Спутник связи. Intelsat 23. [Редактировать]

Intelsat 23 — американский телекоммуникационный спутник произведённый компанией Orbital Sciences Corporation по заказу Intelsat. Запуск аппарата на орбиту был успешно произведён 14 октября 2012 года с помощью ракеты-носителя РН Протон-М с разгонным блоком Бриз-М с космодрома Байконур, Пл. № 81. ПУ № 24. Intelsat 23 был разработан Orbital Sciences Corporation на базе платформы Star-2.4. Масса спутника — 2730 кг. В качестве полезной нагрузки он несёт 24 транспондера C-диапазона и 15 транспондеров Ku-диапазона. Ожидается, что спутник прослужит как минимум 15 лет.

Дополнительные наименования

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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - коммерческий
3Тип орбиты - ГСО
4Страна производитель - США
5Все спутники связи

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2730
2Масса (сухая), кг1503
3Платформа 1xStar-2.4
4Количество (Ku-стволов), шт.15
5Количество (C стволов), шт.24
6Мощность, Вт4800

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град0.0
2Апогей, км35806.2
3Перигей, км35785.1
4Период, минут1436.2
5САС, год15
6Длинный диаметр эллипса, км42166

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2012-057A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор Intelsat
2Производитель Orbital ATK

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром Байконур
2Дата пуска2012-10-14 at 08:37:00 UTC
3Полезная нагрузка 1xIntelsat 23
4Ракета-носитель 1xПротон-М с РБ «Бриз-М»

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... Activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ORBITAL LAUNCH VEHICLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 U.S. COMMERCIAL ORBITAL LAUNCH VEHICLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NON... in 2004-2013 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Figure 23. Microsatellites and Nanosatellites Launched by... During the Next 5 Years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 23. Payload and Launch Projections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table... Space Transportation Revenues from the 23 commercial orbital launches in 2014.... •9• India 1 (4%) Europe 6 (26%) Multinational 1 (4%) Total: 23 Commercial Launches USA 11 (48... 0 16 1 3 0 India Israel Multinational TOTAL 4 0 1 1 0 23 69 32 16 4 4 1 1 92 Table.../16/14 Ariane 5 ECA Europe Intelsat 30 GEO Success 10/28... ORBCOMM satellites. Image credit: SpaceX • 23 • • 23 • Federal Aviation Administration’s Office of....5) 15.9 (6.3) 8.3 (3.3) 24.8 (9.8) 35.6 (14) 21.6 (8.5) 23.5 (9.3) • 55 • 8.4 (3.3) 20.3 (8) 24.8 (9.8) Operator UP..., m (ft) 3 3 Flight duration Propulsion Propellant 7 (23) 210 days 2 x hybrid motors HTBP..., Alaska Aerospace Corporation Alaska 1998 9/23/18 None Cape Canaveral Spaceport... (COMSTAC) 18 25 24 23 22 23 23 22 23 23 226 22.6 NGSO Forecast... Average 18 25 24 23 22 23 23 22 23 23 226 Launch Demand 13... 16 18 25 24 23 22 23 23 22 23 23 Dual-Manifesting 63 25 226 Avg. 2014 to 2023 6.3 2.5 23... ARSAT 2 GSAT 16 Hispasat AG1 Intelsat 34 Sky Mexico 1 Proton M Falcon... ABS 2 Astra 5B MEASAT 3B Intelsat 30 DirecTV 14 Eutelsat 3B... 8 JCSAT 15 JCSAT 16 Palapa E Intelsat 36 Ariane 5 Ariane 5 Falcon 9 Falcon... C4 Inmarsat 5F2 Inmarsat 5F3 Intelsat 31 DM = Potential Dual-Manifested... DM Echostar XVIII Echostar XIX Intelsat 29E Intelsat 33E Jabiru 1 NBN 1B.... Major global operators such as Intelsat, SES, and Eutelsat and regional... make up for this drop. Intelsat, Eutelsat, • 112 • 2014 Commercial Space... Hughes Network Systems and Viasat. Intelsat is replacing some of its... Epic satellites starting in 2015. Intelsat’s goal is to reduce the... Viasat-2 satellites. For operators like Intelsat, a HTS system could reduce their... of demonstrating the capabilities on Intelsat satellites. However, MDA changed its... GEO broadband service providers include: •• Intelsat with its open architecture Epic... payload from Intelsat. This payload is hosted aboard the Intelsat 22 satellite... Steering Committee members include Boeing, Intelsat, Iridium, Lockheed Martin, Orbital, SES..., Eutelsat/Nilesat, SES/ Gazprom, and Intelsat/JSAT. Several European and Russian... pricing of Intelsat’s IPO was reduced by 22 percent, from $23 per..., including those for CubeSats. Figure 23. Microsatellites and Nanosatellites Launched by... Technology Test and Demonstration Table 23. Payload and Launch Projections 2014... 2 Ariane 4 Intelsat 706 Ariane 4 EchoStar 2 Ariane 4 PAS 3 Ariane 4 NSTAR a Ariane 4 Intelsat 707 Ariane 4 PAS 4 Ariane 4 Intelsat 709 Ariane 4 MSAT 1 Ariane 4 NSTAR b Ariane 4 Intelsat... 2 Atlas II AMSC 1 Atlas II Intelsat 703 Atlas II Galaxy 3R... LM-2E Intelsat 704 Atlas II DM1 PAS 3R Ariane 4 Intelsat 705... Atlas II Asiasat 2 LM-2E Intelsat 708 LM-3B EchoStar 1 9 4 LM... Launches 1997 1998 1999 28 23 23 24 Total Satellites Over 5,400... III DM4 Afristar Intelsat 801 Ariane 4 DM3 Eutelsat W2 Intelsat 802 Ariane 4 Hot Bird 4 Ariane 4 Insat 2E Ariane 4 Intelsat 803 Ariane 4 PAS 6B Ariane 4 Koreasat 3 Ariane 4 Intelsat 804 Ariane... 4 Intelsat 805 Atlas II Eutelsat W3 Atlas II AMC 3 Atlas II Intelsat... Ariane 4 Intelsat 904 Ariane 4 PAS 1R Ariane 5 Intelsat 901 Ariane 4 Intelsat 905 Ariane 4 Garuda 1 Proton K/DM Intelsat 902 Ariane 4 Intelsat 906... Proton K/DM Echostar 8 Proton K/DM Intelsat 903 Proton K/DM Galaxy 3C... 0 Anik F2 Intelsat X Over 5,400 kg (>11,905 lbm) Intelsat 907 Proton... DM3 Optus D1 Ariane 5 DM4 Intelsat 11 Ariane 5 Thor 5 Proton M DM4... 5 Echostar 14 Proton M Viasat 1 Proton M Intelsat 14 Atlas V Echostar 15 Proton... Ariane 5 DMU ST 2 Ariane 5 DM5 Intelsat 17 Ariane 5 Eutelsat W3C Long... DM3 RASCOM 1R Ariane 5 Intelsat 18 Intelsat 15 Long March Asiasat 7 Palapa... 17 Ariane 5 DM2 Alphasat Ariane 5 Intelsat 20 Ariane 5 DM3 Eutelsat 25B... 5 Echostar 16 Proton M Satmex 8 Proton M Intelsat 22 Proton M Eutelsat 7B Proton... 1B Proton M Sirius FM6 Proton M Intelsat 19 Sea Launch Inmarsat 5F1... 70B Sea Launch Sea Launch 5 6 Intelsat 27 1 5 Sea Launch Proton M DM3... (<5,510 lbm) 10 Ariane 5 Intelsat 21 DM4 13 Intelsat 23 Proton M 0 0 = Launch Failure... Hispasat Orbital Sciences Corp. Communications 23-Mar-14 Soyuz 2.1b Plestesk... LEO Roscosmos TsSKB Progress Scientific S S 23-Jul-14 Soyuz U Baikonur Progress... 5 ECA Guiana Space * Intelsat 30 Center * ARSAT 1 GEO Intelsat Space Systems Loral... Reshetnev Communications S S CAST Development S S S S Baikonur 23-Oct-14 Long March 3C...



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... from 2010, when there were 23 commercial orbital launches worldwide out... to a Molniya orbit on December 23. The United States and China...(s) Orbit Launch Outcome Yahsat 1A Intelsat New Dawn Telstar 14R Insat... 5C SES-2 Atlantic Bird 7 QuetzSat-1 Intelsat 18 Eutelsat W3C Viasat 1 Asiasat...%) Multinational 2 (6%) Russia 21 (60%) Europe 8 (23%) Total: 35 35 commercial payloads... Meridian 5 communications satellite on December 23. •8• 2011 Year in Review U.S. AND...% 1/1 100% 2/2 100% 34/34 100% 23/24 (96%) 2000 2010 2004... (21,598) 8,123 (17,908) -- -- 23,435 (51,557) 15,876... Sea Launch. It deployed the Intelsat 18 commercial GEO communications satellite... by Sea Launch, successfully launched Intelsat 18 from Baikonur, Kazakhstan. • 14... (lbs) 10,500 8,000 1,700 (23,127) (17,637) (3,800) 5,800... least one 20 28 24 23 23 10 launch failure each year... number of launches rose from 23 in 2007 to a high of... 40 51 47 2 1 26 24 23 2008 2009 2010 Figure 12... Launches NGSO NGSO 40 35 23 30 25 20 21 18... January through June 2012. Figure 23 shows commercial against non-commercial... (67%) Total: 55 Launches Figure 23. Projected Commercial vs. Non-Commercial... of 2012. • 21 • Small 19 (23%) Large 17 (20%) Total: 84... S S * Yahsat 1A GEO Communications $220M S S * Intelsat New Dawn GEO Communications S S 22... Communications Company Orbital Sciences Corp. Intelsat 27-Apr-11 Soyuz Baikonur... for definitions of payload orbits. • 23 • Federal Aviation Administration / Commercial Space...-Sep-11 21-Sep-11 V 23-Sep-11 24-Sep-11...-11 V Zenit 3SLB Baikonur * Intelsat 18 GEO Intelsat Orbital Sciences Corp. Communications... and Mapping CAST Remote Sensing S S 23-Dec-11 28-Dec-11... Gen 19 20 21 22 23 24 Space Space Space Space... Communications Communications Proton M Baikonur * Intelsat 22 GEO Intelsat Boeing Communications $85M 06... 1Q-12 V Proton M Baikonur * Intelsat 23 GEO Intelsat Orbital Sciences Corp. Communications $85M... Company Communications Communications Communications * Intelsat 19 GEO Intelsat Space Systems/Loral Communications... Space Center 01-May-12 23-May-12 V + Antares Soyuz Wallops...-12 V Ariane 5 ECA Kourou * Intelsat 20 GEO Intelsat Space Systems/Loral Communications $220M 2Q-12 V Proton M Baikonur * Intelsat 21 GEO Intelsat Boeing Communications $85M 2Q...



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... и инновациям 11 июля 2011 г., протокол №23-АК).  Рекомендации по разработке программ... «Национальная информационная спутниковая система» зарегистрировано 23.10.2012 г. Свидетельства о государственной регистрации... Банковские реквизиты: ОГРН 1122468058349 от 23.10.2012, ИНН 2452195158, КПП... Boeing TAS Astrium Год запуска 23 Платформы размерности "Экспресс-2000" 19...-91, факс (391)-243-89-23 № 15553 1.3 ИФП СО РАН КНЦ.../GPS 2012-08-16-10524 23. Разработка и исследование принципов построения нового....net - Sodern, 20 Avenue Descartes B.P. 23 94451 LIMEIL-BREVANNES Cedex, France... проблемы аэрокосмической отрасли. Работа шла в 23 тематических секциях, включая «Научнотехническое творчество... 3,84 7,69 15,38 19,23 15,38 11,56 Наименование... 14 Echostar 15 Hispasat 1E Intelsat 17 XM 5 2011 AsiaSat 7 Telstar... Nimiq 6 Echostar 16 Echostar 17 Intelsat 19 Intelsat 20 SES 4 28,4 1,3 4,8 20... 13 Intelsat 21 Intelsat 16 Koreasat 6 SES 1 Intelsat 18 SES 2 SES 3 Intelsat 22 HYLAS 2 Intelsat 23...» имени М.В. Проценко 20 21 22 23 Директор, чл.корр. РАН, Шустов...@niifi.ru, тел. (8412) 5657-23, моб.тел. (960) 324-18... (812)232-97-04, 238-23-07, od@mail.ifmo.ru... доверенности действует от имени Партнерства. 8.23. Директор Партнерства: - с учетом требований законодательства...



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... On-Orbit Servicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Competition from LEO Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Hosted Payloads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24... and Launch Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Table 23. Distribution of Payload Masses in... in 2003-2012. . . . . . . .66 Figure 23. Microsatellites and Nanosatellites Launched by... (COMSTAC) 18 25 24 23 22 23 23 22 23 23 226 22.6 NGSO Forecast... Total 18 25 24 23 22 23 23 22 23 23 226 Average 22.6 Launch... 2014 Addressable 17 21 18 23 22 22 17 21 16... 23 22 22 17 21 16 18 25 24 23 22 23 23 22 23 23 226 23 100% • 10 • 2017... ARSAT 2 GSAT 16 Hispasat AG1 Intelsat 34 Sky Mexico 1 Below 2,500... ABS 2 Astra 5B MEASAT 3B Intelsat 30 DirecTV 14 Eutelsat 3B... 8 JCSAT 15 JCSAT 16 Palapa E Intelsat 36 8 DM Sicral 2 DM Thor... C4 Inmarsat 5F2 Inmarsat 5F3 Intelsat 31 DM = Potential Dual-Manifested... DM Echostar XVIII Echostar XIX Intelsat 29E Intelsat 33E Jabiru 1 NBN 1B.... Major global operators such as Intelsat, SES, and Eutelsat and regional... make up for this drop. Intelsat, Eutelsat, Hispasat, and other operators... Hughes Network Systems and Viasat. Intelsat is replacing some of its... Epic satellites starting in 2015. Intelsat’s goal is to reduce the... Viasat-2 satellites. For operators like Intelsat, a HTS system could reduce their... of demonstrating the capabilities on Intelsat satellites. However, MDA changed its... GEO broadband service providers include: • Intelsat with its open architecture Epic... the maritime and aeronautical sectors; • 23 • Federal Aviation Administration’s Office of... payload from Intelsat. This payload is hosted aboard the Intelsat 22 satellite... Steering Committee members include Boeing, Intelsat, Iridium, Lockheed Martin, Orbital, SES..., Eutelsat/ Nilesat, SES/Gazprom, and Intelsat/JSAT. • 27 • Federal Aviation Administration... pricing of Intelsat’s IPO was reduced by 22%, from $23 per share... for an option of manufacturing 23 additional satellites in the coming... have launched cubesats (see Figure 23). Over the past decade, the... 300 kg to LEO. Figure 23. Microsatellites and Nanosatellites Launched by... from 2013 to 2022. Table 23 provides the specific numbers of... Technology Test and Demonstration Table 23. Payload and Launch Projections 2014... Ariane 4 DM3 Arabsat 2A Ariane 4 Intelsat 702 Ariane 4 DBS 3 Ariane 4 DM4... 2 Ariane 4 Intelsat 706 Ariane 4 EchoStar 2 Ariane 4 PAS 3 Ariane 4 NSTAR a Ariane 4 Intelsat 707 Ariane 4 PAS 4 Ariane 4 Intelsat 709 Ariane 4 DM4... AMSC 1 Atlas II NSTAR b Ariane 4 Intelsat 703 Atlas II Galaxy 3R... LM-2E Intelsat 704 Atlas II DM1 PAS 3R Ariane 4 Intelsat 705... Atlas II Asiasat 2 LM-2E Intelsat 708 LM-3B EchoStar 1 LM... 19 19 Total Satellites 28 23 23 Over 5,400 kg (>11,905... Afristar Ariane 4 Intelsat 801 Ariane 4 DM3 Eutelsat W2 Ariane 4 Intelsat 802 Ariane 4 Hot Bird 4 Ariane 4 Insat 2E Ariane 4 Intelsat 803 Ariane 4 PAS 6B Ariane 4 Koreasat 3 Ariane 4 Intelsat 804 Ariane... 4 Intelsat 805 Atlas II Eutelsat W3 Atlas II AMC 3 Atlas II Intelsat... Ariane 4 Intelsat 904 Ariane 4 PAS 1R Ariane 5 Intelsat 901 Ariane 4 Intelsat 905 Ariane 4 Garuda 1 Proton K/DM Intelsat 902 Ariane 4 Intelsat 906... Proton K/DM Echostar 8 Proton K/DM Intelsat 903 Proton K/DM Galaxy 3C...,905 lbm) Anik F2 Ariane 5 Intelsat X Proton M Thaicom 4 Ariane 5 DirecTV 7S... Sea Launch Spaceway 1 Sea Launch 5 Intelsat 907 4 4 Amazonas Proton M AMC 12... M Ariane 5 Eutelsat W3A Proton M AMC 23 Proton M Atlas V APStar V Anik F1R... 18 Total Satellites 19 18 23 2 3 5 Over 5,400 kg (>11,905... DM3 Optus D1 Ariane 5 DM4 Intelsat 11 Ariane 5 Thor 5 Proton M DM4... 5 Echostar 14 Proton M Viasat 1 Proton M Intelsat 14 Atlas V Echostar 15 Proton... Ariane 5 DMU ST 2 Ariane 5 DM5 Intelsat 17 Ariane 5 Eutelsat W3C Long... DM3 RASCOM 1R Ariane 5 Intelsat 18 Intelsat 15 Long March Asiasat 7 Palapa... Ariane 5 DM2 Alphasat Ariane 5 DM2 Intelsat 20 Ariane 5 DM3 Eutelsat 25B... 5 Echostar 16 Proton M Satmex 8 Proton M Intelsat 22 Proton M Eutelsat 7B Proton... M Intelsat 19 Sea Launch Inmarsat 5F1 Proton M Intelsat 21 Sea Launch Intelsat 27... 9 Vinasat 2 Ariane 5 Amos 4 Land Launch Intelsat 23 Proton M 0 0 = Launch Failure DM# = Dual... II Dneor Medium-to-Heavy 4/23/07 6/7/07 7/2/07 11/1/07...



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... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 A. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 B. Commercial Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 C. Remote Sensing Satellite Programs and... Economy, Untangling e-conomics,” The Economist,” 23 September 2000 (The Economist Survey.... SM-11827, (May 1946), 8, 9, 17, 23, quoted in Walter A. McDougall, … the... International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) system. 22 INTELSAT began as an intergovernmental... members and one geosynchronous satellite. INTELSAT, which now has 144 members... a private company in July 2001. 23 In the Satellite Act, Congress... facilitate development of the global INTELSAT system and to provide for... enterprise in that system. 25 INTELSAT launched its first satellite, Early... an initial commercial satellite provider, INTELSAT benefited from U.S. taxpayerfunded research and... days of space communications. 26 INTELSAT also benefited from government policies... U.S.C. sec. 701(a). 22 Alexandra M. Field, “INTELSAT at Crossroads,” Law and Policy...): 1335-66. 23 The INTELSAT website is: http://www.intelsat.int. 47 U.S.C. sections...). 25 47 U.S.C. sec. 701(c). 26 INTELSAT LLC, Memorandum Opinion Order and... States National Security After the INTELSAT global system was operating, the... the United States. On January 23, 1970, the Executive Office of... our obligations and commitments to Intelsat and the International Telecommunication Union... (The White House, Washington, D.C., January 23, 1970) as reproduced in Establishment... and influencing the direction of INTELSAT. After recognizing the benefits of... by creating the framework for INTELSAT, in the 1980s-90s, the... U.S. Government undertook efforts to encourage INTELSAT to become more competitive as... would result. “The privatization of INTELSAT is a policy goal of the... FCC 2d 1046 (1985). 32 INTELSAT LLC, Memorandum Opinion Order and..., citing Direct Access to the INTELSAT System, Report and Order, 14... market, INTELSAT inaugurated a multi-year effort to restructure. In 1998, INTELSAT spun... Netherlands and now competes with INTELSAT. In March 2000, Congress passed... for the full privatization of INTELSAT in order to serve the..., the Federal Communications Commission authorized INTELSAT to operate in the United... services through the privatization of INTELSAT in a manner consistent with U.S. law... of the two organizations. 34 INTELSAT LLC, Memorandum Opinion Order and... In 1994, Presidential Decision Directive 23 gave NASA, NOAA, and the... During 2001-2010,” PR Newswire, 23 August 2000. 80 Robert K. Ackerman... CNES (35%), Matra Marconi Space (23%), the French National Geographic Institute... objective of Presidential Decision Directive 23 is “to support and enhance.... ING Barings, Satellite Communications, 22-23, supra n.45. ING Barings cites... international satellite telephony through the INTELSAT system using geosynchronous satellites. Thereafter... of 2001, will expand to 23 satellites. 176 http://www.panamsat... these organizations are: Washington, D.C.-based INTELSAT, London-based INMARSAT and Paris... the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, “INTELSAT,” 23 U.S.T. 4091 (February 12, 1973); Operating... the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, “INTELSAT,” 23 U.S.T. 3813 (August 20, 1971). 210... privileges and immunities. For example, INTELSAT is immune from taxes and.... 215 INTELSAT will privatize in July 2001. 216 As a U.S. company, INTELSAT will be subject to U.S. competition laws and domestic regulations. (INTELSAT has... in the world.) As such, INTELSAT will operate as a private entity... the U.S. Government. Location of privatized INTELSAT in the United States will... worth billions of dollars. With INTELSAT as a U.S. company, it will be... their satellite systems than if INTELSAT were located in a foreign jurisdiction... for commercial and U.S. Government use, INTELSAT and its workforce offer extraordinary... and business expertise. Finally, when INTELSAT is privatized, the United States... satellite companies in the world—INTELSAT and PanAmSat. The organizations generally...: INTELSAT Privatization Plan and Schedule Formally Approved by Governments,” http://www.intelsat...-based New Skies Satellites, N.V. (the INTELSAT spin-off), received authorization to... & Space Technology, September 25, 2000, 23. Retrieved September, 29, 2000, from... a larger share of the company. Intelsat has a strong presence in South.... This service uses Turksat and INTELSAT capacity. Saudi Globalstar has introduced.... C.E. Unterberg, Towbin, “Hotbird,” Vol. 3, No. 5, 23 October 2000, 26. 253 56... INTELSAT system for traditional voice, data and video services. In addition, INTELSAT..., 2000: 831-836. Retrieved October 23, 2000 from the World Wide..., 20 June 1996). Retrieved October 23, 2000, from the World Wide..., 14 June 1999. Retrieved October 23, 2000 from the World Wide...) 17 April 1997. Retrieved October 23, 2000, from the World Wide... used leased capacity on the INTELSAT satellite system as part of...



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..., LLC Communications GEO Echostar 9/Galaxy 23 (G-23, Intelsat 1A-13, Telstar 13) 8/8/2003... Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Galaxy-25 (G-25, Intelsat 1A-5, Telstar 5) 5/24/1997 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Galaxy-26 (G-26, Intelsat 1A-6, Telstar 6) 2/15/1999 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Galaxy-27 (G-27, Intelsat IA-7, Telstar 7) 9/25/1999 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Galaxy-28 (G-28, Intelsat IA-8, Telstar 8) 6/23/2005 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Galaxy-3C 6/15/2002 PanAmSat (Intelsat, Ltd... PanAmSat (Intelsat, Ltd.) Communications GEO Intelsat 10-02 (Thor 4) 6/16/2004 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 11... PanAmSat (Intelsat, Ltd.) Communications GEO Intelsat 14 (IS-14) 11/23/2009 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 15.../2010 Intelsat, Ltd./Sky Perfect JSAT Corp. Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 17.../2010 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 18 (IS-18) 10/5/2011 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 19 (IS-19) 6/1/2012 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat... (Intelsat, Ltd.) Communications GEO Intelsat 20 (IS-20) 8/2/2012 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 21 (IS-21) 8/19/2012 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 22 3/25/2012 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 23 10/14/2012 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 25 (IS-25, Protostar 1, Chinasat 8) 7/7/2008 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 26 (JCSat R, JCSAT-4, Japan Communications Satellite 4) Intelsat 603 (Intelsat 6 F-3, IS-603) 2/16/1997 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO....) Intelsat 701 10/22/1993 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 702 6/17/1994 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 706 5/17/1995 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 8 (IS-8, PAS-8) 11/4/1998 PanAmSat (Intelsat, Ltd.) Communications GEO Intelsat 805 6/18/1998 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 9 (IS-9, PAS-9) 7/28/2000 PanAmSat (Intelsat, Ltd.) Communications GEO Intelsat 901 6/9/2001 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 902 8/30/2001 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 903 3/30/2002 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 904 2/23/2002 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 905 6/5/2002 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 906 9/6/2002 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat 907 2/15/2003 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat APR-2 (INSAT 2E) 4/3/1999 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications GEO Intelsat New Dawn 4/22/2011 Intelsat, Ltd. Communications...



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... Article 5 Bypassing Intelsat: Fair Competition or Violation of the Intelsat Agreement? Julianne.../ilj Bypassing Intelsat: Fair Competition or Violation of the Intelsat Agreement? Julianne McKenna Abstract The International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT... interest. BYPASSING INTELSAT: FAIR COMPETITION OR VIOLATION OF THE INTELSAT AGREEMENT? INTRODUCTION The International Telecommunications Satellite Organization' (INTELSAT), the... 1. The International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) was created pursuant to the.... 20, 1971, 23 U.S.T. 3813, T.I.A.S. No. 7532 [hereinafter cited as INTELSAT Agreement]; Operating..., 1971, 23 U.S.T. 4091, T.I.A.S. No. 7532 [hereinafter cited as Operating Agreement]. INTELSAT is... the INTELSAT system. 5 The Applicants are 362 (Feb. 23, 1985); Stuart, INTELSAT. Time... with INTELSAT regarding the coordination' 2 of these systems with INTELSAT. 3 However, INTELSAT has..., "coordination" means consultation with INTELSAT under the INTELSAT Agreement, supra note 1, arts... the United States' representative to INTELSAT. 23 Comsat is presently primarily engaged... research for INTELSAT, under special arrangements apart from the INTELSAT Agreements. Id... nations. s B. The INTELSAT Agreements As a member of the INTELSAT organization, the United States is obliged to consult with INTELSAT... authorized by the FCC. 1. INTELSAT'S Organizational Structure INTELSAT is composed of four... INTELSAT.1 6 It meets every other year to discuss "those aspects of INTELSAT.... art. I(f); INTELSAT, The Global Telecommunications Cooperative 7 (promotional brochure). 37. INTELSAT Agreement, supra... States' signatory. See supra note 23. 40. INTELSAT Agreement, supra note 1, art... INTELSAT, The Global Telecommunications Cooperative 7 (promotional brochure); see also Mizrack, The INTELSAT... financial arrangements for the INTELSAT system). 44. INTELSAT Agreement, supra note 1, arts... Telecommunications Cooperative 7 (promotional brochure). 46. INTELSAT Agreement, supra note 1, art. IX...(j). 47. INTELSAT, The Global Telecommunications Cooperative 7 (promotional brochure). 48. INTELSAT Agreement, supra note 1, art. XI(b)(i); see INTELSAT, The Global Telecommunications Cooperative 7 (promotional brochure). 49. INTELSAT Agreement, supra... of INTELSAT. INTELSAT, Richard R. Colino Biographical Sketch and Curriculum Vitae. 50. INTELSAT Agreement... 5" required by INTELSAT, and hence the difficulty of gaining INTELSAT approval, varies... competition with INTELSAT have raised the possibility of amending the INTELSAT Agreement... Intelsat Competition, N.Y. Times, Nov. 29, 1984, at D7, cols. 1, 6. 65. Stuart, Intelsat... Limited Intelsat Competition, N.Y. Times, Nov. 28, 1984, at D7, cols. 1, 5. 67. INTELSAT... of Certain Obligations of INTELSAT Member:; Under the INTELSAT Agreements, With Particular... percentage of INTELSAT's revenues." 4 In 1983, eighty-two percent of INTELSAT's revenues... party to authorize a commercial non-INTELSAT system for international telecommunications services... with INTELSAT, Aviation Week & Space Tech., Jan. 7, 1985, at 24. 152. INTELSAT... Act and the INTELSAT Agreement anticipated systems outside of INTELSAT, 56 and... and encouragement of innovation."' C. INTELSAT Opposition by INTELSAT to the applications before the FCC has been strong. The INTELSAT... approval of competition with INTELSAT, stating that 154. INTELSAT Agreement, supra note... purposes for which the INTELSAT system was formed. 6 ' INTELSAT's Director General has... INTELSAT within the period of time proposed by the competi161. See INTELSAT... on INTELSAT satellite loading in each region of operation. 173 Finally, INTELSAT would consider whether the potential competitor might hinder INTELSAT's ability... any INTELSAT participant to access or be accessed through the INTELSAT system... difficult for any INTELSAT participant to communicate via INTELSAT with another. R. Colino... INTELSAT] of $100 million." Id. (quoting Algerian Governor Abdelkader Bairi). 176. INTELSAT's Colino Proposes Further Safeguard to INTELSAT System, Satellite Week... harm to INTELSAT is the percentage of switched traffic that INTELSAT transmits... percent of INTELSAT's North Atlantic traffic is switched. 85 INTELSAT's Director General... INTELSAT approval of five regional and transborder services proposals). 1985] BYPASSING INTELSAT... launched if INTELSAT's services were too limited or too 217. INTELSAT, 1982... the FCC and INTELSAT, revenues are lost by INTELSAT, and then yet... be a gradual deterioration of INTELSAT revenues, with INTELSAT serving only the least... direct support for INTELSAT.22 6 It is unclear whether INTELSAT's unresponsiveness to... with INTELSAT virtually impossible. The Director General opposes a change in the INTELSAT... enter into consultation proceedings with INTELSAT. INTELSAT must undertake its analysis with...



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... week in November 2009 - Intelsat 14 (Atlas V), Intelsat 15 (Proton) and Eutelsat... with the Proton M vehicle included Intelsat 16, Echostar 14, Echostar 15...-1R, Eutelsat W3B, BSAT-3b, Intelsat 17, HYLAS, Hispasat 1E & KOREASAT... commercial communications satellites followed. On 23 November 2009, United Launch Alliance... Atlas V rocket successfully launched the Intelsat 14 (IS-14) commercial telecommunications...-2 mission on 8 October. >> Also on 23 November, a Proton booster was used... services to small ground terminals. Intelsat 15 followed on November 30.... Intelsat 15 was built by Orbital Sciences Corporation, on a Star-2 Bus. Intelsat planned to locate Intelsat 15 at 85º E longitude... commercial communications flights from Baikonur: Intelsat 16 on 12 February 2010... the previous Proton launch failed. Intelsat 16 was built by Orbital... Ariane into geosynchronous orbit at 23.5 deg east longitude. It will... mission of 2010 also orbited Intelsat 17. >> >> On 12 December 2010... communications services. Intelsat launched three satellites. In November 2009, Intelsat 14 was launched on an Atlas V rocket to replace Intelsat 1R... protocol and their existing equipment. >> Intelsat 15, which was built by... services, replacing Intelsat 709 at 85 deg E longitude. Finally, Intelsat 16 was... had been declared failed almost 23 years ago unexpectedly revived. The... Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment - 23 - (GRACE) mission through the end... the global commons. In April, Intelsat's Galaxy 15 stopped communications with... by the start of Expedition 23. Three Russian cosmonauts, two American... astronauts made up the Expedition 23 crew. It was the first... Russians at once. The Expedition 23 crew continued outfitting the newest... in April 2010. The Expedition 23 crew also saw the arrival... expedition, on 1 June 2010, Expedition 23 Commander Oleg Kotov and Flight... Centre (ESOC) from 21 to 23 June 2010. The conference addressed... its reach. ILS launched the Intelsat 16 telecommunications satellite via a Proton...-year design life, according to Intelsat engineers. ILS announced the contract... an ILS Proton. >> Intelsat In December 2009 Intelsat transferred its headquarters from... company is now known as Intelsat S.A. In April satellite operators Artel... by Intelsat, the operators confirmed. The companies claim that since Intelsat was... Act to annually review - 67 - Intelsat’s business practices as the base... their proposed call for action. Intelsat stated that it is fully... the complaints have no merit. Intelsat claimed that the operators’ actions... U.S. Navy’s $536 million award to Intelsat General for its CBSP programme... GAO’s review is underway. The Intelsat 15 satellite was launched by... in November. The Ku-band Intelsat 15 satellite, also known as... degrees East orbital slot, replacing Intelsat’s 709 satellite. Customers will use... video services for DTH programming. Intelsat’s Galaxy 15 "zombie satellite," which... space earlier this year. Owner Intelsat has been monitoring the satellite... with other satellites. On December 23, the battery on Galaxy 15... and began accepting commands from Intelsat's control centre. There is a possibility... could become fully functional again. Intelsat’s IS-16, built by Orbital.... IS-16 is the first Intelsat launch of 2010 and the... in Intelsat’s history. Intelsat’s next launch is expected to be the Intelsat New... serving Africa Intelsat selected Orbital Sciences to build the Intelsat 23 (IS-23) communications... announced in December. The IS-23 will provide communications services for... late 2011. IS-23 will be the 10th Intelsat satellite built by Orbital. A control processor on the Intelsat 4 satellite... impact on Intelsat’s financial position or its planned capital expenditures. Intelsat was... life later in 2010. - 68 - Intelsat signed a multi-year contract with... Ku-Band capacity on the Intelsat 15 (IS-15) satellite. Etisalat... quarter of 2010 and replace Intelsat 709. Iridium Iridium Communications received... Prague. >> Global satellite operators SES S.A., Intelsat, Ltd., and Inmarsat plc announced...-based Euroconsult’s report, released Feb. 23. The report, “Profiles of Government... to take capacity on the Intelsat 15 (IS-15) satellite, it... and ESA. >> Luxembourg Intelsat S.A. On 15 December 2009 Intelsat, Ltd. changed its... now known as Intelsat S.A. While Intelsat is incorporated in Luxembourg, Intelsat Global Sales... England and Wales. Intelsat Global Service Corporation and Intelsat Corporation, are Delaware... to Intelsat and its subsidiaries. Since its privatization in 2000-2001, Intelsat... an agreement in March with Intelsat to provide enhanced satellite capacity... with satellite capacity on the Intelsat system while Turksat finalizes details... its new satellite. In addition, Intelsat will have the option to... Association (SDA). Satellite operators SES, Intelsat and Inmarsat were among the... retirement in 1985, died on 23 December in Arlington County, Virginia.... Oceansat-2 Oceansat-2 was launched on 23 September 2009. It is an...



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... subsidiary, Intelsat Holdings S.A., (3) the term “Intelsat Investments” refers to Intelsat Investments S.A., Intelsat Holding’s direct... as Intelsat Global Subsidiary S.A., Intelsat Holdings, Ltd. became known as Intelsat Holdings S.A., Intelsat, Ltd. became known as Intelsat S.A., Intelsat (Bermuda), Ltd. became known as Intelsat (Luxembourg) S.A. and Intelsat Jackson... as Intelsat Jackson Holdings S.A. The Initial Public Offering On April 23, 2013... Inclined Orbit: Intelsat 701 Intelsat 702 Intelsat 26 Intelsat 5 Intelsat 7 Galaxy 27 Intelsat 9 Intelsat 10 SSL SSL... Role (2) : Intelsat 805 Galaxy 11 Intelsat 12 Intelsat 901 Intelsat 902 Intelsat 904 Intelsat 903 Intelsat 905 Galaxy 3C Intelsat 906 Intelsat 907 Galaxy 23 (6) Galaxy 13/Horizons 1 (7) Intelsat... Intelsat 11 Horizon 2 (11) Galaxy 18 Intelsat 25 Galaxy 19 Intelsat 14 Intelsat 15 Intelsat 16 Intelsat 17 Intelsat 28 (12) Intelsat 18 Intelsat 22 (13) Intelsat 19 Intelsat 20 Intelsat 21 Intelsat 23 Intelsat 30 Intelsat... Intelsat Luxembourg, and certain of Intelsat Jackson’s subsidiaries. Intelsat Jackson’s obligations under the Intelsat... “2017 Senior Notes”). On May 23, 2013, Intelsat Luxembourg redeemed a further $366... and conditions. On May 23, 2013, Intelsat Investments redeemed all of the.... 2013 Intelsat Jackson New Senior Unsecured Credit Facility Prepayment On April 23, 2013, upon completion of the IPO, Intelsat Jackson prepaid..., Intelsat Corporation Senior Vice President, Operations, Intelsat Corporation Director, Intelsat S.A. Director, Intelsat S.A. Director, Intelsat S.A. Director, Intelsat S.A. Director, Intelsat S.A. Director, Intelsat S.A. Director, Intelsat S.A. The... Intelsat Luxembourg, Intelsat Jackson or a significant subsidiary thereof; and • failure by Intelsat Luxembourg, Intelsat... and among Intelsat S.A., Intelsat Investment Holdings S.à r.l., Intelsat Holdings S.A., each as a Guarantor, Intelsat Jackson Holdings... and among Intelsat S.A., Intelsat Investment Holdings S.à r.l., Intelsat Holdings S.A., each as a Guarantor, Intelsat Jackson Holdings... and among Intelsat S.A., Intelsat Investment Holdings S.à r.l., Intelsat Holdings S.A., each as a Guarantor, Intelsat Jackson Holdings... and among Intelsat S.A., Intelsat Investment Holdings S.à r.l., Intelsat Holdings S.A., each as a Guarantor, Intelsat Jackson Holdings... on February 20, 2014). 2.23 Indenture for Intelsat Jackson Holdings S.A.’s 5 1 ⁄ 2 % Senior Notes... among Intelsat Jackson Holdings S.A., as Issuer, Intelsat S.A., Intelsat Investment Holdings S.à r.l., Intelsat Holdings, S.A., Intelsat Investments S.A., Intelsat (Luxembourg... April 23, 2013, by and among Intelsat S.A. and the shareholders of Intelsat S.A. party... April 23, 2013, by and among Intelsat S.A. and the shareholders of Intelsat S.A. party..., between Intelsat (Luxembourg) S.A., Intelsat Jackson Holdings S.A., Intelsat Intermediate Holding Company S.A., Intelsat Phoenix Holdings S.A., Intelsat Subsidiary Holding Company S.A., Intelsat... as of April 23, 2013, by and among Intelsat S.A., Serafina S.A., SLP III... April 23, 2013, by and among Intelsat S.A. and the shareholders of Intelsat S.A. party... Amendment to Intelsat S.A. 2013 Equity Incentive Plan, effective October 23, 2014 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.64 to Intelsat S.A.’s Annual... are guaranteed by Intelsat S.A., Intelsat Investment Holdings S.à r.l., Intelsat Holdings S.A. and Intelsat Investments S.A. (the “Parent..., Intelsat Corp, Intelsat Global Service LLC, Intelsat General, Intelsat USA License LLC and Intelsat USA... Intelsat S.A., Intelsat Holdings, Intelsat Investment Holdings S.à r.l. and Intelsat Investments (collectively, the “Parent Guarantors”); Intelsat Luxembourg.... Intelsat International Employment, Inc., a corporation organized under the laws of Delaware. 23. Intelsat...



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... Commission to determine whether INTELSAT, Inmarsat, and the INTELSAT spin-off New... 3 The intergovernmental satellite body INTELSAT later created Intelsat LLC, a privately-held U.S. corporation... authority to Intelsat LLC, (“Intelsat”), a separate, privately held U.S. corporation, created by INTELSAT to... the transfer of INTELSAT’s satellites and associated assets to Intelsat and the... in 2000, INTELSAT adopted plans to distribute shares in Intelsat to its... plans to distribute Intelsat shares to its Signatories.23 INTELSAT later distributed shares... in Intelsat Ltd. according to their March 2001 investment shares in INTELSAT. 23 Application of Intelsat LLC for Authority to... voting interests of Intelsat (“Zeus/Intelsat Transaction”).30 Loral/Intelsat Order, 19 FCC...-based intermediate parent Intelsat Subsidiary Holding Company Ltd. Intelsat, Ltd., File No... changed its name to Intelsat Holdings, Ltd. See, e.g., Intelsat USA License Corp...&C”) earth station licenses, from Intelsat to Intelsat North America LLC.32 · On... Serafina and Intelsat subsequently consummated the proposed transaction. 31 Intelsat, Ltd. Petition for Declaratory Ruling that Intelsat, Ltd. Complies... 8604 (2005) (“Intelsat Certification Order”). 32 Intelsat LLC, Assignor, and Intelsat North America... Rcd 7368 (2006) (“Intelsat-PanAmSat Order”). 34 Intelsat Holdings, Ltd., Transferor, and... control of Intelsat General Corporation’s international Section 214 authority from Intelsat Global, Ltd. (Bermuda) to Intelsat Global, S.A. (Luxembourg), effective December 15, 2009. All of Intelsat’s (Bermuda..., 23 FCC Rcd at 2764. The two conditions explicitly obligate Intelsat to...). 39 Intelsat General Corporation notification of Transfer of Control from Intelsat Global, Ltd. (Bermuda) to Intelsat Global, S.A. (Luxembourg), DA... Netherlands-based INTELSAT spin-off, created in 1998 as INTELSAT’s first step... Experimental License to Intelsat.82 · On October 29, 2004, Intelsat, Ltd completed... compliance by Intelsat subsidiaries with the terms of the Intelsat Commitment letter...., Assignors, and Intelsat, Ltd., Intelsat (Bermuda), Ltd., Intelsat LLC and Intelsat USA License Corp.... Bur., 2002) (“Lockheed/Comsat/Intelsat Order”). 83 Intelsat, Ltd. Form 20-F, Annual..., Comsat New Services, Inc., Intelsat LLC, and Intelsat MTC LLC to Assign... moot with INTELSAT privatization on July 18, 2001, because Intelsat, as a private... opportunity’ to access INTELSAT space segment directly from INTELSAT to meet their... the proceeding.89 With INTELSAT’s privatization and Intelsat Ltd.’s purchase of Comsat...’s appropriate oversight of Intelsat Ltd., and that as a U.S. licensee, Intelsat Ltd., will... Comsat Corporation to Intelsat, Ltd. 91 Availability of INTELSAT Space Segment Capacity... Act of 1934. B. Status of INTELSAT Privatization Intelsat privatized and became a U.S. licensee... dependence on Intelsat.96 Under these commitments, the privatized Intelsat has made... 102 The INTELSAT Parties are nations for which the INTELSAT agreement has... of Intelsat since the 2006 Intelsat/PanAmSat merger.112 These comments and Intelsat’s response are summarized below. i. The Effect of Intelsat’s Privatization... assigned to Intelsat or SES Global. 117 Intelsat at 6-7. 118 Id. Intelsat notes... allege that Intelsat’s anticompetitive actions are preventing them from accessing Intelsat capacity... behavior by Intelsat that is facilitated through Intelsat General (IGEN), an Intelsat wholly... that IGEN makes Intelsat more “vertically integrated,” i.e., through IGEN, Intelsat has direct... rates from Intelsat.128 CapRock cites two specific allegations of Intelsat anticompetitive... U.S. markets to which” Intelsat was previously subject.141 Intelsat states that the... fully privatizing … Intelsat and Inmarsat.”144 According to Intelsat, this means that..., according to Intelsat, is to inform Congress whether Intelsat and Inmarsat “have... the separation of Intelsat from endusers and permit Intelsat to compete in... needs based on Intelsat’s own business judgment.”146 Intelsat sees no need... FCC already regulates Intelsat’s service on “thin routes.”147 Intelsat is subject... ITSO and Intelsat requires the Commission to regulate Intelsat pricing. Intelsat also disagrees... Agreement that requires Intelsat to provide non-discriminatory access Intelsat’s system. Globecomm... “Intelsat remain a party to an agreement between Intelsat and ITSO that governed Intelsat... PSA between Intelsat and ITSO and to ensure that Intelsat satisfies such... and safety services (“GMDSS”).169 B. Intelsat INTELSAT’s privatization from an intergovernmental organization... impact of the privatization of Intelsat.170 Intelsat concludes that the privatization... dependent on Intelsat’s satellite services. The other commenters disagree with Intelsat’s conclusion... on Intelsat’s satellite services. The Commission conditioned Intelsat’s licenses to require that Intelsat...