Спутник технологический. KJ 1B. [Редактировать]

KJ 1 (Kongjian 1) это малый космический аппарат который был создан для целей орбитальной отработки технологий . Более подробные детали об аппарате не раскрывались.

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - Китай
3Страна производитель - Китай
4Тип орбиты - НОО

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...&-&, 8*$#, &O*6 $#0%(K, O$0T/0, '(0-&, 1#, 90%2$0, )&1(%* %.*$*$.JP*0,('&+(%'#, (&'$08 016 1&+, 7)&1&8 *)*n G?,' &@$#(%#1*0, $&4*, *1B&$8#3**:,*1B&$8#3*&112Q, *@/0$T0):, )&-1*6 %*'12Q, >O&@1#'#%04512Q?,&-$#1*901...(% '#A,g/1&'$08 011&, *1(%*% .3*&1#4 56 120, B&$82, (&(% #'4 KJ% ,*1B &$8 #3*&11.J, (% $.)% .$. &U0(O0901*K, 7BB0)%*'1&+ ,T* @10...'#0%,9$0@'29#+1&,O$*U4*6 @*%0451&+ A, D@80$01*0,k,7%&, )'#1%*B*)#3*K, *1B&$8#3**A, N#)%*90()*, 1* &/*1, %&'#$:,'21&(*82+,1#,O$&/#T.:, 10,('&U&/01...*K,80T/.,(%&$&6 1#8*,.T0,/ &(%*-1.%2:, O$0/' #$*%0451&,'(|,O$&(9*%#1&: *,(%&$&12,',304&8,/&'0$KJ%,/$.-,/$ .-.A, D@/0$T)*, #1#6 4*@#,7BB0)%*'1&(%*,%$#1(#)3**,O$0/.(8#%$*'#J%, (1*6 T01*0,7BB0)%* '1&(%*, )&1% $#)%#,10, %&4 5 )&, O$*, ' @#*6 8&/0+(%'** ,(, %&$-&'2 8, O#$% 10...,1#,U&400,306 401#O$#'4011&0, $#(O$&(%$#101*0, *1B&$8#3**A m1#4*@ , $0@ .45%#%&', B.1)3 *&1*$ &'#1* K,#-$#$1&-& (0)%&$#,M0(O.U4* )*, a#%#$(%#1, 4*i1...#(%*:, O$&Q&/*'i08 ,W, k F, (01%KU$K, Gb;Y,-A,',"#8#$0:,O$0/(%#'*% 04*, a#%#$()&+ m""M, "#U*$&',*,q&T)*1,O$0/&(%#'*4*,.(%1.J,*1B&$8#6 3*J,&,O4#1*$.JP08(K,$#+&10A,",&O&$&+,1#,8101*0,O$&6 B0..., >Mp"R:, O&4)&'1*),pARA,")#4&1?, *, /$A,p# R#45108, l&(% &)0:, ',S#$ U*10:, #)%*'1&, /0+(%'&'#4#, hM.(()#K, B#i*(% 6 ()#K,O#$%*Kj, VAlA, M&/@#0'()&-&A, l&, '%&$&+, O&4&'*10, GbH<6Q, --A, $.)&'&/*6 %04...&/, *@ %.O*)#jGYA M0#451# K, O$#)% *) #,B#i* (% ()&-&, (%$ &*% 045(%'#: h#8O.%#3*Kj,u0Q&(4&'#)**, *, /#4510+i*0,% 0$$ *%&$*6 #45120,@#Q'#% 2,d0$8 #1**, &)#@#4*,(.P0...()&+, *, O&4*%*90()&+, $0B&$8 #8 ', M&((**:, O$ 0/&O$0/04*4&,h$#@ $.i*% 045120, O&(40/6 (%'*Kj, $&((*+()*Q, O&4*%*90()* Q:, 7)&1&8*90()*Q,*, O$#6 '&'2Q, $0B&$8,',Gbb...*0,#-01%&', -0$8#1()*Q, (O03(4.TU, *@, 9*(4#, (&'0%6 ()*Q,-$#T/#1, *,O&4.901*0, $#@'0/2'#%0451&+,*1B&$8#3** ,O&,d0$8#1**A l,GbHH,k,GbHI, --A,$0@)&,*@801KJ% (K,O$*&$*%0%2,',&$-#1*@#3**,)&1%$$#@6 '0/2'#%0451...*K,iO*&1()&+, * /*'0$(*&11&+, /0K% 0451&(%*A, M.)&'&/(%'&,(%$#12,O$*6 /#'#4&,*1B&$8#3** ,&$-#1&', -&(U 0@&O#(1&(%* ,(0$50@6 1&0, ,@1#901*0A "&%$./1*)*,)&1% $$#@'0/2'#%04512Q,O&/$ #@/040...#(%*A, l,$0@.45%#%0, ,U24*, .(%#1&'4012,W,-0$6 8#1()*Q,O&//#112Q:,$#U&%#'i*Q,1#,@#'&/#Q:,&%)./#,O$&6 *(Q&/*4#,.%09)#,*1B&$8#3**A,V&1(.4,',q01*1-$#/0,c&86 80$,$0-.4K$1&, '(%$09#4(K, (, -0$8#1()*8*,(O03*#4*(%#6 8*, *,O&4.9#4,&%, 1*Q,(0)$0%1.J,*1B&$8#3*JA l,'2K'401**,$#@'0/2 '#%04512Q,.(%$08401...,('K@*, 80T/.,O$&*@6 '&/*%04K8*:,%&$-&'20,30O&9)*, *,(Q082,/&(%#')*,%&'#$&'A R&, )$*@*(#,, *1B&$8#3 *K, &, O$0/O$*K%*KQ,, $#@ 80P#4#(5,, ',"LD, U0(6 O4...)4#8#, (%#4#,*8011&, /'*6 -#%0408, %&$-&'4*:,(O&(&U&8, /&10(%*,/&, O&%$0U*%04K, *1B&$8#3*J, &, %&'#6 $0, *4*, .(4.-0:,1#+%*, /04&'&-&, O#$%10$#A, l, GbbG, -A, 8&T 1&, U24&, O&/#%5, ' -#@0%.,8#4015...)4#8#,1#, $#/*&,1#,O4#%1&+,&(1&6 '0,O&K'*4#(5,',GbbG, -A,','*/0,8#4015)*Q, O0$0/#90), *1B&$8#3*&11&-&, Q#6 $#)%0$#A, g(1&'128*, $0)4#8&/#% 04K8*, $#/*&, U24*, 9#(% 120...&-&, &Uf06 8#:, )#), -&'&$*%(K, h'O$&)jGYA m1#4&-*9128,&U$#@&8, (%$&*4#(5, *,$#@'*'#4#(5,(&6 3*#451#K, *1B$#(%$.)%.$#, ',(&'Q&@0,h"2@$#1()*+j,M#6 /*P0'()&-&,$#+&1#,`45K1&'()&+ ,&U4#(%*A,[4#-&/#$K,8#6 %0$*#45128,'4*'#1*K8...,$*()&'#11&-&,@08406 /04*K, (%#1&'* 4*(5,'2(&)&O$&/.)%*'128*, $#+ &1#8* A l80(%0, (,1*8*,i*$*4#(5,*,h-0&-$#B*Kj,(%$&*%045(%'# (0401*+A,p#, ($0/(%'#,804*&$#%*'12Q, &$-#1*@#3*+, O$&6 '&/*4#(5, O0...)%2, (&' $08011&-&,-.8#1*%#$1&-&, @1#1*KA, "#$#%&' :, ;< laC?,%#)T0,10,/#4*,1* )#)&+ *1B&$8#3** ;A,d4#'12+,#$Q*':,-/0,Q$#1K%(K,8#%0$* #42,%&$-&'&6 O$ &8 2i6..., &UP06 (%'#, *, O$0/&(% #'4K%5(K, ', /&(%.O1&8,/4K, O&4.901*K,* #1#4*@ #, *1B&$8#3**, '*/0A GGA, ƒ5*:E*B, ,A53;:/;K*! -&( ./#$(%'0112Q, $#(Q&/&' O$0/O&4#-#0%:,9%&, UJ...)0,7)&1&8*90()&-&,O&'0/01*K O0$ (&1#4#,&$-#1*@ #3**, U#@*$.J%(K,1#, O$0/O&4&T01** &,%&8:,9%&,1#,0-&, O&'0/01*0,'4*KJ%,*,10)&%&$20,)&1%#6 8*1#1%2A,p#O$*80$:, (#8,Q#$#)%0$, %$./#,8&T0...,R4K 7%&-&,O$0/(%&K4&, $0i*%5,@#/#9*,O&,&$-#1*@#3**,(&'$06 8011&+,*1B$#(%$.)%.$2:, B&$8*$&'#1*J, @/&$&'&-&,&U6 $#@#,T*@1*:,O&,.4.9i01*J,(&3*#451&+,*,O$*$&/1&+,7)&6 4&-**A,l#T10+ i*8*,@#/#9#8*, %#)T0..., O$&30((2,',$0-*&1#Q, Q#$#)%0$*6 @&'#4*(5,O&%0$0+, .O$ #'4K08&(% *:,9%&, '2@2'#4&,U&45i*0,(U&*,', (&3*&6 ).45%.$1&8, $#@'*%**, *,(&3*#451&+,*1B$#(%$.)%.$0, (04#A,g(&U011&, U&456 i&0, )&4*90(%'&, 10...* -&%&'2,'@K%5,1#,(0UK,&%'0%(%'011&(%5,@#,$0i01*0,(&3*6 #4512Q,'&O$&( &'A,l, *%&-0,(&3*#451#K,* 1B$#(%$.)% .$# (04#:,',%&8,9*(40,(B0$#,&U$#@&'#1*K:,O$*i4*,),)$*@*(6 1&8. ,(&(%&K1...$0/0401&, '4*K1*0, )&8O5J%0$ 12Q, % 0Q1&4&-*+ ,1#, O&%&)*, *1B&$ 8#3** , 1#, O$&82 i4011&8 O$0/O$ *K%** A kTQTORb-N+l+,, \Ÿ´•,Ÿ¦,š–¦Ÿ\••”šŸ–,š–,••‘š–¯,Ÿ¦,•©•š–š’”\•”š¢•,©•“š’šŸ–’, –©•\,”™•,š–¦´ •–“•,Ÿ¦ ”™•, •v”•\–•´,–Ÿ–•› š´š•\š •,••©š • ”‡]^,x€z]‚„w,]^, †w†]‚xzw†,z_..., 1#O$ #'401* K, )&$O&$#%* '1&-&, .O$#'401*K, ',(B0$0, B.1)3* &1* $&'#1* K, U#1)&'()*Q, (%$.)6 %.$ A, M#()$2%#, O$&U408#,% $#1(O&$01%1&(%*, *1B&$ 8#3** ,> O$ &@$#91&(%*? 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... ΔE ~ ΔH, effect of PΔV usually small ΔE = -2045 kJ ΔH = - 2043 kJ PΔV = +2 kJ C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g) –> 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O... C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g) –> 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(l) ΔH = - 2219 kJ (End Test 2) Effect of quantity (coefficients) is significant ΔH = - 4438 kJ 2 C3H8(g) + 10 O2(g) –> 6 CO2(g) + 8 H2O...(g) –> 2.25 CO2(g) + 3 H2O(l ) ΔH = - 2219 kJ] ΔH = - 1664 kJ Ch 8-CH1100-Fall 2005 Start... Eqns 2 NH3(g) ΔH˚ = + 92.38 kJ ΔH˚ = – 92.38 kJ N2(g) + 3 H2(g) Enthalpy ΔH magnitude... through). NH3(g) ==> 1/2 N2(g) + 3/2 H2(g) ΔH˚ = + 46.2 kJ If you want the reverse.... 4 x [ 1/2N2(g) + 3/2 H2(g) ==> 1 NH3(g) – 46.2 kJ ] ΔH˚ = -184.8 kJ Ch 8-CH1100-Fall 2005 12... ΔHsub Ex: If ΔHfus = 10 kJ/mol. How much heat to... 0.7 mol? Sol’n: (0.7 mol) x (10 kJ/mol) = 7 kJ ΔHfusion solid ΔHsub = ΔHfusion + ΔHvap Ex: ΔH sub = 83 kJ/mol ΔHvap = 53 kJ/mol. What is ΔH to... of 100 g/mol? Ans:15 kJ Ch 8-CH1100-Fall 2005 13... ˚C) q = (350 g) (4.184 j/g˚C)(–23 ˚C) q = – 33681.2 J = – 33.7 kJ Ch 8-CH1100-Fall 2005 16... q p = ΔE + PΔV = ΔH (for liqs ΔV ~ 0) q rxn = ΔH = – 2790.2 J ~ – 2.79 kJ Ch 8-CH1100-Fall 2005 18... shown: 1 N2(g)+ 3 H2(g) => 2 NH3(g) ΔH˚ = - 92 kJ Use above rxn to find... NH3(g) : N2(g)+ 3H2(g) => 2 NH3(g) ΔH˚= - 92 kJ) ΔH˚ = - 92 kJ 2 NH3(g) => 1 N2(g)+ 3 H2(g) ΔH˚= +92...(g)+ 3 H2(g) ΔH˚= +92 kJ] 5 NH3(g) => 2.5 N2(g)+ 7.5 H2(g) ΔH˚ = - 92 kJ) ΔH˚ = -184 kJ (reverse) (multiply to get correct coef.) (5/2 x 92 kJ) = ΔH˚= +230 kJ Ch 8-CH1100-Fall 2005 21... C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g) => 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(g) ΔH˚ = -2219 kJ b) Draw PE diagram of that... tell you conversion factor of kJ ΔH rxn for the # mol in... you know: - 2219 kJ/ 1 mol C3H8 . Go to kJ for mols you... mol C3H8 x (- 2219 kJ/ 1 mol C3H8) = 777 kJ Ch 8-CH1100-Fall 2005...)+ 2 NH3(aq) + 10 H2O(l) ΔH˚ = +80.3 kJ Ch 8-CH1100-Fall 2005 8.7 23...: 1 C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g) => 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(g) ΔH˚ = - 2219 kJ Solution: Convert g to moles: (15... x (– 2219 kJ/1mol C3H8) => ΔH˚= - 776.7 kJ 1b) 0.35 C3H8(g)+ 1.75 O2(g) ΔH˚= - 776.7 kJ 1.05... rxn. 3 H2(g) + N2(g) ==> 2 NH3(g) ΔH˚ = -92.2 kJ Intermediates H2 + N2H4 Reactants 3H2 + N2 Step 1 ΔH˚ = +95.4 kJ Step 2 ΔH˚ = -187.6 kJ Final ΔH ˚ = -92.2 kJ Product 2 NH3 Hess...(g) --> CO2(g) ΔH = - 393.5 kJ • CO2(g) --> C(s) + O2(g) ΔH = + 393.5 kJ • 2 CO2(g) --> 2 C(s) + 2 O2(g) ΔH = +787 kJ • This MUST...(l) ΔH˚ = ? CH4(g) + O2(g) ==> CH2O(g) + H2O(g) ΔH˚ = - 284 kJ CH2O(g) + O2 (g) ==> CO2(g) + H2O(g) ΔH˚ = - 518 kJ H2O(l) ==> H2O(g) ΔH˚ = + 44 kJ Ch 8-CH1100-Fall 2005... (g) ==> CO2(g) + H2O(g) ΔH˚ = - 518 kJ 2 [ H2O(g) ==> H2O(l) ΔH˚ = + 44 kJ ] ΔH˚ = - 88 kJ CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) ==> CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l) ΔH˚ = - 890 kJ Ch 8-CH1100... data to find ΔH˚rxn (in kJ) for: C2H4(g) + 3 O2(g) ==> 2 CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) Substance ΔHf˚ (kJ/mol) H2O(l) H2O(g) CO2(g) - 285... ΔG = ΔH - TΔS For a given reaction ΔH is +45 kJ and ΔS is +199 J/K. At what...? (226.1 K) A reaction has ΔG of - 55 kJ and ΔS of +145J/K at 25... is non-spontaneous? Answers: a) - 11.8 kJ b) Y c) Y d) Y Ch 8-CH1100-Fall 2005 e) None...



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.... [14] Fu MX, Wells-Knecht KJ, Blackedge JA, Lyons TJ, Thorpe...; 797: 276. [70] Wells-Knecht KJ, Brinkmann-Frye E, Baynes JW. J. Org...; 264: 21597. [89] Wells-Knecht KJ, Brinkmann E, Baynes JW. J. Org. Chem...: 6246. [90] Brinkmann E, Wells-Knecht KJ, Thorpe SR, Baynes JW. J. Chem.... [126] Reddy S, Bichler J, Wells-Knecht KJ, Thorpe SR, Baynes JW. Biochem...; 324: 565. [131] Wells-Knecht KJ, Zyzak DV, Litchfield JE, Thorpe... X– in solution.16,19 Equation (1b), which is similar to equation... system) (1a) (three components system) (1b) Tang and Kebarle have found... seen from equations (1a) and (1b).16,19 In equations (1a) and (1b), IA is the mass spectrometrically...,19 Furthermore, equations (1a) and (1b) express the competition among bulk..., is well reproduced by equation (1b). An exact fit with constant...; 91: 2463. Kevin J, Wells-Knecht KJ, Brinkmann-Frye E, Baynes JW. Characterization...: 6246. Brinkmann-Frye E, Wells-Knecht KJ, Thorpe SR, Baynes JW. Characterization...; 60: 1300. [4] Kevin J, Wells-Knecht KJ, Brinkmann-Frye E, Baynes JW. J. Org...: 6246. [5] Brinkmann-Frye E, Wells-Knecht KJ, Thorpe SR, Baynes JW. J. Chem...: 121. 21. Kevin J, Wells-Knecht KJ, Brinkmann-Frye E, Baynes JW. Characterization.... 22. Brinkmann-Frye E, Wells-Knecht KJ, Thorpe SR, Baynes JW. Characterization....16.3439. 27. Wells-Knecht KJ, Zyzak DV, Litchfield JE, Thorpe... (35.7; 83.7) acetyl-bis(dihydroxyimidazolidine) (1b) 513 (6.8; c) 417 (1.5; c) acetyl-bis(dihydroxyimidazolidine... (3a) 445 (1.1; c) d acetyl-bis(dihydroxyimidazolidine) (1b) 427 (159; 92.2) 427 (49... 2). Ions of class b (Table 1), ions 1b and 2b, in particular, were... 1). Similarly to class a ions, ions 1b, 2b and 3b, in the... MS-MS experiments performed, ions 1b and 2b revealed losses mostly... and two dicarbonyl molecules (ions 1b fragmentation), and one water and... same amino group, in ions 1b and 2b structures. Since the... same amino group, in ions 1b and 2b structures. This observation... with the fact that ions 1b, 2b and 3b differ by... (A, B, C and D) R acetyl-bis(dihydroxyimidazolidine) (ions 1b) N R1 HO HO R2 (A, B and...) Dihydroxyimidazolidine 2H2 O (3a) Bis(dihydroxyimidazolidine) (1b) Bis(dihydroxyimidazolidine) H2 O (2b) Bis...) Dihydroxyimidazolidine 2H2 O (3a) Bis(dihydroxyimidazolidine) (1b) Bis(dihydroxyimidazolidine) H2 O (2b) Bis..., 2a, and 3a (class a); ions 1b, 2b, and 3b (class b); ions... 2a) N Methylglyoxal Bis(dihydroxyimidazolidine) (ions 1b) Bis(dihydroxyimidazolidine)– H2O (ions 2b... for dicarbonyl. Bis(dihydroxyimidazolidine) (ions 1b) Bis(dihydroxyimidazolidine) H2 O (ions 2b... 2H2 O (ions 3) Bis(dihydroxyimidazolidine) (ions 1b) Bis(dihydroxyimidazolidine) 2H2 O (ions 2b... CH3 N Class b (ions 1b–3b) The ions 1b, at m/z 232 (diacetyl), 356... an ion structure to ions 1b, the fragmentation pattern of the... rings. With respect to ions 1b and 2b, their fragmentation patterns... 6). Thus, the fact that ions 1b, 2b, and 3b differ from..., and 3a, suggests that ions 1b possess two dihydroxyimidazolidine moieties in... fragment ion composition of ions 1b, 2b, and 3b is consistent... (3a) 97 (4.6; 1.7; 1.0) 111 (4.0; 8.2; 7.9) dihydroxyimidazolidine-tetrahydrotriazine (1b) e e 247 (121; 0.8; d) 371 (192; 3.9; d) (dihydroxyimidazolidine... (106; 128; 73.4) dihydroxyimidazolidine-tetrahydrotriazine (1b) 275 (6.5; 0.7; d) 303 (33.5; 4.5; 3.9) 303 (13..., 2a and 3a (class a); ions 1b and 2b (class b); ions 1c... 2a) (ions 3a) tetrahydrotriazine (ions 1b) 133 / – / 161 / 223 – / 129 / – / 205... tetrahydrotriazine) – H2O (ions 2b) (ions 1b) – 3H2O (ions 2c) Fragment ion... ESI mass spectra; ions 1a-1b (Tables 1 and 2). Possible ion structures... triazine (ions 3a) dihydroxyimidazolidinetetrahydrotriazine (ions 1b) – – Methylglyoxal c Diacetyl R1 1-Phenyl1,2-propanedione... (Table 3). Class b (ions 1b and 2b) Ions 1b, at m/z 191 (glyoxal), 219... must be involved in ions 1b formation. This can be rationalized... ions derived from precursor ions 1b, by loss of one water... discussed. To better explain ions 1b structure attribution, ions 2b should... Į-dicarbonilos Moreover, knowing that ions 1b fragment ions, resulting from the...-MS3), we attributed to ions 1b the structures of protonated dihydroxyimidazolidine... bicyclical ring structures formed, i.e. compounds 1b, 2b, 1c and 2c, in...; 60: 1300. [3] Kevin J, Wells-Knecht KJ, Brinkmann-Frye E, Baynes JW. J. Org...: 6246. [4] Brinkmann-Frye E, Wells-Knecht KJ, Thorpe SR, Baynes JW. J. Chem...



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... interactions London, dispersion Bond energy kJ mol−1 Equilibrium length nm 600... HCl NH3 H2 O ∗ Interaction energies (kJ mol−1 ) Dipole moment (D)∗ 0 0.11 1.07... will have a gradient of 1 – D (Fig. 1b). This can easily be seen... of crack growth (see Fig. 1b). Pure-shear test specimen Gc... strength of this interaction (8–35 kJ mol−1 ) falls between that of van der Waals forces (4–8 kJ mol−1 ) and full covalent bonding (40–400 kJ mol−1 ). Fowkes (following the earlier... ones in the second (Fig. 1b). Most tunnel elastically, but a small... of the composite strip (Fig. 1b) as a result of polymerization shrinkage... numerically equivalent to Ga in kJ mol−1 ) “alkane” straight line as...*) numbers1,4 Probe Tb /◦ C DN/kJ mol−1 AN*/kJ mol−1 Characteristic Diethyl ether... bond failure. Tensile loading (Fig. 1b) will apply stress over the... water at 40◦ C (see Fig. 1b). Electrodeposition of zinc from potassium... 3.3 and the induction effect to 1.0 kJ mol−1 . It is common for... the bond energy (ca. 340 kJ mol−1 for a C–C bond) and Mc... the sole sealant (see Fig. 1b). The durability of double glazing... be very high and reaching kJ m−2 levels and where adhesion strength... low (mJ m−2 ) to very high (kJ m−2 ) and where durability (see Durability... an organic polymer is 13.8 kJ mol−1 . In PDMS, this rotation... a large bond energy of 452 kJ mol−1 . In contrast, the Si–C bond has energy of 318 kJ mol−1 , slightly lower than a C–C bond...−2 3–8 Nmm −1 0–2 Nmm−1 30–50 kJ m−2 10–20 kJ m−2 Data are taken from...



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....29 ϩ ͸ N ⌬hƒk ⌬G ƒЊ(298.15 K) ϭ 53.88 ϩ k (kJ molϪ1) (3-3.1) k (kJ molϪ1) (3-3.2) k ƒ k C pЊ(T ) ϭ ͭ͸ ͭ͸ ͭ͸ k k k ͮ ͭ͸ ͮ ͮ NkCpAk Ϫ 37.93....15 K) ϭ 53.88 ϩ k ƒk ϭ Ϫ25.73 kJ molϪ1 kϭ1 C Њp(700) ϭ ͭ͸ ͭ͸ ͭ͸ ͮ ͭ͸ NkCpAk Ϫ 37.93... Base Property ⌬G Њƒ(298.15 K) kJ molϪ1 ⌬H Њƒ(298.15 K) kJ molϪ1 C Њp(100 K) J mol....5981ͬ ␪ ) ϩ W ͸ M (C ) Ϫ 10.7983ͬ ␪ (3-4.1) (kJ molϪ1) (3-4.2) j pA2j j Nk(CpB1k k ϩ (kJ molϪ) j Nk(CpA1k....15 K) ϭ 10.835 ϩ Ϫ1 k kϭ1 ͸ N (gƒk) ϭ Ϫ23.597 kJ mol 5 ⌬G ƒЊ(298.15 K ) ϭ Ϫ14.83.... % Err. (2nd-Order) ⌬G ƒЊ(298.15 K), kJ molϪ1 Experimental Calculated (First Order... tested with the method Property ⌬G Њƒ kJ molϪ1 ⌬H Њƒ kJ molϪ1 C Њƒ(100 K) J molϪ1 KϪ1 C Њp(298... tested with the method Property ⌬G Њƒ kJ molϪ1 ⌬H Њƒ kJ molϪ1 C Њƒ(100 K) J molϪ1 KϪ1 C Њp(298... C Њp 500K C Њp 600K C Њp 800K C Њp 1000K C Њp 1500K kJ molϪ1 J molϪ1KϪ1 J molϪ1K... C Њp 500K C Њp 600K C Њp 800K C Њp 1000K C Њp 1500K kJ molϪ1 J molϪ1KϪ1 J molϪ1K... C Њp 500K C Њp 600K C Њp 800K C Њp 1000K C Њp 1500K kJ molϪ1 J molϪ1KϪ1 J molϪ1K... C Њp 500K C Њp 600K C Њp 800K C Њp 1000K C Њp 1500K kJ molϪ1 J molϪ1KϪ1 J molϪ1K... C Њp 500K C Њp 600K C Њp 800K C Њp 1000K C Њp 1500K kJ molϪ1 J molϪ1KϪ1 J molϪ1K... C Њp 500K C Њp 600K C Њp 800K C Њp 1000K C Њp 1500K kJ molϪ1 J molϪ1KϪ1 J molϪ1K... C Њp 500K C Њp 600K C Њp 800K C Њp 1000K C Њp 1500K kJ molϪ1 J molϪ1KϪ1 J molϪ1K... Joback % Error C/G % Error Benson C Њp(700K) kJ molϪ1 % Error Joback % Error C/G % Error....22 kJ mol 7 ⌬H Њƒ(298.15 K) ϭ k Ϫ1 ƒk kϭ1 ͸ N (S Њ) ϭ 0.397 kJ mol 7 S Њ(298.15 K) ϭ k Ϫ1 k KϪ1 kϭ1 ͸ N (S Њ) ϭ 0.801 kJ mol...) Ϫ S el Њ (298.15K)] ϭ Ϫ24.92 kJ molϪ1 ͸ N (C Њ ) ϭ 303.6 J mol 7 C Њp(800 K) ϭ k pk...) standard enthalpy of reaction at T, kJ molϪ1; Eqs. (3-1.2) and (3-1.4) standard (lower... at T and 1.01326 bar (1 atm.), kJ molϪ1 KϪ1; Eq. (3-1.8), Sec. 3-5 entropy contribution... of T and V Zϵ PV ϭ ƒP (T, P ) RT (4-2.1a) ϭ ƒV (T, V ) (4-2.1b) where V is the molar volume... Zϭ1ϩB ϭ1ϩ ͩ ͪ ͩ ͪ P P ϩ (C Ϫ B2) RT RT B C ϩ ϩ⅐⅐⅐ V V2 2 ϩ⅐⅐⅐ (4-5.1a) (4-5.1b) where the coefficients B, C, . . . are.... Equation (4-6.1) in the form Eq. (4-2.1b) is Zϭ V (⌰ / RT )V(V Ϫ ␩) Ϫ V Ϫ b (V Ϫ b)(V 2 ϩ ␦V ϩ ␧) (4-6.2) When it is... P Ϫ P0 ϭ ƒ (T, ␳, ␳0) (4-12.1a) ␳ Ϫ ␳0 ϭ ƒ (T, P, P0) (4-12.1b) where the reference density, ␳0, is..., J molϪ1 KϪ1 enthalpy change of boiling, kJ molϪ1 reaction equilibrium constant molecular... Zϭ1ϩB ϭ1ϩ ͩ ͪ ͩ ͪ P P ϩ (C Ϫ B2) RT RT 2 ϩ ... B C ϩ ϩ ... V V2 (5-4.1a) (5-4.1b) where the coefficients B, C, . . . are... ϭ 0.282 and ZRA2 ϭ 0.247. Equation (5-8.1b) then gives ZRAm ϭ 0.7 ϫ 0.282 ϩ 0.3 ϫ 0.247..., Eq. (5-8.3d ) weight fraction, Eq. (5-2.1b) mole fraction, Eq. (5.2-1a) compressibility.... (4-5.1). Zϭ1ϩB ϭ1ϩ ͩ ͪ ͩ ͪ P P ϩ (C Ϫ B2) RT RT 2 ϩ... B C ϩ ϩ... V V2 (4-5.1a) (4-5.1b) This is the only case... 2 RT B 2 ϩ... ϩ... P (C Ϫ B ) P Ϫ RT 2 RT ϪB P RT 2 2 2 Ϫ... 2 ϩ... Z (T, V ), Eq. (4-5.1b) ͩͪ 1ϪZ U ig Ϫ U RT 2 P P Ϫ (C Ϫ B2) RT RT... (5-4.2) Virial Equation ͫ͸ ln ␾i n (5-4.1a) & (5-4.2a) 2 jϭ1 (5-4.1b) & (5-4.2a,b) 2 V ͸yB n j jϭ1 ͬ yj Bij(T ) Ϫ B(T, {y}) ij... ij j j ͸ xk⌳ki N xj⌳ij ϩ 1 Ϫ k ͸ x⌳ ͸x␶ G ␶ Ϫ ͸G x N j kj j NRTL ͸␶G x g ϭ͸x RT ͸G x ͸␶G x xG ln ␥ ϭ ϩ͸ ͸G x ͸G x N N E ji... ͩ͸ ␪ ␶ ͪ N ln ␥i ϭ ln i ij kj k k ⌽i xi ϩ ΂ Ϫ j ji ⌽i k kj N kj k k i j ji j i j N j j j N j ij j N k kj k where ⌽i ϭ ri xi ͸rx N k k k and ␪i ϭ qi xi ͸qx N k k k i ΃ kj... group in molecule j ͸x␯ X ϭ ͸x ͸␯ j kj j (8-10.56) k j j kj k where ␯kj is the number of... 1 Ϫ ln (8-10.59) ͸xl ͩ͸ ͪ ͸ ͸ ͬ ␪j ␶ij ␪j ␶j i Ϫ j ␪k␶kj j k z li ϭ (ri Ϫ qi) Ϫ (ri Ϫ 1) z ϭ 10... 1 Ϫ ln ␪j␶ji Ϫ jϭ1 ͸ 3 jϭ1 ΂͸ ΃΅ ␪j␶ij (8-16.16) 3 ␪k␶kj kϭ1 where qi is the UNIQUAC... factor Greek ␣ ␣ij ␤ ␥i ⌫k ␦ ␦ ␧ ␰ ␩ ␪ ⍜i ␬ ␭ ␭ij ⌳ij ␯ (i) k ␯kj ␲* ␳ ␴2 ␶ ␶ij ␾i ⌽i ␹ ⌿mn ␺12 ␻ ⍀ parameter in...-Nies: Dechema Chemistry Series, 1: Part 1b, 108 (1974). Gmehling, J., and U. Onken... viscosity equation is: ͸ K ͩ1 ϩ 2 ͸ H n ␩m ϭ iϪ1 i iϭ1 ij ͸ ͸ n Kj ϩ jϭ1 n ͪ Hij Hik Kj Kk jϭ1 i kϭ1 i (9-5.1) where ␩m is the.... Data Ser., Vol. I, Parts 1 and 1b, DECHEMA, Frankfurt, 1977. Gordon, A. R.: J. Chem... (methyl amine) CAS # DelHf0, kJ / mol DelGf0, kJ / mol 7440-37-1 7726...-19-7 431-89-0 DelHf0, kJ / mol DelGf0, kJ / mol Ϫ264.40 Ϫ83....31 13838-16-9 DelHb, kJ / mol DelHm, kJ / mol 14.70 38...-2-pentene 2-methyl-2-butene DelHf0, kJ / mol DelGf0, kJ / mol 554-12-1 141....08 106.90 DelHb, kJ / mol DelHm, kJ / mol 32.15 35...) CAS # DelHf0, kJ / mol DelGf0, kJ / mol DelHb, kJ / mol DelHm, kJ / mol 1.88... 2,2,3,4-tetramethylpentane 2,2,4,4-tetramethylpentane 2,3,3,4-tetramethylpentane CAS # DelHf0, kJ / mol 540-84-1 Ϫ224.01....31 Ϫ116.59 DelHb, kJ / mol DelHm, kJ / mol 30.79 32... CAS # DelHf0, kJ / mol DelGf0, kJ / mol DelHb, kJ / mol DelHm, kJ / mol 138...-17-8 7440-63-3 DelHf0, kJ / mol DelGf0, kJ / mol 0.00 0.00 Ϫ241... 0.00 0.00 0.00 DelHb, kJ / mol DelHm, kJ / mol 0.90 40.66... 0.0729 hv1k hƒ1k gƒ1k w1k kJ molϪ1 kJ molϪ1 0.296 0.147 Ϫ0.071... in App. A. hƒ1k gƒ1k w1k kJ molϪ1 kJ molϪ1 0.263 0.500 X X X X 0.503...Ϫ1 0.297 0.292 Ϫ0.399 Ϫ0.720 kJ molϪ1 kJ molϪ1 1.252 1.041 Ϫ2.792 Ϫ2.092... w2j X 0.03654 0.21106 gƒ2j kJ molϪ1 kJ molϪ1 Ϫ9.874 Ϫ3.887 Ϫ24.125...



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0.84/5
... from a transient formaldehyde complex. Ph3P 1b H H H O + H2 PPh3 H Ru Ph3P CO... Scheme 1: Alcohol dehydrogenation catalysed by 1b. The decarbonylation side-reaction affords... mechanism for dehydrogenation catalysed by 1b, comparing methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol... H Dehydrogenation Pathway B H Ru Ph3P Ph3P 1b Initiation H PPh3 H H H O Ph3P - H2 - HCHO... transition states; (c) free energy profile (kJ/mol), with calculations carried at... driving force for 1b + MeOH  1b + H2CO + H2, G = + 50.5 kJ/mol),[6] formation of..., cf. the reaction: 1b + MeOH  22 + 3 H2, G = -84.5 kJ/mol (4) Table 1: Reaction... (G) for pathways E-G (all data in kJ/mol).a E EBSSE Esolvb EG G Overall... + H2 -14.4 0.0 11.9 -81.9 -84.5 1b + MeOH  22 + 3 H2 Pathway E (methanol) 69.9 -4.2 -0.2 -48.5 20.2 1b  2 + H2 -17.6 14.2 16.4 16... Pathway F (methanol) -28.0 -5.9 -87.7 94.6 1b + MeOH  13H + H2 + PPh3 216... small activation barriers (below 22.4 kJ/mol), a feature which is consistent... transition states; (c) free energy profile (kJ/mol), with calculations carried at... the overall barrier of G = 51.7 kJ/mol relative to 31 (Table 3, 18.8 kJ/mol + 32.9 kJ/mol) is easily overcome... transition states; (c) free energy profile (kJ/mol), with calculations carried at... H Ru H Ph3P 13H' H Me H O H - MeCHO 1b + PPh3 14H' Decarbonylation Pathway F - H2... transition states; (c) free energy profile (kJ/mol), with calculations carried at... F with ethanol (all data in kJ/mol).a E EBSSE Esolvb EG G Overall... + H2 -71.8 0.0 10.2 -76.8 -138.4 1b + EtOH  22 + 2 H2 + CH4 Pathway F (ethanol) 1b + EtOH  13H’ + H2 + PPh3 203... Bb Cb Cneut. Db F G Methanol 1b + MeO-  TS3-4 + H2 9 + MeOH  TS3Hb-7 + HCHO 1b + MeO-  TS13-14 + H2 + PPh3... + MeO1b + MeOH  TS9perp-19 + 2 H2 1b + MeOH  TS13H-23perp + H2 + PPh3...-  TS13-28 + H2 + PPh3 Ethanol f 1b + EtO-  TS’3-4 + H2 2 + EtOH  TS...’13-28 + H2 + PPh3 2-propanol h 1b + iPrO-  TS”3-4 + H2 2 + iPrOH  TS”3Hb-7 1b + iPrO-  TS”13-14 + H2... this case, as G = 116.8 kJ/mol for: 1b + EtOH  TS’23-24... barriers are lowered by 6-28 kJ/mol for dehydrogenation and by up to 9 kJ/mol for decarbonylation. This result... decarbonylation path (G), by ca. 30 kJ/mol). Given typical uncertainties of... XTOF (TDTS) Methanol 95 100 A 1b TS3-4 5 4 2 100 B 7 TS3Hb-7 98 9 100 92 C 1b TS13-14 TS14-15 a 8 100... overall free energy barrier (148.9 kJ/mol) than previously reported (134... (0.999) -H transfer 1b + MeO-  TS3-4 + H2 1b + EtO-  TS’3-4 + H2 1b + iPrO-  TS...  TS3Hb-7 + HCHO    flipping of HCHO 1b + MeO-  TS13-14 + H2 + PPh3 2  1 HCHO and rotation of H2 1b + MeOH  TS13H-14H + H2 + PPh3...-17 +HCHO+ MeO2 1 H-agostic interaction 1b + MeOH  TS9perp-19 + 2 H2 7  TS9perp-19 H2 dissociation 1b + MeOH  TS13H-23perp + H2 + PPh3... 1.88 (4.21) 1.012 (1.008) C-H +0.03 1b + MeO  TS13-28 + H2 + PPh3... intermediates, bottom: free energy profile (kJ/mol, B97-D2/ECP2 level... 20-perp, but only by +2.1 kJ/mol. [14] e.g.: a) B. B. Wayland, B. A. Woods and... to afford 1b. This process is very demanding thermodynamically (ΔG = +135 kJ/mol... 1b, EG = -95.8 kJ/mol at P = 1354 atm, whereas it is -120.9 kJ... the ECP3 level, in kJ/mol.(a) Global 1b (b) Methanol 2 (b) TS9perp-19 TS13H... B, D and E. Methanol E E’BSSEa Esolv EG G b B 1b + MeOH  TS3Hb-7 + H2 91.3 26...-7 21.8 28.9 21.3 62.3 134.3 D 1b + MeOH  TS16Hb-17 + PPh3 185.4 -18.5 -2.0 -63.4 101.5 E 1b + MeOH  TS9perp-19 + 2 H2 152....4 10.8 13.3 15.7 123.1 Ethanol c B 1b + EtOH  TS’3Hb-7 + H2 84...-7 + MeCHO 105.9 10.5 1.4 -22.5 95.3 D 1b + EtOH  TS’16Hb-17 + PPh3 178.6 -18.6 -2.7 -56.2 101.1 2-propanol d B 1b + iPrOH  TS”3Hb-7 + H2 74...-7 + Me2CO 51.3 13.8 -0.1 -38.6 26.4 D 1b + iPrOH  TS”16Hb-17 + PPh3... difference of intramolecular BSSE in 1b and the transition state (see... of Pathway F. E E’BSSEa Esolv EG G 1b + MeOH  TS13H-23perp + H2 + PPh3 251.2 -18.7 -7.8 -97.6 127.1 1b + MeOH  TS23-24 + 2 H2 + PPh3 270.2 -21.5 -7.9 -120.7 120.1 1b + MeOH  TS24-25 + 2 H2 + PPh3 276.8 -21.1 -7.7 -130.0 118.0 1b + EtOH  TS’13H-23 + H2 + PPh3 236.8 -18.0 -5.3 -95.6 117.8 1b + EtOH  TS’23-24 + 2 H2... 268.0 -17.5 -13.5 -120.2 116.8 1b + iPrOH  TS”13H-23perp + H2 + PPh3 245.9 -16.5 -3.8 93.3 132.3 1b + iPrOH  TS”23-24 + 2 H2... difference of intramolecular BSSE in 1b and the transition state (see... EH EG 13.5 -5.4 12.7 -6.2 13.5 A 1b + MeO-  TS3-4 + H2 -6.2 B 9 + MeOH  TS3Hb... -14.4 -11.0 -10.1 -7.1 -14.4 -11.0 C 1b + MeO-  TS13-14 + H2 + PPh3....5 -24.2 -84.4 -34.2 -91.5 Cneut 1b + MeOH  TS13H-14H + H2 + PPh3....8 15.7 -13.4 22.4 -22.8 15.7 F 1b + MeOH  TS13H-23perp + H2 + PPh3....5 -97.6 -22.7 -90.7 -33.5 -97.5 G 1b + MeO-  TS13-28 + H2 + PPh3....90 0.00 0.00 12.10 (1b) (2) (3) (4) (5) (1b) (TS1b-2) (no TS) (TS3-4) (no... 0.00 5.10 5.10 0.00 0.00 (1b) (2) (TS1b-2) (no TS) - 22 - Bühl... 2013 PPh3 H Ru Ph3P Ph3P 1b Dehydrogenation Pathway B H H Initiation PPh3 H H H Ru...



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0.28/5
...) voor een paling zijn 0.68 kJ.kg-1.km-1 terwijl de COT voor forel 2.73 kJ.kg-1.km-1 is. Het geschatte... (COT) for eel was 0.68 kJ.kg-1.km-1 while the COT for trout was 2.73 kJ.kg-1.km-1. The estimated fat... larvae (Knights 2003). From figure 1B we can see that recruitment... much fluctuations and were < 0° C (Figure 1B). Recruitment then declined markedly during..., University of Westminster, UK. Figure 1B (Bottom): The ‘Sargasso Sea Surface... and oxygen signal, see Figure 1B) they had a significantly higher SMR... in the range of 433 kJ.mol-1 which corresponds to a mixed... the range of 426-433 kJ.mol-1 for all four groups... total energy consumption was 2367 kJ kg-1 for a 3 months period, and... fish eggs of 23.48 kJ per g dry weight11, a 2-kg female... for respirometry of 18.89 kJ ml-1 O2 (Elliot & Davison 1975... energy consumption of 2316.58 kJ kg-1 fish over 5533.2 km or a COT of 0.42 kJ.kg-1.km-1. Alternatively the energy... mass fish-1) 3. Initial energy content (kJ g-1 dry mass) * initial dry matter... energy content begin (kJ fish –1). 4. End energy content (kJ g-1 dry mass) * end... fish-1) = total energy content end (kJ fish –1). 5. total energy content begin (kJ fish –1 ) - total energy content end (kJ fish –1 ) = total energy difference (kJ fish –1). 6. Total energy difference (kJ fish –1 ) / geometric bodyweight (g) * 1000 = total energy usage (kJ kg-1). With: geometric bodyweight = EXP... usage (= total energy consumption in kJ kg-1 fish, Table 1) multiplied by... bomb-calorimetry of 33.73 kJ/g dry mass (Brafield and Llewellyn... h-1) Total energy consumption (kJ kg-1 fish) COT (kJ /kg /km) Oxygen consumption...), we obtained a value of 2317 kJ kg-1 fish for the energy... to a COT value of 0.42 kJ kg-1 km-1. The swimming group... used for swimming was 3450 kJ kg-1 fish, corresponding to a COT value of 0.62 kJ kg-1 km-1. The two COT... trout of 0.68 and 2.73 kJ kg-1 km-1 respectively. Our video... analyses are 0.42 and 0.62 kJ kg-1 km-1, respectively, whereas trout... values (respirometry only) of 2.73 kJ kg-1 km-1. The COT in... them to stop swimming (Fig. 1B). The hemorrhage took the form... after 5500km to 42.3% (±2.1) (Fig. 1B). Normal hematocrit values for healthy... their unexposed controls (Table 1, figure 1b). This difference was significantly different... the PCB rest group (Figure 1B). So an important conclusion from... (COT) for eel was 0.68 kJ.kg-1.km-1 while the COT for trout was 2.73 kJ.kg1 .km-1. The estimated fat... the total amount of energy (kJ) it takes to transport one... the range of 2.52-2.58 kJ/kg/km (Brett 1973). The... 0.68 (eel) and 2.73 (trout) kJ/kg/km. Video films of...



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0.06/5
... OTHOIIIeHIIH 3TH 06lll,eCTB3 He 5'1B~1.H ..llHCb y>Ke rrJieMeHaMH B crporoM cMhiCJie... onaCHOCTH HX ~eTei{, /K€H H OTllHX 3tM€,;1b»::. 1 npoKOnHH, Boii:Ha c roTaMH, ~Tp....CKHX 33XB3TtJHKOB, tJTO HX H3.[€>KJ(bl H3 ITOpa60I.IJ,eHHe...- pe)le.JI€HHY!O po,1b B pasBH3Ke co6biTHii:, CJienyeT npeJKne acero... H cKpbiJICH B HenpHcryrrHhlX Mecrax. Ho rrocKo~1b­ sparH pa3opHJIH era s.na,n,eHH... cosna)(a!Or c nePHOI\OM A6xa3CKOro uapcrsa, KJ!accosble nporHsopeqHH Me:>KI\Y rocnci... He coxpaHHJIK cse)(eHHii o p83BHTllll KJ!accosoii 6opb6hr H8 reppHropliH A6xaacKoro... rosop11.1Iocb, B· cHJJy Taro o6cTOHTe.1b~ CTB3, '!·TO 3arr31lH3H fpy311H B paHHHH...! npe)(JiaraJIH CpaBHHTeJ!bHO 00•1b· ruy10 cyMMy. HepeAKO OHI! npo11... pa6oTOproB.11l oKa3b!BaTia 60.1b· moe orpmJ;aTeJJbHoe B03.u.eH...



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0.09/5
... est une combinaison de neurones :    d 1  f  x,       k a   kj x j   j 1  k 1   Nc où  Nc  est le nombre...



Дата загрузки: 2017-06-16
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0.03/5
... ± 1/3 turn ± 1/12 turn M14 FK, J, K, KJ, P, PK, PKJ, PQ, Q, QJ, QL....2 16 20 22 (Miniature plug) KJ............... 14×16.0 (Projected Miniature plug... Nм M14 Ausführung FK, J, K, KJ, P, PK, PKJ, PQ, Q, QJ, QL... 7 8,7 5 K................. 14×16.0 24 8 6,63,61 4 KJ............... 14×16.0 27 9 4,59 3 29... ± 1/12 tour M14 Type FK, J, K, KJ, P, PK, PKJ, PQ, Q, QJ, QL... projetée) K................. 14×16.0 (Bougie miniature) KJ............... 14×16.0 (Bougie projetée miniature... ± 1/12 giro M14 Tipos FK, J, K, KJ, P, PK, PKJ, PQ, Q, QJ, QL...ía proyectada) K................. 14×16.0 (Bujía miniatura) KJ............... 14×16.0 (Bujía miniatura proyectada... ± 1/12 giro M14 Tipo FK, J, K, KJ, P, PK, PKJ, PQ, Q, QJ, QL... mm) (Candela proiettata) (Candela mini) KJ............... 14×16.0 (Candela mini proiettata... ± 1/3 varv ± 1/12 varv M14 FK, J, K, KJ, P, PK, PKJ, PQ, Q, QJ, QL... B ���� Tre sidoelektroder J16BR-U (Utskjutande stift) KJ............... 14×16.0 Längd A.................... 19.0 mm.... ± 1/12 obr. M14 typ FK, J, K, KJ, P, PK, PKJ, PQ, Q, QJ, QL... 8 20 6 10,9 7,6 (Świeca miniaturowa) 22 7 8,7 5 KJ............... 14×16.0 24 8 6,63,61.... ± 1/12 обор. M14 Тип FK, J, K, KJ, P, PK, PKJ, PQ, Q, QJ, QL...,11 8 (Выступающая свеча) K................. 14×16.0 KJ............... 14×16.0 20 6 10,9 7,6 22... / 100 R 125 cc - CORSARO / 125 KJ > 88 > 88 175 cc - TRESETTE... 90 > 50 cc - SR 50 /1B 90 > 50 cc - STAR 25... / W16FS-U 3034 502-1AX / 502-1B Famo 503-2BLCH W16FS-U 3034... / 504-1ANL / W16FS-U 3034 504-1B / 504-1BS Famo 504-1C...-U 3034 Famo 505-1A / 505-1B / 505-1C W16FS-U 3034 Famo...