Спутник ДЗЗ. Landsat 4. [Редактировать]

Космический аппарат Landsat-4 был запущен 16 июля 1982 г. ракетой-носителем Delta-3920 с Западного ракетного полигона {ЗРП) США и выведен на круговую орбиту высотой 705 км с наклонением 98.2°. Благодаря солнечно-синхронному типу орбиты, местное время пересечения экватора спутником в восходящем узле сохранялось постоянным, равным 9 ч 45 мин (условия освещенности поверхности Земли в это время наиболее благоприятны для съемки). Пролет ИСЗ над одним и тем же районом обеспечивался каждые 16 суток (через 233 витка), при этом гарантировалось, что для произвольной точки на поверхности Земли в течение 16 суток космическим аппаратом будет выполнен хотя бы один виток, на котором минимальное расстояние от заданной точки до трассы ИСЗ не превысит 76 км. Расстояние между точками пересечения экватора на двух последовательных витках составляло 2760 км. Основной особенностью этого космического аппарата Landsat второго поколения являлась замена телевизионной камеры RBV на спектрозональное сканирующее устройство ТМ. К февралю 1983 г., когда Landsat-4 претерпел множественные поломки, камерой ТМ было передано в общей сложности более 6000 качественных снимков. Для восполнения убытков, которые организация NOAA несла в связи с частичным отказом ИСЗ Landsat-4, в 1984 г. был запущен очередной ИСЗ Landsat-5. Рассматривалась возможность ремонта Landsat-4 путем обслуживания его с МТКК Space Shuttle в июне 1986 г. Однако работоспособность спутника была восстановлена лишь в октябре 1987 г. за счет задействования резервной линии передачи данных Х-диапазона. Передача изображений с ИСЗ Landsat-4 была окончательно прекращена в июле 1993 г. Изображения ТМ продолжали бесперебойно передаваться через ИСЗ-ретранслятор системы TDRSS до 1993 г. Отмечается, что использование ретранслятора было несколько ограничено в 1992 г. перед запуском ИСЗ Landsat-б, однако при необходимости передача данных камеры ТМ по радиолинии Ku-диапазона через ИСЗ системы TDRSS может быть возобновлена. 

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... Space Land Remote Sensing12 The U.S. Landsat system is currently the only... Landsat system and managed it as an R&D project until January 1983; Landsat is now managed by NOAA as a Government operational system. Landsat 5, launched... the last in the Government’s Landsat series. Although NASA and NOAA... of the present market for Landsat data and consequent high economic...). IJThe current annual market for Landsat data is about $10 million... skills to develop a market for Landsat data, may result in an.... The lengthy debate over the Landsat program has caused both domestic... development of international markets for Landsat-derived products. Building a substantial market... to the terms of the Landsat Commercialization Act of 1984. EOSAT... nwrket Landsat data and to construct, own, and operate foliow-url LandSat... the long debate over the Landsat program has demonstrated, systems that..., the United States used the Landsat or the Advanced Telecommunications Satellite... land remote sensing functions (the Landsat system) to the private sector... meteorological remote sensing. Ten foreign Landsat receiving, processing, and data distribution... agreement on the use of Landsat data and derived information products... on a communications broadcast satellite system, a Landsat ground receiving station, and aeronautical... the international aspects of the Landsat program. AID has supported and..., all in support of the Landsat program. NASA provided technical support... use as represented by the Landsat system. For more than a decade... U.S. national actions to turn the Landsat system over to the private... to make limited use of Landsat data. Most developing countries depend... of both the Metsat and Landsat data. Major cooperative options available..., Japan has had an operational Landsat receiving station, In 1981, the... attempt to transfer the Government’s Landsat system to the private sector... from SPOT and from the Landsat system are not perfect substitutes... mineral exploration and mapmaking. The U.S. Landsat system has two instruments providing... main contractor market. dGE supplies LANDSAT type earth stations onlY SOURCES...



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... U.S. activities including missions from USGS (Landsat), NOAA (VIIRS), and NASA (MODIS.... − Sentinel-2A will improve upon Landsat-8’s performance in terms of spatial... with a spatial ETM+ and OLI (Landsat), SLIM 6 (UKresolution between 10m and... other class-defining instruments like Landsat. The instrument type requirements across... instruments, but decreased spectral resolution – a.k.a. “Landsat class”. These data streams are..., and has a strong legacy of Landsat usage. Australia operates important ground... infrastructure as a part of the Landsat network, and this infrastructure has..., the respondents referenced medium resolution (i.e. Landsat) as providing the basis for... the end of Landsat-5 and the degraded operation of Landsat-7, there was a significant risk of a data gap in the Landsat series. However, this was mitigated with the launch of Landsat... downloads is still increasing. Figure 2 – Landsat scenes downloaded since the advent... ETM+ (Landsat-7), and OLI (Landsat-8). There are viable continuity options should Landsat become... / Future (year) ETM+ (Landsat-7) USGS U.S. Current – 2017 OLI (Landsat-8 / -9) USGS U.S. Current – 2023... - in particular, OLI on Landsat-8. While Landsat-7 continues to operate, the ETM... with Landsat-9 being developed as a copy of Landsat-8, and options for Landsat-10... (thermal bands) was added to Landsat-8 when users (i.e. U.S. state water resource... thermal measurements obtained by Landsat-8’s predecessors, Landsat 5 and Landsat 7, to track how land... commercial supply contracts. Should both Landsat missions fail, and Sentinel-2 not... allow. However, the performance of Landsat-8 has meant that mission operators... the initiation of development of Landsat-9. The budget anticipates future continuity... optical coverage that, together with Landsat, promises to provide new levels... Land Imager (OLI) On-Board LANDSAT-8, and SPOT 6/7 Instruments (Credit: ESA... flagged the possibility of a blended Landsat/Sentinel-2 product – which is supported... the thermal bands covered by Landsat-8’s TIRS instrument. While these bands... Contingencies 1. Ensuring Australian representation in Landsat and Sentinel-2 systematic acquisition plans... Landsat archives, data access has greatly increased. With the addition of Landsat-8, the limitations of Landsat-7’s scanline corrector malfunction... 2015. Sentinel-2A improves on Landsat’s spatial and spectral resolution, and... into the future. Interoperability between Landsat and Sentinel-2 means that users... options available should supply from Landsat and Sentinel-2 falter. The main... relation to data distribution systems. Landsat has demonstrated a commitment to global... parts Low end cost $647K “Landsat Class” − − − − − 20m spatial resolution 3 to...) Lowest cost $6.5-7.8M 9-13 bands (i.e. Landsat-8 / Sentinel2A) 185-290km swath Cost..., low resolution optical) flying on Landsat-8, which until recently included potentially... “ESA quality” instrument: $20-30M Landsat Thermal satellite: $207M Medium Resolution...) − − − − − Medium Resolution Low Optical − − USGS: Landsat (current – 2023+) EC/ESA: Sentinel... U.S. activities including missions from USGS (Landsat), NOAA (VIIRS), and NASA (MODIS... relationship with operational programs like Landsat and VIIRS, but also with... revisit (currently 16 days from Landsat-8). Availability of Sentinel-2A data... data infrastructure. Planning for future Landsat standard products appears likely to... della OLI Missione Applicativa Operational (Landsat-8) Imager RCM (CSA) RADARSAT mission... Ocean Salinity TIRS Thermal Infrared (Landsat-8) SPOT (CNES commercial) Second ASCAT..., Metop) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (Landsat-7) Instrument Land Global Sensor Visible... resolution: 8-16 days with combined Landsat-Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-1 Timeliness / Latency... Medium resolution: Landsat-7, Landsat-8 Low resolution: MODIS + VIRS Medium resolution: Landsat-7, Landsat-8, Sentinel-1 Anticipated Streams Low resolution: − Medium resolution: − Blended Landsat / Sentinel... data streams. Similarly, continuity from Landsat-8 to Sentinel-2 will be critical...-2 and -3 Main Existing Data − Streams Landsat and MODIS − Anticipated Streams Sentinel...: − Landsat Low resolution: − MODIS − AVHRR − VIIRS − Sentinel-3 − Himawari-8/9 Medium Resolution: − Landsat − Sentinel... and anomaly assessment – currently maintaining Landsat back to 1987 and MODIS... − − Main Existing Data − Streams − MODIS LandsatLandsat − Sentinel-1 − MODIS − VIIRS Commercial data... evidence); Persistent green trend using Landsat time series [Seasonal mosaics] (woody... Existing Data − Streams − − Landsat-8 is the core source − Landsat-7 also still in..., as a MODIS continuity option) A blended Landsat / Sentinel-2 mosaic could be ideal... to tune and optimise algorithms Landsat mosaics comprising 2 seasonal images used... In the event of a Landsat-8 failure, Landsat-7 mosaics could be used. Previous... Existing Data − Streams − Satellite: ASTER, Landsat, Hyperion Aircraft: HyMap/AMS, Hawk...



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... Lake Eyre, as captured by Landsat. These images show the movement... of EOS data, especially of Landsat data, for monitoring the impacts... USA’s NOAA, QuikSCAT, Aqua, Terra, Landsat, GPS, and GRACE low Earth... visible-thermal IR imagery, including Landsat, to evaluate drift evolution and... -2; the USA’s Aqua, Terra, and LANDSAT; and CNES’s STELLA, STARLETTE, and... the Thematic Mapper (TM) onboard Landsat-5, and by the MODIS instrument... pixels) satellite systems, such as Landsat and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal... methods developed by CSIRO for Landsat satellite data, the availability of... forest extent analyses derived from Landsat satellite data. Such integrations allow... the recent faults in the Landsat-7 satellite, thus forcing large-scale... such as the rapidly ageing Landsat-5 satellite, or other sources such... the recent faults in the Landsat-7 satellite. This has led to... such as the rapidly ageing Landsat-5 satellite, or other sources such... failure of Landsat-7 and limited performance of the ageing Landsat-5, Geoscience Australia... US discussions in terms of Landsat-data continuity. CSIRO and the... for application to the entire Landsat time series and will establish..., Sentinel-2, will begin to provide Landsat-type land-surface mapping information... government agencies such as GA’s Landsat archive and CSIRO’s AVHRR and... Marine Park using images from Landsat-7, allowing reefs to be located... continent.) AGENCY QUEENSLAND: SATELLITE DEPENDENCY LANDSAT TM/ETM MAJOR DEPENDENT PROGRAMS... and mapping NEW SOUTH WALES: LANDSAT TM/ETM+ Department of Environment... wetland inventory and monitoring VICTORIA: LANDSAT TM/ETM+ Department of Sustainability... AGENCY SATELLITE DEPENDENCY SOUTH AUSTRALIA: LANDSAT TM/ETM Department of Water... Biodiversity Conservation ALOS WESTERN AUSTRALIA: LANDSAT TM/ETM Landgate SPOT MAJOR... and Compliance Program WESTERN AUSTRALIA: LANDSAT TM/ETM Department of Environment... TERRITORY: MODIS • NT rangeland monitoring LANDSAT TM/ETM • NT fire mapping...



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.... Several systems, like the American Landsat system or the European Spot..., launch and operation of the Landsat remote sensing satellites increasingly should... remote sensing data from the Landsat satellites. In order to remedy.../AST) licenses launch vehicles, while LANDSAT’s remote sensing activities are regulated... French SPOT and the US LANDSAT remote sensing programmes, as well... data obtained from the US Landsat and the French SPOT satellites..., vectorial format), calculations, photographs (aerial, Landsat images). This service is situated... SITUATION (Latin America and Brasil): • LANDSAT data are available since June... (LANDSAT -5 and CBERS) •One hundred images recorded/day (LANDSAT 5 and CBERS); •LANDSAT-5 – 14... avialable for free download the LANDSAT archives since june 1973 + CBERS... long-term return of the Landsat programme to a non20 Id. “Most..., supra note 10. 23 National Landsat Policy Act of 1992, H.R. Rep... win a government contract for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission.35 In... for Landsat data led to the cancellation of plans to pursue Landsat.... 14. 35 “Failure To Capture Landsat Contract Dooms Resource21” Jason Bates... of attempting to commercialize the Landsat programme, the U.S. Government recently acknowledged... Science and Technology Policy Stated, “…Landsat images are the principal source... on the global environment. Additionally, Landsat data are utilized by over... for Landsat data led to the cancellation of plans to pursue Landsat data continuity as a public-private partnership…[T]o maintain Landsat’s legacy... States Government will transition the Landsat programme from a series of independently... plan for the continuity of Landsat data observations.43” It appears... legislative report accompanying the 1984 Landsat Act (sic) the Committee provided... as it did then... National Landsat Policy Act of 1992, supra...



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... imagery from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Landsat remote sensing satellite, and in... USGS Landsat satellites. This agreement appears to continue China’s use of Landsat imagery since 1986. Landsat is a joint program... sensing program. The Landsat program currently operates two satellites, Landsat-7 and 8, which... on Earth every 16 days. Landsat-7 regularly acquires 438 images per...’ surface during this 16 days. Landsat-8, on the other hand, regularly... panchromatic bands. The USGS provides Landsat imagery free of charge to....php?contentid=1469. 208 http://landsat.usgs.gov/planned_acquisition_schedule.php 39... Sciences uses imagery from the Landsat satellites for its research on... China.209 The use of Landsat imagery by the PLA cannot... to the lower resolutions of Landsat imagery, the revisit rate of.... For example, the U.S. military used Landsat imagery during Operation Desert Shield... be monitored in the desert, Landsat imagery was also used to....210 PLA researchers have used Landsat imagery in their research, including... Lake, Middle Yangtze: Evidence from Landsat TM/ETM Images,” IEEE, 2005..., and Gong Peng, “An Improved Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica,” Science... vehicle Unattributed hacking attack against Landsat-7 satellite command and control center... interruption Unattributed hacking attack against Landsat-7 satellite command and control center... command and control system of Landsat-7, a remote sensing satellite operated by... Region Imaging Spectrometer) 6/28/2013 Landsat 7 Landsat 8 6/20/2008 National Aeronautics and...



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... economic development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6. The impact of Landsat 7 hardware failure on post fire... HELP Box 2.6. The impact of Landsat 7 hardware failure on post fire... happens when a satellite malfunctions. The Landsat 7 hardware failure in May 2003... an interesting case in point. Landsat 7 has been used extensively by... in California. When both Landsat 7 and the ageing Landsat 5 satellite were operating... areas by comparing the new Landsat images with pre-fire images... failure in May 2003 of Landsat 7’s Scan Line Corrector, which compensates...-blind-like appearance. With only Landsat 5 providing useful images, the time.... A possible way to replace the Landsat 7 images appears to be the... within about 20 minutes of Landsat 7 on the same orbital track... eight days in tandem with Landsat 5. However, while ASTER offers similar... as Landsat satellites and it has a narrower swath width. Replacing the Landsat... Response Officials Feel Impact of Landsat 7 Glitch”, Space News, November. Macauley... proposals). The failed privatisation of Landsat confirms the pertinence of the... early as 1979, when the Landsat programme was transferred to NOAA... Commerce (DoC). As a result, the Landsat programme did not have very... time (1981-83) suggested that Landsat could not be successfully commercialised... government subsidy. Indeed, the “privatised” Landsat’s attempts to raise prices well... monopoly position. As a result, the Landsat programme had to be returned... response officials feel impact of Landsat 7 glitch”, Space News, 3 November. International...



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... Organization ETM Enhanced Thematic Mapper (LANDSAT) EtSC Established Space-Competent State... KSC Kagoshima Space Centre (Japan) LANDSAT Land use satellite (NASA) Laser... the one at Islamabad receives LANDSAT, SPOT, and NOAA [the National... capability. Imagery from the American LANDSAT satellite system has been available... the international commercial market are LANDSAT-4 and 5, which were constructed to... 30 m ground resolution. A followon spacecraft, LANDSAT-6, carried an improved remote sensing.... However, LANDSAT-6 was lost during launch in 1993 and therefore LANDSAT-5 is... federal agencies involved in the LANDSAT programme, the Bush Administration had... agencies to develop and launch LANDSAT-7 and given 388/ WorldMap is.../ “Administration Sets Policy on Landsat Continuity,” LANDSAT DATA USERS NOTES, Earth Observation... it may be expected that LANDSAT-7, which was launched on 15... m panchromatic and 20 m multi-spectral), LANDSAT (presently at 30 m thematic mapper... similar to its predecessors, and LANDSAT 7 and SPOT 5 (both providing 5 m panchromatic... family. The data from future LANDSAT satellites and present Indian IRS... by 170 km $4400 JERS LANDSAT $400 > 10 years old SPOT... 4 .. GEO .. NETSAT .. .. GEO .. NORSTAR .. .. GEO .. LANDSAT 7 1 1999 705.3 Earth Observation ORBCOMM.... "Administration Sets Policy on Landsat Continuity," LANDSAT DATA USERS NOTES, Earth Observation..., U.S. Department of State, October 1994. "LANDSAT 20th Anniversary," Earth Observation Satellite...



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... a 1:25.000 scale. Based on Landsat-7 ETM satellite imagery (~1 year old...) landcover classification and poppy cultivation Landsat 7 whole Afghanistan from 2000 10... a similar study where they use Landsat-7 images produced a 1:50,000 scale... Servers, Networks and Access Collect Landsat, IRS, SPOT and other EO... to advancement in satellite sensors (Landsat TM, SPOT-HRV, IRS- 1C... visually interpreted and delineated from Landsat TM FCC (bands 4,3,2) in a semi... in Lorie estuary using SPOT, Landsat TM, ERS-1 radar images and... resolution and stereo coverage, viz. Landsat TM with 7 bands, at 30... of lithology in greater detail. Landsat TM and SPOT data were... on regional scale i.e. 1:50,000. Landsat TM band 5 (SWIR) can be... been widely appreciated by geologists. Landsat TM carries TIR bands (10... airborne and space borne SAR, Landsat TM and gamma ray spectrometry... FM 144.100 FM M.A.R.S.? See LANDSAT-3 145.825 - 145.975 CW... India SPOT-4 France NOAA-15 LANDSAT-7 US IRS-P4 IKONOS-2 US... the Norfolk Boards, UK using Landsat Imagery. Int. J. Rem. Sen. Vol... of training data derived from Landsat imagery in decision tree classifiers... Aperture Radar (SAR) integration with Landsat TM and gamma ray spectrometry...



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... can be directly calculated from Landsat satellite data, is related to...., 2008; Hunt et al., 2003). Landsat satellite data are the most... with edaphic factors (Ziroyan, 2008). Landsat OLI images obtained in 2013... m Satellite/sensor Landsat-8 OLI Landsat-8 OLI Landsat-8 OLI Landsat-8 OLI Landsat-8 OLI Landsat-8 OLI Landsat-8 OLI Landsat-8 OLI... discussion Based on a series of Landsat OLI multi-channel images obtained...–1003. 27. Williams D., Goward S., Arvidson T., Landsat: Yesterday, today and tomorrow, Photogrammetric... прямо из данных спутников серии Landsat, относится к характеристикам растительного покрова. Это...–1003. 27. Williams D., Goward S., Arvidson T. Landsat: Yesterday, today and tomorrow // Photogrammetric...



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... Tables Table 3. 1: Features of the Landsat Images Used for the Land... traditional land governance. .......................................................................... 50 Figure 6. 1 Landsat and classified image of physical...-Takoradi in 2008 ......... 59 Figure 6. 2 Landsat and classified image of physical... dependent on secondary data. I used Landsat satellite images (2008 and 2015... used. Table 3. 1: Features of the Landsat Images Used for the Land...-02-01 Landsat 7 ETM 0.00 2015 2015-04-25 Landsat 7 ETM 30... patterns in the metropolis. The Landsat satellite images (2008 and 2015...’s growth (See Figures 6.1 and 6.2). Figure 6. 1 Landsat and classified image of physical...: Modified from Google Earth Figure 6. 2 Landsat and classified image of physical.... United States Geological Survey (2015). Landsat 7 ETM Images. USGS, Virginia. Available....gov/science/science-explorer?lq=Landsat+7+ETM+Images. Accessed: 20/09...