Спутник связи. Intelsat 23. [Редактировать]

Intelsat 23 — американский телекоммуникационный спутник произведённый компанией Orbital Sciences Corporation по заказу Intelsat. Запуск аппарата на орбиту был успешно произведён 14 октября 2012 года с помощью ракеты-носителя РН Протон-М с разгонным блоком Бриз-М с космодрома Байконур, Пл. № 81. ПУ № 24. Intelsat 23 был разработан Orbital Sciences Corporation на базе платформы Star-2.4. Масса спутника — 2730 кг. В качестве полезной нагрузки он несёт 24 транспондера C-диапазона и 15 транспондеров Ku-диапазона. Ожидается, что спутник прослужит как минимум 15 лет.

Дополнительные наименования

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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - коммерческий
3Тип орбиты - ГСО
4Страна производитель - США
5Все спутники связи

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2730
2Масса (сухая), кг1503
3Платформа 1xStar-2.4
4Количество (Ku-стволов), шт.15
5Количество (C стволов), шт.24
6Мощность, Вт4800

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град0.0
2Апогей, км35806.2
3Перигей, км35785.1
4Период, минут1436.2
5САС, год15
6Длинный диаметр эллипса, км42166

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2012-057A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор Intelsat
2Производитель Orbital ATK

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром Байконур
2Дата пуска2012-10-14 at 08:37:00 UTC
3Полезная нагрузка 1xIntelsat 23
4Ракета-носитель 1xПротон-М с РБ «Бриз-М»

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... Industry . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Launch Service Providers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Cooperation and Partnerships. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Regulatory... and Launch Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Table 23. Distribution of Payload Masses in... in 2003-2012. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Figure 23. Microsatellites and Nanosatellites Launched by... (COMSTAC) 20 23 28 22 21 22 22 23 23 24 228 22...) 74 32 41 45 44 23 20 20 19 19 337... Medium-to-Heavy 16 18 23 17 17 17 18 18... Total Average 20 23 28 22 21 22 22 23 23 24 228... Demand Launch Demand 16 18 23 17 17 17 18 18... 2013 13 16 19 17 23 22 20 15 21 20... 8 8 Total 15 19 23 21 26 24 23 25 29 28 •9• Federal... 23 22 20 15 21 20 23 28 22 21 22 22 23 23... 2013 2014 2015 Total 20 23 28 Below 2,500 kg 1 0 4 DM... 5 F1 Satmex 8 SES 6 Sirius FM6 Intelsat 27 Ariane 5 Ariane 5 Ariane 5 Ariane...* 11 DTV 14 DTV 15 Intelsat 30 Measat 3B Star One... 2G Inmarsat 5 F2 Inmarsat 5 F3 Intelsat 31 Mexsat 1 Eutelsat 3B Falcon... 22.8. The 2012 Report projected 23 satellites to be launched in.... Using the same methodology, while 23 satellites are forecast to be... 10, the 2012 report forecast 23 satellites for launch in 2012... a realization range of 18 to 23 satellites. Twenty-one satellites were.... Major global operators such as Intelsat, SES, and Eutelsat and regional... to meets its growing needs. Intelsat, Eutelsat, Hispasat, and other operators... of the commercial satellite market. • 23 • Federal Aviation Administration’s Office of..., Eutelsat/Nilesat, SES/Gazprom, and Intelsat/JSAT, to name a few. Several... new debt and equity financing. Intelsat’s new IPO was forced to... price by 22 percent, from $23 per share to $18 per... offer shareholders hefty dividends which Intelsat will not be doing for... for an option of manufacturing 23 additional satellites in the coming... for QuickBird-1 and QuickBird-2. AstroVision 1/23/1995 First license issued for... microsats and nanosats (see Figure 23). Over the past decade, the... more microsats and nanosatellites. Figure 23. Microsatellites and Nanosatellites Launched by... 74 32 41 45 44 23 20 20 19 19 337..., or extra heavy payloads. Table 23 shows the mass distributions of... Forecasts: FAA NGSO Forecast Table 23. Distribution of Payload Masses in...) 6 Astra 1C DM2 DBS 1 Galaxy 4 Intelsat 701 DMU Solidaridad 1 Telstar 401... 4B Ariane 4 Astra 1D Ariane 4 Intelsat 702 Ariane 4 DM2 PAS 2 Ariane... 2 Atlas II Telstar 402 DBS 2 Intelsat 703 Optus B3 Ariane 4 Ariane... 3 Intelsat 706 NSTAR a PAS 4 Telstar 402R AMSC 1 Galaxy 3R Intelsat 704 Intelsat 705... 19 Total Satellites 25 28 23 Over 5,400 kg (>11,905... 2A DM4 Arabsat 2B EchoStar 2 Intelsat 707 Intelsat 709 MSAT 1 NSTAR b DM2... AMC 1 Hot Bird 2 Palapa C1 Intelsat 708 Astra 1F 21 14... Bird 3 Ariane 4 Intelsat 801 Ariane 4 Intelsat 802 Ariane 4 Intelsat 803 Ariane 4 Intelsat 804 Ariane... 4 Hot Bird 5 Ariane 4 Intelsat 805 Atlas II Intelsat 806 Atlas II Galaxy... Sea Launch 5 DirecTV 4S Intelsat 901 Intelsat 902 XM Rock XM Roll... DM2 9 Intelsat 904 Intelsat 905 Intelsat 906 NSS 6 NSS 7 Astra 1K Echostar 8 Intelsat 903... 5 Nimiq 2 2 Astra 3A NSTAR c 5 Ariane 4 Intelsat 907 Ariane 4 DM2 Optus C1... V Proton K/M Sea Launch Anik F2 Intelsat X DirecTV 7S Ariane 5 Proton M Sea...,905 lbm) AMC 12 AMC 23 Anik F1R XM 3 2,500 - 4,200... 5 DM3 Bsat 3A Ariane 5 DM4 Intelsat 11 DM4 Optus D2 DM6... 18 18 14 Total Satellites 23 22 20 Over 5,400 kg... Amazonas 2 DM2 NSS 12 Terrestar 1 Intelsat 14 DirecTV 12 Eutelsat W2A... BW1 DM2 Thor 6 Telstar 1N Intelsat 15 Palapa D Asiasat 5 Protostar II... 3B Arabsat 5A Hispasat 1E Intelsat 17 Ariane 5 Ariane 5 Ariane 5 Ariane... 5 DM4 BSAT 3B Land Launch Intelsat 16 Ariane 5 Ariane 5 Proton M = Launch... DM1 New Dawn DM3 SES 2 Intelsat 18 Asiasat 7 DMU SES 3 Below... DM2 Intelsat 20 Echostar 16 Intelsat 22 SES 4 SES 5 Yahsat 1B Intelsat 19 Intelsat... 2 Mexsat 3 Star One C3 Vinasat 2 Intelsat 23 Ariane 5 Ariane 5 Ariane 5 Proton M Proton... 5 Launches 2 Medium-to-Heavy 3 Small 5 6 7 F 4/23/07 2006 AprizeStar 3 & 4 deployed on...



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... week in November 2009 - Intelsat 14 (Atlas V), Intelsat 15 (Proton) and Eutelsat... with the Proton M vehicle included Intelsat 16, Echostar 14, Echostar 15...-1R, Eutelsat W3B, BSAT-3b, Intelsat 17, HYLAS, Hispasat 1E & KOREASAT... commercial communications satellites followed. On 23 November 2009, United Launch Alliance... Atlas V rocket successfully launched the Intelsat 14 (IS-14) commercial telecommunications...-2 mission on 8 October. >> Also on 23 November, a Proton booster was used... services to small ground terminals. Intelsat 15 followed on November 30.... Intelsat 15 was built by Orbital Sciences Corporation, on a Star-2 Bus. Intelsat planned to locate Intelsat 15 at 85º E longitude... commercial communications flights from Baikonur: Intelsat 16 on 12 February 2010... the previous Proton launch failed. Intelsat 16 was built by Orbital... Ariane into geosynchronous orbit at 23.5 deg east longitude. It will... mission of 2010 also orbited Intelsat 17. >> >> On 12 December 2010... communications services. Intelsat launched three satellites. In November 2009, Intelsat 14 was launched on an Atlas V rocket to replace Intelsat 1R... protocol and their existing equipment. >> Intelsat 15, which was built by... services, replacing Intelsat 709 at 85 deg E longitude. Finally, Intelsat 16 was... had been declared failed almost 23 years ago unexpectedly revived. The... Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment - 23 - (GRACE) mission through the end... the global commons. In April, Intelsat's Galaxy 15 stopped communications with... by the start of Expedition 23. Three Russian cosmonauts, two American... astronauts made up the Expedition 23 crew. It was the first... Russians at once. The Expedition 23 crew continued outfitting the newest... in April 2010. The Expedition 23 crew also saw the arrival... expedition, on 1 June 2010, Expedition 23 Commander Oleg Kotov and Flight... Centre (ESOC) from 21 to 23 June 2010. The conference addressed... its reach. ILS launched the Intelsat 16 telecommunications satellite via a Proton...-year design life, according to Intelsat engineers. ILS announced the contract... an ILS Proton. >> Intelsat In December 2009 Intelsat transferred its headquarters from... company is now known as Intelsat S.A. In April satellite operators Artel... by Intelsat, the operators confirmed. The companies claim that since Intelsat was... Act to annually review - 67 - Intelsat’s business practices as the base... their proposed call for action. Intelsat stated that it is fully... the complaints have no merit. Intelsat claimed that the operators’ actions... U.S. Navy’s $536 million award to Intelsat General for its CBSP programme... GAO’s review is underway. The Intelsat 15 satellite was launched by... in November. The Ku-band Intelsat 15 satellite, also known as... degrees East orbital slot, replacing Intelsat’s 709 satellite. Customers will use... video services for DTH programming. Intelsat’s Galaxy 15 "zombie satellite," which... space earlier this year. Owner Intelsat has been monitoring the satellite... with other satellites. On December 23, the battery on Galaxy 15... and began accepting commands from Intelsat's control centre. There is a possibility... could become fully functional again. Intelsat’s IS-16, built by Orbital.... IS-16 is the first Intelsat launch of 2010 and the... in Intelsat’s history. Intelsat’s next launch is expected to be the Intelsat New... serving Africa Intelsat selected Orbital Sciences to build the Intelsat 23 (IS-23) communications... announced in December. The IS-23 will provide communications services for... late 2011. IS-23 will be the 10th Intelsat satellite built by Orbital. A control processor on the Intelsat 4 satellite... impact on Intelsat’s financial position or its planned capital expenditures. Intelsat was... life later in 2010. - 68 - Intelsat signed a multi-year contract with... Ku-Band capacity on the Intelsat 15 (IS-15) satellite. Etisalat... quarter of 2010 and replace Intelsat 709. Iridium Iridium Communications received... Prague. >> Global satellite operators SES S.A., Intelsat, Ltd., and Inmarsat plc announced...-based Euroconsult’s report, released Feb. 23. The report, “Profiles of Government... to take capacity on the Intelsat 15 (IS-15) satellite, it... and ESA. >> Luxembourg Intelsat S.A. On 15 December 2009 Intelsat, Ltd. changed its... now known as Intelsat S.A. While Intelsat is incorporated in Luxembourg, Intelsat Global Sales... England and Wales. Intelsat Global Service Corporation and Intelsat Corporation, are Delaware... to Intelsat and its subsidiaries. Since its privatization in 2000-2001, Intelsat... an agreement in March with Intelsat to provide enhanced satellite capacity... with satellite capacity on the Intelsat system while Turksat finalizes details... its new satellite. In addition, Intelsat will have the option to... Association (SDA). Satellite operators SES, Intelsat and Inmarsat were among the... retirement in 1985, died on 23 December in Arlington County, Virginia.... Oceansat-2 Oceansat-2 was launched on 23 September 2009. It is an...



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... Report. Однако существенное отличие состоит 23 в том, что аналитики Space Foundation... коммерческие коммуникационные КА с общей долей 23%. Долее идут коммуникационные системы гражданского... и теле-радио вещания являются SES, Intelsat, Eutelsat и Telesat. Их рыночная доля... (ГПКС и ОАО "Газпром КС") SES Intelsat Eutelsat Telesat Другие операторы Всего... самых крупных телекоммуникационных операторов Eutelsat, Intelsat, SES, Telesat составляет 58038 ед... четверки” обладает Eutelsat с общей долей 23,4 %. Суммарная доля пропускной способности операторов..., в т.ч. множественная зависимость - 21,6%, парная зависимость - 23%; метод удельных показателей - 13,9 % [75...]: Сокр = кн · Соп · 𝑁пр +Сли , (2.23) где Сокр - затраты на ОКР... коэффициенты проведенных регрессии: расчетов были 𝐴 = 0,23 и 𝐵 = 1,76. получены следующие Полученное уравнение..., представленную на Рис. 3.2 и имеет вид: M(P) = 0,23 · 𝑃 + 1,76 (3.4) 114 7 Т 6 5 4 3 2 1 кВт 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12..., получим следующую зависимость: Сзап (𝑃) = 15,8 · (0,23 · 𝑃 + 1,76) = 3,634 · 𝑃 + 27,8 , (3.6) где Сзап... частотах в Ка-диапазоне (от 23,18 до 23,38 ГГц) со скоростью... «Гонец-М1» рассчитывается по формуле 2.23: Сокр = кн · Соп · 𝑁пр +Сли...· 364,54 млн. руб. = 419,23 млн. руб. По расчетам разработчиков.... М.: Изд-во Наука, 2007. 584 с. 23. Бендиков М.А., Фролов И.Э., Хрусталев Е.Ю. Развитие основных.... Сайт компании [Электронный Intelsat ресурс] URL: http://www.intelsat.com/ (дата обращения...·лет т 2600 6400 12 192 9,23 73,85 2,46 708,92... 12 154 11,15 59,23 2,62 910,15 21С, 16Ku... 2,93 633,38 24 75 4,23 2,93 580,60 7,95 2,64... Ku 4860 18000 15 152 8,23 31,28 3,70 2 222,22... 2003 G-14 2005 G-15 2005 Intelsat Сэкв·кВт·лет т 185 G-11... 52,88 2,13 1 663,11 G-23 Space 2003 Systems/ Loral 24C... 70,55 2,28 1 420,20 Intelsat 186 G-17 Таблица 15 (Продолжение... инт , Сэкв·кВт·лет т 187 Intelsat Год запу ска Таблица 15... инт , Сэкв·кВт·лет т 188 Intelsat Nтр, шт Старт Ф, овая Мощно...-12 2000 IS-14 2009 Intelsat Сэкв·кВт·лет т 189 IS... Год запу ска Произво дитель Intelsat Boeing Сэкв·кВт·лет т 190...). Оператор КА IS-22 IS-23 Intelsat IS-25 IS-26 IS...,63 IS-602 IS-603 Intelsat IS-702 192 Hughes Space... до 16Ku 4900 14 192 23,00 55,20 1,41 1 577... 53,36 1,82 2 319,80 Intelsat 193 IS-709 Space до... 3143 3000 13,65 194 Intelsat КА Год запу ска Таблица... 24Ku 2600 6000 12 192 9,23 73,85 2,31 664,62... d Martin 36Ku 3901 - 15 288 9,23 73,83 - − AMC-7 2000 Lockhee... 54,38 2,04 734,07 23 Ku, 6 Ka 4051 5400 10...,71 24 2537 2,22 1 877,23 2,61 940,65 2006 Alcatel... 90,91 23 146 1,47 557 4,55 8,96 220 Sinosat-1 (Intelsat Alcatel... 601HP) 239 Таблица 18 (Продолжение). № п/п 23 24 25 26 27 Название... 601HP) Boeing 30 Intelsat 5 (HS 601HP) Boeing 31 Intelsat 10 (HS 601HP... (Eurostar 3000) EADS Astrium 47 Intelsat 10 (Eurostar 3000) EADS Astrium... 707 Loral (LS-1300) 85 Intelsat 9 86 MB Sat 89 Loral... Systems PAS-7 88 Space Systems Intelsat 84 87 Производитель КА (Космическая... 18 (Продолжение). № п/п Название КА 90 Intelsat 7 91 Satmex 6 92 Spainsat 93... 104 Telstar 7 105 Galaxy-28 Intelsat 106 IA-8 107 Galaxy-26... 87 000 Thales Aleniа 108 Intelsat Space APR-2 (SPACEBUS 3000) Thales... 4,7 15 17 Intelsat 22 Boeing 32 6,25 6,2 18 Intelsat 21 Boeing 37... 36 4,94 12,0 15 250 23 Astra-3 В EADS Astrium 42 5,47... 2010-2011 EADS Astrium 5869 0,23 1458 0,42 1348 0,26 2044... 5,0 15 150 1442 0,20 43 Intelsat 18 Orbital Sciences 38 3,20... 3,0 15 40 Intelsat 15 Orbital Sciences 31 41 Intelsat 16 Orbital Sciences..., т P, кВт С С А КА, С, млн лет $ 47 Intelsat 23 Orbital Sciences 34 2,68 2,7 15... Nimiq 5 Systems Loral Space 52 Intelsat 14 Systems Loral 53 NSS... 22 SES-5 57 Nimiq 6 58 Intelsat 20 SES-4 шт·кВт·лет... 𝐶усл , Период ТПЦ , мес 55 Intelsat 19 59 4,97 Название КА... 29 5,92 5,9 15 160 690 0,23 69 Eutelsat W7 Thales Alenia... σ 6,12 0,33 0,507 4 0,55 0,7 8,73 0,23 0,374 277 Компания Всего изгото... E-3000 Всего 2000 3000/4000 23 28 51 11 36 2 1 3 2 2 21...



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... Activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ORBITAL LAUNCH VEHICLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 U.S. COMMERCIAL ORBITAL LAUNCH VEHICLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NON... in 2004-2013 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Figure 23. Microsatellites and Nanosatellites Launched by... During the Next 5 Years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 23. Payload and Launch Projections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table... Space Transportation Revenues from the 23 commercial orbital launches in 2014.... •9• India 1 (4%) Europe 6 (26%) Multinational 1 (4%) Total: 23 Commercial Launches USA 11 (48... 0 16 1 3 0 India Israel Multinational TOTAL 4 0 1 1 0 23 69 32 16 4 4 1 1 92 Table.../16/14 Ariane 5 ECA Europe Intelsat 30 GEO Success 10/28... ORBCOMM satellites. Image credit: SpaceX • 23 • • 23 • Federal Aviation Administration’s Office of....5) 15.9 (6.3) 8.3 (3.3) 24.8 (9.8) 35.6 (14) 21.6 (8.5) 23.5 (9.3) • 55 • 8.4 (3.3) 20.3 (8) 24.8 (9.8) Operator UP..., m (ft) 3 3 Flight duration Propulsion Propellant 7 (23) 210 days 2 x hybrid motors HTBP..., Alaska Aerospace Corporation Alaska 1998 9/23/18 None Cape Canaveral Spaceport... (COMSTAC) 18 25 24 23 22 23 23 22 23 23 226 22.6 NGSO Forecast... Average 18 25 24 23 22 23 23 22 23 23 226 Launch Demand 13... 16 18 25 24 23 22 23 23 22 23 23 Dual-Manifesting 63 25 226 Avg. 2014 to 2023 6.3 2.5 23... ARSAT 2 GSAT 16 Hispasat AG1 Intelsat 34 Sky Mexico 1 Proton M Falcon... ABS 2 Astra 5B MEASAT 3B Intelsat 30 DirecTV 14 Eutelsat 3B... 8 JCSAT 15 JCSAT 16 Palapa E Intelsat 36 Ariane 5 Ariane 5 Falcon 9 Falcon... C4 Inmarsat 5F2 Inmarsat 5F3 Intelsat 31 DM = Potential Dual-Manifested... DM Echostar XVIII Echostar XIX Intelsat 29E Intelsat 33E Jabiru 1 NBN 1B.... Major global operators such as Intelsat, SES, and Eutelsat and regional... make up for this drop. Intelsat, Eutelsat, • 112 • 2014 Commercial Space... Hughes Network Systems and Viasat. Intelsat is replacing some of its... Epic satellites starting in 2015. Intelsat’s goal is to reduce the... Viasat-2 satellites. For operators like Intelsat, a HTS system could reduce their... of demonstrating the capabilities on Intelsat satellites. However, MDA changed its... GEO broadband service providers include: •• Intelsat with its open architecture Epic... payload from Intelsat. This payload is hosted aboard the Intelsat 22 satellite... Steering Committee members include Boeing, Intelsat, Iridium, Lockheed Martin, Orbital, SES..., Eutelsat/Nilesat, SES/ Gazprom, and Intelsat/JSAT. Several European and Russian... pricing of Intelsat’s IPO was reduced by 22 percent, from $23 per..., including those for CubeSats. Figure 23. Microsatellites and Nanosatellites Launched by... Technology Test and Demonstration Table 23. Payload and Launch Projections 2014... 2 Ariane 4 Intelsat 706 Ariane 4 EchoStar 2 Ariane 4 PAS 3 Ariane 4 NSTAR a Ariane 4 Intelsat 707 Ariane 4 PAS 4 Ariane 4 Intelsat 709 Ariane 4 MSAT 1 Ariane 4 NSTAR b Ariane 4 Intelsat... 2 Atlas II AMSC 1 Atlas II Intelsat 703 Atlas II Galaxy 3R... LM-2E Intelsat 704 Atlas II DM1 PAS 3R Ariane 4 Intelsat 705... Atlas II Asiasat 2 LM-2E Intelsat 708 LM-3B EchoStar 1 9 4 LM... Launches 1997 1998 1999 28 23 23 24 Total Satellites Over 5,400... III DM4 Afristar Intelsat 801 Ariane 4 DM3 Eutelsat W2 Intelsat 802 Ariane 4 Hot Bird 4 Ariane 4 Insat 2E Ariane 4 Intelsat 803 Ariane 4 PAS 6B Ariane 4 Koreasat 3 Ariane 4 Intelsat 804 Ariane... 4 Intelsat 805 Atlas II Eutelsat W3 Atlas II AMC 3 Atlas II Intelsat... Ariane 4 Intelsat 904 Ariane 4 PAS 1R Ariane 5 Intelsat 901 Ariane 4 Intelsat 905 Ariane 4 Garuda 1 Proton K/DM Intelsat 902 Ariane 4 Intelsat 906... Proton K/DM Echostar 8 Proton K/DM Intelsat 903 Proton K/DM Galaxy 3C... 0 Anik F2 Intelsat X Over 5,400 kg (>11,905 lbm) Intelsat 907 Proton... DM3 Optus D1 Ariane 5 DM4 Intelsat 11 Ariane 5 Thor 5 Proton M DM4... 5 Echostar 14 Proton M Viasat 1 Proton M Intelsat 14 Atlas V Echostar 15 Proton... Ariane 5 DMU ST 2 Ariane 5 DM5 Intelsat 17 Ariane 5 Eutelsat W3C Long... DM3 RASCOM 1R Ariane 5 Intelsat 18 Intelsat 15 Long March Asiasat 7 Palapa... 17 Ariane 5 DM2 Alphasat Ariane 5 Intelsat 20 Ariane 5 DM3 Eutelsat 25B... 5 Echostar 16 Proton M Satmex 8 Proton M Intelsat 22 Proton M Eutelsat 7B Proton... 1B Proton M Sirius FM6 Proton M Intelsat 19 Sea Launch Inmarsat 5F1... 70B Sea Launch Sea Launch 5 6 Intelsat 27 1 5 Sea Launch Proton M DM3... (<5,510 lbm) 10 Ariane 5 Intelsat 21 DM4 13 Intelsat 23 Proton M 0 0 = Launch Failure... Hispasat Orbital Sciences Corp. Communications 23-Mar-14 Soyuz 2.1b Plestesk... LEO Roscosmos TsSKB Progress Scientific S S 23-Jul-14 Soyuz U Baikonur Progress... 5 ECA Guiana Space * Intelsat 30 Center * ARSAT 1 GEO Intelsat Space Systems Loral... Reshetnev Communications S S CAST Development S S S S Baikonur 23-Oct-14 Long March 3C...



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... Act, 51 U.S.C. Ch. 509, §§ 50901-23 (2011). FAA/AST’s mission is... and Cargo Awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Table 23. Payload and Launch Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67... 22. Payload Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Figure 23. Launch Projections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Figure 24... Payloads GSO Forecast (COMSTAC) 23 21 20 23 21 20 20 20... to 2021 Satellite Demand 23 21 20 23 21 20 20 20... be launched. For example, while 23 satellites are projected to be... to a range of 18 to 23 satellites. HISTORY OF THE REPORT...* Hispasat (also responded in 2011) Intelsat* Loral* Sea Launch* Sirius XM... 10 18 18 25 28 23 19 24 14 22 15 13 16 19 18 23 22 20 15 Unaddressable 3 4 2 5 1 2 3 5 1 1 4 2 3 4 4 3 2 3 10... 29 15 23 19 15 19 23 22 26 24 23 25 The... heavier, higher power satellites. The 23 satellites scheduled for launch in... to 5,400 kg 9 5 5 4 9 6 10 2 4 6 6 2 3 6 5 5 5 5 5 6 48 4.8 23% 92 9.2 43% 22 15 13 16 19 18 23 22 20 15 23 21 20 23 21 20... 23 0 21 0 20 0 6 5 7 Azerspace 1A HYLAS 2 Star One C3 Vinasat 2 Mexsat 3 Intelsat 23... DM Echostar 17 DM Intelsat 20 Echostar 16 Intelsat 22 Satmex 8 SES 4 SES 5 Sirius FM6 Yahsat 1B Intelsat 19 Intelsat... Inmarsat 5F2 Mexsat 1 Eutelsat 7B Intelsat 27 Ariane/Soyuz Falcon 9 Falcon... DM DM DM DirecTV 15 Intelsat 30 Measat 3B Mexsat 2 Star... 2G Inmarsat 5F3 Eutelsat 3B Intelsat 28 Arabsat 6E Ariane 5 Ariane... in 2012. The reduction to 23 in this year’s Report reflects...%. Based on this methodology, while 23 satellites are forecast to launch... for 2012 is 18 to 23 satellites. The consistent overestimation illustrates.... Major global operators such as Intelsat, SES, and Eutelsat and regional... to meets its growing needs. Intelsat, Eutelsat, Hispasat, and other operators... payload from Intelsat. This payload is hosted aboard the Intelsat 22 satellite... a second UHF payload for the Intelsat 27 satellite. This new system... Boeing Space and Intelligence Systems, Intelsat General Corporation, Iridium Communications Inc... in the commercial GSO market. • 23 • Federal Aviation Administration / Commercial Space...) Hispasat (also responded in 2011) Intelsat* Sirius XM* (also responded in... 2012 COMSTAC GSO forecast projects 23 addressable commercial GSO satellites on...) 6 Astra 1C DM2 DBS 1 Galaxy 4 Intelsat 701 DMU Solidaridad 1 Telstar 401... 1D Intelsat 702 DM2 PAS 2 PAS 3 DM4 Solidaridad 2 Telstar 402 DBS 2 Intelsat... 3 Intelsat 706A N-Star a PAS 4 Telstar 402R AMSC 1 Galaxy 3R Intelsat 704 Intelsat 705... 2A DM4 Arabsat 2B EchoStar 2 Intelsat 707A Intelsat 709 MSAT 1 N-Star b DM2... AMC 1 Hot Bird 2 Palapa C1 Intelsat 708A Astra 1F 11 DM2... 20 12 Total Satellites 28 23 19 24 14 Over 5,400...) DMU Hot Bird 3 Intelsat 801 Intelsat 802 Intelsat 803 Intelsat 804 JCSat 5 PAS 6 DM4... 4 Hot Bird 5 Ariane 4 Intelsat 805A Atlas II Intelsat 806A Atlas II Galaxy... Ariane 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 DirecTV 4S Ariane 4 Intelsat 901 Ariane 4 Intelsat 902 Ariane 4 XM Rock... DM2 9 Intelsat 904 Intelsat 905 Intelsat 906 NSS-6 NSS-7 Astra 1K Echostar 8 Intelsat 903... 5 Nimiq 2 2 Astra 3A N-Star c 5 Ariane 4 Intelsat 907 Ariane 4 Ariane 4 DM2 Optus... Ariane 5 Amos 2 Soyuz Anik F2 Intelsat X DirecTV 7S Ariane 5 Proton M Sea... 1 4 AMC-12 Anik F1R AMC-23 XM-3 3 DMU XTAR-EUR Insat... 14 12 Total Satellites 18 23 22 20 15 Over 5,400... Amazonas 2 Proton M DM2 NSS-12 Intelsat 14 Eutelsat W7 DirecTV 12... DM4 StarOne C2 Ariane 5 Palap D Intelsat 15 Below 2,500 kg 4 2 3 (<5,510... 3 Land Launch DM3 NSS-9 DM4 Intelsat 11 Ariane 5 Thor 5 Proton M Measat... DM6 4 Astra 3B Arabsat 5A Intelsat 17 Hispasat 1E Ariane Ariane... M Ariane 5 Ariane 5 Ariane 5 Ariane 5 Ariane 5 3 Intelsat 16 Ariane 5 Land Launch DM2... DM1 New Dawn DM3 SES 2 Intelsat 18 Asiasat 7 DMU SES 3 6 0 Ariane... for an option of manufacturing 23 additional satellites in the coming... for QuickBird-1 and QuickBird-2. AstroVision 1/23/1995 First license issued for... from 2012 to 2021. Table 23 provides the specific numbers of... 2014 2015 2016 2017 Figure 23. Launch Projections • 66 • 2018 2019... Forecasts: FAA NGSO Forecast Table 23. Payload and Launch Projections 2012... Small Small Medium-to-Heavy 4/23/07 6/7/07 6/28/07 7/2/07...



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0.03/5
... from 2010, when there were 23 commercial orbital launches worldwide out... to a Molniya orbit on December 23. The United States and China...(s) Orbit Launch Outcome Yahsat 1A Intelsat New Dawn Telstar 14R Insat... 5C SES-2 Atlantic Bird 7 QuetzSat-1 Intelsat 18 Eutelsat W3C Viasat 1 Asiasat...%) Multinational 2 (6%) Russia 21 (60%) Europe 8 (23%) Total: 35 35 commercial payloads... Meridian 5 communications satellite on December 23. •8• 2011 Year in Review U.S. AND...% 1/1 100% 2/2 100% 34/34 100% 23/24 (96%) 2000 2010 2004... (21,598) 8,123 (17,908) -- -- 23,435 (51,557) 15,876... Sea Launch. It deployed the Intelsat 18 commercial GEO communications satellite... by Sea Launch, successfully launched Intelsat 18 from Baikonur, Kazakhstan. • 14... (lbs) 10,500 8,000 1,700 (23,127) (17,637) (3,800) 5,800... least one 20 28 24 23 23 10 launch failure each year... number of launches rose from 23 in 2007 to a high of... 40 51 47 2 1 26 24 23 2008 2009 2010 Figure 12... Launches NGSO NGSO 40 35 23 30 25 20 21 18... January through June 2012. Figure 23 shows commercial against non-commercial... (67%) Total: 55 Launches Figure 23. Projected Commercial vs. Non-Commercial... of 2012. • 21 • Small 19 (23%) Large 17 (20%) Total: 84... S S * Yahsat 1A GEO Communications $220M S S * Intelsat New Dawn GEO Communications S S 22... Communications Company Orbital Sciences Corp. Intelsat 27-Apr-11 Soyuz Baikonur... for definitions of payload orbits. • 23 • Federal Aviation Administration / Commercial Space...-Sep-11 21-Sep-11 V 23-Sep-11 24-Sep-11...-11 V Zenit 3SLB Baikonur * Intelsat 18 GEO Intelsat Orbital Sciences Corp. Communications... and Mapping CAST Remote Sensing S S 23-Dec-11 28-Dec-11... Gen 19 20 21 22 23 24 Space Space Space Space... Communications Communications Proton M Baikonur * Intelsat 22 GEO Intelsat Boeing Communications $85M 06... 1Q-12 V Proton M Baikonur * Intelsat 23 GEO Intelsat Orbital Sciences Corp. Communications $85M... Company Communications Communications Communications * Intelsat 19 GEO Intelsat Space Systems/Loral Communications... Space Center 01-May-12 23-May-12 V + Antares Soyuz Wallops...-12 V Ariane 5 ECA Kourou * Intelsat 20 GEO Intelsat Space Systems/Loral Communications $220M 2Q-12 V Proton M Baikonur * Intelsat 21 GEO Intelsat Boeing Communications $85M 2Q...



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0.09/5
... Communications dianne.vanbeber@intelsat.com +1 202-944-7406 Intelsat Reports Second Quarter... sets  Net loss attributable to Intelsat S.A. of $408 million includes pre... cash flow Luxembourg, 1 August 2013 Intelsat S.A. (NYSE: I), the world’s leading provider... and a net loss attributable to Intelsat S.A. of $408.3 million, or $4.19... to further reduce debt. I’m confident Intelsat is well-positioned to create... all of its stakeholders. “The Intelsat team is executing against our..., high-throughput and cost-efficient Intelsat EpicNG platform. Leading up to... to our business.” Business Highlights Intelsat provides critical communications infrastructure to... fixed and mobile government applications.  Intelsat’s network services business, which provides..., accounted for 46 percent of Intelsat’s total second quarter 2013 revenue... fiber. o Enterprise data networks use Intelsat satellites to deliver broadband connectivity... environments, extended its portfolio with Intelsat under a long-term agreement covering..., recently renewed its agreement with Intelsat. STC plans to provide VSAT... new, multi-transponder services on Intelsat 905 to provide commercial aeronautical..., recently renewed its contract with Intelsat for the delivery of advanced... the Intelsat 907 satellite, delivering seamless connectivity to its shipping customers. Intelsat..., recently signed a new agreement on Intelsat 23. Entel Chile will provide mobile... the coast of South America. Intelsat’s media business, which provides satellite... its multi-transponder agreement on Intelsat 20 to support media applications..., recently expanded its relationship with Intelsat, signing multi-year commitments for... to customers in North America. Intelsat’s government business, which provides highly... of aeronautical applications in Asia. o Intelsat General was awarded a new agreement... the second quarter of 2013, Intelsat completed a number of capital markets.... o In April 2013, our subsidiary Intelsat (Luxembourg) S.A. (“Intelsat Luxembourg”) issued $500.0 million... notes due 2023 (collectively, the “Intelsat Luxembourg Offerings”). o Also in April... Intelsat Luxembourg Offerings to redeem all $2.5 billion aggregate principal amount of Intelsat... aggregate principal amount of the Intelsat Luxembourg 11¼% senior notes due... indebtedness outstanding under our Intelsat Jackson Holdings S.A. (“Intelsat Jackson”) $810.9 million senior... to fully redeem our Intelsat Investments S.A. (formerly Intelsat S.A.) 6½% senior notes due 2013... Compensation Charges”).  o In June 2013, Intelsat Jackson issued $2.0 billion aggregate principal... Notes” and collectively, the “June Intelsat Jackson Offerings”). The 2022 Jackson... net proceeds of the June Intelsat Jackson Offerings, together with other... aggregate principal amount of the Intelsat Luxembourg 2017 Senior Notes, and... $868 million principal amount) under Intelsat Jackson’s two senior unsecured credit... were conducted during the period. 4  Intelsat has no satellite launches planned... contracted with Arianespace to launch Intelsat 30, the next satellite in... in connection with the 2012 Intelsat Jackson tender offers and redemptions... tax years for our subsidiary, Intelsat Holding Corporation, in the three... 2012. At June 30, 2013, Intelsat’s contracted backlog, representing expected future... part to the U.S. budget sequestration. Intelsat management has reviewed the data... type in the following tables. Intelsat management believes this provides a useful... financial measures. Conference Call Information Intelsat management will host a conference call... the Internet at the Intelsat website: www.intelsat.com/investors/events. To... the replay is 68237126. About Intelsat Intelsat (NYSE: I) is the leading provider... worldwide. For almost 50 years, Intelsat has been delivering information and... Service Providers and governmental agencies. Intelsat’s satellite, teleport and fiber infrastructure... Intelsat, advanced communications anywhere in the world are closer, by far. Intelsat... made in this release reflect Intelsat's intentions, plans, expectations, assumptions and... of which are outside of Intelsat's control. Important factors that could... others, the risks described in Intelsat’s prospectus dated April 17, 2013... results could differ materially from Intelsat's intentions, plans, expectations, assumptions and... this news release with caution. Intelsat does not undertake any obligation..., future events or otherwise. 10 INTELSAT S.A. UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS... per common share attributable to Intelsat S.A. 11 INTELSAT S.A. UNAUDITED RECONCILIATION OF NET... as a measure of liquidity. 12 INTELSAT S.A. UNAUDITED RECONCILIATION OF NET LOSS...) 509,377 77% $ 78% Note: Intelsat calculates a measure called Adjusted EBITDA... assess the operating performance of Intelsat S.A. Adjusted EBITDA consists of EBITDA... as a measure of liquidity. 13 INTELSAT S.A. CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS ($ in thousands... our Initial Public Offering. 14 INTELSAT S.A. UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH... $ 61,083 $ 20,009 15 INTELSAT S.A. UNAUDITED RECONCILIATION OF NET CASH...



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... 19 RSS (Redu Space Services) 23 WALLONIE ESPACE INFOS n°79 mars.... (*) Alexeï Léonov a rendu visite le 23 avril dernier à l’Euro Space Center...ération d’un satellite de communications Intelsat – il vient d’être envoyé sur... spatiale internationale. @ 2. Les 50 ans d’Intelsat I « Early Bird » : début d’une ère... Le 20 août 1964, l’organisation Intelsat voyait le jour à Washington, D.C., comme... Early Bird (oiseau matinal), alias Intelsat-1. Réalisé par Hughes Aircraft - sa... de 34,5 kg ! La descendance d’Intelsat I allait très vite devenir une... 1969, avec trois satellites-relais Intelsat III, dits géostationnaires - placés à quelque...éan Atlantique, Pacifique et Indien -, Intelsat inaugurait le premier système... d’un village global! Aujourd’hui, Intelsat qui a son centre technique à Washington...ésents au Luxembourg. A noter que Intelsat fut le premier client commercial... pour répondre aux appels d'offres d'Intelsat. Bell Telephone - dont le département... les satellites de la génération Intelsat III. ETCA, aujourd’hui Thales... l'électronique embarquée pour les satellites Intelsat IV lancés durant la premi... 70. La Belgique devenait membre d’Intelsat le 10 février 1965 avec... Belgacom. Elle inaugura sa station Intelsat à Lessive (province de Namur) le..., avec les WEI n°79 2015-2 - 23 WALLONIE ESPACE INFOS n°79 mars... sur orbite géostationnaire, tels que Intelsat, Eutelsat, Telesat, WEI n°79 2015... géostationnaire : lancé le avril 1965, Intelsat-I, alias « Early Bird » (auquel le...] & F4 [ ?], Mexsat-1 [2015], Morelos-3 [2015], Intelsat-29e WEI n°79 2015-2 - 27...-3 (2012), Star One C3 (2012), Intelsat-23 (2012), HYLAS-2 (2012), Azerspace-1 (2013...-8 (2014), Intelsat-19 & -20 (2012), Intelsat-30 (2014) & -31 [2016], Intelsat-36 [2016... [2016], Measat-3b/Jabiru-2 (2014), Intelsat-32e /SkyBrazil-1 [2016], Eutelsat-172B... Space Belgium Eutelsat (Europe) et Intelsat-34 (SSL) pour (nombreux éléments... composants d’avionique pour la case à Intelsat (USA/Luxembourg) équipements), Techspace Aero... INFOS n°79 mars-avril 2015 23-25 juin : Global Space Innovation... le site www.spacetechexpo.eu 23-27 novembre : 12th European Space...) Latin DirecTV (USA) DIRECTV America/INTELSAT-31 ECHOSTAR-105 /SES-11...?) AZERSPACE-2/INTELSAT-38 45°E (Ku- & Ka-bands) Comsat developed with Intelsat as partner for joint use of (Azercosmos/Azerbaidjan, Intelsat) geosynchronous...-bands) DIRECTV LATIN AMERICA or INTELSAT-32 (DirecTV-Sky Brasil /USA... (Echostar/USA) 10° E (S-band) ECHOSTAR-23 (Dish Network CorpEchostar/USA) ECHOSTAR.../India) INTELSAT-27R or -34 (Intelsat/Luxembourg) INTELSAT-30 DLA-1 & -31 DLA-2 (Intelsat/Luxembourg – DirecTV Latin America) INTELSAT-32E/SKY BRASIL-1 (Intelsat/Luxembourg – DirecTV Latin America INTELSAT-36 MULTICHOICE (Intelsat/Luxembourg – Multichoice /South Africa) INTELSAT EPIC-1/-29E & -2/33E/NEXT GENERATION (Intelsat/Luxembourg) INTELSAT EPIC-3/-35E/NEXT GENERATION (Intelsat/Luxembourg) INTELSAT-38/AZERSPACE-2 Intelsat, Azercosmos... 5 launch for Intelsat-30 DLA-1 , Proton-Breeze M launch for Intelsat-31 DLA... to be co-located with Intelsat-20 for panmainly for DTH...



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... On-Orbit Servicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Competition from LEO Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Hosted Payloads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24... and Launch Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Table 23. Distribution of Payload Masses in... in 2003-2012. . . . . . . .66 Figure 23. Microsatellites and Nanosatellites Launched by... (COMSTAC) 18 25 24 23 22 23 23 22 23 23 226 22.6 NGSO Forecast... Total 18 25 24 23 22 23 23 22 23 23 226 Average 22.6 Launch... 2014 Addressable 17 21 18 23 22 22 17 21 16... 23 22 22 17 21 16 18 25 24 23 22 23 23 22 23 23 226 23 100% • 10 • 2017... ARSAT 2 GSAT 16 Hispasat AG1 Intelsat 34 Sky Mexico 1 Below 2,500... ABS 2 Astra 5B MEASAT 3B Intelsat 30 DirecTV 14 Eutelsat 3B... 8 JCSAT 15 JCSAT 16 Palapa E Intelsat 36 8 DM Sicral 2 DM Thor... C4 Inmarsat 5F2 Inmarsat 5F3 Intelsat 31 DM = Potential Dual-Manifested... DM Echostar XVIII Echostar XIX Intelsat 29E Intelsat 33E Jabiru 1 NBN 1B.... Major global operators such as Intelsat, SES, and Eutelsat and regional... make up for this drop. Intelsat, Eutelsat, Hispasat, and other operators... Hughes Network Systems and Viasat. Intelsat is replacing some of its... Epic satellites starting in 2015. Intelsat’s goal is to reduce the... Viasat-2 satellites. For operators like Intelsat, a HTS system could reduce their... of demonstrating the capabilities on Intelsat satellites. However, MDA changed its... GEO broadband service providers include: • Intelsat with its open architecture Epic... the maritime and aeronautical sectors; • 23 • Federal Aviation Administration’s Office of... payload from Intelsat. This payload is hosted aboard the Intelsat 22 satellite... Steering Committee members include Boeing, Intelsat, Iridium, Lockheed Martin, Orbital, SES..., Eutelsat/ Nilesat, SES/Gazprom, and Intelsat/JSAT. • 27 • Federal Aviation Administration... pricing of Intelsat’s IPO was reduced by 22%, from $23 per share... for an option of manufacturing 23 additional satellites in the coming... have launched cubesats (see Figure 23). Over the past decade, the... 300 kg to LEO. Figure 23. Microsatellites and Nanosatellites Launched by... from 2013 to 2022. Table 23 provides the specific numbers of... Technology Test and Demonstration Table 23. Payload and Launch Projections 2014... Ariane 4 DM3 Arabsat 2A Ariane 4 Intelsat 702 Ariane 4 DBS 3 Ariane 4 DM4... 2 Ariane 4 Intelsat 706 Ariane 4 EchoStar 2 Ariane 4 PAS 3 Ariane 4 NSTAR a Ariane 4 Intelsat 707 Ariane 4 PAS 4 Ariane 4 Intelsat 709 Ariane 4 DM4... AMSC 1 Atlas II NSTAR b Ariane 4 Intelsat 703 Atlas II Galaxy 3R... LM-2E Intelsat 704 Atlas II DM1 PAS 3R Ariane 4 Intelsat 705... Atlas II Asiasat 2 LM-2E Intelsat 708 LM-3B EchoStar 1 LM... 19 19 Total Satellites 28 23 23 Over 5,400 kg (>11,905... Afristar Ariane 4 Intelsat 801 Ariane 4 DM3 Eutelsat W2 Ariane 4 Intelsat 802 Ariane 4 Hot Bird 4 Ariane 4 Insat 2E Ariane 4 Intelsat 803 Ariane 4 PAS 6B Ariane 4 Koreasat 3 Ariane 4 Intelsat 804 Ariane... 4 Intelsat 805 Atlas II Eutelsat W3 Atlas II AMC 3 Atlas II Intelsat... Ariane 4 Intelsat 904 Ariane 4 PAS 1R Ariane 5 Intelsat 901 Ariane 4 Intelsat 905 Ariane 4 Garuda 1 Proton K/DM Intelsat 902 Ariane 4 Intelsat 906... Proton K/DM Echostar 8 Proton K/DM Intelsat 903 Proton K/DM Galaxy 3C...,905 lbm) Anik F2 Ariane 5 Intelsat X Proton M Thaicom 4 Ariane 5 DirecTV 7S... Sea Launch Spaceway 1 Sea Launch 5 Intelsat 907 4 4 Amazonas Proton M AMC 12... M Ariane 5 Eutelsat W3A Proton M AMC 23 Proton M Atlas V APStar V Anik F1R... 18 Total Satellites 19 18 23 2 3 5 Over 5,400 kg (>11,905... DM3 Optus D1 Ariane 5 DM4 Intelsat 11 Ariane 5 Thor 5 Proton M DM4... 5 Echostar 14 Proton M Viasat 1 Proton M Intelsat 14 Atlas V Echostar 15 Proton... Ariane 5 DMU ST 2 Ariane 5 DM5 Intelsat 17 Ariane 5 Eutelsat W3C Long... DM3 RASCOM 1R Ariane 5 Intelsat 18 Intelsat 15 Long March Asiasat 7 Palapa... Ariane 5 DM2 Alphasat Ariane 5 DM2 Intelsat 20 Ariane 5 DM3 Eutelsat 25B... 5 Echostar 16 Proton M Satmex 8 Proton M Intelsat 22 Proton M Eutelsat 7B Proton... M Intelsat 19 Sea Launch Inmarsat 5F1 Proton M Intelsat 21 Sea Launch Intelsat 27... 9 Vinasat 2 Ariane 5 Amos 4 Land Launch Intelsat 23 Proton M 0 0 = Launch Failure DM# = Dual... II Dneor Medium-to-Heavy 4/23/07 6/7/07 7/2/07 11/1/07...



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0.07/5
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 A. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 B. Commercial Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 C. Remote Sensing Satellite Programs and... Economy, Untangling e-conomics,” The Economist,” 23 September 2000 (The Economist Survey.... SM-11827, (May 1946), 8, 9, 17, 23, quoted in Walter A. McDougall, … the... International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) system. 22 INTELSAT began as an intergovernmental... members and one geosynchronous satellite. INTELSAT, which now has 144 members... a private company in July 2001. 23 In the Satellite Act, Congress... facilitate development of the global INTELSAT system and to provide for... enterprise in that system. 25 INTELSAT launched its first satellite, Early... an initial commercial satellite provider, INTELSAT benefited from U.S. taxpayerfunded research and... days of space communications. 26 INTELSAT also benefited from government policies... U.S.C. sec. 701(a). 22 Alexandra M. Field, “INTELSAT at Crossroads,” Law and Policy...): 1335-66. 23 The INTELSAT website is: http://www.intelsat.int. 47 U.S.C. sections...). 25 47 U.S.C. sec. 701(c). 26 INTELSAT LLC, Memorandum Opinion Order and... States National Security After the INTELSAT global system was operating, the... the United States. On January 23, 1970, the Executive Office of... our obligations and commitments to Intelsat and the International Telecommunication Union... (The White House, Washington, D.C., January 23, 1970) as reproduced in Establishment... and influencing the direction of INTELSAT. After recognizing the benefits of... by creating the framework for INTELSAT, in the 1980s-90s, the... U.S. Government undertook efforts to encourage INTELSAT to become more competitive as... would result. “The privatization of INTELSAT is a policy goal of the... FCC 2d 1046 (1985). 32 INTELSAT LLC, Memorandum Opinion Order and..., citing Direct Access to the INTELSAT System, Report and Order, 14... market, INTELSAT inaugurated a multi-year effort to restructure. In 1998, INTELSAT spun... Netherlands and now competes with INTELSAT. In March 2000, Congress passed... for the full privatization of INTELSAT in order to serve the..., the Federal Communications Commission authorized INTELSAT to operate in the United... services through the privatization of INTELSAT in a manner consistent with U.S. law... of the two organizations. 34 INTELSAT LLC, Memorandum Opinion Order and... In 1994, Presidential Decision Directive 23 gave NASA, NOAA, and the... During 2001-2010,” PR Newswire, 23 August 2000. 80 Robert K. Ackerman... CNES (35%), Matra Marconi Space (23%), the French National Geographic Institute... objective of Presidential Decision Directive 23 is “to support and enhance.... ING Barings, Satellite Communications, 22-23, supra n.45. ING Barings cites... international satellite telephony through the INTELSAT system using geosynchronous satellites. Thereafter... of 2001, will expand to 23 satellites. 176 http://www.panamsat... these organizations are: Washington, D.C.-based INTELSAT, London-based INMARSAT and Paris... the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, “INTELSAT,” 23 U.S.T. 4091 (February 12, 1973); Operating... the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, “INTELSAT,” 23 U.S.T. 3813 (August 20, 1971). 210... privileges and immunities. For example, INTELSAT is immune from taxes and.... 215 INTELSAT will privatize in July 2001. 216 As a U.S. company, INTELSAT will be subject to U.S. competition laws and domestic regulations. (INTELSAT has... in the world.) As such, INTELSAT will operate as a private entity... the U.S. Government. Location of privatized INTELSAT in the United States will... worth billions of dollars. With INTELSAT as a U.S. company, it will be... their satellite systems than if INTELSAT were located in a foreign jurisdiction... for commercial and U.S. Government use, INTELSAT and its workforce offer extraordinary... and business expertise. Finally, when INTELSAT is privatized, the United States... satellite companies in the world—INTELSAT and PanAmSat. The organizations generally...: INTELSAT Privatization Plan and Schedule Formally Approved by Governments,” http://www.intelsat...-based New Skies Satellites, N.V. (the INTELSAT spin-off), received authorization to... & Space Technology, September 25, 2000, 23. Retrieved September, 29, 2000, from... a larger share of the company. Intelsat has a strong presence in South.... This service uses Turksat and INTELSAT capacity. Saudi Globalstar has introduced.... C.E. Unterberg, Towbin, “Hotbird,” Vol. 3, No. 5, 23 October 2000, 26. 253 56... INTELSAT system for traditional voice, data and video services. In addition, INTELSAT..., 2000: 831-836. Retrieved October 23, 2000 from the World Wide..., 20 June 1996). Retrieved October 23, 2000, from the World Wide..., 14 June 1999. Retrieved October 23, 2000 from the World Wide...) 17 April 1997. Retrieved October 23, 2000, from the World Wide... used leased capacity on the INTELSAT satellite system as part of...