Спутник ФКИ. Io Volcano Observer. [Редактировать]

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#Новостная лента.
12015-06-16. Исследование спутника Юпитера Ио будет стоить около 615 тыс. долл. в день.
Ответственные лица в космическом агентстве США начали проявлять активность в части разработки роботизированной миссии которая должна будет изучать спутник Юпитера Ио. Ожидаемая стоимость проекта составляет 450 млн. долл. США на разработку аппарата и около 1 млрд. долл. на весь проект, включая запуск. Денежные средства планируется взять из объемов предназначенных для финансирования программы "Новые горизонты". Однако, программа должна официально закончиться в 2022-2023 году. Поэтому уже сейчас чиновники НАСА начали производить в большом объеме слайды и презентации с целью убедить законодателей продолжить эту программу и в дальнейшем. В связи с этим, предварительные характеристики миссии могут так и остаться предварительными. В настоящее время план полета аппарата и его характеристики выглядят следующим образом:
1. Дата пуска 2021 год.
2. Время выхода на целевую орбиту 2026 год.
3. Основная цель миссии - 9 сближений с планетой на расстояние до 200 км.
4. Масса аппарата 1500 кг.
5. Сухая масса 750 кг.
6. Оснащен улучшенной двигательной установкой.
Тэги: Io Volcano ObserverКосмическое агентство США

Найдено 91 документов по запросу «Io Volcano Observer». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Study Planetary Science Decadal Survey Io Observer Science Champion: Elizabeth Turtle (elizabeth...-risks for a given mission concept. . Io Observer i Planetary Science Decadal Survey Mission... ..........................................................................................................................34 Io Observer ii Figures Figure 1-1. Image of the Jovian Moon Io ...................................................................................................... 1  Figure...  Figure C-1. Io Observer Radiation Exposure Estimate............................................................................... 44  Tables Table 1-1. Prioritized Io Science Objectives... and Ground Data Systems ...................................................................... 28  Io Observer iii Table 3-21. Summary of... C. Radiation Analysis D. Master Equipment Lists Io Observer iv Study Participants Role Study... rights reserved. Io Observer vi Executive Summary The Jovian moon Io is likely... done in 2008 for the Io Volcano Observer concept under the Discovery and... usage. Io Observer vii 1. Scientific Objectives Science Questions and Objectives The Io Observer mission... of Io’s orbit within the radiation belt surrounding Jupiter. The Io Observer mission... by Io's eruptions. Figure 1-1. Image of the Jovian Moon Io Io Observer 1 Table 1-1. Prioritized Io...) Fast-imaging plasma spectrometer (FIPS) Io Observer Measurement Objective Measure peak lava... the study’s initial information package. Io Observer 3 Table 1-3. Science Traceability Matrix 1 Science... similar to Io’s, and elsewhere in the solar system. Io Observer IVO Science..., and dissipation mechanisms of Io’s tidal heating. Io Observer IVO Science Objectives A2. Determine the state (melt fraction) of Io..., and the connection to Io’s volcanism. Io Observer IVO Science Objectives B1. Test... the atmosphere, magnetosphere, and torus. Io Observer IVO Science Objectives B3. Test... cost estimates are provided below. Io Observer 9 1. ASRG-Powered Spacecraft—This architecture... 2-1. Solar-Powered Spacecraft (Conceptual Design) Io Observer 10 Concept Maturity Level Table... a better one may be determined. Io Observer 11 3. Technical Overview Instrument Payload... (COPS). Performance comparable to the Io Observer desired performance may be achievable... prior to on-board processing Io Observer 14 Table 3-4. Fluxgate Magnetometer (two... propellant lines, thus reducing the Io Observer 18 power requirements for thermal...) General Design Life, months Structure Io Observer Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4 101..., titanium for vault 0 1 (mag boom) Io Observer 1 3 (mag boom+ 2 solar panel wings... Operations and Mission Design This Io Observer mission would be implemented using.... Io Observer 22 Figure 3-1. Earth-Venus-Venus-Earth-Jupiter (6.5-Year) Trajectory Io Observer 23... Impact on Io 985 960 920 Event Io tour Disposal Total Io Observer TBD – – Comments – 24 Table 3-15. Io Flyby Details* Encounter Io Flyby 1 Io Flyby 2 Io... 4—TCMs Cruise 4—Annual health checks Io Observer Antenna Size (m) Service Year Hours... instrument compared to Options 1 and 2 Io Observer 27 Table 3-19. Mission Design... Category II mission. Accordingly, the Io Observer project would demonstrate that its... Io Observer project manager, submitted by the end of Phase A. Io Observer 28 The Io Observer... to be disposed into Io or Jupiter, the Io Observer project would use.... R:1 5 Likelihood 4 R:1 3 2 R:1 R:1 R:2 R:1 R:1 R:2 1 1 2 R:1 R:1 R:1 R:1 3 4 5 Impact Figure 3-3. Risk Chart Io Observer 29 ASRG failure mode adequacy... return still available) High, ~25% 5 4 3 2 1 Io Observer Likelihood of Occurrence Moderate, ~10... 4-1 provides a feasible schedule for all Io Observer mission options. The mission complexity... study. Figure 4-1.Baseline Mission Schedule Io Observer 32 Table 4-1. Key Phase Duration... major schedule issues were identified. Io Observer 33 5. Mission Life-Cycle Cost... 4; 14.9 months total for Option 3). Io Observer 34 Table 5-1. Science Team Workforce... Characterization Operations Support Equivalent FTEs: Io Observer C 9 2.9 Science Support 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 B 9 12.2 Science Management... period of intense science operations). Io Observer 36 Table 5-4. Total Mission Cost... Test and preparation for operations Io Observer 37 Table 5-5. Total Mission Cost... Test and preparation for operations Io Observer 40 Appendix A. Acronyms AO announcement..., 18 May 2006. Io Observer 42 Appendix C. Radiation Analysis Io Observer Radiation Environment Summary... study using the VIP4 model (Io Volcano Observer, IOM 5132-08-037) were... to be minimal. In the Io Volcano Observer study, the cruise dose contributed... of 1 (RDF=1). Io Observer 43 Figure C-1. Io Observer Radiation Exposure Estimate Io Observer 44 Appendix D. Master... appendix: • Option 1 • Option 2 • Option 3 • Option 4 Io Observer 45 Option 1 MEL Launch Vehicle...) Thermal Transfer Plates Venus Shield Io Observer 0.4 kg 0.0 kg 0.0 kg 0.0 kg 0.0 kg...



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... a magma ocean within Jupiter's moon Io. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 218...) Spatial distribution of volcanoes on Io: implications for tidal heating and... 2013–2015 • Member of the Io Volcano Observer (IVO) Science Team and Science... and interior heating processes on Io”, NASA Outer Planets Research (OPR... Volcanoes (CSAV), Teacher of the “Volcano Seismology” module for the Undergraduate... melt migration in Jupiter’s moon, Io. 2013–2014 Ingrid Daubar. Constraining... Project Sponsor: “Mobile Watchtowers for Volcano Remote Sensing” 2014–2015 Chirag... 2008, IAVCEI: Grímsvötn — volcano–ice interaction — Vatnajökull traverse... of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Volcano‒Ice Interaction Working Group: Secretary...: My research on Jupiter’s Moon Io was highlighted by NASA News...), “Spatial distribution of volcanoes on Io: Implications for tidal heating and...), “Tidal heating and volcanism on Io” NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (November 15, 2013), “Volcanism on Io: Implications for a subsurface magma ocean...), “Volcanism and interior processes on Io” HiRISE Team Meeting, Tucson, Arizona..., University of Arizona (March 5, 2013), “Volcano‒ice interactions on Earth and... 4, 2013), “Volcanism on Jupiter’s moon Io” Center for Planetary Studies, Smithsonian... of volcanoes III: Lessons from Io. AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco..., and AG Davies (2015) The Io Volcano Observer (IVO): A spacecraft mission proposed to... lava flow analog from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. 46th LPSC, Woodlands, TX... lava flow Analog from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. 46th LPSC, Woodlands, TX... December 1974 Flow on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, USA. 46th LPSC, Woodlands...) Geologic mapping of Jupiter’s moon Io and implications for interior processes...* (2013) Volcanism on Jupiter’s moon Io and its relation to interior... the coastal plain of Kilauea Volcano, HI 44th LPSC, Woodlands, Texas...) Spatial distribution of volcanoes on Io: implications for tidal heating and magma ascent. Io Workshop, , University of Colorado, Boulder...) Cluster analysis of volcanoes on Io: implications for tidal heating and... volcanic hotspots and paterae on Io: implications for tidal heating models... patterns of their spatial distribution, Io Workshop, Provo, Utah USA. Talk... lava flow emplacement processes. 2nd Volcano–Ice Interaction on Earth and... on Earth and Planetary Ice–Volcano Interactions, Reykjavík, Iceland. Abstract 033...



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... and interior heating processes on Io” NASA Outer Planets Research (OPR...’s Interior (IAVCEI) Working Group on Volcano–Ice Interactions. • Co-Organizer of... a magma ocean within Jupiter's moon Io. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 218...) Spatial distribution of volcanoes on Io: implications for tidal heating and..., and AG Davies (2015) The Io Volcano Observer (IVO): A spacecraft mission proposed to... December 1974 Flow on Kilauea Volcano, HI, USA. 46th LPSC, Woodlands...



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Curriculum Vita Alfred S. McEwen July 2015 EDUCATION: B.S. 1975 Forest Biology, SUNY ESF B.S. 1982, M.S. 1985 Geology, Northern Arizona University PhD. 1988 Planetary Geology, Arizona State University EMPLOYMENT: 6/75-10/77: Peace Corps, Guatemala. Reforestation and soil conservation. 1/78-8/80: Soil Conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, Connecticut and Pennsylvania. 1/81-8/96: U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Astrogeology, Flagstaff, Arizona. 8/96-present: Lunar and Planetary Lab (LPL) and Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona. Professor and Director of the Planetary Image Research Lab (PIRL). Advised/supported 13 doctoral, 3 masters, and numerous undergrad students. HONORS AND AWARDS: 1982: Award from Nat. Assoc. of Science Teachers for geology field camp, Northern Arizona University. 1985, 1990: Special Achievement Awards, USGS 1990-present: numerous invited talks and colloquia 1993: Superior Service Award, USGS 1996-2011: Multiple NASA Group Achievement Awards – Galileo, Cassini, MGS, LRO, MRO 1999: Mars crossing asteroid 1988 QD1 (Gene and Carolyn Shoemaker), named (7750) McEwen. 2007: Shoemaker lecture, fall AGU, on “The geology of Mars as seen by MRO’s HiRISE” 2011: NASA’s Distinguished Public Service Medal 2015: AGU Whipple award EXTRAMURAL CITIZENSHIP Member of: American Geophysical Union (AGU), Geological Society of America (GSA), Division of Planetary Sciences (DPS)/American Astronomical Society Organizer for 2001 special section of JGR-Planets on Geology and Geophysics of Io (19 papers). Organizing Committee for the Jupiter Conference (Boulder, June 2001); other conferences Icarus editorial board, 2001-2 Chairperson of Large Satellites Panel, National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, 2001-2002. Member of Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, National Academy of Sciences, 2008-10 Science Advisory Groups for Mars Science Orbiter, Mid-Range Rover, and Special Regions-2 Phoenix landing site review board, 2008 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing site steering committee, 2008-2011 Co-convener of special sessions (AGU, EPSC, GSA), 2000-2014 EXPERIENCE IN PLANETARY SPACECRAFT EXPERIMENTS: 1989: Guest Investigator with the Voyager imaging team for Neptune encounter. 1990-2002: Galileo Interdisciplinary Scientist associated with the Solid State Imaging team; lead role in planning and analysis of Io observations. 1991-present: Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) Team 1992-1994: Clementine advisory committee and science team. 1992-2000: Participating Scientist on Mars Observer/MGS, for the Mars Orbital Camera. 2001-present: Participating Scientist on Mars Odyssey THEMIS. 2001-present: PI of HiRISE on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 2005-present Co-Investigator, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) 2009-2012 PI of PIDD grant on focal-plane system for a radiation-hard camera 2010; 2015 PI of Io Volcano Observer proposal for a Discovery mission 2010-2012 PI of the High resolution Stereo Color Imager (HiSCI) on the ESA/NASA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter until NASA withdrawal; 2013+ Co-I on CaSSIS (European replacement of HiSCI) 2015- Deputy-PI of the Europa Imaging System (EIS) on Europa Multiple Flyby Mission Publications: over 200



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... and the IVO Team The Io Volcano Observer (IVO) for NASA Discovery 2015... and the IVO Team The Io Volcano Observer (IVO) for NASA Discovery 2015... on the thermal state of Io from electromagnetic induction Coffee Break...



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... Outer Planets Orbiter Mission Concept: Io Volcano Observer (IVO) Sandford, Scott NASA/AMES...* Comet Surface Sample Return Ganymede Observer* Io Observer* Jupiter Polar Orbiter with Probes...



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...’s atmosphere INVITED A. Coustenis 09:40 Io: A (geo-)physicist’s playground INVITED N. Thomas... moons of the Jovian system. Io is a rocky moon, sulphur-rich... linked to the fact that Io, Europa, and Ganymede are locked... the largest energy source for Io, gravitational interactions drive internal dynamics...'s moon: the four Galilean satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Calisto, Saturn.... 8. Atreya, S., 2007, Science 316, 843. Io: A (geo-)physicist’s playground N.Thomas, Space... environment nearby, the Jovian satellite, Io, has been slightly neglected in... physical processes which occur at Io are highly unusual and may... satellite system as a whole and Io in particular. The subsequent surface... physical processes currently seen at Io (e.g. tidal heating, mass loss) may... here at the importance of Io in studies of the Jovian... mission concepts, such as the Io Volcano Observer, offer the possibility of an... atmospheres. Some moons such as Io and Enceladus have significant exospheres...



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..., “Europa Orbiter” and “Jupiter System Observer”. The proposed share of responsibilities... 4.3 THE MAGNETOSPHERE AND MAGNETODISC ........................................................................ 50 4.4 IO, CALLISTO, AND OTHER SATELLITES .............................................................................. 54..., “Europa Orbiter” and “Jupiter System Observer”. The mission will further develop...’s satellite system, temporal variations in Io’s activity will be studied, and...), the four large Galilean satellites, Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto (1000... trapped in the Laplace resonance, Io, Europa and Ganymede, redistribute momentum... only are they responsible for Io’s spectacular volcanic activity, but they.... Active volcanoes on the moon Io interact with the surrounding magnetosphere producing the Io plasma torus, which follows the...: generation of plasma at the Io torus, magnetosphere / satellite interactions, dynamics..., from pure silicate/metal bodies (Io) to dominantly icy ones (Callisto... of these two pairs (Europa-Io and GanymedeCallisto), with a special focus... the whole satellite system (including Io, Callisto, small satellites and rings...; regular monitoring of Jupiter’s and Io’s 26 atmospheres; and observations of... distant observations of Europa and Io. Io is an ever-changing world... and spatial coverage for monitoring Io volcanism remotely. In particular, stereo..., i.e. the volcanic eruptions on Io filling the Io torus and the magnetosphere... (Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto, and Io) is obtained through the study... equatorial plane of Jupiter inside Io’s orbit, (2) a ring system, (3) four large satellites –the Galilean Satellites (Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto), and... by volcanism at Io, also produce exospheres at Io and Callisto. Exospheric... situations. The magnetosphere interaction at Io is the most powerful. The... in terms of habitability? 54 4.4 Io, Callisto, and Other Satellites  The... system The four Galilean Satellites, Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto are... different energy budgets. By studying Io, Callisto, and small bodies in... has led to vigorous volcanism (Io), subsurface water oceans (Europa, Ganymede... and E. Sturm, NASA/JPL Study Io's active dynamic processes. Despite its..., rather than sulfur-rich edifices. Io's colorful appearance is the result... materials on the surface of Io through multi-wavelength imaging spectroscopy... geologic features, particularly volcanic calderas. Io's thermal activity is driven by tidal heating. Constraints on Io's dissipation rate which is closely... the satellite. Further constraints on Io's evolution will be provided by... 4-18. The complexity of Io’s geology. Upper left: Io’s colored surface, caused... the outer Jovian system)? Io  What is Io's global heat flow and... iron sulfides?  How variable is Io’s atmosphere (temporally and spatially) and...  Gravitational coupling – the Laplace resonance Io, Europa, and Ganymede are locked... the largest energy source for Io, gravitational interactions can also drive... rotating magnetosphere and the satellites (e.g. Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto); ii... Systems  EJSM-Laplace will study Io’s active dynamic processes, characterize Callisto....  Remote observations of Ganymede, Europa, Io, and small moons. 4 Transfer to... & Callisto; State & crystalinity of ices; Io volcano monitoring; Jupiter atmosphere composition Pushbroom... Camera processes on Ganymede & Callisto; Io Torus imaging, Jupiter cloud dynamics... responses; Composition and transport in Io’s plasma torus Plasma Analyzer Electrons... FOV: 117 deg Ganymede & Callisto; Io volcano monitoring; Jupiter cloud dynamics & structure... to regional-scale morphology of Io, Ganymede & Callisto; Jupiter atmosphere dynamics..., geologic and morphologic observations of Io and other moons  Monitoring of... and related surface changes on Io Table 6-2. Baseline NAC performance  Study... weathering products as well as Io volcanic activity  Composition, structure and... and related surface changes on Io  Surface reflectance observations to characterise... moon atmosphere (especially Callisto and Io), requiring ~0.1/s stability with 2 sigma accuracy... of Callisto, Ganymede, Europa and Io are also indicated. This trajectory..., J. Saur, and S. Jacobsen (2008), UV Io footprint leading spot: A key feature for understanding the UV Io footprint multiplicity?, Geophys. Res. Lett... (1998), Mountains and calderas on Io: Possible implications for lithosphere structure... magnetic field anomalies in the Io torus: evidence for plasma interchange... (2009), Strong tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter determined from astrometric...–382. Lopes, R.M. and Spencer, J.R.. (2006),. Io after Galileo. ISBN 978-3-540...), The lithosphere and surface of Io, in Jupiter – The planet, satellites..., C.F. (1979), How tidal heating in Io drives the Galilean orbital resonance..., C.F., Peale, S.J. (1981), The tides of Io, Icarus, 47, 1-35. 10.2 Technical... 2.5, 11 February 2010 [2] Jupiter Ganymede Observer Missions Requirements Document, SCI-PA...



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... BANKS] International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate... group) International organization participation: AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group...: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE, CEI... BAILEY) International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CCC, ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC... (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIPONUH, MONUA, MTCR, NAM (observer), NSG... (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE (observer... parties International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), IOC Diplomatic..., IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), PCA, UN, UN Security..., ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, UN, UN Security...), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA..., IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN... (observer), ITU, OAS (observer), OSCE, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU, WIPO, WToO (observer) Diplomatic..., IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUA, NAM, OAS (observer), PCA, SAARC... organization participation: AG (observer), BSEC (observer), CCC, CE (observer), CERN (observer), EBRD, ECE, FAO...: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CE (observer), CEI, CERN... (observer), MINUGUA, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD..., AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE (observer), CP, EBRD...: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean... participation: AG (observer), APEC, BCIE, BIS (pending member), Caricom (observer), CCC, CDB..., IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM (observer), OAS, OECD, OPANAL..., Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OSCE (partner... International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS... island International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO... (observer), MINURSO, MONUA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD... Resistance International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), FAO (associate), ICFTU..., IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA..., IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINUGUA, MINURSO, MTCR, NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE..., Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINUGUA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD..., ITU, LAIA (observer), MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR..., AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE (observer), CP... International organization participation: AG, Caricom (observer), CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G- 3, G-11... United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia UNOMIL United Nations Observer Mission in... now include only 23 countries observer-(1) Singapore _________________________________________________________________ Australia-New Zealand... (observer), Albania (had not participated since 1961 break with USSR), Angola (observer), Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia (observer), GDR, Hungary, Laos (observer), Mongolia, Mozambique (observer), Nicaragua (observer), Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, Yemen (observer), Yugoslavia..., Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe observer-(1) Angola _________________________________________________________________ Economic Community of... regions _________________________________________________________________ United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) address-c/o Department of..., Venezuela _________________________________________________________________ United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan..., Ukraine, Uruguay _________________________________________________________________ United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) address..., Zambia, Zimbabwe _________________________________________________________________ United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL... April 1995 _________________________________________________________________ United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) address..., US, Uruguay _________________________________________________________________ United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL) address..., Malaysia, Pakistan _________________________________________________________________ United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR) established..., Macau, Madeira Islands, Netherlands Antilles observer-(1) Holy See _________________________________________________________________ World Trade... British Indian Ocean Territory IO IO IOT 086 IO British Virgin Islands VI...



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... organization participation: ACCT (observer), AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD..., ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN... participation: ACCT (observer), AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI... (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SECI (observer), UN..., MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD... (observer), OECD, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, SECI (observer), UN..., ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI...) Televisions: NA Internet country code: .io The 2007 CIA World Factbook... (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, UN..., ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA... International organization participation: ACCT (observer), BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD..., MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP... organization participation: ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN...), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN... (dialogue member), IDA, OAS (observer), UN (observer), WTO European Community: Australian Group..., EBRD, G-10, NAM (observer), NSG (observer), OECD, UNRWA, ZC (observer) European Central Bank..., Arctic Council (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CE... (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SECI (observer..., MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO...: AfDB, Arctic Council (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CDB..., OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD... (observer), IAEA, IOM (observer), ITU, ITUC, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UNWTO (observer), UPU, WIPO, WTO (observer) Diplomatic...), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI..., IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), ONUB, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN... International organization participation: BIS, BSEC (observer), CERN (observer), EBRD, FAO, IADB, IAEA..., AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CDB, CE, CEI, CERN..., LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD.../Beerenberg volcano resumed activity in 1970; it is the northernmost active volcano... partner), Australia Group, BIS, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO... (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SECI (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary..., ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP... (observer), OECD, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), UN...: APEC, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), CDB, CE (observer), CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, G-3, G-6, G-15... (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer..., Arctic Council (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CBSS (observer), CE, CERN..., OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD... International organization participation: ITUC, PIF (observer), SPC, UPU, WFTU, WMO Diplomatic..., OAS (observer), OIC, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD... CTRP International organization participation: CAN (observer), CSN (observer), FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA... participation: ACCT (observer), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CE... (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN..., LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD..., LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW..., IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), ONUB..., ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP... organization participation: ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN...), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN... (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN..., LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD..., LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF...