Спутник ДЗЗ. Landsat 4. [Редактировать]

Космический аппарат Landsat-4 был запущен 16 июля 1982 г. ракетой-носителем Delta-3920 с Западного ракетного полигона {ЗРП) США и выведен на круговую орбиту высотой 705 км с наклонением 98.2°. Благодаря солнечно-синхронному типу орбиты, местное время пересечения экватора спутником в восходящем узле сохранялось постоянным, равным 9 ч 45 мин (условия освещенности поверхности Земли в это время наиболее благоприятны для съемки). Пролет ИСЗ над одним и тем же районом обеспечивался каждые 16 суток (через 233 витка), при этом гарантировалось, что для произвольной точки на поверхности Земли в течение 16 суток космическим аппаратом будет выполнен хотя бы один виток, на котором минимальное расстояние от заданной точки до трассы ИСЗ не превысит 76 км. Расстояние между точками пересечения экватора на двух последовательных витках составляло 2760 км. Основной особенностью этого космического аппарата Landsat второго поколения являлась замена телевизионной камеры RBV на спектрозональное сканирующее устройство ТМ. К февралю 1983 г., когда Landsat-4 претерпел множественные поломки, камерой ТМ было передано в общей сложности более 6000 качественных снимков. Для восполнения убытков, которые организация NOAA несла в связи с частичным отказом ИСЗ Landsat-4, в 1984 г. был запущен очередной ИСЗ Landsat-5. Рассматривалась возможность ремонта Landsat-4 путем обслуживания его с МТКК Space Shuttle в июне 1986 г. Однако работоспособность спутника была восстановлена лишь в октябре 1987 г. за счет задействования резервной линии передачи данных Х-диапазона. Передача изображений с ИСЗ Landsat-4 была окончательно прекращена в июле 1993 г. Изображения ТМ продолжали бесперебойно передаваться через ИСЗ-ретранслятор системы TDRSS до 1993 г. Отмечается, что использование ретранслятора было несколько ограничено в 1992 г. перед запуском ИСЗ Landsat-б, однако при необходимости передача данных камеры ТМ по радиолинии Ku-диапазона через ИСЗ системы TDRSS может быть возобновлена. 

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0.02/5
... President Announces Landsat Policy,” February 13, 1992, with attached: “Landsat Remote Sensing... intention of continuing Landsat-type data collections after Landsat 6.” [II-37] The....78 Second, Landsat proponents worried that failing to develop Landsat 7 would give... the operational life of Landsat 7. [II-40] Landsat 6 was to carry an...’s yearly operations budget for Landsat 7. In September 1993, Landsat 6 was launched but... the ERTS program Landsat. By 1976, with two Landsat satellites in orbit... Present Landsat System The existing Landsat system consists of one satellite, Landsat 3, launched... from Landsat 3. Two additional satellites, Landsat D and D’, currently are under construction, with Landsat... instance, the current Landsat system includes no satellites after Landsat D’. Anticipated gaps... the refurbishment of Landsat D. In addition, changes in the Landsat D ground segment... operational control (not ownership) of Landsat-4 and Landsat D’. These satellites would be... the area of Landsat, in the area of Landsat that is appropriate... satellites, or Landsat, since 1972. Since that time, Landsat has provided a wealth... intention of continuing Landsat-type data collections after Landsat 6. Landsat, which takes detailed... threatened continuity of Landsat and jeopardized continuity of Landsat data. The National... President Announces Landsat Policy,” February 13, 1992, with attached: “Landsat Remote Sensing... and operations of Landsat 7 back to the government. Landsat 6, on the other... Landsattype remote sensing. II. Landsat Strategy a. The Landsat strategy is composed of... doing so, or until Landsat 6 becomes operational. (2) Acquiring a Landsat 7 satellite with the... the continued operation of Landsat satellites 4 and 5 until Landsat 6 becomes operational. b. The.... [1] Management Plan for the Landsat Program Introduction The Landsat Program benefits a wide... the Landsat program, including the development and operation of a Landsat follow-on (Landsat...: – Maintain Landsat program data continuity beyond Landsat 6 by: [2] – Seeking to launch Landsat, approximately 5 years after the launch of Landsat... 1). Any improvements over a Landsat 6 functional equivalent capability for Landsat 7 will be funded... feasible in the Landsat program. Advanced Technologies for Landsat 8 and Beyond. NASA... Mission Operations – Landsat 4–6 Operations, with Landsat 7 Operations Beginning in FY 1997 – Landsat 4–7 Data... continuity of Landsat coverage into the 21st century. (9) Because Landsat data are... as responsible for the Landsat program. (7) The term “Landsat system” means Landsats... the Landsat 6 spacecraft. (9) The term “Landsat 7” means the follow-on satellite to Landsat... seq.) is repealed. TITLE I—LANDSAT SEC. 101. LANDSAT PROGRAM MANAGEMENT. [citation in... Landsat 7; (3) specify that any improvements over the Landsat 6 functional equivalent capability for Landsat... current Landsat system. (c) RESPONSIBILITIES.—The Landsat Program Management shall be responsible for— (1) Landsat... and data preprocessing. (e) LANDSAT ADVISORY PROCESS— (1) ESTABLISHMENT.— Landsat Program Management shall seek... Landsat 7, the Landsat Program Management shall— (1) seek, as a fundamental objective, to have Landsat... to the Landsat 6 satellite; and (3) seek to incorporate in Landsat 7 any performance... FOR LANDSAT 7. [citation in margin: “15 USC 5615”] (a) LANDSAT 7 DATA POLICY.—The Landsat... ground receiving stations or distributing Landsat 7 data. (c) LANDSAT 7 DATA POLICY PLAN.—Not... archiving of Landsat 7 data and in operations of the Landsat 7 spacecraft. [marginal... thereafter until the launch of Landsat 7, the Landsat Program Management, in consultation... title to the Landsat 6 contractor shall specify that the Landsat 6 contractor shall... private sector funding. (e) LANDSAT PROGRAM MANAGEMENT COORDINATION.—The Landsat Program Management shall... to go forward with the LANDSAT 7 and LANDSAT 8 program. I am available to... the site revisit time of Landsat 5. Landsat 6 would have addressed these concerns... continuance of the Landsat 7 program, assures continuity of Landsat-type and quality... for a gap in the Landsat data record if Landsat satellites 4 and 5 should... Landsattype remote sensing. III. Landsat Strategy a. The Landsat strategy is composed of... so. (2) Acquiring a Landsat 7 satellite that maintains the continuity of Landsat-type data... funding for the Landsat 7 ground system. (4) Operate the Landsat 7 spacecraft and ground... and DOI, develop a Landsat 7 ground system compatible with the Landsat 7 spacecraft. (3) In... for maintaining continuity of Landsat-type data beyond Landsat 7. (6) Conduct a coordinated technology... first satellite data analyses. Landsat. In the Landsat case, it was felt...,” 244-46; and Landsat, 168-73; and “Landsat Remote Sensing Policy,” 345..., 352-68; and Landsat, 133, 168-73; and “Landsat Remote Sensing Strategy... Landsat, 133, 168-73; and “Landsat Remote Sensing Policy,” 345-47; and “Landsat... Landsat, 133, 168-73; and “Landsat Remote Sensing Policy,” 345-47; and “Landsat...



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... Imaging Spectroradiometer) 1 km and biweekly Landsat LST imagery sharpened to 30... well as in comparison with a Landsat-only retrieval. A significant improvement... fusing MODIS and Landsat data in comparison with the Landsat-only case... event occurred between two successive Landsat acquisitions. The improvements are further... is obtained using Landsat-MODIS fusion versus a 9% Landsat-only systematic underestimation. Citation... temperature, TRAD( ), maps derived from Landsat and MODIS. filled using a second... Landsat LST fields. This normalization process ensures that the MODIS and Landsat... changes in water availability between Landsat overpass dates as schematically described... Figure 2. Flowchart describing the Landsat-MODIS and Landsat-only procedures for estimating... only the temporally sparse Landsat estimates (referred as Landsat-only interpolation). Following... for both Landsat and MODIS data, n is the number of Landsat/ MODIS... only a single pair of available Landsat and MODIS images (n ¼ 1). An automated... Landsat 5 (Thematic Mapper, TM) and 7 (Enhanced Thematic Mapper, ETMþ) for two Landsat... DisALEXI (Landsat and MODIS) Modelsa Variable ALEXI DisALEXI (MODIS) DisALEXI (Landsat) Clear... m resolution LAI maps used for Landsat disaggregation were generated using a regression...., 2007] was adopted in DisALEXI/Landsat. 3.2.4. Land-Surface Temperature Estimates [30...] Landsat LST maps, at the native spatial resolution of 120 m (Landsat 5) or 60 m (Landsat 7), were derived from thermal... fluxes modeled by DisALEXI using Landsat imagery allow a direct comparison with... of the Landsat overpass on the five clear-sky Landsat dates (DOY... sites on Landsat overpass dates at (a) time of the Landsat overpasses and... daily fused Landsat-like products, reconstructed using MODIS data between Landsat overpasses... sites. [36] Figure 6 shows Landsat-only and Landsat-MODIS results at each... ET map on Landsat imaging date 214, so this Landsat-MODIS image...–240), 2002 using the Landsat-MODIS and Landsat-only methodologies described in... Daytime-Integrated Surface Fluxes on Landsat Overpass Dates at 30 m Resolution... the simple spline interpolation of Landsat estimates (Landsat-only) to reasonably reproduce... between Landsat overpasses. For instance, in sites 003 and 161 (soybean) Landsat... reduce undesired noise in the Landsat-MODIS estimates. [40] Statistical performance... unforced regressions were negligible). For Landsat-only, b was less than 1 for... reduced to 2% (b ¼ 0.98) for the Landsat- Figure 5. Temporal dynamics in vegetation... Landsat overpass times, the dark line represents the spline interpolation of Landsat estimates (Landsat-only), and the light... obtained by fusing Landsat and MODIS estimates with STARFM (Landsat-MODIS). (top left) Date of the MODIS-Landsat image pair... comparing spatial patterns in Landsat-only and Landsat-MODIS time series. On..., two pairs of Landsat-like ET maps (retrieved between Landsat overpasses) are... Landsat image acquired on DOY 182) with Landsat-only (Figure 8a) and Landsat... the rainfall event, the Landsat-only and Landsat-MODIS modeling systems yield... a notable underestimation in Landsat-only compared to Landsat-MODIS across the whole... generated with the Landsat-only (Figure 9a) and Landsat-MODIS (Figure 9b... sites computed from the Landsat-only and Landsat-MODIS retrievals. Lines indicate... the sites, whereas the simple Landsat-only approach returns satisfactory results...-cumulative ET observed with the Landsat-only approach. Table 3. Statistical Metrics... the Eight Flux Tower Sitesa Landsat-Only Landsat-MODIS Site MAD (mm... maps retrieved with the Landsat-only and Landsat-MODIS methodologies. (a and c) The...) as modeled by Landsat-only (Figure 8b) and Landsat-MODIS (Figure 8d) approaches. soybean compared to Landsat-MODIS. Moreover...ficantly lower in Landsat-MODIS than in the Landsat-only retrievals resulting... of the study area, where Landsat-only significantly underestimates LandsatMODIS...) as modeled by the (a) Landsat-only and (b) Landsat-MODIS methodologies. 12 CAMMALLERI... Landsat-only to À7mm (3% of the seasonaltotal ET) for the MODIS-Landsat...-integrated ET, the direct Landsat retrievals on Landsat imaging dates showed an... proposed Landsat-MODIS fusion approach and fluxes from a benchmark case using Landsat... evaporation) between two consecutive highresolution (Landsat) acquisitions, especially when those rainfall..., whereas a simple spline interpolation of Landsat estimates (normalized with ET0) tends... of the Landsat and MODIS surface reflectance: Predicting daily Landsat surface..., and W. P. Kustas (2012a), Use of Landsat thermal imagery in monitoring evapotranspiration... (2012b), Mapping daily evapotranspiration at Landsat spatial scales during the BEAREX..., S., S. Phinn, and T. Gill (2012), Preparing Landsat Image Time Series (LITS) for...), Deriving land surface temperature from Landsat 5 and 7 during SMEX02/SMACEX, Remote...



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0.08/5
... remote sensing alternatives: a review of Landsat-like sensors and their applications....us Abstract. Earth observation with Landsat and other moderate resolution sensors... success of the Landsat program, recent problems with Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 create uncertainty... could potentially complement or replace Landsat. The objective of this paper... sensing community a concise synthesis of Landsat-like sensors and research demonstrating... of Landsat alternatives, and strategies for minimizing the impact of a possible Landsat data gap. Keywords: Landsat, SPOT, IRS, CBERS... Landsat data can be attributed to several key characteristics of the Landsat... management [2]. Landsat data have been collected and archived from six Landsat missions spanning nearly 35 years. The Landsat suite of... the operation of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Despite the success of the Landsat program, the near future is uncertain. Landsat 5, launched in... threatening power generation and balance [3]. Landsat 7, launched in 1999, developed an... [4]. Implementation plans for a follow-on Landsat mission are currently in progress... 1992 [5] to maintain Landsat continuity. However, a follow-on Landsat launch cannot be... potential trade-offs among them. A Landsat data gap notwithstanding, the demand... present a review of moderate resolution, "Landsat-like" sensors. We endeavor to... specifically the Landsat user community, with a concise synthesis of Landsat-like sensors... "Landsat-like" sensors? Landsat-like sensors are those with similar characteristics to Landsat... note that the Landsat-like sensors fall short of Landsat in terms... from multiple sensors. 2 REVIEW OF LANDSAT-LIKE SENSORS AND APPLICATIONS We... 1. Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 specifications. Satellite/Sensor Launch Date Landsat 5 /Thematic Mapper 1984 Landsat 7 /Enhanced... of Landsat has been well documented elsewhere [2,8]. Land cover classifications with Landsat are numerous [9,10]. Forest and woodland applications with Landsat include...]. Agriculture and rangeland applications of Landsat include crop yield estimation [18... area [21]. Urban applications of Landsat include estimating urban growth [22..., Vol. 1, 012506 (2007) Page 3 Table 2. Landsat-like sensors and their specifications... Landsat-like alternative. Despite having a smaller swath width (60 km) than Landsat... viable complements or alternatives to Landsat where these data are available... m) spectral modes performed better than Landsat TM in estimating stand-wise... accuracy to Landsat. While the spectral resolution is less than Landsat on... designed to be comparable with Landsat’s spatial and spectral resolution, all... has shown improved capability versus Landsat ETM+ for a variety of environmental... comparable spatial resolution (30 m) to Landsat, with improved spectral resolution (9 bands... of historical Landsat-like observations (e.g. LEDAPS [6]). In the event of a Landsat data... sensors in comparison to the Landsat archive, therefore, hinges upon accurate... imagery from four different sensors (Landsat 5, Landsat 7, ASTER, and SPOT 4) could be... to within +/- 2% precision. Even across Landsat sensors, techniques have been described...]. Aguena and Mascarenhas [85] fused Landsat ETM+ panchromatic and CBERS-1 using... Landsat surface reflectance by fusion with MODIS. Given the likelihood of a Landsat..., Landsat-like data has the potential to complement or even replace Landsat... prove that Landsat-like sensors are superior or inferior to Landsat itself... to Landsat. This suggests that where data are available for Landsat-like... understand the tradeoffs between Landsat and these Landsat-like sensors. Journal of... June 2007]. W. B. Cohen and S. N. Goward, "Landsat’s role in ecological applications of...[0535:LRIEAO]2.0.CO;2]. M. Frederick, "Latest Landsat 5 problem elevates data gap worries... 2007]. D. L. Williams, S. Goward, and T. Arvidson, "Landsat: yesterday, today, and tomorrow," Photogramm..., F. Huemmrich, F. Gao, J. Kutler, and T. K. Lim, "A Landsat surface reflectance data set for..., M. Herold, W. B. Cohen, T. R. Loveland, and C. E. Woodcock, "Landsat continuity: issues and opportunities for..., and A. Laborderie, "The impact of Landsat satellite monitoring on conservation biology... regression of biophysical variables and Landsat ETM+ data," Rem. Sens. Environ...). [24] G.Y. Li and Q.H. Weng, "Using Landsat ETM+ imagery to measure population..., "Intermountain plant community classification using Landsat TM and SPOT HRV data..., J. E. Pinder, and G. C. Kroh, "A comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT multispectral...] J. R. Irons and J. G. Masek, "Requirements for a Landsat data continuity mission," Photogram. Eng... G.S. Biging, "EO-1 Hyperion, ALI and Landsat 7 ETM+ data comparison for estimating..., "Radiometric correction of multi-temporal Landsat data for characterization of early... of the Landsat and MODIS surface reflectance: predicting daily Landsat surface reflectance...



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0.09/5
... radiometric and geometric comparisons with Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper Jeffrey G. Masek*, Miroslav... Abstract The Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor offers several enhancements over the Landsat-4,5 Thematic... some initial comparisons between Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery in order.... All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The Landsat-7 mission, successfully placed into orbit... Satellite (ERTS, later Landsat-1). From the beginning, Landsat sensors have provided calibrated... surface hydrology (Goward & Williams, 1997). Landsat’s success is revealed not only..., and MISR sensors, combined with Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus observations...). The Landsat-7 mission represents a significant change in operations in comparison to Landsat-4 and -5. Following design studies in the mid-1970s, Landsat-4 introduced... Multispectral Scanner (MSS) flown on Landsat-1, -2, and -3. The TM instrument significantly... deployment of TM on Landsat-4, the entire Landsat system was transferred to... instrument. Landsat-6 was lost during launch in 1993. When the Landsat program... on Landsat-7. Of primary concern was to ensure continuity of the Landsat observation record from previous missions (e.g., Landsat-4 and -5). This pressure directed attention toward building a duplicate of the Landsat... aging Landsat-4 and -5. Thus, the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument is essentially the EOSAT Landsat-6 heritage instrument. It replicates the Landsat-6 ETM design... quality of the Landsat-7 mission could easily exceed the Landsat-4 and -5 missions... selected Landsat-7 ETM+ observations, in comparison to both historical and contemporary Landsat... evaluate the degree to which Landsat-7 observations will permit continued large... well understood to fully exploit Landsat observations for global change science... attributes to compare between Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+: Geodetic accuracy refers..., & Bulley, 1999). To intercompare Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 data, we examined a suite of... acquired as part of the Landsat-5/Landsat-7 underfly experiment, in which the... L1G processing (Bernard, 1997). For Landsat-7, the geodetic error after systematic...). This is considerably stricter than Landsat-5, where corner coordinates may often... evaluate the geodetic accuracy of Landsat-7, we collected accurate ground control... examples, the geodetic accuracy of Landsat-7 imagery is well within specification... a Landsat-7 image (P15,R33; July 28, 1999) and from three Landsat-5 122... by striping in Landsat-5 scenes become crisp in the Landsat-7 scene. It should be noted that different bands on Landsat... 4 and 5 from (a, c) Landsat-5 TM (acquired 7/11/97) and (b, d) Landsat-7 ETM+ (acquired 7/28... (banding, striping, stipling) in the Landsat-7 images. J.G. Masek et al. / Remote... Landsat-5 TM subsets are consistent regardless of acquisition date. In contrast, Landsat...-gain state characteristic of the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument presents the interesting... 4, comparing two Landsat-5 TM images with the 7/28/99 Landsat-7 image. Although...) Fourier amplitude spectra for Landsat-5 TM scenes and Landsat-7 ETM+ scene; (b) mean percent reduction in integrated amplitude (noise) between Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat 5 TM. bands 2– 4 and 7, the... on the gain settings of Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 (high gain). We produced...) using gain settings from Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+, and representative surface... band (bits) for Landsat-5 TM (dashed line) and Landsat-7 ETM+ (solid line.... (5). For this analysis, we used Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 data from Washington, DC...) 118–130 Results from the Landsat-5/Landsat-7 overflight of the Washington, DC... might guide other researchers using Landsat-7 data. 4.1. Radiometric precision and land... the Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor represents a substantial improvement over the earlier Landsat-5 TM... in next-generation Landsat-type sensors. Unlike previous Landsat sensors, ETM+ includes... and Jennifer Seiferts for making Landsat-5/Landsat-7 underfly imagery available. This work... of scan-line noise from Landsat TM P-tape imagery. Photogrammetric Engineering..., R., Turner, S., Campana, K., & Bindschadler, R. (1999). Enhanced Landsat capturing all the Earth’s land..., 289 – 293. Goward, S. N., & Williams, D. L. (1997). Landsat and Earth systems science: development... the reduction of banding in Landsat Thematic Mapper images. Photogrammetric Engineering..., J. (1985). Spectral characterization of the Landsat Thematic Mapper sensors. International Journal..., D. J., & Peterson, C. J. (1985). Methods for destriping Landsat 130 J.G. Masek et al. / Remote..., 623 – 656. Sheffner, E. J. (1994). The Landsat program: recent history and prospects... cross-calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-5 TM sensors based on..., D., Merchant, J. W., & Bulley, H. (1999). Effects of Landsat Thematic Mapper radiometric and geometric..., R., Choate, M., & Merchant, J. (1998). Characterization of Landsat Thematic Mapper radiometry and geometry...



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... renamed Landsat, NASA Associate Administrator for Applications Charles W. Mathews announced at a Landsat... called Landsat 1; ERTS-B, scheduled for launch 19 Jan., would be designated Landsat....), Landsat seemed a more appropriate name for a satellite that studied the land. Landsat Program Manager Harry Mannheimer said that Landsat- B would be launched into the same orbital plane as Landsat... said that a significant improvement over Landsat 1 was Landsat- B's increase in command storage... of a ground station. James R. Morrison, Landsat Resources Survey Program Manager, said... of the Landsat 1 mission was on experimentation, the emphasis for Landsat-B would... with 320 investigators during the Landsat 1 mission-57 were US.-sponsored... and private sectors. New with Landsat- B were the Applications Systems Verification... results of Landsat 1 , to further develop, demonstrate, and document Landsat results. The... investigator to manage. ASVTs for Landsat-B included a large-area crop inventory...) 22-25 January: NASA launched Landsat 2 (Landsat- B), formerly called Earth Resources Technology... demonstrate the practical application of Landsat a ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1975 January... to illustrate further applications of Landsat imagery for crop inventory, and... initial orbital phasing of Landsat 2 relative to Landsat 1 (launched as Erts 1 on... normally. Teaming up with Landsat 1 , the 953-kg Landsat 2 would provide repetitive... crop-acreage measurements derived from Landsat data with meteorological information from... addition, Canada and Brazil operated Landsat ground data-acquisition stations and... available to the public. The Landsat mission was part of a U.S. program... earth's resources. In addition to Landsat 1 and 2, the program included remote... flight in mid-1979, and Landsat- C, scheduled for a fall 1977 launch...” Earth Resources Technology Satellite [renamed Landsat 14 Jan.] program, inducing President... to continue the work of Landsat 1 and 2 (launched 23 July 1972... data from Landsat 1 (launched as Erts 1 23 July 1972) and Landsat 2 (launched... threatened, scrapped funds for the Landsat- C satellite “may reflect an effort...- 7) 25 March: The computer aboard Landsat 2 (launched 22 Jan.) was the...-resources and environmental surveys by Landsat. (NAA Release, 6 March 75; NASA... May ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1975 Landsat 2 (launched 22 Jan.) was monitoring... transmitting water-quality data to Landsat 2, which relayed the data National...



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0.05/5
... ENVISAT, RADARSAT 1 2, TerraSAR-X, Terra, Aqua, LANDSAT. Совместный анализ спутниковых радиолокационных и оптических... композитных изображений по спутниковым данным LANDSAT Е.И. Белова, Д.В. Ершов Центр по проблемам... высокого пространственного разрешения тематического картографа LANDSAT-5 и LANDSAT-7 благодаря наличию многолетнего архива данных... безоблачных композитных изображений по данным LANDSAT-5 и LANDSAT-7. Методика включает в себя несколько этапов... пожаров по спутниковым данным SPOT и LANDSAT. Данная технология реализована в отраслевой системе... по поступающим в систему данным SPOT и LANDSAT. Методы и алгоритмы обработки спутниковых данных... из космоса» Преобразование снимков спутника LANDSAT-5(7) И.С. Камардин, А.М. Матвеев Институт космических исследований..., Москва Данные, поступающие со спутника LANDSAT-5(7), представлены как набор файлов в формате...) в одном файле. Данные каждого канала LANDSAT в формате GeoTIFF представляют собой монохромное... диапазонов RGB используются 5-, 4- и 3-й соответственно каналы LANDSAT с разрешением 30 м. Предлагаемый метод слияния... многоспектральных изображений, полученных со спутников LANDSAT и ALOS с целью выделения типов лесной... и детального разрешений (КА SPOT 2, SPOT 4, LANDSAT-5, LANDSAT-7, «Ресурс-ДК», «Метеор-М» № 1). Современный подход... зонах Евразии по данным MODIS и LANDSAT А.Г. Терехов, И.С. Витковская, М.Ж. Батырбаева Институт космических...ёмки среднего разрешения с КА Spot-4, LANDSAT-5/7 и др. В докладе рассматриваются следующие вопросы... среднего и высокого пространственного разрешения, например, LANDSAT. Но проблема такой съёмки... спутников среднего разрешения как, например, LANDSAT- 7 и Terra. Учитывая возможность непосредственного использования... Aqua/Terra, MERIS ENVISAT и ETM+LANDSAT. В результате анализа пространственного расположения мелкомасштабных... космоса» Terra, MERIS ENVISAT и ETM+LANDSAT, синтезированные в естественных цветах, практически не... использование оптических данных MODIS, MERIS и LANDSAT показали высокую эффективность спутниковых систем... космические снимки, сделанные с помощью спутников LANDSAT-7. Данные были геопозицинированы в проекции Гаусса... рассматриваются возможности применения космических снимков LANDSAT-7 ETM+ в тепловом инфракрасном диапазоне для... снимков среднего и мелкого пространственного разрешения (LANDSAT, SPOT, MODIS) и ЦМР (SRTM, ASTER... космоснимков. Для анализа использовались каналы LANDSAT: 1–5, 7 и MODIS: 1–7 (исключая канал 3, поскольку он... среднего пространственного разрешения (ЦМР и космоснимок LANDSAT). На обзорном уровне в результате генерализации... обработка многоспектральных данных со спутников LANDSAT. С целью уточнения достоверности материалов привлекались..., полученные камерой ETM+ со спутника LANDSAT-7. К серии разновременых снимков одной территории... линеаментов, дешифрируемых на космических снимках, LANDSAT-ETM вручную. Анализ рельефа программой..., полученных в зимний период, и выборочных изображений LANDSAT-TM, необходимых для получения опорных...@mail.ru В работе с использованием снимков LANDSAT-ETM+ проведена классификация поврежденных пожаром... в различных каналах спектрорадиометра ЕТМ+ спутника LANDSAT позволили сделать вывод о наличии и возможности... результаты совместного анализа разновременных изображений LANDSAT-TM и материалов наземной оценки повреждений... и бесплатный LANDSAT-7. Автором в среде ERDAS была проведена автоматизированная обработка космического изображения LANDSAT... стратификации по сравнению с бесплатным и общедоступным LANDSAT. 304 VIII открытая Всероссийская конференция... слишком обширными. На примере снимка LANDSAT-ETM раскрыты возможности визуального дешифрирования... данные MODIS, AWIFS, LISS-3, RapidEye и LANDSAT-5. В данный момент обрабатываются спутниковые данные... космоса» Сравнительное дешифрирование снимков SPOT и LANDSAT с целью картографирования породного состава лесов... пород: 6 — по снимкам SPOT и 5 — по LANDSAT, с выделением преобладающих пород. В дальнейшем планируется... разносезонных/разногодовых изображений высокого разрешения LANDSAT-5(7) (TM/ETM+), территории Приполярного Урала... композитных изображений по спутниковым данным LANDSAT Е.И. Белова, Д.В. Ершов . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 19 20..., А.М. Матвеев . . . . 39 Преобразование снимков спутника LANDSAT-5(7) И.С. Камардин, А.М. Матвеев . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Применение ансамблей... зонах Евразии по данным MODIS и LANDSAT А.Г. Терехов, И.С. Витковская, М.Ж. Батырбаева . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Мониторинг подтопления... Ecomag Е.Н. Антохина . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Применение снимков LANDSAT и SPOT для обнаружения поврежденных сибирским... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Сравнительное дешифрирование снимков SPOT и LANDSAT с целью картографирования породного состава лесов...



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... surface net radiation derived from Landsat images Maria Mira a,b,c,⁎, Albert Olioso... radiation Surface temperature Albedo Emissivity Landsat Regional scale Temporal course a b s t r a c t The... on net radiation derived from Landsat-7 images depending on reliability of.... Results show a substantial underestimation of Landsat-7 albedo (up to 0.024), particularly... correction of radiometric signals from Landsat-7 or the differences in spectral... (ETM +) on board of the Landsat satellites 5 and 7. As these sensors... periods of time (Landsat 5 for almost 29 years and Landsat 7 for 14... series of images acquired by Landsat, SPOT and Formosat-2 and later...); Hagolle et al. (2015)). Concerning Landsat, the data presently available consist..., emissivity and surface temperature from Landsat-7 products provided by the THEIA... area is covered by a single Landsat-7 ETM+ image. A network of ground... from Landsat-7 ETM+ data 2.3.1. Landsat data The ETM+ (on board of Landsat-7) acquires... m for band 6 (thermal infrared band). Landsat data used in this study... central workable part of the Landsat-7 ETM+ image acquired on July...). In the present study, 27 Landsat-7 ETM+ images acquired at about... as a linear combination of waveband Landsat-7 reflectances using Eq. (2), where... is the spectral band i from Landsat-7; mj: albedo model j; NIR: near... of Landsat-5; ETM+: Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus on board of Landsat-7; MISR... – – – – be significantly different from Landsat bands. Differences also occurred related... temperature and emissivity derived from Landsat radiances. Incoming radiations were obtained... for Landsat images; i = 1, 2, 3, 8, 10 when considering Formosat-2 data together with Landsat data.... 2. Comparison of albedo estimates using Landsat-7 data (unbiased m3 model) and... of the albedo retrievals since a Landsat pixel is around 1.5 to 4.5 larger... metrics from the validation of Landsat-7 albedo (α) with ground measurements from.... Our calculations of albedo from Landsat reflectances acquired at nadir... data were available in the Landsat spectral range). Variations of soil... from soil pixels extracted from Landsat images. In order to account... metrics from the validation of Landsat-7 surface temperature (Ts) with ground... of surface temperature estimates using Landsat-7 data and in situ measurements... radiation Net radiation estimated from Landsat-7 data shows typical variations in... radiation estimates for the entire Landsat-7 image acquired at 10:30... of net radiation estimates using Landsat-7 data. It was used albedo... metrics from the validation of Landsat-7 net radiation (Rn) with ground... for albedo models designed for Landsat (see below). Overall, δRn was... models originally defined for Landsat sensors were considered, uncertainties were... of net radiation estimates using Landsat-7 data and in situ measurements... (δ) in net radiation estimates using Landsat-7 data (in bold) and contribution... unbiased albedo models designed for Landsat (in a similar order as when... surface temperature estimates derived from Landsat-7 over various surface types. These... (Fig. 4). Estimations of albedo from Landsat data were obtained by applying... in net radiation estimates using Landsat-7 data due to uncertainty in...)). Underestimation of albedo estimated from Landsat data were also recently reported... sets that were derived for Landsat sensors. This indicated the necessity...ficient sets were derived for Landsat sensors using different methods, the...ficients for computing albedo from Landsat data, model m3 proposed by... conditions at the scale of a Landsat image) and 2) to evaluate incident... provide net radiation estimation from Landsat data. At present, TOC spectral..., R.G., Morse, A., & Kustas, W.P. (2012). Use of landsat thermal imagery in monitoring evapotranspiration...-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Landsat TM and ETM+. IEEE Transactions... radiometric calibration coefficients for Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and EO..., J.M., Sánchez, J.M., & Caselles, V. (2010). Validation of landsat-7/ETM+ thermal-band calibration and...). Estimating net solar-radiation using Landsat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation... reflectance and albedo from Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper over rugged terrain..., B., Vermote, E.F., & Claverie, M. (2014). Intercomparison of landsat albedo retrieval techniques and evaluation... detection, applied to FORMOSAT-2, VENμS, LANDSAT and SENTINEL-2 images. Remote Sensing... the atmospheric correction of FormoSat-2, LandSat, VENμS and Sentinel-2 images. Remote... land surface temperature retrieval from landsat thermal-infrared data. IEEE Transactions...). Deriving land surface temperature from landsat 5 and 7 during SMEX02/ SMACEX. Remote... to atmospheric correction: Application to Landsat-7 data over a Mediterranean agricultural region... canopy brightness temperatures derived from landsat-7 data. IEEE international geoscience and... of land surface temperature from Landsat 5 & 7 archive on 3 plots of South...). Land surface temperature retrieval from LANDSAT TM 5. Remote Sensing of Environment... surface shortwave net radiation from landsat data. IEEE Geoscience and Remote...



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... in the study ........................................................................ 18 3.2.2.1 Landsat Thematic Mapper 5 (Landsat-5 TM) ................................... 19 3.2.2.2 SPOT-5............................................................................................... 19... 3.2 : Spatial and spectral properties of Landsat-5 TM .................................... 19 Table 3.3 : Spatial and...). .................... 47 Figure 5.6 : Digitization-Lake Biyikali (a: Landsat-5 TM b: SPOT-5 c: Worldview-2). .................................................................................... 47 Figure..... .................. 50 Figure 5.9 : Residential area on Landsat-5 TM imagery... ....................................... 51 Figure 5.10...: Classification of Landsat-5 TM (RGB:7-4-2) ...................................... 55 Figure 5.13: Classification of Landsat-5 TM (RGB:4-3-2). .................................... 56 Figure 5.14: Classification of Landsat-5 TM...-5 but as a single line from Landsat-5 TM image. Residential and industrial... 1 adet 30 m mekansal çözünürlüğe sahip Landsat-5 TM görüntüsü kullanılmıştır. Görünt... SPOTxxii 5 görüntülerinde çift çizgi, Landsat-5 görüntüsünde ise tek çizgi... biçminde sayısallaştırılabilmiş, Landsat-5 görüntüsünde ise hiçbir... yakın alanlar elde edilmiştir. Landsat-5 görüntüsünde doğru bant...ın değerler vermiştir. Ancak Landsat-5 görüntüsü üzerinden aynı alanlara ait... yararlanılabileceği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Landsat-5 TM görüntüsünden, her ne... maps since the launch of LANDSAT-1 in 1972 (Mach, 1981). With... Scanner (MSS) that used in Landsat I satellite is one of the... and land-cover classification purposes. LANDSAT, MOMS and KFA-1000 can... context of this study are Landsat-5 TM, SPOT-5 and WorldView-2. These... 3.2.2.1 Landsat Thematic Mapper 5 (Landsat-5 TM) It is the fifth satellite of Landsat programme... 3.2 : Spatial and spectral properties of Landsat-5 TM. Bands Spectral Band Definition... interpretation, too. In this chapter, Landsat satellite images (used in the... 2011 dated, 30 m spatial resolution Landsat-5 TM image. Worldview-2 and pan... numbered TUBITAK CAYDAG project and Landsat-5 TM data was downloaded from... on the right-hand side Landsat-5 images are depicted. Also 1 : 5 000... of Worldview-2 image is 1,5 m. For Landsat-5 data, individual bands were only... (Figure 5.6). Figure 5.6 : Digitization-Lake Biyikali (a:Landsat-TM b:SPOT-5 c:Worldview-2). 47 Third... was done only for possible Landsat-5 TM image zones. The reason... different band combination for each Landsat-5 image zones and then resultant... is only one line from Landsat-5 image because of the spatial... earth). That is why, from Landsat-5 TM having 30 m spatial resolution... as blocks on SPOT-5. From Landsat-5, it is impossible to extract... area can be extracted from Landsat-5 TM imagery. There is one... on the spatial resolution of Landsat-5 TM. Medium resolution satellites are... A.2). 50 Figure 5.9 : Residential area on Landsat-5 TM imagery. Following table shows... 161.849 10243.9 8563.493 Landsat-5 TM - Relative Error (m) Residential-1 Residential... area can be understood from Landsat-5 imagery but forest area may...-5 and Worldview-2 imagery. However with Landsat-5 TM imagery, five individual fields... (Table 5.3). If one pixel of Landsat-5 TM imagery represents 900 m² area... extraction capabilities, both SPOT-5 and Landsat-5 TM succeeded to extract the.... Besides the spatial resolution of Landsat image, some geometrical differences may.... To give an example; for Landsat, water has no reflection on... are approximately 33 pixels for Landsat-5 TM and 900 pixels (5638....334 2080.468 1428.207 Landsat-5 TM 524307.03 - Relative Error... Chapter 4.2. Figure 5.12 : Classification of Landsat-5 TM (RGB: 7-4-2). Second classification was...). 55 Figure 5.13 : Classification of Landsat-5 TM (RGB: 4-3-2). Third classification was... 5.14). Figure 5.14 : Classification of Landsat-5 TM (RGB: 3-2-1). 56 5.3.3 Comparing digitization... after digitization and classification of Landsat-5 TM imagery (see Chapter 5.3.1 and... are digitized and classified on Landsat-5 TM image. The digitized and... to the spatial resolution of Landsat-5 TM imagery. More accurate values... (m²) Water-2 Area (m²) Water-3 Area (m²) SPOT- Landsat-5 TM 5 0.0085 0.0971 0.0364 0.0239... satellite image. RRMSE values for Landsat-5 TM imagery could not be... minor road network and footpath, Landsat-5 can not be used. Although... resolution satellite data such as Landsat-5 is not suitable. Besides, building... results (Table 5.3) spatial resolution of Landsat-5 TM is not sufficient for... one pixel corresponds 900 m² on Landsat-5 TM imagery (Table C1 – Table... be recognized from Worldview-2 imagery. Landsat-5 was better at identifying hydrographic... theoretically. As seen in Figure 5.8, Landsat-5 TM image failed to determine... area can be identified from Landsat-5 TM imagery and it can... reflection on SWIR bands (7-4-2) of Landsat. Thus, water objects look black... for applications - The history of Landsat. Space science comes of age...



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... съемочные каналы) высокого (15–30 м – Landsat, ASTER и др.), а также низкого разрешения... практикума TM/Landsat-5. Американские спутники для исследования Земли серии Landsat запускаются с 1972... снимками всей поверхности планеты. Спутник Landsat-5 выведен в марте 1984 г. на солнечно... и пространственное разрешение съемочной системы TM/Landsat-5 № канала 1 Спектральный диапазон, мкм 0,45...) является усовершенствованным вариантом сканера ТМ/Landsat-5: добавлен панхроматический канал с разрешением 15... и пространственное разрешение съемочной системы ЕТМ+/Landsat-7 № канала 1 Спектральный диапазон, мкм 0,45... многозональных космических снимков со спутника Landsat-7 в масштабе 1:100 000. Съемка 4 мая... многозональным разносезонным снимкам со спутника Landsat-7, вариант синтеза RGB – 4,3,2 каналы: А, В – съемка.... П3, В) Фрагмент космического снимка TM/Landsat-5. Используется в варианте синтеза RGB– 3. 4,3,2, т. е. снимку... тальвегов. 33 3. По снимку TM/Landsat-5 составить схему дешифрирования речных бассейнов... снимкам с разным пространственным разрешением: А – TM/Landsat-5, 29 мая 2007 г., Б – фрагмент карты... многозональных снимков, полученных системой ETM+/Landsat-7: 1. шесть зональных снимков (каналы 1–5 и 7) в виде... образа по зональным снимкам ETM+/Landsat-7: А, – снимки в съемочных каналах 1 (0,45 – 0,52... образа по зональным снимкам ETM+/Landsat-7: Г – графики спектрального образа болотной растительности... открытой воды. На снимках TM/Landsat-5 с пространственным разрешением 30 м вследствие интеграции... 2009 г. 2. Фрагмент космического снимка TM/Landsat-5 участка акватории Астраханского био- сферного... контролируемой классификации многозонального снимка TM/Landsat-5 Программное обеспечение – ILWIS. Порядок выполнения... наземных наблюдений: Г – фрагмент снимка TM/Landsat-5, съемка 16 августа 2009 г., с наложенной... классификации растительности по снимку TM/Landsat. 4. Ответы на вопросы в письменном виде... спутников (съемочные системы ТМ и ETM+/Landsat-7, ASTER/Terra, разрешение в тепловом канале... диапазоне предоставляют съемочные системы ETM+/Landsat-7 и ASTER/Terra (60 и 90 м соответственно... поверхности, преимущество имеют снимки ЕТМ+/Landsat-7 с более высоким пространственным разрешением. Характеристика... 4 мая 2001 г. 2. Зональный снимок ЕТМ+/Landsat-7 в инфракрасном тепловом диапазоне (6 канал, 10... теплового диапазона, B – зональный снимок ЕТМ+/Landsat-7 в инфракрасном тепловом диапазоне. 2. Найти примеры... лучше видны на тепловом снимке Landsat-7 благодаря более высокому пространственному разрешению.... 3.6. Таблица 3.6 Cравнение тепловых снимков ETM+/Landsat-7 и ASTER/Terra Объекты, лучше различимые... снимках 3. Преобразовать тепловой снимок ETM+/Landsat-7 путем квантования диапазона яркостей, пользуясь... на примере Москвы: Г – снимок ЕТМ+/Landsat-7 в непрерывной цветовой шкале и соответствующая гистограмма... и вывести на экран снимок ETM+/Landsat-7. Действия в программе ILWIS. Запустить программу... интервалов яркости теплового снимка ETM+/Landsat-7 объектам местности № Интервал яркостей Объекты... визуального сравнения тепловых снимков ETM+/Landsat-7 и ASTER/Terra. 2. Результат квантования теплового... интервалов яркости теплового снимка ETM+/Landsat-7 объектам местности. 4. Ответы на вопросы... 2009 г. 2. Фрагмент многозонального снимка ЕТМ+/Landsat-7 той же территории в панхроматиче- ском... ему фрагмент панхроматического снимка ETM+/Landsat-7. 2. Сравнить снимки в видимом и радио диапазонах... Фрагмент панхроматического (TerraSAR-X), 16 м снимка Landsat, 15 м (дешифровочные признаки) (дешифровочные признаки... данных различается. Так, данные TM/Landsat поступают с высоким качеством привязки в системе... снимков, предварительно геометрически согласованных: 1. TM/Landsat-4 и 5, 5 канал (1,5-1,75 мкм). Съемки 3 июня... г. Лаузицкий буроугольный бассейн, Германия. 2. MSS/Landsat, съемка 15 ноября 1972 г., КК..., Ливия. 102 3. Снимки MSS/Landsat и TM/Landsat представлены в виде фрагментов синтезированных многозональных.... Лаузицкий буроугольный бассейн, Германия, TM/Landsat-4 и 5, канал 5 (1,55-1,75): А – 3 июня 1985.../Landsat, 15 ноября 1972 г;, Е – КК Союз-12; 28 сентября 1973 г.; Ж – TM/Landsat-4, 24 сентября 1984 г.; З - TM/Landsat-5, 18 октября 1987 г., И – TM/Landsat-5, 5 ноября.... Материалы Серия разносезонных снимков TM/Landsat-5 в ближнем инфракрасном участке спектра (0,76.... Разносезонные космические снимки со спутника Landsat-5, 4 канал (0,76 – 0,90 мкм), съемка... 1. Фрагменты разновременных космических снимков TM/Landsat-5 с пространственным разрешением 30 м в 5 каналах видимого... СК42 трем разновременным снимкам TM/Landsat-5. Следующий этап – контролируемая классификация снимков... Landsat-5 – съемки 2007 и 2010 гг. 2. Выполнить контролируемую классификацию разновременных изображений TM/Landsat... маску на классифицированное изображение TM/Landsat 2006 г. Действия в программе. Запустить программу... пространственных координат съемочные материалы спутников Landsat, а космические снимки съемочной системы Cartosat... материалов 3.1. Космические снимки (SPOT, ASTER, Landsat, QuickBird GeoEye и др.) 3.2. Картографические источники...



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...- A AEuse Landsat E EPE- A DMEuse Explorer 12 satellite ERTS- A use Landsat 1 HEAO A EXOSHEOS...- Earth Resources Technology Satellite B use Landsat 2 Energetic Particle Explorer B use Explorer... Landsat F EPE- B use Explorer 14 satellite ERTS- B SEASATSIRS Gemini Planet- use Landsat... C Earth Resources Technology Satellite C use Landsat 3 Energetic Particle Explorer C use Explorer... Explorer 15 satellite ERTS- C use Landsat 3 HEAO C use HEAO 3 High Energy... Earth Resources Technology Satellite D use Landsat 4 Energetic Particle Explorer D use Explorer... Explorer 26 satellite ERTS- D use Landsat 4 HEAO D use HEAO 4 High Energy... E use Landsat E ERTS- E use Landsat E IMP- E rare use Explorer 35 satellite Landsat E Lunar... Landsat 1 Earth Resources Technology Satellite B use Landsat 2 Earth Resources Technology Satellite C use Landsat 3 Earth Resources Technology Satellite D use Landsat 4 Earth Resources Technology Satellite E use Landsat E Earth Resources Technology Satellite F use Landsat F Earth Resources Technology Satellites use Landsat...-A use Landsat E EOS AM-1 spacecraft use Terra spacecraft EOS-B use Landsat F EOS... use Landsat satellites ERTS-A use Landsat 1 ERTS-B use Landsat 2 ERTS-C use Landsat 3 ERTS-D use Landsat 4 ERTS-E use Landsat E ERTS-F use Landsat... F use Landsat F ERTS- F use Landsat F CVI IMP- F use Explorer 34 satellite KEL- F Landsat... folds (geology) foliage folic acid Landsat follow-on missions terrain following... grasslands thematic mappers (LANDSAT) Landsat 1 Landsat 2 Landsat 3 Landsat 4 Landsat 5 Landsat 6 Landsat 7 Landsat E Landsat F Landsat follow-on missions Landsat satellites landscape use terrain... use magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters LFO use Landsat follow-on missions liabilities legal... use Magellan project (NASA) mappers (LANDSAT) mapping mapping mapping mapping mapping... Glory Shuttle aborted asteroid flyby Landsat follow-on manned Mars Mars...- 2 3 4 SCORE self calibrating VHF labsystemsoffsilicon- Landsat followsiliconsiliconsiliconCommittee Large Infrared Telescope stowage... 1 use Landsat 1 Resources Technology Satellite B use Landsat 2 Resources Technology Satellite C use Landsat 3 Resources Technology Satellite D use Landsat 4 Resources Technology Satellite E use Landsat E Resources Technology Satellite F use Landsat F Resources Technology Satellites use Landsat satellites... satellite satellite satellite Satellite 1 use Landsat 1 Satellite 1 use SAS-1 Satellite 2 use... stability spacecraft stability Satellite B use Landsat 2 Satellite B use GOES 2 satellite-borne... use spacecraft breakup Satellite C use Landsat 3 satellite capture use spacecraft recovery... constellations satellite control Satellite D use Landsat 4 satellite defense use spacecraft defense... positioning satellite drag Satellite E use Landsat E Satellite (ESA) use Marots (ESA...) use OTS (ESA) Satellite F use Landsat F satellite fragmentation use spacecraft breakup...) Earth Resources Technology Satellites use Landsat satellites Echo satellites Elektron satellites... satellites ITOS satellites Jupiter satellites Landsat satellites LES (satellites) use Lincoln... Landsat 1 Earth Resources Technology Satellite B use Landsat 2 Earth Resources Technology Satellite C use Landsat 3 Communications Technology Satellite Earth Resources Technology Satellite D use Landsat 4 Earth Resources Technology Satellite E use Landsat E Earth Resources Technology Satellite F use Landsat... Earth Resources Technology Satellites use Landsat satellites navigation technology satellites technology... thermohaline circulation Thebe thematic mappers (LANDSAT) thematic mapping Themis project theodolites...