustainability innovation..., J. & Dibrell, C., 2006. The Natural Environment, Innovation and Firm Performance: A Comparative Study...-100. Rennings, K., 2000. Redefining Innovation - Eco-Innovation Research and the Contribution from... relationship between environmental management, environmental innovation and patenting: Evidence from German...



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.... . . . . . 25 4  Increasing the Pace of Innovation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5  Seizing the Opportunity of...’s Growth through Technological Convergence and Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Purpose of the Chapter... to Innovation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Defining Policy Priorities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Emerging Priorities for Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181... emissions worldwide. . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 3.3 Index of innovation in climate change mitigation technologies... registration status, 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 2A.6 Innovation inputs and outputs of industrial... enterprise size, 2009. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 2A.7 Innovation inputs and outputs of industrial... performer, 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 2A.15 Innovation inputs and outputs of industrial... various entities involved in Nation Innovation System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 3.1 Getting to a greener... economy. Second, encouraging innovation and adopting an open innovation system with links... the pace of innovation and create an open innovation system in which...: consolidating China’s market foundations; enhancing innovation; promoting green development; ensuring equality... to increase international competitiveness through innovation and technological development. Increased specialization...; implementing a “smart” urbanization strategy; encouraging innovation and industrial upgrading; reducing income... is encouraging systemwide innovation and adopting an “open” innovation system with links... central to increasing efficiency, stimulating innovation, and promoting international competitiveness. Opening... allocation, and stimulate innovation. In addition, competitiveness and innovation will be encouraged... support broad-based, economy-wide innovation. Innovation Advantages As it begins its...-based creativity and innovation. Key Reform Recommendations A better innovation policy in China... environment that supports economy-wide o v e r v i e w innovation efforts within a competitive market system... the growth of China’s innovation capabilities. China’s innovation policy needs to reflect... networking to promote innovation; and the nurturing of innovation especially in the... ground for innovation. But because most applied research and innovation are done...’s innovation capabilities. Smart cities will be the locus of technological innovation and... innovation; to strengthen intellectual property protection; to create a favorable environment for innovation... profitable innovations. • Promoting enterprise-led innovation. • Strengthening supporting services. • Raising expenditure... a world-class innovation system. The efficiency of the emerging innovation system is... al Convergence and Innovation Assets In its pursuit of innovation as a driver... conducive to innovation—initially, most firms are focused on cost innovation and... corporations), and if innovation intensifies (assuming no easing of innovation pressures), productivity... innovation in urban planning, metro transportation systems, and green technologies. Successful innovation... a more productive national innovation system with the global innovation system   7. Sustaining an... Role in the National Innovation System Innovation is essentially about creating more... created national innovation systems. Most of the applied research and innovation of... the innovation agenda and lead to the strengthening of regional innovation systems... innovation strategy. It almost goes without saying that the growth of innovation... China’s growth through innovation. Emerging Priorities for Innovation The inexorable march of... al Convergence and Innovation 195 Table 2A.12  Innovation inputs and outputs... as driving force for innovation (Schumpeter ian innovation) Improve management; Purchase of... competition as driving force for innovation (Schumpeter innovation) Purchase technology from the... (2011), product innovation was unambiguously more productive than process innovation. In services... the spectrum of innovation possibilities is so wide. On innovation and China... innovation. In fact, according to Branscomb (2008, 916), “Cisco’s most important innovation... Innovation Research program highlights the difficulties governments face as they craft innovation... innovationoriented country by boosting independent innovation featuring Chinese characteristics]. Zhong Guo... also offer many lessons for innovation in E q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y a n d B a s i c Se c u r i t y f o r A l l models of formal... innovation in, 166 Switzerland carbon-trading scheme in, 43, 261b innovation in...