Спутник ФКИ. Kepler. [Редактировать]

Астрономический спутник НАСА, оснащённый сверхчувствительным фотометром, специально предназначенный для поиска экзопланет (планет вне Солнечной системы — у других звёзд), подобных Земле. Это первый космический аппарат, созданный с такой целью. Он назван в честь немецкого математика и астронома, открывшего законы движения планет. Обсерватория могла одновременно наблюдать более чем 100 000 звёзд, при этом основная программа была рассчитана на 3,5 года. Хотя после выхода из строя маховиков точная ориентация аппарата стала невозможна, анализ данных будет продолжаться ещё несколько лет. Наличие планеты у звезды определяется по периодическим изменениям яркости последней, вызываемым транзитами — прохождениями планеты перед звездой. Запуск состоялся 6 марта 2009 года в 22:49 по времени Восточного побережья США (7 марта в 06:49 по московскому времени). Строительством и начальной операцией управляла «Лаборатория реактивного движения» НАСА, а первичный подрядчик, «Ball Aerospace», был ответственным за разработку систем полёта «Кеплера». С декабря 2009 года ответственность за управление миссией легла на Исследовательский центр Эймса, который также производит основной анализ научных данных от телескопа. 12 мая 2013 года телескоп «Кеплер» вышел из строя. Орбитальная обсерватория потеряла ориентацию в пространстве, бортовой компьютер перешел в «безопасный режим». 

Дополнительные наименования

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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США
3Страна производитель - США

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12010-01-05. Орбитальный телескоп "Кеплер обнаружил пять новых планет за пределами Солнечной системы. Это стало первым крупным достижением такого рода с момента вывода устройства на орбиту в марте 2009 г, сообщает сегодня газета "Таймс". Замеченные "Кеплером" небесные тела значительно больше Земли и по своим размерам сопоставимы с Юпитером и Нептуном. Они расположены слишком близко от своих звезд, поэтому температура поверхности этих газовых гигантов очень высока, что делает невозможным присутствие на них жизни. Тем не менее, это открытие является важным шагом на пути поиска планет, подобных нашей. "Сделанные телескопом наблюдения помогут нам лучше понять, каким образом формируются и развиваются планетные системы, - отметил Уильям Боруцки из исследовательского центра НАСА в штате Калифорния /США/. - Кроме того, открытия показывают, что наш научный инструмент работает хорошо". Астрофизик Джон Морзе в свою очередь подчеркнул, что "пройдет достаточно много времени, прежде чем будет обнаружена первая планета- аналог Земли". Цель миссии "Кеплера" - дать ответ на вопрос, одиноко ли человечество во Вселенной. Для этого телескоп в течение трех лет исследует 156 тыс звездных систем Млечного пути. "Кеплер" фиксирует изменения яркости наблюдаемых звезд, фокусируя свет на 42 светочувствительных микросхемах - так называемых приборах с зарядовой связью /ПЗС/, каждый из которых отслеживает свой участок поля зрения телескопа. Астрономы надеются, что с помощью "Кеплера" удастся найти по меньшей мере сотни планет твердого типа, слишком маленьких для того, чтобы их заметили с Земли, из которых где-то 50 будут находиться от своих звезд на таком расстоянии, которое позволит предположить наличие на них условий, необходимых для существования жизни. Тэги: Kepler
22015-01-10. Kepler и SOFIA, две астрономические миссии НАСА под угрозой закрытия из-за технических и бюджетных ограничений. SOFIA это самолет серии Боинг-747SP который оборудован 2.5 метровым инфракрасным телескопом. Угрозу данному проекту составляла возможность резкого снижения уровня финансирования (до 12.3 млн. в 2015 году, по сравнению с 87.4 в 2014 году). Однако, конгресс нашел возможности увеличить данный объем до 70 млн. долл. Космический аппарат Kepler в 2014 году испытывал технические проблемы с маховиками и двигателем ориентации на Солнце. Однако, по заверению НАСА сейчас все проблемы уже решены. Особенностью найденного решения является использование солнечного ветра для стабилизации аппарата. Тэги: KeplerStratospheric Observatory for Infrared AstronomyЕвропейское космическое агентство
32015-01-30. Космический телескоп Кеплер обнаружил древнюю звезду с пятью землеподобными планетами.
Кеплер-444Орбитальный телескоп "Кеплер" обнаружил в созвездии Лиры престарелую "семью" из звезды и пяти планет, возникших более 11 миллиардов лет назад, что доказывает возможность существования двойников Земли в первые эпохи жизни Вселенной.
Система, получившая название "Кеплер-444", обладает пяти экзопланет, размеры которых варьируются следующим образом: самые маленькие сопоставимы с размерами Меркурия, а самые крупные - с Венерой. К сожалению, жизнь на них существовать не может — все эти планеты расположены очень близко к светилу и совершают оборот вокруг него за 4-9 дней, из-за чего на их поверхности будут царить чрезвычайно высокие температуры.
Тэги: Kepler
42016-04-10. Космический аппарат перешел в чрезвычайный режим.
7 апреля, во время очередного сеанса связи инженеры НАСА обнаружили, что космический аппарат перешел в Emergency Mode (EM). EM это самый низкий уровень интенсивности работы бортовых систем за исключением двигательных установок. В настоящее время технический персонал НАСА приступил к изучению вопросов связанных с причиной по которой аппарат изменил свое состояние. К настоящему времени относительно аппарата известно лишь то, что проблема случилась 36 часов назад перед началом маневров по перенацеливанию телескопа на центр галактики Млечный путь. К сложностям работы с аппаратом в НАСА отнесли то обстоятельство что он находится в 120 млн. км. от Земли, а следовательно вся информация с аппарата приходит с задержкой в 13 минут. Тэги: KeplerКосмическое агентство США
52016-04-12. Специалистам НАСА удалось вернуть телескоп к жизни.
Согласно сообщению НАСА инженерам агентства удалось вывести космический аппарат Kepler из аварийного состояния и начать получать от него информацию. Вместе с тем, к настоящему моменту времени причина по которой спутник перешел в безопасный режим до сих пор не установлена. Тэги: Kepler
62016-05-12. НАСА обнародовало данные о телескопе Kepler.
Космическое агентство США обнародовало данные о том, что переход аппарата Kepler в защищенный режим не будет иметь никакого эффекта на его дальнейшую производительность.
В частности они отметили, что за две недели, которые прошли после этого события аппарат не продемонстрировал никаких изменений в своей работе. Причиной в нештатной работе назвали ложные срабатывания систем защиты, которые привели к переводу аппарата в безопасный режим. При этом, с учетом того что в этом режиме аппарат потреблял больше топлива чем при штатном функционировании, то скорее всего его срок активного существования несколько снизился, однако в НАСА не видят этой проблемой поскольку на борту еще осталось топлива на более чем два года полета. Ориентировочным сроком прекращения работы аппарата назван 2018 год. Тэги: Kepler

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг1040.7
2Масса (полезной нагрузки), кг478
3Масса (топлива), кг11.7
4Диаметр, метра2.7
5Площадь поверхности батареи, квадратных метра10.2
6Высота, метра4.7
7Мощность, Вт1100
8Разрешающая способность (матрицы), мегапикселей95
9Площадь собирающей поверхности, метра0.708

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС (планируемый ), год3.5

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2009-011A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics
2Производитель Ball Aerospace
3Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2007-01-01497.5
4Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2007-01-01138.1
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2007-01-01312.8
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2007-01-0146.6
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2008-12-01594.8
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2008-12-01141.2
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2008-12-01390.3
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2008-12-0163.3
11Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2009-10-01604.6
12Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2009-10-01141.2
13Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2009-10-01390.3
14Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2009-10-0173.1

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2009-03-07 at 03:50:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xKepler
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Kepler». [Перейти к поиску]


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... вычислений, таких как NVIDIA TESLA/KEPLER и Intel Xenon Phi. Одним из... астрофизического кода на узлах с Nvidia Kepler K40 до 1536 узлов (4,4 млн...



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... for Kepler-9. . Vmp for Kepler-18. . Vmp for Kepler-30. . Vmp for Kepler-31. . Vmp for Kepler-65. . Vmp for Kepler-68. . Vmp for Kepler-81. . Vmp for Kepler-83. . Vmp for Kepler-104. Vmp for Kepler-114. Vmp for Kepler-164. Vmp for Kepler-203. Vmp for Kepler-206. Vmp for Kepler-226. Vmp for Kepler-250. Vmp for Kepler-267. Vmp for Kepler-272. Vmp for Kepler-275. Vmp for Kepler-279. Vmp for Kepler-288. Vmp for Kepler-298. Vmp for Kepler-301. Vmp for Kepler-310. Vmp for Kepler-325. Vmp for Kepler-326. Vmp for Kepler-331. Vmp for Kepler... for Kepler-336. Vmp for Kepler-338. Vmp for Kepler-342. Vmp for Kepler-354. Vmp for Kepler-357. Vmp for Kepler-363. Vmp for Kepler-372. Vmp for Kepler... for Kepler-122. Vmp for Kepler-172. Vmp for Kepler-186. Vmp for Kepler-215. Vmp for Kepler-221. Vmp for Kepler-224. Vmp for Kepler-251. Vmp for Kepler-256. Vmp for Kepler-306. Vmp for Kepler... for Kepler-20. . Vmp for Kepler-62. . Vmp for Kepler-84. . Vmp for Kepler... in Kepler-9 . . Eigenstuff for Kepler-9 . . . . . Orbits of planets in Kepler-18 . Eigenstuff for Kepler...ff for Kepler-104 . . . . Orbits of planets in Kepler-114 Eigenstuff for Kepler-114 . . . . Orbits of planets in Kepler-164 Eigenstuff for Kepler-164... in Kepler-122 B.106Eigenstuff for Kepler-122 . . . . B.107Orbits of planets in Kepler-172 B.108Eigenstuff for Kepler-172 . . . . B.109Orbits of planets in Kepler-186 B.110Eigenstuff for Kepler-186 . . . . B.111Orbits of planets in Kepler-215 B.112Eigenstuff for Kepler-215 . . . . B.113Orbits of planets in Kepler-221 B.114Eigenstuff for Kepler-221 . . . . B.115Orbits of planets in Kepler-224 B.116Eigenstuff for Kepler-224 . . . . B.117Orbits of planets in Kepler-251 B.118Eigenstuff for Kepler-251 . . . . B.119Orbits of planets in Kepler-256 B.120Eigenstuff for Kepler-256 . . . . B.121Orbits of planets in Kepler-306 B.122Eigenstuff for Kepler-306 . . . . B.123Orbits of planets in Kepler-341 B.124Eigenstuff for Kepler-341... in Kepler-20 . B.130Eigenstuff for Kepler-20 . . . . B.131Orbits of planets in Kepler-62 . B.132Eigenstuff for Kepler-62 . . . . B.133Orbits of planets in Kepler-84 . B.134Eigenstuff for Kepler-84 . . . . B.135Orbits of planets in Kepler-169 B.136Eigenstuff for Kepler-169...



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... results, we expect to attain Kepler’s planned photometric precision over 90... Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) The Kepler Mission is designed to detect... from their pre-launch values. Kepler’s unprecedented sensitivity and stability in...-17, Session 3 7737-19, Session 3 Kepler science operations processes, procedures, and..., D. R. Crabtree, Gemini Observatory (Chile) The Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) is... between different elements in the Kepler Ground Segment; and the associated... Hubble Space Telescope and the Kepler Mission. DMS software analysis and.... of Pennsylvania (United States) The Kepler mission Is designed to detect... automatically. Developing and testing the Kepler ground-segment processing system, in... eclipsing binaries; 2) properties of the Kepler spacecraft, including pointing jitter, CCD... ETEM fits into the larger Kepler ground segment testing environment. 7738... Kepler end-to-end model: creating highfidelity simulations to test Kepler ground... and systems engineering of the Kepler mission J. L. Fanson, L. L. Livesay, M. A. Frerking, B. C. Cooke..., Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States) Kepler is NASA’s first mission capable... launched into space in 2009, Kepler seeks to determine whether Earth... effective. The experience of the Kepler development is used to illuminate... 3 Transiting planet search in the Kepler pipeline J. M. Jenkins, H. Chandrasekaran, S. D. McCauliff, D. A. Caldwell... Research Ctr. (United States) The Kepler Mission simultaneously measures the brightness... to search for transiting planets. Kepler collects photoelectrons from ~30 pixels... parameters to light curves from Kepler Mission target stars. The algorithm... Session Photometer performance assessment in Kepler science data processing J. Li, C. Allen... health and performance of the Kepler instrument based on the science... the fundamental measure of the Kepler’s detection ability. In addition to... determines the attitude of the Kepler spacecraft from the measured centroid... determine the attitude of the Kepler spacecraft with high precision. The... Presearch data conditioning in the Kepler Science Operations Center pipeline J. D. Twicken... and its context in the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) pipeline... Pixel-level calibration in the Kepler Science Operations Center pipeline Design... further improve the quality of Kepler data. The calibrated target pixel... propagation of uncertainties in the Kepler data analysis pipeline B. D. Clarke, C. Allen... Research Ctr. (United States) The Kepler mission is designed to detect... of uncertainties (POU) in the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) data... Session Photometric analysis in the Kepler Science Operations Center pipeline J. D. Twicken... and its context in the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) pipeline... in accordance with the NASA Kepler data release policy. Trending near.... 370 7740-23, Session 5 The Kepler DB: a database management system for... Research Ctr. (United States) The Kepler Science Operations Center needs to... of running the Kepler science processing pipeline. The Kepler Database (Kepler DB) management... the course of the mission. Kepler DB is a non-relational, transactional... products that support XA transactions. Kepler DB is implemented in Java... discuss Kepler DB’s APIs, implementation, usage and deployment at the Kepler Science... the custom Kepler File Store and processing by the various Kepler pipelines... test the science pipelines. The Kepler Science Operations Center pipeline framework... States) Data validation in the Kepler Science Operations Center pipeline Automated... than the calibration sources. The Kepler mission is designed to continuously... a relational database and the custom Kepler File Store. Generic parameter management... the pipeline. While developed for Kepler, none of this infrastructure software.... 7740-45, Session 10 The Kepler Science Operations Center pipeline framework... Research Center (United States) The Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) is... for several aspects of the Kepler Mission, including managing targets, generating... pipeline infrastructure software developed for Kepler is used to achieve these... within the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) pipeline and overall Kepler Science... enhancements. 7740-47, Session 11 Kepler Science Operations Center architecture C. Middour... stellar photometric data from the Kepler spacecraft, and report results to... detecting Earth-size planets, the Kepler spacecraft is in a heliocentric Earth... Kepler Mission P. Tenenbaum, J. M. Jenkins, NASA Ames Research Ctr. (United States) The Kepler... reduced automation. Selecting pixels for Kepler downlink S. T. Bryson, J. M. Jenkins, T. C. Klaus, M. T. Cote... Research Ctr. (United States) The Kepler mission, designed to detect the... 30-minute cadence, so the Kepler spacecraft downlinks a specified collection of... detail. 7740-51, Session 11 Kepler Mission’s focal plane characterization models..., SETI Institute (United States) The Kepler Mission photometer is an unusually... and its electronics on the Kepler lightcurves. The interpolation mathematics is...



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... NASA Exoplanet Science Institute & NASA’s Kepler Mission* NASA InͲSpace Propulsion...:00 PM 200 Extrasolar Planets: Kepler Outlook and Exoplanet Characterization Tahoe...: 108 Latest Results from the Kepler Mission, William J. Borucki (NASA Ames... planet candidates discovered by the Kepler mission. The scope of our... radii, and was based on Kepler planet candidates detected during Quarters... observations of these systems by Kepler, and compared the number and... of detectable objects to actual Kepler planet detections. Based on the....02 Dynamics of Kepler's Multiple Planet Systems 1 - Jack J. Lissauer , Kepler Science Team 1 NASA Ames Research Center. Among the ~1800 Kepler targets... recent discovery of circumbinary planets (Kepler 16-b, 34-b, and 35-b) establishes... to identify transits in the Kepler public data. Planet Hunters uses... curve segment from one of Kepler's ~160,000 target stars. Volunteers... the 1 1/2 years of publicly released Kepler observations. Planet Hunters is a novel... of the completeness of the Kepler exoplanet inventory. We report the...-hosting circumbinary systems detected by Kepler and have determined the possibility... eccentricities and inclinations. Recently, NASA's Kepler mission has identified over 300... transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler and discuss early efforts to... Latest Results from the Kepler Mission 1 - William J. Borucki , Kepler Mission Team 1 NASA Ames Research Center. 37 As the Kepler Mission... will be discussed. The Extended Kepler Mission operations begin on 1 October... the Kepler Survey Completeness: First Full Focal Plane Results 1 - Jessie Christiansen , Kepler Science Office, Kepler Science Operations Center 1 NASA... Characterizing the Performance of the Kepler Exoplanet Search and Data Products... , C. Burke , S. McCauliff , J. Van Cleve , Kepler SO, Kepler SOC 1 2 3 SETI Institute, Orbital Sciences... launch in March 2009, the Kepler spacecraft has delivered >8.5 billion brightness... a machine learning approach to identifying Kepler Objects of Interest automatically from... diagnostics and information from the Kepler data themselves. Another example is... Detection in Kepler Data 1 1 1 - Shawn Seader , P. Tenenbaum , J. Jenkins 1 SETI. The Kepler Mission... analysis of photometric data. The Kepler Science Operations Center at NASA... star and the observer. NASA's Kepler Mission has successfully discovered thousands... of the Kepler 30 System and the Survivability of Kepler 30 Exomoons 1 1 - R. Mitch Verboncoeur , C. Fuse 1 Rollins College. The Kepler mission has revealed characteristics about a variety of planetary systems. Kepler 30... the large masses of Kepler 30c and Kepler 30d provide us with... simulations analyzing satellite survivability around Kepler 30d. Stability and exomoon simulations... the bodies in our simulations, Kepler 30b was consistently unstable over... two satellites typically survive around Kepler 30d after 500,000 years... Mass Loss Histories of Disintegrating Kepler Planets 1 1 - Eugene Chiang , D. Perez-Becker... candidate KIC 12557548b in the Kepler data. Stellar occultations for this....16 Ellipsoidal Variation Analysis of Kepler Observations Using the EVIL-MC... of planetary candidates from the Kepler mission requires a sizable investment of... in another Kepler system with a candidate transiting companion. The Kepler Input Catalog... other red giants observed by Kepler, providing tight constraints on the... present in the publicly available Kepler data using the recently developed... from Kepler Data 1 1 1 - Robert L. Morris , J. M. Jenkins , J. Twicken 1 SETI Institute. NASA's Kepler Mission... in five long cadence measurements (Kepler's primary data collection mode). The... results from Kepler flight data demonstrate the algorithm's effectiveness. Kepler was selected... October, 2012 200 Extrasolar Planets: Kepler Outlook and Exoplanet Characterization Tuesday... The Kepler Extended Mission 1 - Martin D. Still 1 NASA Ames Research Center. Kepler is... approving a further 4 years of operation, Kepler has the opportunity to detect... community exploitation of the Kepler data. All Kepler time-series products will... previously proprietary data within the Kepler archive will be made public... planetary systems, either directly using Kepler archive products or through observational... Projection from Kepler 1 - Wesley A. Traub 1 Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Kepler exoplanet candidate... 1 - Darin Ragozzine , Kepler Team 1 University of Florida. NASA's Kepler Mission has discovered...- and space-based transit surveys (e.g. Kepler, MEarth) have detected super Earths... force, to resonate with the Kepler orbital frequency. The eccentricity increases... (collisional) heating, driven by the Kepler-shear, counteracted by granular collisional....06 Kepler Science Office,; 113.01 Kepler Science Operations Center,; 113.01 Kepler Science Team,; 100.02 Kepler SO,; 113.02 Kepler SOC,; 113.02 Kepler...



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....03 – Dynamical Origins of the Kepler Dichotomy An overabundance of single... with multiple transits within the Kepler dataset, has been interpreted as... origins of this so-called "Kepler Dichotomy,” however, remain elusive. Here... objects (TNOs) observed with the Kepler Space Observatory in the K2... observed in planets observed by Kepler. Here we expand on this... higher multiplicity systems observed by Kepler as well as individual planet... half that estimated from the Kepler sample, raising questions as to... systems are intrinsically different from Kepler systems, possibly as a result of... small transiting planets: Application to Kepler and K2 light curves The... curves taken by space telescopes (Kepler, K2, TESS and PLATO). The... reduced pointing precision of the Kepler telescope after the failure of... of Snow-Line Exoplanet Kepler-421b The Kepler Mission has uncovered a handful.... Of particular scientific interest is Kepler-421b, a Neptunesized exoplanet with a 704... the snow-line. Since the Kepler Spacecraft only observed two transits... is relatively uncertain. We observed Kepler-421 during the anticipated third... and the partial transit of Kepler-421b. We find strong evidence... with no TTVs, suggesting that Kepler-421b is either alone in... unseen companion. With the combined Kepler and DCT observations, we calculate... not discovered (thanks to the Kepler space mission we can estimate... space missions (GAIA, Cheops, PLATO, Kepler II and TESS) and ground... particular, recent studies of the Kepler planet population have suggested a dearth... the latest samples of confirmed Kepler and K2 planets. Our objective... spectral modulations. Current observatories, except Kepler, were not designed to achieve...-in giant planets observed by Kepler has shown that it is... relevant to the study of Kepler planets, but also to the... of the legacies of the Kepler mission is the preponderance of.... Recent observations show that the Kepler lightcurves of some hot Jupiters... the expected cloud distribution and Kepler lightcurves of hot Jupiters. We... of an asymmetry in the Kepler lightcurve is a telltale sign of... of the Kepler Planet Population on Host Star Properties The Kepler spacecraft... at the Heart 213.01 – Kepler K2 Precision Lightcurve Observations of... October-December 2015 using the Kepler spacecraft's imaging photometer during Campaign... measurements every 30 minutes using Kepler's long cadence sampling. The result... radiation were originally conceptualized in Kepler's observations of the tails of... mission is using the repurposed Kepler spacecraft to search for transiting... ecliptic plane. Unlike the original Kepler mission, which stared at a single...-mass stars than the original Kepler mission. While the K2 data... of exoplanet science. From the Kepler mission, we know that these... Multi-Transiting Exoplanetary Systems The Kepler mission was launched in 2009...-size planets in exoplanetary systems. Kepler has identified ~230 planetary systems... Resonances in Exoplanetary Systems NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has identified ~700... al. 2011 found that most Kepler systems were not in resonance... the period ratio distribution of Kepler (corrected for inclination biases) to... of Compact Planetary Systems The Kepler mission has uncovered hundreds of... not only understanding the current Kepler multi-planet sample, but also... the analysis of hundreds of Kepler transit light curves possible for... whom they were suggested by Kepler). See JMP's Journal for the... 322.01 – Analyzing Kepler lightcurves of exoplanets The Kepler space telescope successfully... – Visual Analysis and Comparison of Kepler Transit Timing Variations with Mutli... an exoplanet transit occurs, NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope records the times... transit timing variations (TTVs). Therefore, Kepler TTVs have been very useful... TTV data of all ~6000 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) to... Kepler's Circumbinary Planets to Common-Envelope Evolution Inspired by the recent Kepler... host binaries. Half of the Kepler systems experiences at least one... orbital expansion for all except Kepler-1647, where this mass loss... commonenvelope stages (i.e. Kepler-1647); multiplanet circumbinary systems like Kepler-47 can experience... conceived for the otherwise healthy Kepler space telescope. In the course...), Spitzer (e.g., Metchev et al. 2015), Kepler (Gizis et al. 2015), and... solar system variability observations include Kepler monitoring of Neptune (Simon et... Ames Research Center Contributing team(s): Kepler Giant Planet Variability Team, Spitzer... and albedo. Since early 2014, Kepler Space Telescope surveys fields close...



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The transiting circumbinary planets Kepler-34 b and Kepler-35 b The MIT Faculty... The Transiting Circumbinary Planets Kepler-34 and Kepler-35 William F. Welsh1, Jerome... additional transiting circumbinary planets, Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. Each is a low... Kepler-34 and Kepler-35, and a candidate system KOI-2939. KOI-2939 (Kepler... mean densities of the Kepler-34 and Kepler-35 planets are 0.61... a rocky planet), with the Kepler-34 and Kepler-35 planets lying interior... the orbital geometry of Kepler-34, Kepler-35, and Kepler-16, the probability21... the calculated insolation for Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. The variation is... the Kepler mission a reality. W.W., J.O., E.F., A.P., L.D., J.F., M.H., T.M., and J.S. gratefully acknowledge the support of the Kepler...-dynamical model for Kepler-34 (KIC 8572936) and Kepler-35 (KIC 9837578..., values9 for Kepler-16 are listed. FIGURES Figure 1: Observations of Kepler-34. Figure 1: Observations of Kepler-34. (a) A portion of... in insolation received by Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. (a) Top panels: The..., coordinates, and magnitudes of Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. These tables also... than Kepler-34, is about 1 arcsecond northeast of its expected position. Kepler... conclude that the Kepler light curves both Kepler-34 and Kepler-35 should... §9. 3 Spectroscopic observations We observed Kepler-34 and Kepler-35 with the Hobby... for Kepler-34 in 2011 September and 4 spectra for Kepler-35 in... were 1800 s for Kepler-34 and 2700 s for Kepler-35. During each... the HJST to observe Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. The Tull spectrograph... FIES pipeline27 . Spectra of Kepler-34 and Kepler-35 were obtained using... by the Kepler pipeline and available at the MAST archive. Kepler light... detrended light curves for Kepler-34 and Kepler-35 are shown in... and secondary events in Kepler-34 and Kepler-35 were measured in... and folded data for Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. Generally, the template... and secondary) in both Kepler-34 and Kepler-35 that are much... anomalous events in the Kepler-34 and Kepler-35 were identified, and... and secondary eclipses for Kepler-34 and Kepler-35 are given in....17926 ± 0.000085 Kepler-34 primary Kepler-34 secondary Kepler-34 primary Kepler-34 secondary....32812 ± 0.000033 Kepler-35 primary Kepler-35 secondary Kepler-35 primary Kepler-35 secondary... and its application to Kepler-34 and Kepler-34 here. Description of... the Kepler photometry and the radial-velocity data for both Kepler-34... McDonald with Kepler-34, and HET, HIRES, and FIES with Kepler-35... Solar system and of Kepler-34 or Kepler-35; this is needed... best-fitting model for Kepler-34 and Kepler-35, respectively. Parameter estimation... radius determinations for Kepler-34 (σM /M and σR /R less than 0.3%) and Kepler-35 (σM /M < 0.6%, σR /R < 0.3%), along... can be estimated to Kepler-34 and Kepler-35 using the parameters... pc for Kepler-34 and d = 1645 ± 43 pc for Kepler-35. 11... , the nominal models for Kepler-34 and Kepler-35 systems are sufficiently... are 1.19 (Kepler-16b), 1.24 (Kepler-35) and 1.24 (Kepler-36). The corresponding...: KIC 8572936 (Kepler-34), KIC 9837578 (Kepler-35), KIC 12644769 (Kepler-16), and... and eclipsing case for Kepler-16, Kepler-34, and Kepler-35, respectively. Improving... this model to Kepler-16, Kepler-34, and Kepler-35 to correct for... at a fraction of Kepler stars instead of just Kepler EBs, though these... for planet formation theories; Kepler-34 and Kepler-35 show that such... First Kepler Mission Planet Confirmed With The Hobby-Eberly Telescope: Kepler-15b... 1 | Image of Kepler-34. The 30 × 30 region near Kepler-34 in... fainter than Kepler-34 in SDSS r. Supplementary Figure 2 | Image of Kepler-35. The 30 × 30 region near Kepler-35 in... mag fainter than Kepler-35, should be between Kepler-35 and KIC... Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. Four representative broadening functions (filled circles) for Kepler-34 and Kepler... detrending for Kepler-34. Top: The “PA” light curves for Kepler 34... detrending for Kepler-35. Top: The “PA” light curves for Kepler 35... Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. The folded primary and secondary eclipses for Kepler-34 and Kepler... the Kepler data analysis pipeline. Supplementary Figure 8 | O–C diagrams for Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. Observed-Computed (O–C) diagrams for the Kepler-34 primary eclipse times (a), secondary eclipse times (b), Kepler-35... photodynamical model for Kepler-34. Individual eclipse events for Kepler-34 (red... photodynamical model for Kepler-35. Individual eclipse events for Kepler-34 (red... for Kepler-35. Similar to Supplementary Figure S11, but for Kepler-35. Supplementary Figure 13 | Isochrones for Kepler-34. Left... | Isochrones for Kepler-35. Same as Supplementary Figure S13, for Kepler-35... elements for Kepler-34. The evolution of the period of Kepler-34b... elements for Kepler-35. The evolution of the period of Kepler-35b... other model parameters for Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. Date YYYY-MM...



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... of 2 × 105 (Kepler-20b), 1 × 105 (Kepler-20c), and 1.1 × 103 (Kepler-20d), sufficient to... as planetary companions. For Kepler-20c and Kepler-20d, the blend scenario... of 0.075 ± 0.015 (Kepler-20c) and 0.065 ± 0.011 (Kepler-20d), consistent with... determine the masses of Kepler-20b and Kepler-20c to be 8.7 ± 2.2 M⊕ and... al. 2011), Kepler-11 (Lissauer et al. 2011a), and Kepler-18 (Cochran...), as was done for Kepler-9bc, Kepler-10b, Kepler-11bcdef, and Kepler18bcd. When... the means by which Kepler-9d, Kepler-10c, and Kepler-11g were all... orbital period P: Kepler-20b (K00070.02, P = 3.70 days), Kepler-20c (K00070.01... intermediate between those of Kepler-20b and Kepler-20c, and the period... of Kepler-20c and Kepler-20d. 2. KEPLER PHOTOMETRY AND ANALYSIS 2.1. Light-curve Extraction Kepler observations of Kepler... et al. Figure 1. Kepler light curve of Kepler-20 at a cadence of... by the Kepler pipeline (Jenkins et al. 2010b). The Kepler pipeline produces... 1 shows the raw Kepler Q1−Q8 light curve of Kepler-20. The... the five planet candidates i = {Kepler-20b, Kepler-20c, Kepler20d, K00070.04, K00070... the mass estimates of Kepler-20b and Kepler-20c, and the upper... orbiting Kepler-20; the validation of the three largest planets, Kepler-20b, Kepler-20c, and Kepler-20d, is presented... another planet, e 0.396 (Kepler-20b), 0.319 (Kepler-20c), 0.601 (Kepler-20d), 0.283 (K00070.... (2011). Four of them (Kepler-20b, Kepler-20c, Kepler20d, K00070.04) are... Q1−Q8 long-cadence Kepler SAP photometry of Kepler-20 of instrumental... for the confirmed planets Kepler-20b, Kepler-20c, and Kepler-20d are listed... the orbital periods of Kepler-20b and Kepler-20c. We note that... is extremely unlikely for Kepler-20b, Kepler-20c, and Kepler-20d, and it... Parameters for Kepler-20b, Kepler-20c, and Kepler-20d Parameter Kepler-20b Kepler-20c Kepler-20d...-weighted Centroid (arcsec) Significancea Kepler-20b Kepler-20c Kepler-20d K00070.04 K00070... of Kepler-20 after correcting for the bestfit amplitudes of Kepler-20b, Kepler... subtraction of the effect of Kepler-20b, Kepler-20d, K00070.04, and...) of Kepler-20 after correcting for effect of Kepler-20c, Kepler-20d, K00070... al. Kepler−20c Kepler−20d 3 1 1 2 0.5 0.5 1 6850504, 12.498 0 N (arcsec) → 1.5 N (arcsec) → N (arcsec) → Kepler−20b...) method for Kepler-20b (top left), Kepler-20c (top center), Kepler-20d (top...), Kepler-14 (Buchhave et al. 2011), Kepler-18 (Cochran et al. 2011), Kepler... data spanning transits of Kepler-20c and Kepler-20d, which provide independent... images per visit for Kepler-20c and Kepler-20d, respectively. The method... /R )i , (a/R )i , bi , and T0,i , where i = {Kepler-20c, Kepler-20d}, the two candidate planets... [BJD] Transit Depth (%) Kepler-20c Kepler-20d Kepler-20d Kepler-20d r41165824 r39437568 r41164544... the transit signals of Kepler-20c and Kepler-20d are achromatic, as... transit of Kepler-20c (upper half of figure) and Kepler-20d (lower... OF THE PLANETS Kepler-20b, Kepler-20c, AND Kepler-20d While the analysis... 3.3) data yielded detections for Kepler-20b and Kepler-20c, we found that... and deeper transits for Kepler-20b and Kepler-20c results in higher... in origin. Kepler-20d is similar in depth to Kepler-20b, but... our earlier studies of Kepler-9d, Kepler10c, and Kepler-11g (see Torres.... BLENDER constraints for Kepler-20b (top panels) and Kepler-20c (bottom), showing.... The transit signals from Kepler-20b and Kepler-20c are better defined... of magnitude compared to Kepler-20d. For Kepler-20c, Spitzer observations are... the blend frequencies for Kepler-20b and Kepler-20c are presented in... of a blend. Therefore, both Kepler-20b and Kepler-20c are validated as... shallow than those of Kepler-20b, Kepler-20c, and Kepler-20d. As a result... Kepler-20 ID Kepler-20b Kepler-20b Kepler-20b Kepler-20b Kepler-20b Kepler-20b Kepler-20b Kepler-20b Kepler-20b Kepler-20b Kepler... best-fit masses for Kepler-20b and Kepler-20c, a guess of Mp... the interior compositions of Kepler-20b, Kepler-20c, and Kepler-20d, as illustrated... escape modeling. Notably, both Kepler-20c and Kepler-20d require significant volatile... account for Kepler-20c and could account for Kepler-20d only in.... The nature of Kepler-20b’s composition is ambiguous: Kepler-20b could be... a significant gas envelope (like Kepler-20c and Kepler-20d). In the mass... like its sibling planets Kepler-20c and Kepler-20d at larger orbital... than Kepler-20c and Kepler-20d. More detailed modeling may constrain Kepler-20b... the Kepler-20 system are highlighted in green. Kepler-20b and Kepler-20c... with measured masses (Kepler-10b, CoRoT-7b, Kepler-11bcdef, Kepler-18b, 55Cnc e, GJ 1214b, HD 97658b, GJ 436b, Kepler-4b... architecture. The Kepler-20 system is less extreme than Kepler-11 in... is as follows: Kepler-20b (3.7 days, 1.9 R⊕ ), K00070.04 (6.1 days, 0.9 R⊕ ), Kepler-20c (10...



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... (VVV) . . . 4.3 Optical survey: The Kepler-INT Survey . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Kepler mission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Survey imaging with... in the Kepler field 6.1 Searching for white dwarfs in the Kepler field . . . 6.2 Spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Ground-based confirmation of pulsators . . . . . . 6.4 Kepler data...: i, red dotted: Hα) used for the Kepler-INT Survey observations (see Chapter...) of a pulsating WD in the Kepler field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical (raw) 2D spectrum... release catalogues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INT coverage of Kepler fields. The open circles correspond... of July 2014. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 6.4 RATS-Kepler amplitude power spectra of KISJ1920... spectral window of the RATS-Kepler data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 6.5 McDonald observatory amplitude... above certain frequencies indicate the Kepler spurious frequencies and the dashed... the given pulsation mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 6.7 Kepler amplitude power spectra of KIC... a particular epoch, see e.g. Table 5 of Kepler et al. 2003). . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 6.8 Amplitude... sky known as the Kepler field. The Kepler mission provides superior time... their non-degenerate envelopes (e.g. Winget & Kepler, 2008; Fontaine & Brassard, 2008), to... non-radial gravity waves (Winget & Kepler, 2008; Fontaine & Brassard, 2008). There... as their nondegenerate envelopes (e.g. Winget & Kepler, 2008; Fontaine & Brassard, 2008), to...: i, red dotted: Hα) used for the Kepler-INT Survey observations (see Chapter.... 4.3 4.3.1 Optical survey: The Kepler-INT Survey Kepler mission NASA’s Kepler spacecraft, which was... Cygnus and Lyra constellations. The Kepler mission’s (Borucki et al., 2010... selected prior to the observations. Kepler provides uninterrupted time series photometry... previous ground-based study. Although Kepler was designed for the detection... astrophysical domains. Every 3 months, the Kepler mission also offers the opportunity...) Proposals. Finally, every quarter, the Kepler Asteroseismology Science Consortium (KASC) can... sources in the Kepler FoV. A photometric study of the Kepler field, mainly...., 2011). The Guest Observer and Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium programs show..., a deeper optical survey of the Kepler field, including a filter bluer than... the Kepler field, such as the UBV Photometric Survey of the Kepler... (hours) Figure 4.6: INT coverage of Kepler fields. The open circles correspond..., we covered ∼97% of the Kepler FoV. We plotted individual (U − g, g − r) and... the Kepler Target Search page at MAST (http://archdev.stsci.edu/kepler/kepler... in the Kepler Input Catalog within 1 arcsec, we added the Kepler ID... with Kepler (a) ZZ Ceti; ground-based confirmation; observed with Kepler ZZ Ceti; ground-based confirmation; observed with Kepler ZZ Ceti...; ground-based confirmation; observed with Kepler (b) ZZ Ceti; ground-based confirmation... with Kepler (a) ZZ Ceti; ground-based confirmation; observed with Kepler ZZ Ceti; ground-based confirmation; observed with Kepler ZZ Ceti...; ground-based confirmation; observed with Kepler (b) ZZ Ceti; ground-based confirmation... obtained through Kepler, can overcome this effect. We obtained DDT Kepler observations... photometry and delivered by the Kepler Science Operations Center pipeline, were... pulsating nature, we were awarded Kepler short-cadence mode observations of... between 6 7 http://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/publiclightcurves.html http://keplerscience.arc... 6000 8000 f [µ Hz] Figure 6.4: RATS-Kepler amplitude power spectra of KISJ1920... spectral window of the RATS-Kepler data. 108 Amplitude[%] Amplitude[%] KISJ1913... the Kepler light curve. In this process, we bootstrap the Kepler data... 11911480 (Figure 6.6), we mark the Kepler spurious frequencies taken from the... above certain frequencies indicate the Kepler spurious frequencies and the dashed... Spectral Window 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 4 f [µ Hz] -4 4 f [µ Hz] Figure 6.7: Kepler amplitude power spectra of KIC.... 6.4.2 KIC 10132702 We were awarded Kepler short-cadence mode observations of... . 6.4.3 KIC 04357037 We were awarded Kepler short-cadence mode observations of... Kepler field. In order to achieve this goal, we carried the Kepler... a deep optical survey of the Kepler field, using U, g, r, i and Hα filters on... Kepler field by using ground-based time-series photometry. We obtained Kepler... the ecliptic. The new mission, Kepler-2 (K2), will continuously observe 10... Spectrograph and Imaging System Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium Kepler-INT Survey Low..., 118, 92 Mukadam, A. S., Montgomery, M. H., Winget, D. E., Kepler, S. O., Clemens, J. C., 2006, ApJ, 640, 956..., D. E., Degennaro, S., Jeffery, E., Thompson, S. E., Chandler, D., Kepler, S. O., 2008, ApJ, 676, 573 Muno..., 438, 908 Romero, A. D., C´ orsico, A. H., Althaus, L. G., Kepler, S. O., Castanheira, B. G., Miller Bertolami, M. M., 2012, MNRAS...., 2010, AJ, 139, 2587 Winget, D. E., Kepler, S. O., 2008, ARA&A, 46, 157 Winget...



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... of the publication of Johannes Kepler's book New Astronomy (Astronomia Nova... known work of Kepler's contemporary Galileo. In honor of Kepler, NASA has... or even intelligence, the Kepler mission. In Kepler's time the reigning Ptolemaic... orbital dynamics, a lineal descendant of Kepler's work, to make far more... descended from Kepler's model of the orbit of Mars. Kepler's story is... an outstanding problem comparable to Kepler's discovery could reveal long suspected... of Kepler's time. It will also draw some lessons from Kepler and compare and contrast Kepler's process of discovery... William Shakespeare and Galileo Galilei. Kepler lived in a tumultuous and difficult..., revolts, and outbreaks of illness. Kepler was a Lutheran and repeatedly encountered... between Catholics and Protestants. Although Kepler is often described either as... in Prague. 2 Kepler's New Astronomy.nb The Setting Johannes Kepler was born... William Shakespeare and Galileo Galilei. Kepler lived in a tumultuous and difficult..., revolts, and outbreaks of illness. Kepler was a Lutheran and repeatedly encountered... between Catholics and Protestants. Although Kepler is often described either as... modern observational astronomer and Johannes Kepler is a precursor of the modern.... However, Rudolf II, Tycho Brahe, Kepler, and their contemporaries looked at... and technological progress, Brahe and Kepler and many others believed that.... However, Rudolf II, Tycho Brahe, Kepler, and their contemporaries looked at... angels or intelligences directed the Kepler's New Astronomy.nb 3 motions of... and technological progress, Brahe and Kepler and many others believed that... the Earth. In fact, by Kepler's time, hundreds of epicycles -- epicycles... degrees. In 1543, well before Kepler's birth, Nicholas Copernicus resurrected the... Sun. In hiring Kepler, he hoped that Kepler could decipher his measurements... epicycles. 4 Kepler's New Astronomy.nb Ptolemaic System Mars Sun Earth Kepler's New Astronomy.nb Copernican System Mars Earth Sun 5 6 Kepler's New Astronomy.nb Tycho Brahe’s System Mars Sun Earth Kepler and the Orbit of Mars Johannes Kepler was twenty... Kepler's time. Kepler's New Astronomy.nb Kepler and the Orbit of Mars Johannes Kepler... was generally not understood in Kepler's time. Kepler also engaged in an... an elliptical orbit more sensible. Kepler enjoyed enormous freedom. Rudolf II... alchemists, astrologers, and scholars like Kepler. Kepler had received a promotion to Imperial... to brief encouraging comments. Nonetheless, Kepler was unable to figure out.... This is a modern formulation of Kepler's so-called "second law", taught... to the world. 7 8 Kepler's New Astronomy.nb Kepler’s New Astronomy Mars Sun Earth What can we learn from Kepler... amount of trial and error. Kepler probably tried somewhere between hundreds... major Kepler's New Astronomy.nb 9 What can we learn from Kepler? The... amount of trial and error. Kepler probably tried somewhere between hundreds... thousands of failures have accumulated. Kepler had a sudden abrupt realization of... have extreme, almost supernatural, intelligence. Kepler also engaged in a large amount... training. Indeed, the mathematics that Kepler used was almost entirely Greek... many of the calculations that Kepler performed, even without a computer, much..., which may have helped Kepler make his breakthrough. Kepler also engaged in... the other planets. This 10 Kepler's New Astronomy.nb conceptual analysis... training. Indeed, the mathematics that Kepler used was almost entirely Greek... many of the calculations that Kepler performed, even without a computer, much... system, which may have helped Kepler make his breakthrough. The mathematical... even more (below). , x, 4 Π, 4 Π , ImageSize 72 5 Kepler's New Astronomy.nb 13 Series... approximation was made (below): 14 Kepler's New Astronomy.nb Plot Evaluate... physics have progressed enormously since Kepler's time. Recent years have seen... observing instrument on board the Kepler spacecraft to distinguish the planetary... the Ptolemaic models of Kepler's time. In Kepler's time it was an... the models by hand calculation. Kepler disliked tedious calculation and preferred... a theory quickly, something that took Kepler five years with three different... as Kepler did and the freedom to do so, which Kepler enjoyed..., yet actual progress seems minimal. Kepler's experience suggests that the problem... analysis that guided Kepler to his final answer. Conclusion Kepler's experience suggests... conceptual analysis. The example of Kepler suggests more reliance on conceptual... owe their Conclusion 20 Kepler's New Astronomy.nb Kepler's experience suggests that... conceptual analysis. The example of Kepler suggests more reliance on conceptual... applications owe their existence to Kepler's discovery. Similar successes in mathematical... A. Connor, Kepler's Witch, Harper Collins, New York, 2004 Johannes Kepler, New Astronomy... A. Connor, Kepler's Witch, Harper Collins, New York, 2004 Johannes Kepler, New Astronomy...



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... of extrasolar planets by complementing Kepler’s census of close-in planets... to ~15%. • When combined with Kepler, WFIRST-2.4 will provide statistical constraints... of ground-based searches and Kepler observations suggest that there are... combined with the results from Kepler, WFIRST2.4 will produce the first... outsized impacts just as SDSS, Kepler, and other wide field surveys... nearly 900 confirmed exoplanets and Kepler has identified another 2700 candidates... of planetary systems begun by Kepler. This science is described in... planet formation theories.69,70 Kepler has begun the process of...” and “warm” planets.71,63 Kepler has been enormously successful, discovering... a bewildering array of architectures. However, Kepler can only tell part of...: the transit method used by Kepler is not sensitive to planets... of planets are invisible to Kepler, yet constitute the two other... of exoplanetary systems begun by Kepler and so fully test these... planet. Indeed, a primary goal of Kepler is to provide a robust measurement... it highly desirable to confirm Kepler’s estimate by a complementary method, working... demographics of planetary systems, improve Kepler’s constraints on the frequency of.... Together, the exoplanet surveys of Kepler and WFIRST-2.4 will yield a composite.... The combination of WFIRST-2.4 and Kepler data will make it possible.... ⊕ ⊕ Section 2: Science be small. Furthermore, Kepler’s measurement of radius combined with... habitable zone. 40 Cold planets: Kepler’s intrinsic ability to detect planets... with large separations. As a result, Kepler will be unable to find... than one year. Simply put: Kepler is sensitive to “hot” and... of our planet formation theories. Kepler is currently revolutionizing our understanding... census of planets begun by Kepler. 2.5.1.5 Expected Exoplanet Yields Using the... the expected final yield of Kepler. Figure 2-19 illustrates two example... approximate regions of sensitivity for Kepler (red) and WFIRST2.4 (blue). The... the Moon, Ganymede, and Titan. Kepler is sensitive to the abundant... points show candidate planets from Kepler, whereas the small blue points... planet discoveries. Thus, WFIRST-2.4 and Kepler complement each other, and together... strong stellar irradiation. Of course, Kepler has detected many smaller and... discovered. Combined with demographics from Kepler and microlensing, astrometric information from... the radius distribution found by Kepler and extrapolated to larger semi... will play a role. Experience from Kepler says that multi-planet systems...® sandwich designs with heritage from Kepler, GeoEye and other programs. The...  Transit  Timing  Variations     Background   The   Kepler   mission   has   demonstrated   that   systems...  become  a  key  tool  in  confirming  Kepler  planets  and  measuring   their  masses...  precise  than  those  measured  by  Kepler,  the   ratio   of   aperture   diameters...   Kepler   target   stars,   and   by   significantly   extending   the   time   baseline   of   Kepler...  will  not  be  feasible   for  Kepler  stars  even  with  the  TMT...  to  observe   transits  of  selected  Kepler  target  stars.    These  stars  would...  already  show  TTVs  in  the  Kepler  data.    The   Iron frequency  of...  be  used   planets,  mostly  from  Kepler.  The  error  ellipses  refer  to...  of  the   the  well-­‐studied  Kepler  36  system.  WFIRST  will  provide...   estimates   for   upward   of   100   Kepler   exoplanets   instrument.)   with   known   radii...,  as  is  the  case  with  Kepler,  these  observations  would  be  photon...  to  observe  selected  transits  of  Kepler  targets.    The  approximate   times  of...   this   method.   The   recently   extended   Kepler   mission   will   eventually   open   the...  candidates.  The  goal  of  the  Kepler  mission  is  to   detect   habitable...   et   al.   2010)   compared   to   Kepler  (Borucki  et  al.  2010).       Key... visible (CCD) light curves of Kepler will also refine and validate... secondary eclipses of exoplanets with Kepler (Visible) observations will disentangle the... measurably large. b) Multi-planet systems Kepler has found that a good fraction... photometry comes from Kepler, a broadband 1-m telescope in space; however, Kepler’s 4-year mission...-NRO could be pointed at Kepler-discovered multi-planet systems around... number of transiting planets as Kepler (thousands), but TESS’s planets, by... atmospheres, that is impractical with Kepler-discovered exoplanets. The WFIRST-NRO... like SST has done for Kepler exoplanets, via IR light curves...<5.2 M . This is likely conservative, as Kepler has found several multi-planet... transit photometry (and specifically the Kepler data set) and the minimum... known radius distribution from the Kepler data set. We define logarithmic... al., “Planetary Candidates Observed by Kepler, III: Analysis of the First... Kepler-11”, Nature, 470, 53 (2011) 135 Gautier, T. N., III, et al., “Kepler...., “The False Positive Rate of Kepler and the Occurrence of Planets... exact mass/radius relationship of Kepler planets is, of course, one... the 1-2 RE planets found by Kepler is a significant science goal. 150...