Спутник ДЗЗ. Landsat 5. [Редактировать]

Запуск ИСЗ Landsat-5 был осуществлен 1 марта 1984 г. ракетой-носителем Delta-3910 с ЗРП США. Орбита этого космического аппарата совпадает с орбитой ИСЗ Landsat-4. Коррекции орбиты, необходимые для поддержания требуемого местного времени пересечения экватоpa на восходящем витке, осуществляются в среднем один раз в три года. Последняя коррекция орбиты ИСЗ Landsat-5 была выполнена компанией EOSAT в период с 27 октября по 29 ноября 1995 г. и заключалась в осуществлении трехступенчатого орбитального маневра. Первоначально Landsat-5 был изготовлен в качестве резервного экземпляра ИСЗ Landsat-4, а затем модернизирован с учетом неисправностей, возникших на борту Landsat-4. К 1987 г. на спутнике вышла из строя система передачи данных через ИСЗ-ретранслятор TDRS в Ки-диапазоне частот. В результате передача информации с приборов ТМ и MSS осуществляется непосредственно на наземные станции приема информации в Х- и S-диапазонах. Ожидается, что спутник сохранит работоспособность до 2000 г., вплоть до запуска нового ИСЗ Landsat-7.

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... and Dependence on Landsat in Work ..............................................................................22 If Landsat Imagery Was No... Landsat 5 Imagery ....................................................................................................................28 Economic Benefits from Landsat Imagery.............................................................................................32 Discussion: Value of Landsat... 4. Figure 5. Respondents by Landsat imagery use and current Landsat users by citizenship... Landsat imagery use among current Landsat users (n = 11,227) ......................................6 Sectors of current Landsat... used by established Landsat users to obtain Landsat imagery before and after... established U.S. and international Landsat users to obtain Landsat imagery before and after... with specific attributes of Landsat imagery among current Landsat users (n ≥ 10,225... of Landsat imagery in response to the loss of Landsat 5 imagery among Landsat... of loss of Landsat 5 imagery on projects among Landsat 5 users (n = 7,686) ................... 29... to the loss of Landsat 5 (L5) imagery among Landsat 5 users (n = 7,878) ................... 30... non-Landsat sources in response to the loss of Landsat 5 imagery among Landsat... of Landsat imagery among current Landsat users ........................................................ 12 Table 5. Average number of Landsat... actions taken by current Landsat users if Landsat imagery was no longer... (or funding) of current Landsat users if Landsat imagery was no longer... apply to current Landsat users registered with USGS. Landsat Users Slightly less... average, coming from Landsat sensors. Of the Landsat imagery used, on average... using Landsat. Dependence on Landsat Third, we asked about dependence on Landsat imagery... Landsat imagery after Landsat 5 stopped acquiring imagery. More than two-thirds of Landsat...-long Landsat program with Landsat 8. Landsat 8 is now the lead satellite along with Landsat... of Landsat 7 imagery. Until December of 2012, Landsat 5 operated concurrently with Landsat 7 which.... Figure 1. Respondents by Landsat imagery use and current Landsat users by citizenship... of Landsat imagery use among current Landsat users (n = 11,227). 50% Current Landsat... p. vi for definitions of acronyms. Landsat Current Landsat users (n = 8,330) 51% U.S. users... scenes acquired by Landsat sensors Projects that used Landsat imagery ranged from... Table 4. Applications of Landsat imagery among current Landsat users. Collapsed applications Agriculture... use of Landsat (fig. 9). Discussion: Use of Landsat Imagery Overall, Landsat imagery was... Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) among current Landsat users (n = 9,860). 70% Current Landsat... used by established Landsat users to obtain Landsat imagery before and after... established U.S. and international Landsat users to obtain Landsat imagery before and after... Landsat imagery among current Landsat users (n ≥ 10,225). EXPLANATION 20 Benefits of Landsat... Landsat users from their projects that used Landsat imagery (n ≥ 10,196). Current Landsat... of Landsat imagery (n = 8,398). Percentage of respondents 70% Heavy Landsat user Medium Landsat user 60% Light Landsat user 50% 40... current Landsat users if Landsat imagery was no longer available. Current Landsat users... (or funding) of current Landsat users if Landsat imagery was no longer... ceased their use of Landsat imagery after Landsat 5 stopped acquiring imagery 43... of Landsat imagery in response to the loss of Landsat 5 imagery among Landsat 5 users (n = 7,711). 40% Landsat 5 user 35% U.S. Landsat 5 user 30% International Landsat... Landsat 5 imagery on projects among Landsat 5 users (n = 7,686). Percentage of respondents 40% Landsat 5 user 35% U.S. Landsat 5 user 30% International Landsat 5 user 25... users had replaced Landsat 5 imagery with imagery from Landsat 7 or another sensor... Landsat 5 (L5) imagery among Landsat 5 users (n = 7,878; L7, Landsat 7). Percentage of respondents 50% Landsat 5 user 45% 40% U.S. Landsat 5 user 35% 30% International Landsat 5 user... non-Landsat sources in response to the loss of Landsat 5 imagery among Landsat... of acronyms. 45% Landsat 5 user 40% U.S. Landsat 5 user International Landsat 5 user 35% 30... situation of no Landsat imagery being available. For Landsat 5 users who also... replace Landsat 5. If both Landsat 5 and 7 became permanently inoperable before the next Landsat..., Inc., 128 p. NASA, 2013, Landsat science—Landsat 5: Greenbelt, MD, National Aeronautics and... 1 Past Landsat Users In addition to current Landsat users, past Landsat users were... launch of Landsat 8. Past Landsat users were demographically similar to current Landsat users...



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... 2010 Abstract: We used twelve Landsat scenes from the 1980s–2009... NDVI sources (Terra MODIS and Landsat TM/ETM+ NDVI). In this... using NDVI computed from historic Landsat sensor data by developing a time... every 16 days, while the Landsat sensor data is typically much... at least six years of Landsat images, with at least one... computed linear regressions for each Landsat scene footprint, based on 2000... of NDVI observation for two Landsat scenes. Based on these data.... 2010, 2 2733 2.4. Landsat TM/ETM Data The 1985–2009 Landsat NDVI data were compiled from Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat... Alaska. Figure 3. Location of twelve Landsat scenes used in this study... of peak NDVI (Figure 2); thus Landsat TM/ETM+ scenes were chosen... less than 30% cloud cover. Landsat has a 16-day repeat cycle... of 106 Landsat TM/ETM+ images were processed (Table 1). Table 1. Landsat scenes...-July-5 Landsat-5/TM 1988-July-2 Landsat-4/TM 1994-July-11* Landsat-5/TM 1995-June-28 Landsat-5/TM 2001-July-20 Landsat-7/ETM+ 2005-June-23 Landsat-5/TM 2005-July25 Landsat-5/TM 2006-July-12 Landsat-5/TM 2006-July-28 Landsat-5/TM 2009-July-4 Landsat-5/TM 2009-July-20 Landsat-5/TM...* 2009-July-2 Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-4/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-5/TM Satellite/Sensor Percent of cloud-free, vegetated pixels Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-4/TM Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM 68...-July-12 Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM 46...-18* Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-4/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-5/TM 58...-14* Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-4/TM Landsat-4/TM Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-5/TM 57... 58 2009-August-3 Landsat-5/TM 67 2009-July-3 Landsat-5/TM 59 Satellite...-14 Landsat-5/TM 1986-July-17 Landsat-5/TM 1994-August-08 Landsat-5/TM 1999-July-5 Landsat-5/TM 2001-July-7 Landsat-7/ETM+ 2001-July-18 Landsat-7/ETM+ 2002-August-6 Landsat-7/ETM+ 2006-August-9 Landsat... 35 53 52 51 30 Landsat-5/TM 66 Satellite/Sensor Percent...-15 Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-5/TM Landsat-4/TM Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat...-29 1992-July-29 Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-4/TM Landsat-4/TM 57 77...-July-16 Date Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM 53...-June-30 Landsat-5/TM Landsat-4/TM Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM 1995...-July-17 Landsat-5/TM Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Date... Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-7/ETM+ Landsat-5/TM Landsat-5/TM Landsat... and NDVI Calculations For each Landsat WRS-2 scene, band 3 and band... remaining analysis to MODIS and Landsat TM/ETM+ NDVI values. Remote.... 3.2. Longer Term Trends Based on Landsat TM/ETM+ NDVI The scenes... number of pixels of each Landsat TM/ETM+ image used to... for each of the twelve Landsat scene footprints, based on TM.... (C) Linear regressions of the twelve Landsat scene footprints, based on annual... 2000 to 2009. (A) 1980s–2009 Landsat TM/ETM+ Trends Path/Row... 0.690 0.535 0.506 2000–2009 Landsat TM/ETM+ Trends Location Regression... Sens. 2010, 2 2741 (B) 1980s–2009 Landsat TM/ETM+ Trends Path/Row... 1.32 6.40 8.00 2000–2009 Landsat TM/ETM+ Trends Path/Row... [27]. 4. Conclusions Based on both Landsat TM/ETM+ and MODIS NDVI... Landsat and MODIS NDVI gave similar results, each had unique advantages. Landsat... possible to document using Landsat TM/ETM+ data. Landsat scenes typically had... current radiometric calibration coefficients for Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and EO..., Z. Radiometric correction of multi-temporal Landsat data for characterization of early...



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... Landsat-1 and Landsat-2 satellite data and to the data from any future Landsat... (imagery and digital products) to Landsat Principal Investigators duly selected by... country in the region operate Landsat facilities, CNIE's obligation to provide... efforts to: (a) Program Landsat-l, Landsat-2 and any subsequent experimental Landsat-type satellites to... station's performance. (d) Provide, during Phase A, Landsat data to any NASAselected Argentine... acquire Landsat data. CNIE will thereafter share the cost of the Landsat... regarding the launching of future Landsat-type satellites. (e) Decisions taken by... radio frequencies for future operational Landsat-type satellites will differ from... pursue a policy of dissemination of Landsat data comparable to the dissemination... charge, and will provide processed Landsat data required by Principal Investigators... other countries which are operating Landsat ground stations. (h) Training and exchange... operating or planning to operate Landsat ground stations having coverage areas... satellite Landsat-1 et Landsat-2 de la NASA et Acelles des futurs satellites Landsat...: a) Programmer Landsat- 1 et Landsat-2 et tout futur satellite exp6rimental de type Landsat afin... durant la phase A, des donn6es Landsat A tous les chercheurs principaux argentins... politique de diffusion des donn6es Landsat, comparable Ala pratique de diffusion... Chiquita, et fournira des donn6es Landsat trait6es conform6ment A la demande des... relatif i l'op6ration continue d'un systeme Landsat. Signe ' Buenos Aires le 6 avril... (NASA), which conducts an experimental Landsat program and, under certain conditions... operating and potential future experimental Landsat satellites by the CNIE ground... Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; (b) produce Landsat computer compatible tapes and image... US Landsat data dissemination practices, unrestricted public availability of all Landsat data... of specified processed or unprocessed Landsat data including the original station... will: (a) program, as requested, the Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Return Beam Vidicon... angles nocessary to acquire the Landsat transmitted signal, and for processing... comparison purposes, a limited amount of Landsat data acquired by NASA covering... participate in meetings of the Landsat Ground Station Operations Working Group... sensor data transmissions from the Landsat-D spacecraft: Multispectral Scanner -- S-Band (2200... the expected coverage of a prospective Landsat ground station overlaps with that... Center receives requests for specific Landsat scenes, products, or specific information... Memorandum of Understanding. (g) The NASA Landsat program is experimental in character... follow the current NASA experimental Landsat program. The National Oceanic and... operational system. NOAA will keep Landsat ground station operators informed of.... the parties should NASA'S experimental Landsat program extend beyond that date...) (NASA), qui poursuit un programme Landsat exp6rimental et, sous certaines conditions... et d'autres partenaires, des donn6es Landsat recueillies par ladite station du... donn6es Landsat, le libre acc~s du public Atoutes les donn6es Landsat que... des donn6es Apartir du satellite Landsat-D : Multispectral Scanner - S-Band (2200-2300... informations particuli~res provenant de Landsat, il fournira les donn6es etlou... A la conception des futurs satellites Landsat exp6rimentaux, qui peuvent avoir des... entrer dans le programme exp6rimental Landsat. La National Oceanic and Atmospheric... aura commenc6 A recueillir des donn6es Landsat. La CNIE acquittera cette somme... s'appliqueront dquitablement A toutes les stations Landsat non am6ricaines. 6. Le pr6sent Memorandum... ' linstallation et l'operation d'un systeme Landsat. Signe i Washington le 18 aofit... (NASA), which conducts an experimental Landsat program and, under certain conditions... operating and potential future experimental Landsat satellites by CSIR's ground station... Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; (b) produce Landsat computer compatible tapes and image... US Landsat data dissemination practices, unrestricted public availability of all Landsat data... of specified processed or unprocessed Landsat data including the original station... will: (a) program, as requested, the Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Return Beam Vidicon... comparison purposes, a limited amount of Landsat data acquired by NASA covering... sensor data transmissions from the Landsat-D spacecraft: Vol. 1871. 1-31952 158... operational system. NOAA will keep Landsat ground station operators informed of... the expected coverage of a prospective Landsat ground station overlaps with that... Center receives requests for specific Landsat scenes, products, or specific information...), qui poursuit un programme expdrimental Landsat et, sous certaines conditions, assure... donndes Landsat, le libre accbs du public Atoutes les donn6es Landsat reques... des donn6es A partir du satellite Landsat-D : Multispectral Scanner - S-Band (2200-2300... A la conception des futurs satellites Landsat expdrimentaux pouvant avoir une incidence... entrer dans le programme experimental Landsat. La National Oceanic and Atmospheric...



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... ilkesi………………... 13 ùekil 2. 4 Landsat 5 uydusu…………………………………………….. 16 ùekil 2.5 Landsat uydu görüntüsünde de... maddesi alÕnÕm oranlarÕ………….. 26 ùekil 3.1 Landsat uydu görüntüsünde Menemen ovas... sayÕsal altlÕk haritasÕ ……..………. ùekil 3.4 Landsat uydu görüntüsünde rektifikasyon öncesi... alanlarÕndaki pamuk bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu 90 görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik... alanlarÕndaki pamuk bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu 90 görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik... alanlarÕndaki pamuk bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu 91 görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik... alanlarÕndaki pamuk bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu 91 görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik... alanlarÕndaki domates bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu 95 görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik... alanlarÕndaki domates bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu 95 görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik... alanlarÕndaki domates bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu 96 görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik... alanlarÕndaki domates bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu 96 görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik...Õ………… ùekil 5.1 Pamuk bitkisinde % N içerikleri ile Landsat uydu görüntüsü 124 4.bant (NIR...Õma 5 de÷erleri………………………………….………… Çizelge 2.2. Landsat-4 ve Landsat-5 uydularÕnÕn TM alÕcÕ 15 özellikleri... alanlarÕndaki pamuk bitki örtüsünün Landsat 86 uydu görüntüsü üzerindeki piksel... alanlarÕndaki domates bitki örtüsünün Landsat 92 uydu görüntüsü üzerindeki piksel... korelasyon de÷erleri………………….................…. Çizelge 4.12 Landsat uydu görüntüsü yansÕma de..., 1991). PeútemalcÕ vd., (1995) Landsat TM verilerinin 3., 4., ve 5. bant kombinasyonlar..., pamuk bitki örtüsünün belirlenebilmesi için Landsat ve Aster uydu görüntülerini... topra÷Õ örtme oranlarÕ belirlenmiútir. Landsat uydusu 1., 2., 3. ve 4. bantlarÕna uyumlu... en iyi band kombinasyonunun ise Landsat TM verilerinin 4. ve 5. bandlarÕ oldu... ölçülen LAI de÷erleri ile Landsat uydu görüntüsü Tematik HaritalayÕcÕ bantlar... Landsat–1 olarak de÷iútirilmiútir. Bu uydu görevini tamamladÕktan sonra Landsat... sonra 1978'de Landsat–3, 1982'de Landsat–4 ve 1985'de Landsat–5 uzaya gönderilmi...’ nÕn Landsat 1, 2, 3’ den sonra 2. aúama çalÕúmalarÕ olarak uçuúlarÕ gerçekleútirilen Landsat-4 ve Landsat-5’ e geleneksel çok bandlÕ taray...) km’ dir. 15 Çizelge 2.2 Landsat-4 ve Landsat-5 uydularÕnÕn TM alÕcÕ özellikleri (Kurucu... görüntü 25 saniyede elde edilir. Landsat-5 uydusu (ùekil 2.4) üzerinde 1. Veri toplama..., 10x10, 1x1, 0.5x0.5 m’ dir. ùekil 2. 4 Landsat 5 uydusu (NRSC, 1986). Uzaktan alg... 0.4-0.5 Pm 0.5-0.6 Pm 0.6-0.7 Pm 0.7-0.8Pm ùekil 2.5. Landsat uydu görüntüsünde de÷iúik..., 1971, Konukçu, 2007). 61 K ùekil .3.1 Landsat 5 uydu görüntüsünde Menemen ovas..., elektromanyetik spektrumun 4 ayrÕ aralÕ÷Õnda, Landsat 5 TM uydusu ve Spot-2 uydusu...Õsal altlÕk haritasÕ 72 (a) (b) ùekil 3.4 Landsat uydu görüntüsünde rektifikasyon öncesi... 3.4, ùekil 3.8). Landsat uydu görüntüsünde bir piksel, çözünürlü÷e ba÷lÕ olarak Landsat 30m... model spektroradyometre özellikleri Uydu Çeúidi Landsat TM SPOT Uydu Kanal Numaras... (BaSO4) kaplanmÕú bir kalibrasyon levhasÕnÕn, Landsat TM uydusunun 1., 2., 3. ve 4. bantlarÕna... ölçüm noktalarÕnÕn yerleri, bilgisayar ortamÕnda Landsat-5 TM ve Spot-2 uydularÕndan... alanlarÕndaki pamuk bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu görüntüsü üzerindeki piksel yans...útir. Pamuk bitki örtüsü için Landsat uydu görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik okumalar...úkiler bulunmuútur. Bu inceleme Landsat uydu görüntüsü ile spektroradyometrenin göstermek... Korelasyon: 0.3 R2: 0.11 100 80 Landsat uydusu 1 bant 60 Spektroradyometre 1. bant... alanlarÕndaki pamuk bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik ölçümlerinin... alanlarÕndaki pamuk bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik ölçümlerinin... alanlarÕndaki pamuk bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik ölçümlerinin... Korelasyon: 0.6 R2: 0.38 500 400 Landsat uydusu 4 bant 300 Spektroradyometre 4. bant... alanlarÕndaki pamuk bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik ölçümlerinin... alanlarÕndaki domates bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu görüntüsü üzerindeki piksel yans...útir. Domates bitki örtüsü için Landsat uydu görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik okumalar... alanlarÕndaki domates bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik ölçümlerinin...: -0.1 R2: 0.02 140 120 100 Landsat uydusu 2 bant 80 Spektroradyometre 2. bant... alanlarÕndaki domates bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik ölçümlerinin... Korelasyon: 0.4 R2: 0.13 100 80 Landsat uydusu 3 bant 60 Spektroradyometre 3. bant... alanlarÕndaki domates bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik ölçümlerinin... alanlarÕndaki domates bitki örtüsünün Landsat uydu görüntüsü ve spektroradyometrik ölçümlerinin...Õlan P1 nolu pamuk bitkisinin Landsat uydu görüntüsü 453 bant kombinasyonundaki...Õlan D2 nolu domates bitkisinin Landsat uydu görüntüsü 453 bant kombinasyonundaki... istatistiki iliúki, oldu÷u görülmüútür. Landsat uydu görüntüsü 2. bant yansÕma... ùekil 5.1 Pamuk bitkisinde % N içerikleri ile Landsat uydu görüntüsü 4.bant (NIR) yans...Õtma Süreçlerinde Gösterdikleri Özelliklerinin Landsat Elektromanyetik TM Uyumlu Enerji Ta...



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.... 31. 32. 36. SPOT ASTER LANDSAT RADAR Satellites Geophysical Data Processing... ASTER VNIR 1999- SWIR TIR LANDSAT 7 ETM+ PAN 1999- MULTI 2 2.5 min... LANDSAT MOSAIC 1990 6deg by 5deg 28.5 3 - 250 25 GEOCOVER 2000 LANDSAT MOSAIC 2000 6deg by 5deg 14.25 3 - 250 25 NaturalVue LANDSAT... water. Above - A 15kmx20km natural colour Landsat image window providing an overview... covered most of the year. Landsat 7 ETM+ and Shuttle Radar Topography... contours. GEOIMAGE had previously supplied Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery and ASTER spectral... imagery using the Geocover 2000 Landsat Pan image for E and N control... information and is similar to a Landsat B742 colour composite. Many of...fied using the Geocover 2000 Landsat panchromatic image for X and Y control... is the band equivalent of a Landsat 742 colour composite and gives... Mongolia. 21 LANDSAT SATELLITES HISTORICAL, CURRENT AND FUTURE The Landsat Project is.... The Landsat 1 satellite was launched in 1972 and the most recent, Landsat 7, was launched in 1999. The instruments on the Landsat satellites... the historical aspects of the Landsat Program is a summary only and... http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ http://landsat.usgs.gov/ LANDSAT PLATFORMS Six Landsat satellites have now been successfully launched commencing with Landsat... time. Landsat 6 was unfortunately lost on launch in 1993, however Landsat 5 continued to provide good data even after the launch of Landsat 7 in April 1999. Landsat Program Summary System Landsat 1 Landsat 2 Landsat 3 Landsat 4 Landsat 5 Landsat 6 Landsat 7 Launch (End... 16 10.00 am Current Landsat Sensors Landsat 5 is 22 years old... affects the locational accuracy of Landsat 5 systematic corrected imagery (ie Path... Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor on Landsat 7 developed an instrument malfunction on... along the satellite ground track. Landsat 7 ETM+ is still capable of... portion of any given scene. Landsat 7 ETM+ therefore continues to acquire... quality to previous (“SLC-on”) Landsat 7 image data. Several different Level... offers two types of products. Landsat 7 SLC-Off ACRES Composite Product... gaps); Orthocorrected processing only; and Landsat 7 SLC-Off Customer Composite Package... and packages provide more useful Landsat 7 data because: > Customers can choose.../referenc/slcoff_composite. jsp Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LCDM) Landsat 7 was launched in... years. Early plans for Landsat data continuity after Landsat 7 were based on... 2003. Subsequent attempts to place Landsat-type sensors on National Polar... was directed to acquire a single Landsat data continuity mission in the... the sensor will be called Landsat 8. Thematic Mapper Wavelengths Band Number... detail * Pan band only on Landsat 7 LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER SPECTRAL PROCESSING With... image of the same area. Landsat 7 ETM+ images Koh-i-Sultan, Pakistan... OF LANDSAT DATA GEOIMAGE is pleased to undertake searches of Landsat data... the largest repository of worldwide Landsat imagery. GEOIMAGE is affiliated... images from the Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 4/5 TM, Landsat 1-5 MSS, MRLC, and Landsat Orthorectified.... Thematic Mapper data from the Landsat 4, 5 and 7 sensors is available for... begun operation as the Australian Landsat Station in 1979. ACRES is... Landsat MSS (extending back to 1979), TM and ETM+. The main Landsat... scale. HOW CAN GEOIMAGE HELP? > > > > Landsat archive searches for data covering... downlink and distribution of Landsat 7 (L7) and/or Landsat 5 (L5) image data... capability for direct reception of Landsat data. Landsat 5 initially had the capability... pixel size for 7 spectral bands - Landsat 4/5 > 28.5m pixel size for... pixel for the thermal bands - Landsat 7 > Interpolated with Cubic Convolution > GeoTIFF... accurate global land dataset of Landsat data from three time periods..., pp. 313-322. Approximately 8,500 Landsat TM images were selected from... peak greenness if possible. The Landsat data were orthorectified, using... relief displacement. Large blocks of Landsat data were adjusted through a patented... the overlap area between adjacent Landsat images. Ground control points were... > Data set size based on Landsat WRS (Path/Row) Reference system...-Ortho Landsat mosaics are created by digitally suturing a group of juxtaposed Landsat... based on the 2000 epoch Landsat GeoCover imagery and is available... information of the 14.25m Landsat data. This product therefore differs... vectors. IMAGERY: Landsat Geocover Mosaics, Earthsat NaturalVue or Landsat mosaics prepared by... information. IMAGERY: Landsat 5, Landsat 7 ETM+, Geocover Landsat Mosaics, and Earthsat NaturalVue. Landsat is the... after these aspects for you. Landsat spectral work should not be... you wish to locate features. Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery Bands 741 in... geological vectors. IMAGERY: Landsat ETM+, ASTER and SPOT Landsat data that has... a Band 731 composite (equivalent to a Landsat band 742) which has better... worldwide availability of the GeoCover Landsat imagery with a documented accuracy of... Scale ASTER VNIR+SWIR. Landsat 7 ETM+ Bands Landsat 742 band 741 in...



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... spektraler Signaturcharakteristika ...................................................................21 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 Homogenisierung historischer LANDSAT MSS−Daten............................................25 Zielsetzung und... ..............................................37 Ablaufschema zur Homogenisierung von Landsat−MSS Daten ....................................39 Homogeniserung des... opto−mechanischen Landsat−MSS Scannersystems ..................................72 Interner Kalibrationsmechanismus von Landsat MSS ...................................................73 Objektabhängige radiometrische Sensorstabilität der ....................................................74 Landsat−Sensortypen... Interpretation eine überwachte Klassifikation von Landsat TM−Daten durch. Zur Erzielung... Vegetationsevolution lanciert. Die Auswertung von Landsat MSS−Szenen des NIR−Bildkanals... Ernteproduktion mit visueller Interpretation einer Landsat MSS−Szene von November 1975... tropischen Breiten), z.B. TIROS, NOAA, NIMBUS, LANDSAT, SPOT etc.. Diese Satelliten bewegen... polar−umlaufenden, optisch− mechanischen Sensors Landsat −MSS dargestellt. Eine Studie zur... späteren Entwicklung des ersten LANDSAT−MSS Sensors. Die eigentliche Satellitenfernerkundung... zu LANDSAT. Von 1972 bis 1983 befanden sich verschiedene Kombinationen der LANDSAT...äufen) seine Ausgangsposition. Die darauffolgenden LANDSAT−MSS Modelle 4 & 5 trugen ab 1982... LANDSAT−6 wurde am 05.10.1993 bei einem Fehlstart zerstört. LANDSAT... Nachfolge von Landsat 7, wobei sein Sensor weder nach einem dem Landsat ETM... in Entwicklung befindlichen Nachfolgesensors Landsat−8 mit dem Landsat Advanced Technology Instrument (LATI... der diffuse Reflexionstyp z.B. der Vegetation (Landsat−4 Handbook, 1984). Die bei anisotropen... vorangehender relativer Bilddatenhomogenisierung. 2.2 Homogenisierung historischer LANDSAT MSS−Daten Die visuelle Interpretation... ERTS als ersten LANDSAT Satelliten. Das Material dieser ersten LANDSAT−Satelliten bietet..., mono− bzw. stereoskopischen Bildinterpretation von LANDSAT MSS− Quicklooks, d.h. Bildszenen verminderter Pixelaufl... der Basis multisensorieller MSS−Daten (Landsat 1, 2, 3 & 5). Ihre applizierte Methode umfaßt die... zur Datenhomogenisierung basieren auf multitemporalen LANDSAT− MSS−Szenen aus dem Bereich.... 2.6 ausgeliederten Vegetationsformationen sind auf den Landsat−MSS−Ausschnitten visuell nicht unterscheidbar... (descending mode), d.h. bei Tage, erstellten LANDSAT MSS−Szenen (Fig. 2.7). Diese wurden... Fig. 2.8 Ablaufschema zur Homogenisierung von LANDSAT−MSS Daten Die einzelnen bildverarbeitenden....1979 von Landsat 1−3 (sowie vor dem 22.10.82 von Landsat 4 mit... wurden (MARKHAM & BARKER, 1987). Die LANDSAT−übliche Vorverarbeitung der geometrischen Korrektur... systematischen Ausgleich des Sensorfehlers. 2.2.4.3 Geokodierung LANDSAT−Aufnahmen haben als Vorverarbeitung generell... Betrachtung des physikalischen Sensormodells von Landsat MSS ergeben sich folgende Probleme... 7 (s. Kap. 2.2.4.1) wurden die Daten von Landsat−1 MSS durch die Bodenprozessierungsstation unkalibriert.... 2. Weiterhin bleibt die Vergleichbarkeit aller Landsat MSS−Sensortypen aufgrund der Unkenntnis... (BW) bei Landsat−1 und jener für die darauffolgenden Sensoren von Landsat 2−5 verwendeten Algorithmen... spektralen Bodenrückstrahlungssignale für die vier LANDSAT MSS−Kanäle 4−7 exemplarisch nachvollziehbar... Spektralbereichs. Bereits JENSEN (1986) konstatierte für Landsat MSS−Daten einen dort viermal... jeden der insgesamt vier Kanalsensoren (Landsat MSS−3 hatte einen fünften Thermalkanal... b. Fig. 2.16 b) Interner Kalibrationsmechanismus von LANDSAT−MSS Jedes MSS−Scansystem besitzt...−Sensorsignale an der Bodenempfangsstation festgehalten (LANDSAT−4 Data User Handbook, 1984; COLWELL... Objektabhängige radiometrische Sensorstabilität der Landsat−Sensortypen MSS 1−3 nach MARKHAM & BARKER... des Terra−Raumfahrzeugs oder der Landsat−Satelliten etc.) unter Verwendung sensorstabiler... Juli 1972 aufgenommenen ersten zivilen LANDSAT ERTS−1 Satellitendaten− eine Auswahl hochaufl... Eingangssignale. Die auf den historischen Landsat MSS−Daten berechneten SAVI−Ratiowerte... Die erste Teilstudie stellt historische Landsat−MSS−Satellitenbilddaten für multi−temporale Analysen.... (1995): Relative Radiometric Normalization of Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) Data Using..., 7, 502−530. GOWARD S.N. & WILLIAMS D. (1997): Landsat and Earth Systems Science: Development... G.J. et al. (1996): The Landsat Program: Toward Landsat 7 and Beyond. Paper presented... J.L. (1987): Radiometric properties of U.S. processed Landsat MSS Data. Remote Sensing of.... MIKA A.M. (1997): Three Decades of Landsat Instruments. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing...): Effective band−widths for Landsat−4 and Landsat−D Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper...): Computation with Physical Values from Landsat Digital Data. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote... on Atmospheric Correction of Landsat Imagery, The Defense Landsat Program Office, Torrance...



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LANDSAT SATELLITES HISTORICAL, CURRENT AND FUTURE The Landsat Project is the longest.... The Landsat 1 satellite was launched in 1972 and the most recent, Landsat 7, was launched in 1999. The instruments on the Landsat satellites... the historical aspects of the Landsat Program is a summary only and... http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ http://landsat.usgs.gov/ LANDSAT PLATFORMS Six Landsat satellites have now been successfully launched commencing with Landsat... time. Landsat 6 was unfortunately lost on launch in 1993, however Landsat 5 continued to provide good data even after the launch of Landsat 7 in April 1999. Landsat Program Summary System Landsat 1 Landsat 2 Landsat 3 Landsat 4 Landsat 5 Landsat 6 Landsat 7 Launch (End... 16 10.00 am Current Landsat Sensors Landsat 5 is 22 years old... affects the locational accuracy of Landsat 5 systematic corrected imagery (ie Path... Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor on Landsat 7 developed an instrument malfunction on... along the satellite ground track. Landsat 7 ETM+ is still capable of... portion of any given scene. Landsat 7 ETM+ therefore continues to acquire... quality to previous (“SLC-on”) Landsat 7 image data. Several different Level... offers two types of products. Landsat 7 SLC-Off ACRES Composite Product... gaps); Orthocorrected processing only; and Landsat 7 SLC-Off Customer Composite Package... only.) To encourage use of Landsat 7 SLC-Off data, both of... and packages provide more useful Landsat 7 data because: > Customers can choose.../referenc/slcoff_composite. jsp Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LCDM) Landsat 7 was launched in... years. Early plans for Landsat data continuity after Landsat 7 were based on... 2003. Subsequent attempts to place Landsat-type sensors on National Polar... was directed to acquire a single Landsat data continuity mission in the... similar to that of its Landsat predecessors. The data will be... the sensor will be called Landsat 8. Thematic Mapper Wavelengths Band Number... Landsat 7 SOURCES OF LANDSAT DATA GEOIMAGE is pleased to undertake searches of Landsat... the largest repository of worldwide Landsat imagery. GEOIMAGE is affiliated... images from the Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 4/5 TM, Landsat 1-5 MSS, MRLC, and Landsat Orthorectified.... Thematic Mapper data from the Landsat 4, 5 and 7 sensors is available for... begun operation as the Australian Landsat Station in 1979. ACRES is... Landsat MSS (extending back to 1979), TM and ETM+. The main Landsat... scale. HOW CAN GEOIMAGE HELP? > > > > Landsat archive searches for data covering... intervals Pixel sizes for the Landsat data are MSS 50m TM... larger ETM+ or TM Images LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER SPECTRAL PROCESSING With... rocktype. In the case of Landsat 7 data, it is normal to... in the area covered by Landsat TM Band 7. Many techniques have... image of the same area. Landsat 7 ETM+ images Koh-i-Sultan, Pakistan... downlink and distribution of Landsat 7 (L7) and/or Landsat 5 (L5) image data... capability for direct reception of Landsat data. Landsat 5 initially had the capability... pixel size for 7 spectral bands - Landsat 4/5 > 28.5m pixel size for... pixel for the thermal bands - Landsat 7 > Interpolated with Cubic Convolution > GeoTIFF... of these stations to obtain Landsat data that is not available... accurate global land dataset of Landsat data from three time periods.... These sets of orthorectified Landsat images are referred to as..., pp. 313-322. Approximately 8,500 Landsat TM images were selected from... peak greenness if possible. The Landsat data were orthorectified, using... relief displacement. Large blocks of Landsat data were adjusted through a patented... the overlap area between adjacent Landsat images. Ground control points were... > Data set size based on Landsat WRS (Path/Row) Reference system...-Ortho Landsat mosaics are created by digitally suturing a group of juxtaposed Landsat... based on the 2000 epoch Landsat GeoCover imagery and is available... information of the 14.25m Landsat data. This product therefore differs...



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Landsat—Earth Observation Satellites Since 1972, Landsat satellites have continuously acquired spacebased... was later renamed Landsat 1. The launches of Landsat 2, Landsat 3, and Landsat 4 followed in 1975, 1978, and 1982, respectively. When Landsat... observation satellite.” Landsat 6 failed to achieve orbit in 1993; however, Landsat 7 successfully launched in 1999 and continues to provide global data. Landsat 8, launched in 2013, continues the mission, and Landsat 9 is tentatively planned to launch in 2023 (fig. 1). Landsat is... changes on the global landscape. Landsat Missions: Imaging the Earth Since... (Washin D t. S 5 – Landsat 8 201 1 – Landsat 7 201 Lo Avalanche Hu M Peru 5 – Landsat 5 200 o) – Landsat 2 1980 ) – Landsat 1 1973 U nite d A ra b E m Landsat 1 July 1972 – January 1978 Landsat 2 January 1975 – July 1983 Landsat 3 March 1978 – September 1983 Landsat 4 July 1982 – December 1993 Landsat 5 March 1984 – January 2013 Landsat 6 October 1993 Landsat 7 April 1999 – Landsat 8 February 2013 – Landsat... 1.  Timeline and history of the Landsat Missions, which started in 1972... 2013–3060 Satellite Acquisitions The Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 satellites both orbit the... 8-day repeat coverage of any Landsat scene area on the globe... repeat coverage every 18 days. Landsat 4 and Landsat 5 also carried the MSS...-meter thermal IR band. Delivered Landsat 4 and Landsat 5 TM thermal data are... (table 1). Sensors and Band Designations Landsat 7 carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper... a 15-meter panchromatic band. Delivered Landsat 7 ETM+ thermal data are resampled... the edge of the image. Landsat 7 still acquires geometrically and radiometrically... near-infrared (IR) wavelengths. Delivered Landsat MSS data are resampled to... film-only products. Landsat 8, launched as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission on... split-window surface temperature The Landsat Long Term Acquisition Plans (LTAPs... that most effectively utilize both Landsat 8 and Landsat 7 data acquisitions. Information about the LTAPs is provided on the Landsat Missions Web site (http://landsat.usgs.gov). Table... bands and wavelengths of each Landsat sensor. Instrument-specific relative spectral... Survey Spectral Viewer tool: http://landsat.usgs.gov/tools_spectralViewer.php. [OLI...; MSS, Multispectral Scanner; --, not applicable] Landsat band wavelength comparisons All bands... Table 2.  The bands of each Landsat satellite and descriptions of how... (PAN) Cirrus Thermal (T) Uses of Landsat bands L4-5 L1-3 Description of... from using band 11 data. Landsat bands and describes the use...) band is also included in Landsat 8 data products. This file contains... cloud contamination. The consistency of Landsat data acquisitions through the years.... 2). Applications of Landsat Data Landsat Data Products and Processing Landsat data support a vast... the availability of Landsat data. In recent years, Landsat data have also... cost to users. Millions of Landsat scenes have been downloaded since... to the open archive model. Landsat Level 1 data products are processed... include cubic convolution resampling, Figure 2.  Landsat images showing expanding archipelagos along... 1998 (Landsat 5); B, May 2003 (Landsat 7); C, May 2008 (Landsat 5); and D, May 2015 (Landsat 8). north-up... Expert Group (.jpg) files of Landsat images (named LandsatLook Images) are... of climate change. Atmospherically corrected Landsat surface reflectance data are the... spectral indices are also available. Landsat surface reflectance and other higher... considered provisional (fig. 3). Obtaining Landsat Data Products Landsat Level 1 data products held... EarthExplorer Help menu. Requests for Landsat Level 2 science data products can... 2 products is complete. Landsat Science Teams The Landsat Science Teams provide technical... ensure the success of the Landsat program while providing science support... issues of importance to all Landsat users. The teams are funded... on the Landsat Missions Web site (http://landsat.usgs.gov). B Figure 3.  Landsat 8 images... Information Twitter: @USGSLandsat Questions about Landsat operations, data products, and data...: https://www.facebook.com/NASA.Landsat Landsat User Services U.S. Geological Survey (USGS... or 1-800-252-4547 Email: landsat@usgs.gov Visit http://www....gov for specifics about the Landsat Remote Sensing Program. Any use...



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... Assessment of Tillage Practices Using Landsat-TM 5 in Nebraska. Sonisa Sharma..., "Assessment of Tillage Practices Using Landsat-TM 5 in Nebraska." (2013). Dissertations.... ASSESSMENT OF TILLAGE PRACTICES USING LANDSAT-TM 5 IN NEBRASKA by Sonisa... ASSESSMENT OF TILLAGE PRACTICES USING LANDSAT-TM 5 IN NEBRASKA Sonisa Sharma... Fillmore Counties. Results indicated that Landsat-TM bands 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7 classified 75... and 2009 respectively. Similarly, the Landsat based tillage indices such as... image. The QDA approach with Landsat 5 data appears to be efficient... ................................................................................. 1 CHAPTER 2: DISCRIMINATING TILLAGE PRACTICES USING LANDSAT-5 THEMATIC MAPPER ................................................................................................. 4 2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 4 2.2 Materials and... each band in landsat bands ................................ 10 Table 2: List of Landsat based indices.... ....... 28 Table 5: Stepwise Summary for Landsat based indices developed by van... county is overlaid on the landsat false color composite (bands 4, 3, 2) of... a particular band or combination of Landsat bands is able to classify.... 4 Chapter 2: Discriminating Tillage Practices Using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper 2.1 Introduction Tillage management.... Landsat-TM is a commonly used satellite dataset for this purpose (Table 1). Landsat... combinations of Landsat-TM bands (Table 2). In a five year study, Landsat Multispectral..., involving photo interpretation of enlarged Landsat film products reproduced on 35mm.... In Seneca County of Ohio, Landsat 5 TM-based probability models classified... logistic regression models based on Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM... resolution of each band in Landsat bands Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Multispectral... Landsat based indices as well other sensor indices Sensor Tillage Index Landsat... Index (CAI) Landsat ETM+ Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Landsat MSS Ratio... midinfrared region (2.0-2.2 𝜇m range), corresponding to Landsat TM Band 7. The spatial 12... very small compared to Landsat 5-TM images. Landsat imagery provides a long-term..., tasseled cap (TC) transformation of Landsat-TM (Crist and Cicone, 1984... till and notill practices. The Landsat-5 imagery was chosen among the... a particular band or combination of Landsat bands is able to classify... county is overlaid on the Landsat False Color Composite (bands 4, 3, 2) of...- tilled fields. We selected 18 Landsat images in early growing seasons... and near-infrared wavelengths only. Landsat 5 images from Path 29 Row... this study, Bands 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 from Landsat-TM are analyzed. Band 1 is... acquisition dates for the suitable Landsat 5 images were March 08, and... Chander and Markham (2003) for Landsat- TM. Surface reflectance for all... bands were calculated for each Landsat-TM using published methodologies coded... with surface reflectance data of Landsat-TM bands to classify fields... reflectance of band 1, 3,4,5,6 and 7 of Landsat-5 TM were used in the... predictors (selected bands and the Landsat based indices as in Table... groups (i.e., selected bands and the Landsat based tillage indices). A canonical discriminant... variable (Specified Bands and the Landsat based indices (Canonical correlation 1) Fig... for the selected bands and Landsat based tillage indices. The significance... till and no-till fields. A Landsat-TM tillage indices developed by... M15. Table 4: Stepwise Summary for Landsat based indices developed by van... QDA was performed in the Landsat tillage indices, NDTI was important... tillage system was achieved using Landsat-TM bands 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. QDA provided... a corn/soybean rotation in Ohio Landsat- TM were used to determine... the significance of bands and Landsat indices. Moreover, it provided an... accurately classified using QDA with Landsat based tillage indices NDTI as... can be a problem, especially with Landsat coverage since the overpass is... the availability of freely available Landsat products, there will be possibility... to cropland. Recently launched 36 Landsat-8 with benefit of high altitude... monitoring tillage operation worldwide (http://landsat.usgs.gov/band_designations_landsat_satellites.php). 37... in north central Montana with Landsat imagery. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 114.... (297) Chander, G., Markham, B. (2003). Revised Landsat-5 TM radiometric calibration procedures and...). Monitoring conservation tillage practices using Landsat multispectral data. Journal of Soil...). Comparison of Tasseled Cap-based Landsat data structures for use in..., R., Hall, F. G., Huemmrich, K. F., et al. (2006). A Landsat surface reflectance dataset for North... agricultural crops as seen by Landsat, in Proc. Technical Sessions, The... Southworth, J. (2004).” An assessment of Landsat TM band 6 thermal data for... in north central Montana by Landsat remote sensing. Remote Sensing of... residue cover using multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment...



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... is validated using observations from Landsat 8. Results show that VIIRS has... overall bias of ´0.3% compared to Landsat 8 ice concentration, with a precision (uncertainty...-resolution visible/IR imagery from Landsat 8. A comparison to ice concentration derived...-green-blue) image from the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) Figure...-green-blue) image from the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and.... Zemlya. The of of thethe Landsat 8 OLI and VIIRS are 30... to 50 m and 1 km using Landsat 8 OLI and VIIRS are 30...-color RGB image combination of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) Figure...-color RGB image combination of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) band... open water and ice from Landsat 8 and VIIRS. The overall agreement... pixels identified as water by Landsat are classified as ice by... pixels identified as ice by Landsat are classified as water by... inputs to the VIIRS and Landsat ice concentration and differences in... differences in the VIIRS and Landsat cloud mask, and tie point... ice concentration, but not in Landsat. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 523 Remote... 4. VIIRS/Landsat ice and water classification results. Table 4. VIIRS/Landsat ice and water classification results. Landsat Ice Landsat Water VIIRS ice VIIRS ice VIIRS water VIIRS water Landsat Ice 2,479,814 2,479,814 14,077 14,077 Landsat... between VIIRS VIIRS and and Landsat Landsat 88 ice ice concentration concentration.... 12. Comparison ComparisonofofVIIRS VIIRSminus minusLandsat Landsat ice ice concentrations concentrations for.... It should be noted that Landsat uses its own cloud detection...) for comparison of VIIRS minus Landsat ice concentrations for different concentration....1 ´2.2/13.7 1.6/6.3 3.4. Ice Concentration Validation with Landsat Applying Nighttime Algorithm on Daytime.../temperature are determined. In Section 3.3, Landsat ice concentration is used to... daytime algorithm for all the Landsat scenes are in daytime. To... VIIRS scenes corresponding to the Landsat scenes, and validate the derived... ice concentration using the same Landsat ice concentration and same approach... sea-ice concentration based on Landsat images is based on optical... melting point. Table 7. VIIRS minus Landsat ice concentrations bias and RMSE... of VIIRS ice concentration and Landsat 8 ice concentration demonstrates a larger absolute... ice ice After concentration with Landsat 8 ice concentration reported above was..., with results shown concentration with Landsat 8 ice concentration reported above was... Landsat ice concentrations different ranges/bins concentration Figure Comparison of andand Landsat...(precision) (precision) for VIIRS minus Landsat ice ice 8. Bias TableTable 8. Bias... for comparisons comparisonsofof VIIRS minus Landsat concentrations for different concentration ranges... concentration ice concentration reliesfrom on Landsat a deeper of the discrepancy between... other data sources. concentration from Landsat and other data sources. 4. Summary... values less the High-resolution Landsat 8 data(biases) were used to... with higher resolution optical sensors. Landsat 8 has proven to weaknesses of... with higher resolution optical sensors. Landsat 8 has proven to be a considered...