Спутник ФКИ. Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). [Редактировать]

Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS, Космический аппарат для наблюдения и зондирования лунных кратеров) — название автоматической межпланетной станции НАСА, запущенной 18 июня 2009 года в 21:32:33 UTC (19 июня в 01:32:33 мск) вместе с Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter к Луне в рамках космической программы Lunar Precursor Robotic Program. От полёта LCROSS ожидалось получить окончательные сведения о наличии водяного льда на южном полюсе Луны, который мог бы сыграть важную роль для будущих пилотируемых экспедиций на Луну.
9 октября 2009 года в 11:31:19 UTC в районе кратера Кабеус (Cabeus) упал разгонный блок «Центавр». В результате падения выброшено облако из газа и пыли. LCROSS пролетел сквозь выброшенное облако, анализируя вещество, поднятое со дна кратера. LCROSS упал в тот же кратер в 11:35:45 UTC, успев передать на Землю результаты своих исследований. С лунной орбиты за падением следил зонд «LRO», с околоземной — космический телескоп Хаббл и европейский спутник «Odin». С земли — крупные обсерватории.

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США
3Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг621
2Платформа 1xEagle-0

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС, дней144

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2009-031B

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор NASA / ARC
2Производитель Northrup Grumman

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2009-06-18 at 21:32:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xLunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
3Полезная нагрузка 1xLunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS)
4Ракета-носитель 1xАтлас 5 401

Найдено 268 документов по запросу «Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS)». [Перейти к поиску]


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An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Anthony Colaprete, Richard C. Elphic, Jennifer ...-9880-6 An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Anthony Colaprete · Richard C. Elphic · Jennifer... 2012 Abstract The Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), an accompanying payload to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... and lunar orbital assets were also coordinated to observe the impact and subsequent crater and...-manifested with LRO was the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). During the development of LRO... the hydrogen and place constraints on its distribution and concentration. Furthermore, LCROSS aimed to characterize the lunar regolith within... task LCROSS used Author's personal copy An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite the... of Shackleton crater near the lunar south pole. However, Simpson and Tyler (1999... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) are stacked in the launch configuration 3 The LCROSS... from a PSR and observe the impact ejecta and resulting crater. The LCROSS mission utilized... fuel and part of the venting was used to put LCROSS and the Centaur on a lunar swing-by trajectory. At this point the LCROSS SSC took control of the Centaur. The lunar swing-by placed LCROSS into a near polar Earth orbit. LCROSS performed... copy An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite 4 The Impact While similar in... crater parameters that drove mission design included crater size, total excavated mass, and... Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite into understanding the LCROSS impact (e.g., Hermalyn and Schultz 2010... copy An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite before the Centaur impact (in... volatiles, the LCROSS impactor should impact within a permanently shadowed crater. 3. Observable by...). As the impact modeling and Earth-based observation capabilities matured, it became... approached, and all on-board SSC instrument operation and LRO observation participation was... An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite Fig. 4 Modeled LCROSS impact site as viewed... for LCROSS planning purposes. LRO, launched on 18 June 2009, entered lunar... the lunar south pole specifically to provide better information for final LCROSS.... 8 LCROSS Spacecraft, Instruments and Measurements A brief description of the LCROSS shepherding spacecraft (SSC) and... control and orbit maneuvering. Author's personal copy An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite..., communications card, and power and thruster control electronics. While the LCROSS SSC did... spacecraft +X direction and were accommodated in the Payload Observation Deck (POD). This... throughout the LCROSS mission for testing, calibration, post-separation Centaur observation, and the... Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite Table 4 Measurements and Objectives of LCROSS Instruments Instrument Measurements Objectives Visible Camera Surface and ejecta... and any remnant crater heat Visible Spectrometer • Visible emission (e.g. OH− , H2 O+ ) • Surface and... plume temperatures through luminance decay observation period the instrument measurements were... ejecta curtain develops and fills the spectrometer FOVs, and (3) Crater—the period of... and the newly formed crater would begin to be visible in the LCROSS Author's personal copy A. Colaprete et al. cameras. These observation sequences... cruise and was practiced in Operational Readiness Tests prior to impacts. 9 Observation Campaign The LCROSS Observation Campaign was a key component of the LCROSS mission. A brief description of the Observation Campaign is provided here and... Observation Campaign was to train as many observing assets on the LCROSS... from this unique experiment. The Observation Campaign could also serve as... astronomers was essential to the Observation Campaign since these types of... the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite order to ensure functional communications between the SOC and each..., online updates, and a secure server for file transfers. The LCROSS Observation Campaign Coordinator... order to complement the other Observation Campaign datasets. Each observing team... the LCROSS impact events. The inclusion of amateur astronomers in the LCROSS Observation... observation team as it was the only other asset, besides the LCROSS... near 2.9 µm and the slit viewer with a K filter for imaging observation of ejecta... LCROSS mission provided important Author's personal copy An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... of lunar polar hydrogen observed by previous missions. It appears the LCROSS... scale <1 km. LCROSS has not answered all questions regarding lunar polar water...



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... four different spacecraft (Lunar Prospector, Chandrayaan-1, Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite LCROSS, Fig. 1. One of the... Moon featuring the Mouchez crater near to lunar zero longitude. Illumination variations... of Bills and Ferrari (1977) from Lunar Orbiter and Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites... various science and technology investigations. Among them were three remote sensing instruments: an X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS), a lunar infrared spectrometer (SIR) and the...; Vondrak et al., 2010) and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS: Colaprete et al., 2010a) was...) Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft shows a very young lunar crater on the side of the... advance lunar science and exploration, including location and study of potential hazards and resources... of a Russian lunar lander and an Indian orbiter and mini-rover. A lunar multielement mission (lander, rover, re-transmitting satellite), Luna... structure. Lunar crustal rocks. Lunar poles. Lunar volcanism. Impact processes. Lunar regolith. Lunar dust and atmosphere environment. 3.3. International Lunar Exploration..., heliophysics, and Earth-observation studies (3 objectives, 28 investigations). Use the unique lunar environment... directly applicable to lunar and Mars exploration, and providing a valuable and visible “milestone” akin... a fleet of orbital and landed spacecraft. Orbital remote sensing has revealed a complex.... Conventional satellite development for the most part is a capital- and expertiseintensive endeavor... of small satellite technology was not lost on governmental space and research... (Balogh and Haubold, 2009; Balogh et al., 2010). As small-satellite technologies... (1) safe and precise transportation to lunar or planetary surfaces, (2) communication, and (3) power and (especially... and development of a Global Lunar Robotic Village will encourage and stimulate the peaceful and... rovers and instruments, and cooperative Robotic Village operations (see Section 6.1). 6.4.1. Google Lunar X Prize and... tems, through field research and supporting satellite observation as well as studies to..., Earth observation programs from the ISS or from the lunar surface are... LADEE Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer LAMP Lyman-alpha Mapping Project LCROSS Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite LEAG The Lunar Exploration Analysis Group LEND Lunar Exploration Neutron... 2016 and 2018, respectively. Launch System Human Transport Capabilities Astronaut Corps Satellite... the exploration and utilization of the Moon – our natural satellite” (International Lunar Workshop... and provides analysis in support of lunar exploration objectives and their implications for lunar architecture planning and activity prioritization. It provides findings and... of lunar regolith and crust, local geochemistry, and in situ resource utilization demonstrations. A lunar communications relay satellite is under discussion to support activities on the lunar.... Water and more: an overview of LCROSS impact results, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary..., S., Binder, A.B., Lucey, P.G. Lunar Fe and Ti abundances: comparison of lunar prospector and clementine data... lunar Procellarum KREEP Terrane: a synthesis of data from geomorphological mapping, remote sensing, and... in lunar melt inclusions. Science 8, 213–215, 2011. Hawke, B.R., Bell, J.F. Remote sensing studies of lunar dark-halo impact craters: preliminary results and implications..., M.C., et al. Diviner lunar radiometer observations of the LCROSS impact. Science 330..., D. and the LCROSS Science Team. Lunar Crater observation and sensing satellite (LCROSS) mission: results from the visible camera and UV.... Hot bands observation of water in ejecta plume of LCROSS impact using the Subaru telescope, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary..., W., Jingshan, J. Scientific objectives and payloads of Chang’ E-1 lunar satellite. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 114... lunar surface. I: regional values and crustal content, in: Proceedings of the 8th Lunar and..., C.M., Tompkins, S. Tsilokovsky crater: a window into crustal processes on the lunar farside. J. Geophys... Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Abstract #1993, 2010. Spence, H.E. and the Crater Science Team. Lunar..., J., Jiang, J. Scientific objectives and payloads of Chang’ E-1 lunar satellite. J. Earth System Sci. 114... Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, with Global Lunar Conference (GLUC), and Beijing Lunar...



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... investigations of physical and chemical processes in planetary and satellite atmospheres, with particular emphasis on photochemical modeling, aerosol formation and... lunar education strategy meetings and infrastructure; identifying and providing access to internal and external lunar resources, programs, and products for educators and... important lunar and planetary science news items, and highlighting new scientific breakthroughs and programs... my career and to the icy satellite community by organizing and hosting this... of asteroids and comets, early planetary differentiation, LCROSS mission site selection, and lunar resource... and reports, and partners with other publishing entities on book and CDROM projects. Lunar and Planetary Information Bulletin (LPIB) - The quarterly Lunar and Planetary... of the 2008 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and 2010 Lunar Lander missions, and is a member..., IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 2(3), 260-264. 14) Stepinski, T.F., and, A.P. Stepinski (2005... special issue: Key questions, needed observation, and recommended investigations, Icarus 174, 291.... 34) Norman, M.D. (2005), Lunar impact breccias: petrology, crater setting, and bombardment history of... and Remote Sensing, 41, 7, 1672-1684. 28) Paillou, P., A. Rosenqvist, J.M. Malezieux, B. Reynard, T. Farr, and... mineral deposits on Mars and implications for remote sensing of planetary surfaces... Data, Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 10) Luo, W., and T.F. Stepinski (2006), Topographically Derived Maps of Valley Networks and... spectroscopy and implications for remote sensing, J. Geophys. Res. (Planets). 9) Rankenburg, K., A.D. Brandon, and M.D. Norman...: Water and deformation, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., XXXVII, Abstract #1314. Lunar and Planetary Institute..., snow, and dust, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., XXXVII, Abstract #1304. Lunar and Planetary Institute... a Manmade, 260 Meter Diameter Crater in Layered Terrain. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf..., P. (2006), Impact crater morphology on Saturnian satellites – First Results, Lunar Planet. Sci...: Lunar Exploration and Analysis Group Conf. on Lunar Exploration, LPI Contribution #1318, 86. Lunar... LaPaz Icefield Lunar Basaltic Meteorites and the Origin of Evolved Lunar Basalts, Lunar Planet.... 94) Kirkland, L.E., K.C. Herr, and P.M. Adams (2005), Infrared Remote Sensing Studies of Mars Analog Sites at the Nevada Test Site and... clast in lunar meteorite ALHA81005: major and trace element composition, and origin, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., XXXV, Abstract #1159. Lunar and... clast in lunar meteorite ALHA81005: major and trace element composition, and origin, Lunar Planet. Sci., Conf., XXXV, Abstr. #1159. Lunar and... Structural Elements of the Hico Crater, TX, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., XXXV..., P.M. Adams, J.M. McAfee, and E.R. Keim (2004), MarsLAB: First Remote Sensing Data of Mineralogy..., and J.M. Karner (2003) Cobalt and Nickel Partitioning into Olivine from Martian, Lunar and Terrestrial..., Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CD-ROM). 14) Dwarzski, R.E., and C.D.K. Herd (2003) Cobalt and..., Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CDROM). 15) Goodrich, C.A., C.D.K. Herd, and Taylor, L.A. (2003). Spinels and Oxygen Fugacity in OlivinePhyric and Lherzolitic Shergottites, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., XXXIV, Abstract #1426, Lunar and Planetary..., R.R., and K. Hessen (2003), The impact angles of different crater forms on Mars, Lunar.... Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CD-ROM). 26) McLeish, E.R., and A.H. Treiman (2003), Textures and...: Processes and geological settings, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., XXXIV, Abstr. #1407. Lunar and Planetary...) McKinnon, W., P. Schenk, and J. Moore (2003), Goldilocks and the three complex crater scaling laws... ChemCam — Laser-Induced Remote Sensing for Chemistry and Micro-Imaging NASA-2009..., Lunar and Planetary Institute Bulletin (2003 – present) • Director, Regional Planetary Image Facility, Lunar and..., Meetings, and Workshops Upcoming Conferences and Workshops (2007– 2010) 38th Lunar and Planetary Science...) and Louise Procktor (Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory). Workshop on Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS...). 36th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; March 14–18, 2005; Lunar and Planetary Institute... my career and to the icy satellite community by organizing and hosting this... Network LEAG Lunar Exploration Analysis Group LPI Lunar and Planetary Institute LPSC Lunar and Planetary...



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..., cis-lunar commercial services, such as lunar transportation, lunar ISRU operations, and cislunar propellant depots that can enable an economical and... Lunar Commercial Orbital Transfer Services Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite Low-Earth Orbit Liquid Hydrogen Low Lunar Orbit Lunar Orbit..., lunar sortie and lunar outpost. As clearly illustrated, the DRA5 architecture budgets and other... ISS, in the lunar vicinity, on the lunar surface and robotic missions may be used to simulate and better... and economical plan for establishing a permanent commercial lunar base that can create and... plan is realized and lunar-derived propellant can be produced and delivered at..., and US global leadership; and the emergence of a new era of lunar colonies and.... There have been several remote-sensing, lunar missions in the last two... missions (Clementine and Prospector) were debated over a decade until NASA’s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission was launched in 2009 (together with LRO) and intentionally...’s plan was to send both LCROSS and the attached upper stage, Centaur... into that crater causing a huge debris plume as planned with LCROSS’ Shepherding spacecraft following a few minutes later, collecting and relaying... mass in the lunar regolith of this crater. Further studies21 have indicated... for commercial involvement and lunar markets, thus creating a cis-lunar economy capable of... the lunar regolith, location and distribution of volatiles, quantities of hydrogen and water, and... of the lunar poles and traverse up to 1 km prospecting and drilling for... (IP) rights and operates and owns final product(s). V. Proposed Lunar Commercial Orbital Transfer..., development and operational risk and to incentivize industry to stimulate a cis-lunar economy... 1) demonstrate and enter into operation cis-lunar capabilities; 2) reduce technical and operational risk to Mars mission concepts; and..., reusable lunar landers to deliver lunar resources to cis-lunar space and propellant depots at cis-lunar space... lunar sites by examining ground truth and reconnaissance data provided by lunar rovers and instrument packages sent to the lunar... for lunar resource extraction and/or potential ISRU operations. Phase II – Lunar ISRU... development and budget plan are achieved. Phase III – Lunar ISRU Production and Delivery... Cis-Lunar and Deep Space Emerging Space Companies Business Strategy Targeting Cis-Lunar or Deep Space Astrobotic Technology Low-cost lunar transportation and rovers... and Landing Technologies including Reusability; Vertical Take-Off and Vertical-Landing Rockets; Lunar Landers Bigelow Aerospace Expandable space habitats and lunar habitats Shackleton Energy Extract water from Moon; create and deliver... with mostly high ratings were lunar landers and lunar rovers. These 2 capabilities scored... resources and identify hazards on the lunar surface, the top 2 capabilities, lunar landers and... stations and navigation satellites. The bottom 2 capabilities of Figure 5, reusable lunar landers and propellant depot in cis-lunar space, scored very... spectrometer system and lunar advanced volatile analysis to prospect for resources and oxygen...' to'lunar'surface.' GLXP'Teams' Lunar'CATALYST'teams' ProspecRng' Instruments' and'ISRU' demo...'to'lunar' surface.' GLXP'teams' Lunar'CATALYST'teams' ProspecPng' ProspecPng'instruments' and'ISRU... Aeronautics and Astronautics Alternately, a lunar crew for other purposes, not entirely attributable and... from new lunar industries, such as, lunar mining, solar power satellites and lunar tourism... reduce the costs of the lunar ISRU and lunar depot propellant to levels... as IMLEO. Considering a lunar ISRU plant and its tankers and orbital depot capabilities... lunar ISRU route. Additionally, a lunar ISRU capability would certainly result in technical and... emplaced lunar infrastructure can be amortized across multiple missions and other lunar industries... and the public to maintain financial support and achieve sustainability; 4) using Cis-Lunar space as a nearby testbed for maturing and... transportation systems and 5) creating a thriving Cis-Lunar economy to support and sustain future... may range from lunar transportation, to lunar ISRU operations, and cis-lunar propellant depots... the maturity of cis-lunar capabilities and technical and financial viability of emerging... and budget constraints and continued work on the economic assessment of lunar-derived...



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... to launch Russia’s Kompas-2 Earth-observation satellite from the nuclear submarine Ekaterinberg... remote sensing, and two for foreign clients. ISRO’s Insat-4B communications satellite, scheduled... from the agency’s Earth observation satellites Terra, Aqua, And Earth-Observing-1, along... observation satellite, using an SSTL bus and an Astrium payload. The AstroSAR-UK satellite... two new Earth-observation missions on 8 March. The TanDem-X satellite, planned for... for a new small optical Earth observation satellite, whose development is to be... subsidiary (Israel). China launched Remote Sensing Satellite No. 1 into a 600-km near... Beijing-1 Earth observation satellite, built by Surrey Satellite Technology LTD (UK) and launched by... of a $73-million, 880-kg Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCross). This project, which will be..., India’s Chandrayaan lunar orbiter and other spacecraft. The LRO/LCross mission is the... importance of a European autonomous Earth Observation and of the international dimension of... and security. GMES will be based on observation data received from Earth Observation satellites and ground-based information. These data will be coordinated, analyzed and... operational satellite agency of choice for European Earth Observation programmes for atmosphere and...-use Earth observation satellite network, developed jointly by France and Italy. The system... Conae and the University of Cordoba (Spain) to make Earth observation data and... a small communications satellite and for an African resource and environmental sensing network, to be..., regional observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Rocket System Corporation and JAXA launched... (IADB) to develop a satellite system, PROSAT, for Earth observation applications. The $50... existing satellite capacity in Latin America, particularly of remote-sensing/Earth Observation spacecraft... on the China-Brazil Earth observation satellite (CBERS), and was also prime contractor... 2 October purchased an Earth observation satellite from Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL, UK... and information. GEOSS will build on and add value to existing Earth-observation... on 5 May 2005, is a remote sensing satellite built by the Indian Space... Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1) and the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) and enhances terrestrial... Calipso (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) satellite was launched on 28...-1), Russia’s first civil Earth observation imaging satellite capable of transmitting high-resolution... be the first satellite of Belarus. It was a remote sensing satellite which measured...-2 The Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (Kompsat-2), a Korea Earth Observation satellite, was launched on... Optical and Radar Federated Earth Observation (Orfeo) enterprise comprises a network of Earth observation..., to replace the Spot-5 Earth observation satellite, each being equipped with advanced... sensing of the lunar surface (X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers, multi-band imager and... with the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) that will target the southern polar Shackleton Crater. Utilizing... climate and their relationship to global change by providing a comprehensive observation baseline and... observation without satellite nights. It is being operated in coordination with SOHO and... relation to attitude and constellation control, and maintenance. Outlook Satellite dynamics and, in conjunction... and GOES spacecraft) have continued to provide publicly unique and invaluable continuous observation... has provided near real-time and continuous observation of the solar corona... Imaging Surveyor (Japan) an aurora observation satellite (JAXA) Arctic Lidar Observatory for... Particle X-ray Spectrometer NASA Earth observation satellite Closed Aquatic Habitat Research Facility...-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation Community Atmospheric Model ISRO Remote Sensing Satellite Joint NASA/ESA mission to study Saturn Climate and Weather...-Satellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Applications X-Ray Observatory (NASA) Lunar mission (India) Lunar...-1 Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer US Lunar orbiter NASA/CSA satellite A mission consisting of... and Climate Constellation of small Satellites for Mediterranean Basin Observation Russian satellite launched... Environment Satellite Earth Observation (satellite) Electric Propulsion Diagnostic Package Energetic Proton, Electron and Alpha... ECMWF Re-Analysis European Remote Sensing Satellite European Space Agency Earth Surface... Accelerator in Chiba Observation mission with optical, X-ray and EUV telescopes (JAXA... Debris Collector Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph experiment Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (NASA) Long Duration...înée Compensée pour l’Observation du Principe d’Equivalence Middle Atmosphere Dynamics And Structure Micro... remote sensing satellite Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager Rayleigh, Mie and...



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... of the SMOS-2 Earth observation and soil moisture satellite. NASA launched the Wide...'s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) indicated the mission successfully uncovered water in a permanently shadowed lunar crater. Scientists... Taiyuan Satellite Launch Centre in Shanxi Province. The Yaogan VIII remote-sensing satellite and science researching mini-satellite, Hope One were... the Mediterranean basin Observation) series is an Earth observation satellite system funded by the Italian Ministry of Research and Ministry... Earth observation satellite to be built for Europe's Global Monitoring for Environment and... small satellite ever to be launched, defining new standards in Earth observation and... 26-year-old Landsat 5 remote sensing satellite has cheated death once again... a Boeing 601 satellite that will provide enhanced Earth-observation and weather-monitoring services... into programmes and budgets. The ESA’s 8000-kilogram Envisat Earth observation satellite is... 2009, preliminary data from NASA's Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite, or LCROSS, indicated - 40 - the mission successfully uncovered water in a permanently shadowed lunar crater. >> Scientists then said that the discovery of volatiles in lunar... in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science and exploration... Forum addressed satellite downstream applications such as navigation, communication, Earth observation, and location... Earth observation satellite >> November 2010 The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) and the... IAA and IISL a conference entitled “Current legal issues for satellite Earth observation”, which... included Treaty monitoring and law enforcement through satellite Earth observation; Privacy conflicts from... Earth observation satellites from SA, Kenya, Nigeria and Algeria; and a space weather satellite, which... 2012 and 2014. The first satellite will be used for Earth observation and the other for space weather and climate studies. A joint satellite could... satellite will carry a high-resolution optical remote sensing instrument for Earth sensing and Earth observation. >> Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) and the... - communication satellite GSAT-4 and remote sensing satellite Cartosat-2. While the launch of GSAT-4 and GSAT... capability and its first communications satellite. SSTL will design and produce an Earth observation satellite... its first Earth observation satellite called THEOS (Thailand Earth Observation Satellite), which currently has... an optical Earth observation satellite system, its associated ground infrastructure and training of... French and German governments said they would jointly build an Earth observation satellite... and Thales Alenia Space announced the official start of the Gokturk observation satellite... a telecommunications and navigation business unit, as well as an Earth observation and science business unit. The telecommunications and navigation business... Galileo navigation satellite, Giove-A and SSTL's geostationary communications satellite programme. The Earth observation and science business unit was responsible for the medium wave infrared and... national and international organisations, with the purpose of coordinating the Earth observation satellite... of selected Earth Observation (EO) initiatives, new satellite missions, and scientific achievements during...) and Astrium, France, carries three payloads dedicated respectively to meteorology, ocean observation and...-alpha mapper and cosmic ray sensor. LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) was launched with LRO and included... the EPOCH (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization) investigation and DIXI (Deep Impact eXtended... a successful impact in the southern lunar crater Cabeus, thereby demonstrating the existence..., and characterizing the radiation environment of the Earth’s Moon. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was launched on the same vehicle that carried LRO. LCROSS guided... Spectrometer Argon Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite Anti-Satellite Agenzia Spaziale Italiana/Italian... Programme for Life and Physical Sciences ENVIronmental SATellite Earth Observation Electric Propulsion Diagnostic... mission Energization and Radiation in Geospace (Japan) European Remote Sensing Satellite European Space... Line Inter-hemispheric Plasmasphere Remote sensing satellite, formerly ROCSAT-2 (Taiwan Province of... 2 Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph experiment Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (NASA...



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... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): Leading NASA’s Way Back to the Moon Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS... LCROSS Science Instruments.................................................................................................................................. 30 LCROSS Spacecraft................................................................................................................................................. 33 LCROSS Observation Campaign............................................................................................................................. 35 Future NASA Lunar Missions....n.jones@nasa.gov Jonas Dino Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Project Office Ames Research Center... Alaska and Hawaii on an MPEG – 2 digital C-band signal accessed via satellite... updates of the lunar flyby and live coverage of the LCROSS lunar impacts in... lunar endeavor will be the launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... of permanent shadow near the lunar poles. LCROSS is a spectacular mission that... a small crater in the bottom of a permanently shadowed lunar crater. Whatever LCROSS discovers about... observation campaigns to witness the mission’s historic twin impacts on the lunar...) altitude circular lunar polar orbit. LCROSS has a Lunar Gravity-Assist, Lunar Return Orbit (LGALRO... period is 113 minutes (Lunar Polar Orbit). LCROSS — Each LGALRO orbit is... and date of launch and target crater. Operations: Mission and science operations for the LCROSS... LCROSS mission costs $79 million plus additional funding from the Lunar Robotic... 350 metric tons of lunar material and create a crater 66 feet (20 m) in... remain at (lunar) altitudes below 6.2 miles (10 km). Target Crater: The current... launch. Observation Campaign: Professional and amateur astronomers are working with the LCROSS science...-Off 2 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Spacecraft Separation Centaur handover to LCROSS Gravity at... up and seeing the Earth rise. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite will... and remote sensing data that enables a daring new era of lunar exploration and development and LCROSS... the first telescopic observation of the moon. Thomas Harriot and Galilei drew... near the crater Autolycus. President John F. Kennedy proposed a manned lunar program. Ranger.../CRaTER early turn-on activities • Spacecraft functional checkout • LOI planning Lunar Orbit... (CRaTER) Goals The primary goal of CRaTER is to characterize the lunar radiation... PSRs. CRaTER Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation Lunar and deep... Earth orbit to position LCROSS for impact on a lunar pole. This elongated...) above the lunar surface. Following four minutes behind, the LCROSS will fly... to LCROSS Mission Control. Four minutes later, the LCROSS spacecraft impacts the lunar... lunar poles, the sun never rises above certain crater rims and therefore these crater... the lunar poles. Unfortunately, the evidence is not conclusive. The LCROSS mission seeks a definitive answer to the question of lunar water... the moon’s permanently shadowed crater. The LCROSS mission will be the first... telescopes on and orbiting the Earth and satellites in lunar orbit. LCROSS Impacts To... that the Centaur and LCROSS spacecraft will impact the lunar surface at approximately... lunar surface. 28 To achieve this high angle of impact, the LCROSS..., the LCROSS team will announce the lunar pole and the primary target crater. Factoring... feet (5 m) deep, while the LCROSS spacecraft impact crater is expected to be... indicate the LCROSS impacts will create a significantly larger crater than Lunar Prospector (LP... the remnant crater R6 Panel: LCROSS Science Payload Top View A B C D E F Payload Observation Deck... hours (29.5 days). 31 LCROSS Science Payload Observation Deck (POD) G Near Infrared... LCROSS, it became the backbone of the satellite, a first for the ring. LCROSS..., designed and built the spacecraft for this innovative mission. NASA’s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Solar... the lunar poles. 34 TCM-7 Centaur S-S/C Impact Impact T=0 Timp+4 min LCROSS Observation Campaign... impact of the LCROSS mission into a PSR crater near a lunar pole is generating excitement in the professional astronomer community. The LCROSS... moon. The LCROSS Observation Campaign is designed to share expertise and resources in.... The observation campaign will release mosaic images produced from future observation runs. On the night of lunar impacts, a similar...-time targeting data and coordinates. As part of the LCROSS Observation Campaign, proposals... about the LCROSS Observation Campaign, visit . There are two high tides and two...’s Kaguya lunar orbiter mission, which will enhance the LCROSS mission and the scientific return from LRO. The Lunar Precursor...



Дата загрузки: 2017-03-18
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... to the Moon DVD, LRO/LCROSS Activities, and Lunar Base Activities. Together these... Moon feature presentation; LRO/LCROSS animations and interviews; and additional media including a visualization... Earth and the Moon, and what makes our planet unique and habitable. LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES This set of activities introduce NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). This mission is collecting data that will help scientists and...’s LRO/LCROSS mission, including animation, interviews with NASA scientists, and related mission... top and bottom of the screen typical of this format. 7 LRO/LCROSS... History 8 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES overview Time Frame Up to two and a half... the Moon: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). This mission will collect data that will help scientists and... to build a future lunar outpost. View the LRO/LCROSS Media on the.../ LCROSS mission, including lunar landforms, impact craters, geologic history, spacecraft design, and the... to launch the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), an unmanned satellite that will... how the lunar radiation environment will affect humans. The satellite will spend... a safe and productive human return to the moon. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) is another... parts of the LCROSS mission are the Shepherding Spacecraft (S-S/C) and the Centaur... produce a crater and will eject tons of debris and potentially water ice and vapor above the lunar surface. The Lunar Reconnaissance... telescope. The LRO mission and the LCROSS mission are scheduled for launch...://lunar.arc.nasa.gov/education/activities/active7.htm 11 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES....shtml 13 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES build the orbiter Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter This... from space hit the lunar surface. 14 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES the Moon... of rocks and water ice, maps and pictures of the lunar surface and its... astronauts to explore Mars and beyond.) 16 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES the Moon... and / they made some big holes, That made the Moon have a crater face. In LRO the / “L” stands for “lunar,” Which is.... Adapted from NASA’s Make a Crater Activity: http://lunar.arc.nasa.gov/education/activities/active15a.htm 18 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES... Moon and Mars. Call on volunteers to identify the parts of a crater (most craters have deep central depressions, raised rims, and a blanket... a crater’s appearance (the nature of the surface, and the speed, size, and mass... diameter of each crater, its depth (using a toothpick), and the distance the... general relationship between a ball’s mass and the crater size? • How did the... general relationship between a ball’s size and the crater size? • How did the... relationship between a ball’s speed and the crater size? Wrap-Up Call on... volume, the larger the crater. 19 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES impact craters Impact... and the maria (numbered 1 and 2). Adapted from NASA’s Lunar Landform Identification Activity: http://lunar.arc.nasa.gov/education/activities/active13a.htm 23 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES moon landforms Moon Landforms (continued) 4. Distribute Landform Information Sheet and... LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES moon landforms Landform Information Sheet central crater uplift Mountain.... crater ejecta Material thrown out from and deposited around an impact crater. dome... from an impact crater. rille A channel in the lunar maria formed by... impact crater with “stair steps” created by slumping due to gravity and... ray rille terraced crater walls wrinkle ridge 26 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES moon... ray rille terraced crater walls wrinkle ridge 27 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES moon... LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES moon landforms Copernicus 19 20 18 35 LUNAR BASE... lunar South Pole. The name of the mission is LCROSS, short for Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite. LCROSS... same rocket as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) satellite, due to launch... LCROSS spacecraft will arrive in the Moon’s vicinity independent of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. On the way to the Moon, the LCROSS spacecraft’s two main parts, the Shepherding Spacecraft (S-S/C) and the Earth... upper stage will separate and then hit a crater in the South Pole... for Space Exploration goals.” Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS are the first of... and mineral and how it might be used to build and maintain your lunar... with and without the metals and minerals overlay) and the Key of Lunar Metals and... just keeps going and going,” Neal says. And for a lunar habitat, that persistence... of Shackleton Crater at the Moon’s South Pole. Neal and his colleagues...



Дата загрузки: 2017-03-09
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... lunar orbit. All seven scientific instruments on board the spacecraft were A e r o n a u t i c s a n d R e p o r t CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), impacted a permanently S p a c e o f t h e P r e s i d e n t 2 and other volatiles. During FY... Network (the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System), and the Deep Space Network...-manifested Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite on an Atlas V on June 18, 2009; and the Space Tracking and... Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) series of NOAA satellites that observe Earth’s weather and... from remote platforms; and (4) the Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking system. Like.... NOAA funds and manages the program and determines the need for satellite replacement... design, develop, and launch GOES satellites. After a satellite is launched and checked out... an essential cornerstone of weather observation and forecasting. Atmospheric phenomena are tracked... broadcasts, and participates in the international Cospas-SARSAT Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided... with commercial and foreign entities to proactively prevent satellite collisions and enhance collision... craft and power grids. NOAA’s GOES and Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES... altimetry satellite were handed over to NOAA A e r o n a u t i c s a n d R e p o r t property, and, ultimately, economic health and... States and its surrounding waters, thanks to the Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided... board aircraft and boats and from handheld personal locator beacons. When a satellite finds... Navigation Satellite Systems GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) Real-Time Positioning and Guidelines... investigate satellite applications for improving regional and global-scale weather forecasts and water... weather and climate models; develop techniques to integrate satellite, terrestrial, oceanic, and biological..., and calibration; (2) manufacturing technology; (3) observation and sensing; and (4) spacecraft and living environments. NIST supported accurate and compatible... calibration and characterization of satellite imagers and sensors that are important for defense and... NASA satellite missions at x-ray (International X-ray Observatory), millimeter (CMB Polarimeter Satellite), and submillimeter (Submillimeter and Far-InfraRed Experiment, or... American economy, and create U.S. jobs. OTM represented commercial remote-sensing satellite industry interests within the Remote Sensing Interagency Working... the export of commercial remote sensing satellite systems and negotiates government-to-government... Park and the surrounding high alpine areas, from USGS Earth Resources Observation and..., QuickBird, and WorldView satellite imagery was also pulled from archive, and new satellite tasking... on established satellite optical and radar abilities to map risks and resource sustainability... lunar poles with LRO radar and radiometer data, studied unusual volcanic and impact crater... primarily to commercial communications satellites and Earth observation satellites. The FCC took... of the next generation of satellite remote sensing systems through the Soil... enhanced with airborne and satellite imagery. Both cattle fever tick and screwworm flies... imagery, satellite imagery, and other datasets for program implementation, management, and monitoring, as... and precise determinations of global food supply conditions. The FAS satellite remote sensing... agencies, sharing satellite imagery and products with U.S. Government space agencies and DOD. The... acquisition, archival, and dissemination strategy to eliminate redundant satellite purchases and hence decreased departmental expenditures. The FAS and NASA... from aerial and satellite data, was the primary remote sensing product used by... Navigation Satellite System) applications for infrastructure, sustainable growth, transportation efficiency and safety, and..., the synergy of Earth observation, GIS, GPS, and Webbased mapping tools with....2 97.9 Italian Earth observation and military surveillance radar satellite November 15, 2008 STS... lunar surface and characterize landing sites for future missions Carried Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) (2009-031B), a lunar impact probe for detecting water ice in the lunar... Observation and Science Center European Space Agency Exploration Systems Mission Directorate Environmental Satellite... National Laboratory Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Landsat Data Continuity Mission Low-Earth Orbit Lunar Electric... Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics thermal infrared Television Infrared Observation Satellite TM TPW...



Дата загрузки: 2017-05-20
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... a Landing Site using Sensors aboard a Lunar Lander Ina Fiterau School of... a suite of sensors and algorithms, capable of perceiving and interpreting information about the Lander‟s position relative to its surroundings - lunar... target environment - elevation and obstacles of the lunar surface. Most importantly, the... contract items in the Innovative Lunar Demonstration Data (ILDD) with NASA...‟s coordinates, attitude and trajectory as well as through sensing of the environment... this information to assess risks and pick a danger-free landing surface..., altitude from lunar surface, orientation with respect to the lunar surface, direction of gravity, azimuth and surface roughness... considered as Doppler Radio Detection and Ranging (RADARs), a Hokuyo Laser range... of the lunar surface was created modeling the pictures of lunar surface obtained from the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). The model has craters, obstacles, unevenness and lunar dust spread over it to simulate the actual lunar surface... used to determine surface velocity and time-to-contact. Lucas-Kanade... National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) LCROSS mission and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), also Laser RADAR (LADAR) data from the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission formed one important dataset for training and testing the Markov Random Field (MRF) algorithm. LCROSS was a robotic lunar mission with the objective of exploring the material properties of a lunar crater... with the lunar surface. On the other hand, LRO was a lunar mapping probe dedicated to studying lunar surface features from... due to the fact that LCROSS offered a high-resolution sequence of... of the region chosen by LCROSS. In order to form training... data points were mapped to LCROSS images based on pose data.... Limitation of the Lander structure and the rover's motion were used... combine LIDAR readings with imagery and update the elevation estimation through... to adapt it to the lunar landscape conditions, such as lowering... data from the LRO and lunar imagery from the LCROSS, it was concluded... are used with specific settings and in different combinations to obtain... and a lunar surface model. The representative sensor suite on which different algorithms and... knowledge of its velocity, altitude and orientation are crucial. Any inaccuracy... means of Doppler Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR) sensors that give... frequency signal towards a desired target and capturing the reflection, then analyzing... the frequency between the transmitted and received waves gives accurate measurements... case, the target is the lunar surface. When the Doppler RADAR... frequency signals on to the lunar surface and obtains the reflected wave... the velocity components in the x, y and z directions relative to the Lander... can be divided into the x, y and z directed velocity vectors by solving..., containing noise (random variations) and other inaccuracies, and produce values that tend... true values of the measurements and their associated calculated values. The... image with the standard database and identify the attitude. But, there... of the Lander from the lunar surface, Δt is the time taken... by again tracking the sun and earth and identifying the moon‟s surface... help of the IMU and position of sun and earth the approximate... the and at finding the difference between them as shown.lunar surface... terrain evaluation: modeling the lunar terrain and assessing the possibility of landing... readings - more precisely, LIDAR and camera - and how this DEM can be... four neighbors: top, bottom, left and right. The connection between two... alignment between the LIDAR readings and the image - it is imperative... unknown readings with 0 will heavily and negatively impact the accuracy of... the update process. The benefits and overhead introduced by real-time... clearance for the lander body and sufficient spacing from hazardous terrain... NASA - from the LRO and the LCROSS mission - and on data obtained by... landscape made to mimic the lunar surface. Two types of tests... parameters between the LIDAR and the readings and the second to illustrate... of camera, LIDAR, RADAR, and IMU, a lunar lander can achieve pinpoint landing. Using these sensors velocity, altitude, and... determined. In addition, surface roughness and slope can be estimated to... autonomous ground vehicles," Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2008. IROS 2008. IEEE... J. and Thrun S.;, “An Application of Markov Random Fields to Range Sensing”, Proceedings... LCROSS imagery Overview of the MRF algorithm Elevation map after interpolation and...% to 13% Shading coefficient - formula and plot against the pixel color... the landscape around the Cabeus crater Path planning based on the... the Laser measurement System of Lunar surface model for testing. LIDAR...