Спутник ФКИ. Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). [Редактировать]

Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS, Космический аппарат для наблюдения и зондирования лунных кратеров) — название автоматической межпланетной станции НАСА, запущенной 18 июня 2009 года в 21:32:33 UTC (19 июня в 01:32:33 мск) вместе с Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter к Луне в рамках космической программы Lunar Precursor Robotic Program. От полёта LCROSS ожидалось получить окончательные сведения о наличии водяного льда на южном полюсе Луны, который мог бы сыграть важную роль для будущих пилотируемых экспедиций на Луну.
9 октября 2009 года в 11:31:19 UTC в районе кратера Кабеус (Cabeus) упал разгонный блок «Центавр». В результате падения выброшено облако из газа и пыли. LCROSS пролетел сквозь выброшенное облако, анализируя вещество, поднятое со дна кратера. LCROSS упал в тот же кратер в 11:35:45 UTC, успев передать на Землю результаты своих исследований. С лунной орбиты за падением следил зонд «LRO», с околоземной — космический телескоп Хаббл и европейский спутник «Odin». С земли — крупные обсерватории.

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США
3Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг621
2Платформа 1xEagle-0

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС, дней144

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2009-031B

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор NASA / ARC
2Производитель Northrup Grumman

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2009-06-18 at 21:32:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xLunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
3Полезная нагрузка 1xLunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS)
4Ракета-носитель 1xАтлас 5 401

Найдено 299 документов по запросу «Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS)». [Перейти к поиску]


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...; and NASA’s Lunar Science Institute of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric... of the Haworth crater at the Moon’s south pole and the western rim of the Seares crater at its... Satellite (GOSAT), would help scientists calculate the density of carbon dioxide and... satellite that would observe sprites and gamma-rays generated during thunderstorms; and KKS 1, a cube satellite designed to demonstrate a micropropulsion system and three-axis... Launches Satellite To Track Greenhouse Gases,” 23 January 2009. 3 Aeronautics and Astronautics...-pound (1,905-kilogram, or 1.9-tonne) satellite, and the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute... built satellite aboard a Safir-2 rocket. Iranian scientists had designed the research and... launched its National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite, NOAA 19, or... the latest and final spacecraft in the Advanced TIROS-N (ATN) satellite series. Lockheed Martin had been designing and building for NASA and NOAA since the first Television and Infrared Observational Satellite (TIROS) weather satellite... Home-Built Satellite into Orbit,” 3 February 2009. 15 NASA, “NASA and Google... 10 February A Russian satellite launched in 1993, and that engineers believed to... and analyze data from satellite-, airborne-, sea-, and land-based sensors. Governments, businesses, and... 559.2 miles) typical for Earth-observation satellites. Mission managers remarked that... Bang. Bloom added that the observation of GRB090423 marked the beginning... Laboratory’s TacSat-3 satellite, which was the primary payload, and other NASA CubeSat... along the crater’s edge and then had traveled down into the crater. The... satellite, researchers had conducted the first global analysis of the health and... June NASA successfully launched its Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) aboard an Atlas-V rocket from... the 1,290-pound (585-kilogram) LCROSS and the 5,216-pound (2,366-kilogram...’s MFSC and the Chandra X-ray Observatory announced that a long observation from Chandra, the SST, and ground-based observatories... 2009. 91 NASA, “NASA and NOAA’s GOES-O Satellite Successfully Launched,” news release... Earth Observation System of Systems, a collaborative effort to share and integrate Earth observation data from various instruments and systems, to monitor and... satellite data and computer weather models with artificial intelligence techniques to identify and... (TRMM), CloudSat, and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellites..., integrate, and test a new low-Earth-orbit space-science satellite for GSFC... the eighth satellite modeled after LEOStar 2 and the fifth SMEX satellite to use... Satellite Crash,” 17 July 2009. 39 Aeronautics and Astronautics: A Chronology, 2009 Wakata and.... Chandra had made its first observation of E0102 shortly after its... Orbital Navigator Satellite), part of a study to demonstrate autonomous rendezvous and docking... the multinational Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Precipitation Constellation. The GPM... Global Change Observation Mission satellite. 111 31 July Space Shuttle Endeavour and its...), carrying a telecommunications satellite for Japan—JCSAT 12—and a broadcasting satellite for Australia— Optus... with Satellite Launch,” Spaceflight Now, 25 August 2009. 47 Aeronautics and Astronautics... satellite reached its target altitude, causing the satellite to overshoot its mark and... 2010. They also connected GPS satellite antennas and completed a variety of small... for the mission finale, the LCROSS satellite had separated from its Centaur... the LCROSS science team. Jennifer L. Heldmann, ARC coordinator of the LCROSS observation campaign.... 147 NASA, “NASA Spacecraft Impacts Lunar Crater in Search for Water Ice... announced that LCROSS’s observation of its 9 October 2009 impact on the lunar surface had succeeded. During LACROSS’s descent into the Centaur crater... but distinct debris plume. LCROSS Principal Investigator and Project Scientist Anthony Colaprete.../mission_pages/LCROSS/main/LCROSS_impact.html (accessed 30 September 58 Aeronautics and Astronautics... and Technology (KACST), to collaborate in lunar and asteroid science research. The Saudi Lunar and... Board Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations Congressional Budget Office... system or global positioning satellite Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment gamma-ray...-abort system Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Low Frequency Instrument laser-imaging detection and ranging Lunar Reconnaissance... Tracking and Data Relay Satellites Television and Infrared Observational Satellite Telemetry, Information, Transfer, and...



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... in Solar and Space Physics (2004) Utilization of Operational Environmental Satellite Data: Ensuring Readiness for 2010 and Beyond (SSB with ASEB and... crust and possibly the lunar mantle, along with answers to questions on crater and basin formation, lateral and vertical compositional diversity, lunar chronology, and the... location for observation and study of Earth, near-Earth space, and the universe... benefits and the costs of using the Moon as an observation platform... and approach to planetary science and improvements in use of remote sensing and field and... most common type of satellite atmosphere FIGURE 1.1  Lunar science encompasses four overarching... the recognition from detailed crater counts that lunar volcanism extended far later... remote sensing, especially infrared spectroscopy, shows that the diversity of the lunar... modern and computationally intensive techniques and analysis and the integration of remote sensing and new...-Apollo missions that returned global lunar remote sensing data. The pioneer was... to accommodate this fundamental observation into current understanding. Lunar Prospector also identified... observed in lunar mare basalts in samples and in remote sensing data indicates... of secondary impact craters on crater counts. Lunar Environment 1. The bombardment history... the creation of lunar basins. From the returned samples and crater statistics, it..., such as crater ejecta deposits, and radiometric ages of lunar soil spherules. Current... detected and omitted from crater counts. Detailed studies of young lunar impact craters and the distribution and... the lunar magma ocean continues to serve scientists well, geophysical, remote sensing, and sample analyses reveal a lunar crust that varies both laterally and vertically... structure and geologic evolution of the lunar crust. From the global remote sensing coverage of the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions of the 1990s and...-yet-unvisited lunar terrains, both by local and regional remote sensing and sample analysis... the south polar lunar crater Shackleton showed that this crater exhibited radar scattering... unusual lunar environments (crater central peaks, excavated lower-crust and mantle materials, and pyroclastics... at 2 to 3 crater radii. Continuing improvements in remote sensing might yield observational... future lunar exploration. It carries an array of modern remote sensing instruments... polar areas, and study the lunar radiation environment. A secondary payload, Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), launched with... terrestrial crater record through fieldwork and zircon evidence. Compare new remote sensing data... lunar chronology is derived from combining lunar crater counts with radiometric sample ages and is thus the most precise—and..., and isotopic characterization of diverse lunar rocks. Higher-resolution geochemical and mineralogical remote sensing... crust and possibly the lunar mantle, along with answers to questions on crater and basin formation, lateral and vertical compositional diversity, lunar chronology, and the... the observations of every LEO and GEO satellite in existence, making possible... geosynchronous orbiting weather satellite observations at 0.1 percent precision and so permit issues... Exploration (IMAGE) satellite in 2000, images of Earth’s magnetosphere and ionosphere have... location for observation and study of Earth, near-Earth space, and the universe... benefits and the costs of using the Moon as an observation platform... of adaptability, quick reaction, and discerning observation offer the best potential for... supported by the general observation that the lunar geologic variety occurs on... and approach to planetary science and improvements in use of remote sensing and field and... observation or terrestrial analysis via documented sample return. Secondary goals: 3. Goals and.... Examples are major lunar astronomical observatories or Earth observation systems that might... Space Administration lunar orbiter Chesapeake—an ancient subsurface impact crater located in... Earth LCROSS—the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite, a secondary payload to be launched with the Lunar Reconnaissance... first phase of lunar exploration is centered on remote-sensing observations, we... (SMART-1, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, SELENE RSAT, and VSAT) and subsequent impacts of lunar crafts should.... Lucey’s lunar research has primarily involved the examination of remote sensing data as it relates to the composition of the lunar crust and... Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby and NASA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory satellite mission that...



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An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Anthony Colaprete, Richard C. Elphic, Jennifer ...-9880-6 An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Anthony Colaprete · Richard C. Elphic · Jennifer... 2012 Abstract The Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), an accompanying payload to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... and lunar orbital assets were also coordinated to observe the impact and subsequent crater and...-manifested with LRO was the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). During the development of LRO... the hydrogen and place constraints on its distribution and concentration. Furthermore, LCROSS aimed to characterize the lunar regolith within... task LCROSS used Author's personal copy An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite the... of Shackleton crater near the lunar south pole. However, Simpson and Tyler (1999... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) are stacked in the launch configuration 3 The LCROSS... from a PSR and observe the impact ejecta and resulting crater. The LCROSS mission utilized... fuel and part of the venting was used to put LCROSS and the Centaur on a lunar swing-by trajectory. At this point the LCROSS SSC took control of the Centaur. The lunar swing-by placed LCROSS into a near polar Earth orbit. LCROSS performed... copy An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite 4 The Impact While similar in... crater parameters that drove mission design included crater size, total excavated mass, and... Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite into understanding the LCROSS impact (e.g., Hermalyn and Schultz 2010... copy An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite before the Centaur impact (in... volatiles, the LCROSS impactor should impact within a permanently shadowed crater. 3. Observable by...). As the impact modeling and Earth-based observation capabilities matured, it became... approached, and all on-board SSC instrument operation and LRO observation participation was... An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite Fig. 4 Modeled LCROSS impact site as viewed... for LCROSS planning purposes. LRO, launched on 18 June 2009, entered lunar... the lunar south pole specifically to provide better information for final LCROSS.... 8 LCROSS Spacecraft, Instruments and Measurements A brief description of the LCROSS shepherding spacecraft (SSC) and... control and orbit maneuvering. Author's personal copy An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite..., communications card, and power and thruster control electronics. While the LCROSS SSC did... spacecraft +X direction and were accommodated in the Payload Observation Deck (POD). This... throughout the LCROSS mission for testing, calibration, post-separation Centaur observation, and the... Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite Table 4 Measurements and Objectives of LCROSS Instruments Instrument Measurements Objectives Visible Camera Surface and ejecta... and any remnant crater heat Visible Spectrometer • Visible emission (e.g. OH− , H2 O+ ) • Surface and... plume temperatures through luminance decay observation period the instrument measurements were... ejecta curtain develops and fills the spectrometer FOVs, and (3) Crater—the period of... and the newly formed crater would begin to be visible in the LCROSS Author's personal copy A. Colaprete et al. cameras. These observation sequences... cruise and was practiced in Operational Readiness Tests prior to impacts. 9 Observation Campaign The LCROSS Observation Campaign was a key component of the LCROSS mission. A brief description of the Observation Campaign is provided here and... Observation Campaign was to train as many observing assets on the LCROSS... from this unique experiment. The Observation Campaign could also serve as... astronomers was essential to the Observation Campaign since these types of... the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite order to ensure functional communications between the SOC and each..., online updates, and a secure server for file transfers. The LCROSS Observation Campaign Coordinator... order to complement the other Observation Campaign datasets. Each observing team... the LCROSS impact events. The inclusion of amateur astronomers in the LCROSS Observation... observation team as it was the only other asset, besides the LCROSS... near 2.9 µm and the slit viewer with a K filter for imaging observation of ejecta... LCROSS mission provided important Author's personal copy An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... of lunar polar hydrogen observed by previous missions. It appears the LCROSS... scale <1 km. LCROSS has not answered all questions regarding lunar polar water...



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... four different spacecraft (Lunar Prospector, Chandrayaan-1, Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite LCROSS, Fig. 1. One of the... Moon featuring the Mouchez crater near to lunar zero longitude. Illumination variations... of Bills and Ferrari (1977) from Lunar Orbiter and Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites... various science and technology investigations. Among them were three remote sensing instruments: an X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS), a lunar infrared spectrometer (SIR) and the...; Vondrak et al., 2010) and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS: Colaprete et al., 2010a) was...) Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft shows a very young lunar crater on the side of the... advance lunar science and exploration, including location and study of potential hazards and resources... of a Russian lunar lander and an Indian orbiter and mini-rover. A lunar multielement mission (lander, rover, re-transmitting satellite), Luna... structure. Lunar crustal rocks. Lunar poles. Lunar volcanism. Impact processes. Lunar regolith. Lunar dust and atmosphere environment. 3.3. International Lunar Exploration..., heliophysics, and Earth-observation studies (3 objectives, 28 investigations). Use the unique lunar environment... directly applicable to lunar and Mars exploration, and providing a valuable and visible “milestone” akin... a fleet of orbital and landed spacecraft. Orbital remote sensing has revealed a complex.... Conventional satellite development for the most part is a capital- and expertiseintensive endeavor... of small satellite technology was not lost on governmental space and research... (Balogh and Haubold, 2009; Balogh et al., 2010). As small-satellite technologies... (1) safe and precise transportation to lunar or planetary surfaces, (2) communication, and (3) power and (especially... and development of a Global Lunar Robotic Village will encourage and stimulate the peaceful and... rovers and instruments, and cooperative Robotic Village operations (see Section 6.1). 6.4.1. Google Lunar X Prize and... tems, through field research and supporting satellite observation as well as studies to..., Earth observation programs from the ISS or from the lunar surface are... LADEE Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer LAMP Lyman-alpha Mapping Project LCROSS Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite LEAG The Lunar Exploration Analysis Group LEND Lunar Exploration Neutron... 2016 and 2018, respectively. Launch System Human Transport Capabilities Astronaut Corps Satellite... the exploration and utilization of the Moon – our natural satellite” (International Lunar Workshop... and provides analysis in support of lunar exploration objectives and their implications for lunar architecture planning and activity prioritization. It provides findings and... of lunar regolith and crust, local geochemistry, and in situ resource utilization demonstrations. A lunar communications relay satellite is under discussion to support activities on the lunar.... Water and more: an overview of LCROSS impact results, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary..., S., Binder, A.B., Lucey, P.G. Lunar Fe and Ti abundances: comparison of lunar prospector and clementine data... lunar Procellarum KREEP Terrane: a synthesis of data from geomorphological mapping, remote sensing, and... in lunar melt inclusions. Science 8, 213–215, 2011. Hawke, B.R., Bell, J.F. Remote sensing studies of lunar dark-halo impact craters: preliminary results and implications..., M.C., et al. Diviner lunar radiometer observations of the LCROSS impact. Science 330..., D. and the LCROSS Science Team. Lunar Crater observation and sensing satellite (LCROSS) mission: results from the visible camera and UV.... Hot bands observation of water in ejecta plume of LCROSS impact using the Subaru telescope, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary..., W., Jingshan, J. Scientific objectives and payloads of Chang’ E-1 lunar satellite. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 114... lunar surface. I: regional values and crustal content, in: Proceedings of the 8th Lunar and..., C.M., Tompkins, S. Tsilokovsky crater: a window into crustal processes on the lunar farside. J. Geophys... Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Abstract #1993, 2010. Spence, H.E. and the Crater Science Team. Lunar..., J., Jiang, J. Scientific objectives and payloads of Chang’ E-1 lunar satellite. J. Earth System Sci. 114... Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, with Global Lunar Conference (GLUC), and Beijing Lunar...



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... for alternative energy, and experimental studies. The lunar outpost would have its... the effects of a lunar outpost on humanity and deemed barring any unforeseen... industries of space launch technologies, satellite services, and terrestrial applications. Secondly, the... and solar observation capabilities. The U.S has three interdependent sectors: national security, civil, and... is a sketch of the lunar transfer and trajectory used for the Apollo... three-body problem. His crucial observation was that although it is... from LL1 to the lunar surface and it brings the entire delta... with the LEO to Lunar transfer (5.91 km/s and 5.24 respectively). FUTURE... establish a self-sustaining lunar outpost energy, water, and shelter would need to... Peary Crater is a location that sees nearly continuous sunlight during a lunar summer... mission in 1994. Clementine was a satellite equipped with advanced cameras created... Fresh Crater 20 | P a g e Figure 9 - CPR Data for a Water Ice Crater Figures 8 and 9 above show the CPR data for a rough fresh crater and CPR data for a water ice crater. Figure 8 is from a crater located at coordinates 81.4˚ north and 22˚ east. Figure 9 is located on the floor of Rozhdestvensky crater at coordinates 84.3˚ north and 157˚ west. Figure... the same CPR inside the crater and out; rough fresh craters. This... 89.68S and 166W(A) which lies on the Shackleton crater, another point is at 89.44S and 141.8W(B) which lies on a ridge close to the Shackleton crater. Another point is near the De Gerlanche crater at 88.71S and 68.7W(C) and the final point is also on the Shackleton crater at 99.79S and 124.5E (D). Table 4- Percent... North is the Cabeus crater where NASA‘s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) discovered water ice in craters by kicking up debris and analyzing it in a spectrometer. More specifically the LCROSS reports..., scientists have simulated lunar soil in vacuum and used microwaves to heat... important to sustaining a lunar outpost because managing space and waste disposal would... human life on a lunar base, the air quality and interior cabin pressure... moon is a very expensive endeavor and a lunar outpost would require a reason to... Suslov crater they found an impact site that contained permafrost and the... any rocket aiming to bring a satellite beyond earth orbit. It gives... foundation of future solar power satellite systems.‖ EXPERIMENTS ON THE MOON... correct and this ice has been frozen in the permanently shadowed crater... of WPT is a solar powered satellite (SPS). Solar powered satellites could... of earth‘s rotation so the satellite appears stationary from a person viewing... a satellite the electricity collected needs to be used to generate and amplify... a conceptual diagram. Instead of using a satellite in GEO the moon can... is an advocate for lunar solar power and believes it can be... lunar resources and turn those resources into the materials needed for the lunar... to be applicable for space and lunar purposes are the following: Self... AND RECYCLING Near the South Pole, for example, some high crater rims... ways to grow lunar-ready white potatoes, soybeans and wheat. "Plants doing... and machines will have to cope with lunar dust: gritty, sharp-edged, and murder on seals and bearings... will analyze the effects a lunar outpost and other projects associated with it... launch capabilities, assembly of a full satellite in space, power transmission on.... Examining the lunar ice contained in the Shackleton Crater would allow scientists... any rocket aiming to bring a satellite beyond earth orbit. It gives... scientific community that lunar ice can be harvested and broken down into..., scientists have simulated lunar soil 63 | P a g e in vacuum and used microwaves to... territory or an intrusive spy satellite recording our operations. Of course... developed and could be used for future reconnaissance missions. These observation satellites... came from development and testing in space. Products like satellite dishes, scratchresistant lenses, home security systems, solar power, sewage and... -- Could House Lunar Base?" Daily Nature and Science News and Headlines | National Geographic... W., and Shane D. Ross. "The Lunar L1 Gateway: Portal to the Stars and Beyond... Highefficiency and Low-noise Wireless Power Transmission for Solar Power Station/Satellite. Solar Power Satellite. Kyoto University. Web. . "Microgravity.... "Moon-Rock Bricks Could Build Lunar Bases and Settlements - Popular Mechanics." Automotive...



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... Earth and Low Lunar Orbit . . . . . . . . 4.4 Low-Energy Transfers Between Earth and Low Lunar Orbit... Between Earth and Low Lunar Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Transfers Between Lunar Libration Orbits and Low Lunar Orbits . 4.6 Transfers Between Low Lunar Orbits and the Lunar... and the Lunar Surface 5.5 Low-Energy Spatial Transfers Between the Earth and the Lunar... Lunar Surface 5.6 Transfers Between Lunar Libration Orbits and the Lunar Surface . . 5.7 Transfers Between Low Lunar Orbits and the Lunar Surface . . . . 5.8 Conclusions Regarding Transfers to the Lunar Surface... and various locations near the Moon, including lunar libration orbits, low lunar orbits, and the lunar surface. These..., including low lunar orbits, halo and other three-body orbits, and the lunar surface... and trajectory designers. This book surveys and illustrates transfers between the Earth and lunar libration orbits, low lunar mapping orbits, and the lunar surface, including transfers to the Moon and from... are useful for lunar impactors, such as the Lunar Crater Observatory and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). In this... captured and brought back to Earth, or repurposed for another comet observation... radio sources (quasars), lunar laser ranging, satellite laser ranging, and Global Positioning System... During the development and operations of nearly all planetary and satellite orbiting missions... satellite has a Jacobi constant near 14.6, a GEO satellite has a Jacobi constant near 9.6, and... has a Jacobi constant near 5.5, and a satellite in a lunar orbit at an altitude near... ∂Ri+1 ∂ αij ∂ ti+1 (2.37) A quick observation shows that the ΔV constraints described... particular use for lunar communication and navigation satellites [11]: a satellite in a halo orbit... Moon, for lunar L1 and L2 halo orbits, respectively. Furthermore, a satellite may be... also never impeded, simplifying the satellite’s power and thermal systems. Since the... and a southern variety [121]. As one can see in Fig. 2-25, a satellite... BETWEEN EARTH AND LUNAR LIBRATION ORBITS Transfers between the Earth and lunar libration orbits... Earth and this lunar L1 halo orbit require some combination of lunar passages and... the lunar L2 point. One satellite remained there as a navigation and communication relay and the other satellite transferred to a low lunar orbit. Information... lunar surface and TRANSFERS BETWEEN LOW LUNAR ORBITS AND THE LUNAR SURFACE 259 returned to lunar... impactor missions such as the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) [202]. This mission used an... same in each model. This observation emphasizes the need to include.... 5.6 TRANSFERS BETWEEN LUNAR LIBRATION ORBITS AND THE LUNAR SURFACE A general framework and understanding does... TO THE LUNAR SURFACE 5.7 TRANSFERS BETWEEN LOW LUNAR ORBITS AND THE LUNAR SURFACE Information about transfers from low lunar orbits to the lunar... to the design of the Lunar Crater Observatory and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission. Some examples of... , and ΔVTLI ; the dates of the two trans-lunar maneuvers tTCM1 and tTCM2 ; and y , and... and target the same lunar orbit. The dates and times of the trans-lunar injection and lunar orbit..., G. H. Born, and M. W. Lo, “Linked, Autonomous, Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation (LiAISON) in Lunar Halo.... 10. K. Hill, M. W. Lo, and G. H. Born, “Linked, Autonomous, Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation (LiAISON..., and K. Fujimoto, Linked Autonomous Interplan­ etary Satellite Orbit Navigation (LiAISON) Between Geosynchronous and Lunar.... K. Hill and G. H. Born, “Autonomous Interplanetary Orbit Determination Using Satellite­ to-Satellite Tracking,” AIAA Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics..., G. Marr, J. Carrico, and C. Ocampo, “Mission Design for the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS),” Proceedings of the... Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite low energy low-Earth orbit Earth–Moon lunar Lagrange point 1 / 2 low-lunar orbit lunar-orbit insertion lunar principal-axis body-fixed L5 LCROSS L.E. LEO...



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... to launch Russia’s Kompas-2 Earth-observation satellite from the nuclear submarine Ekaterinberg... remote sensing, and two for foreign clients. ISRO’s Insat-4B communications satellite, scheduled... from the agency’s Earth observation satellites Terra, Aqua, And Earth-Observing-1, along... observation satellite, using an SSTL bus and an Astrium payload. The AstroSAR-UK satellite... two new Earth-observation missions on 8 March. The TanDem-X satellite, planned for... for a new small optical Earth observation satellite, whose development is to be... subsidiary (Israel). China launched Remote Sensing Satellite No. 1 into a 600-km near... Beijing-1 Earth observation satellite, built by Surrey Satellite Technology LTD (UK) and launched by... of a $73-million, 880-kg Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCross). This project, which will be..., India’s Chandrayaan lunar orbiter and other spacecraft. The LRO/LCross mission is the... importance of a European autonomous Earth Observation and of the international dimension of... and security. GMES will be based on observation data received from Earth Observation satellites and ground-based information. These data will be coordinated, analyzed and... operational satellite agency of choice for European Earth Observation programmes for atmosphere and...-use Earth observation satellite network, developed jointly by France and Italy. The system... Conae and the University of Cordoba (Spain) to make Earth observation data and... a small communications satellite and for an African resource and environmental sensing network, to be..., regional observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Rocket System Corporation and JAXA launched... (IADB) to develop a satellite system, PROSAT, for Earth observation applications. The $50... existing satellite capacity in Latin America, particularly of remote-sensing/Earth Observation spacecraft... on the China-Brazil Earth observation satellite (CBERS), and was also prime contractor... 2 October purchased an Earth observation satellite from Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL, UK... and information. GEOSS will build on and add value to existing Earth-observation... on 5 May 2005, is a remote sensing satellite built by the Indian Space... Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1) and the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) and enhances terrestrial... Calipso (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) satellite was launched on 28...-1), Russia’s first civil Earth observation imaging satellite capable of transmitting high-resolution... be the first satellite of Belarus. It was a remote sensing satellite which measured...-2 The Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (Kompsat-2), a Korea Earth Observation satellite, was launched on... Optical and Radar Federated Earth Observation (Orfeo) enterprise comprises a network of Earth observation..., to replace the Spot-5 Earth observation satellite, each being equipped with advanced... sensing of the lunar surface (X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers, multi-band imager and... with the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) that will target the southern polar Shackleton Crater. Utilizing... climate and their relationship to global change by providing a comprehensive observation baseline and... observation without satellite nights. It is being operated in coordination with SOHO and... relation to attitude and constellation control, and maintenance. Outlook Satellite dynamics and, in conjunction... and GOES spacecraft) have continued to provide publicly unique and invaluable continuous observation... has provided near real-time and continuous observation of the solar corona... Imaging Surveyor (Japan) an aurora observation satellite (JAXA) Arctic Lidar Observatory for... Particle X-ray Spectrometer NASA Earth observation satellite Closed Aquatic Habitat Research Facility...-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation Community Atmospheric Model ISRO Remote Sensing Satellite Joint NASA/ESA mission to study Saturn Climate and Weather...-Satellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Applications X-Ray Observatory (NASA) Lunar mission (India) Lunar...-1 Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer US Lunar orbiter NASA/CSA satellite A mission consisting of... and Climate Constellation of small Satellites for Mediterranean Basin Observation Russian satellite launched... Environment Satellite Earth Observation (satellite) Electric Propulsion Diagnostic Package Energetic Proton, Electron and Alpha... ECMWF Re-Analysis European Remote Sensing Satellite European Space Agency Earth Surface... Accelerator in Chiba Observation mission with optical, X-ray and EUV telescopes (JAXA... Debris Collector Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph experiment Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (NASA) Long Duration...înée Compensée pour l’Observation du Principe d’Equivalence Middle Atmosphere Dynamics And Structure Micro... remote sensing satellite Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager Rayleigh, Mie and...



Дата загрузки: 2017-03-09
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... of the SMOS-2 Earth observation and soil moisture satellite. NASA launched the Wide...'s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) indicated the mission successfully uncovered water in a permanently shadowed lunar crater. Scientists... Taiyuan Satellite Launch Centre in Shanxi Province. The Yaogan VIII remote-sensing satellite and science researching mini-satellite, Hope One were... the Mediterranean basin Observation) series is an Earth observation satellite system funded by the Italian Ministry of Research and Ministry... Earth observation satellite to be built for Europe's Global Monitoring for Environment and... small satellite ever to be launched, defining new standards in Earth observation and... 26-year-old Landsat 5 remote sensing satellite has cheated death once again... a Boeing 601 satellite that will provide enhanced Earth-observation and weather-monitoring services... into programmes and budgets. The ESA’s 8000-kilogram Envisat Earth observation satellite is... 2009, preliminary data from NASA's Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite, or LCROSS, indicated - 40 - the mission successfully uncovered water in a permanently shadowed lunar crater. >> Scientists then said that the discovery of volatiles in lunar... in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science and exploration... Forum addressed satellite downstream applications such as navigation, communication, Earth observation, and location... Earth observation satellite >> November 2010 The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) and the... IAA and IISL a conference entitled “Current legal issues for satellite Earth observation”, which... included Treaty monitoring and law enforcement through satellite Earth observation; Privacy conflicts from... Earth observation satellites from SA, Kenya, Nigeria and Algeria; and a space weather satellite, which... 2012 and 2014. The first satellite will be used for Earth observation and the other for space weather and climate studies. A joint satellite could... satellite will carry a high-resolution optical remote sensing instrument for Earth sensing and Earth observation. >> Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) and the... - communication satellite GSAT-4 and remote sensing satellite Cartosat-2. While the launch of GSAT-4 and GSAT... capability and its first communications satellite. SSTL will design and produce an Earth observation satellite... its first Earth observation satellite called THEOS (Thailand Earth Observation Satellite), which currently has... an optical Earth observation satellite system, its associated ground infrastructure and training of... French and German governments said they would jointly build an Earth observation satellite... and Thales Alenia Space announced the official start of the Gokturk observation satellite... a telecommunications and navigation business unit, as well as an Earth observation and science business unit. The telecommunications and navigation business... Galileo navigation satellite, Giove-A and SSTL's geostationary communications satellite programme. The Earth observation and science business unit was responsible for the medium wave infrared and... national and international organisations, with the purpose of coordinating the Earth observation satellite... of selected Earth Observation (EO) initiatives, new satellite missions, and scientific achievements during...) and Astrium, France, carries three payloads dedicated respectively to meteorology, ocean observation and...-alpha mapper and cosmic ray sensor. LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) was launched with LRO and included... the EPOCH (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization) investigation and DIXI (Deep Impact eXtended... a successful impact in the southern lunar crater Cabeus, thereby demonstrating the existence..., and characterizing the radiation environment of the Earth’s Moon. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was launched on the same vehicle that carried LRO. LCROSS guided... Spectrometer Argon Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite Anti-Satellite Agenzia Spaziale Italiana/Italian... Programme for Life and Physical Sciences ENVIronmental SATellite Earth Observation Electric Propulsion Diagnostic... mission Energization and Radiation in Geospace (Japan) European Remote Sensing Satellite European Space... Line Inter-hemispheric Plasmasphere Remote sensing satellite, formerly ROCSAT-2 (Taiwan Province of... 2 Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph experiment Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (NASA...



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... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): Leading NASA’s Way Back to the Moon Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS... LCROSS Science Instruments.................................................................................................................................. 30 LCROSS Spacecraft................................................................................................................................................. 33 LCROSS Observation Campaign............................................................................................................................. 35 Future NASA Lunar Missions....n.jones@nasa.gov Jonas Dino Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Project Office Ames Research Center... Alaska and Hawaii on an MPEG – 2 digital C-band signal accessed via satellite... updates of the lunar flyby and live coverage of the LCROSS lunar impacts in... lunar endeavor will be the launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... of permanent shadow near the lunar poles. LCROSS is a spectacular mission that... a small crater in the bottom of a permanently shadowed lunar crater. Whatever LCROSS discovers about... observation campaigns to witness the mission’s historic twin impacts on the lunar...) altitude circular lunar polar orbit. LCROSS has a Lunar Gravity-Assist, Lunar Return Orbit (LGALRO... period is 113 minutes (Lunar Polar Orbit). LCROSS — Each LGALRO orbit is... and date of launch and target crater. Operations: Mission and science operations for the LCROSS... LCROSS mission costs $79 million plus additional funding from the Lunar Robotic... 350 metric tons of lunar material and create a crater 66 feet (20 m) in... remain at (lunar) altitudes below 6.2 miles (10 km). Target Crater: The current... launch. Observation Campaign: Professional and amateur astronomers are working with the LCROSS science...-Off 2 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Spacecraft Separation Centaur handover to LCROSS Gravity at... up and seeing the Earth rise. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite will... and remote sensing data that enables a daring new era of lunar exploration and development and LCROSS... the first telescopic observation of the moon. Thomas Harriot and Galilei drew... near the crater Autolycus. President John F. Kennedy proposed a manned lunar program. Ranger.../CRaTER early turn-on activities • Spacecraft functional checkout • LOI planning Lunar Orbit... (CRaTER) Goals The primary goal of CRaTER is to characterize the lunar radiation... PSRs. CRaTER Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation Lunar and deep... Earth orbit to position LCROSS for impact on a lunar pole. This elongated...) above the lunar surface. Following four minutes behind, the LCROSS will fly... to LCROSS Mission Control. Four minutes later, the LCROSS spacecraft impacts the lunar... lunar poles, the sun never rises above certain crater rims and therefore these crater... the lunar poles. Unfortunately, the evidence is not conclusive. The LCROSS mission seeks a definitive answer to the question of lunar water... the moon’s permanently shadowed crater. The LCROSS mission will be the first... telescopes on and orbiting the Earth and satellites in lunar orbit. LCROSS Impacts To... that the Centaur and LCROSS spacecraft will impact the lunar surface at approximately... lunar surface. 28 To achieve this high angle of impact, the LCROSS..., the LCROSS team will announce the lunar pole and the primary target crater. Factoring... feet (5 m) deep, while the LCROSS spacecraft impact crater is expected to be... indicate the LCROSS impacts will create a significantly larger crater than Lunar Prospector (LP... the remnant crater R6 Panel: LCROSS Science Payload Top View A B C D E F Payload Observation Deck... hours (29.5 days). 31 LCROSS Science Payload Observation Deck (POD) G Near Infrared... LCROSS, it became the backbone of the satellite, a first for the ring. LCROSS..., designed and built the spacecraft for this innovative mission. NASA’s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Solar... the lunar poles. 34 TCM-7 Centaur S-S/C Impact Impact T=0 Timp+4 min LCROSS Observation Campaign... impact of the LCROSS mission into a PSR crater near a lunar pole is generating excitement in the professional astronomer community. The LCROSS... moon. The LCROSS Observation Campaign is designed to share expertise and resources in.... The observation campaign will release mosaic images produced from future observation runs. On the night of lunar impacts, a similar...-time targeting data and coordinates. As part of the LCROSS Observation Campaign, proposals... about the LCROSS Observation Campaign, visit . There are two high tides and two...’s Kaguya lunar orbiter mission, which will enhance the LCROSS mission and the scientific return from LRO. The Lunar Precursor...



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Post-Apollo Lunar Missions and Datasets MUSES-A / Hiten The Hiten ... was Japan's first lunar probe, the first robotic lunar probe since the Soviet Union's Luna 24 in 1976, and the first lunar probe launched by a country... (MDC). After two months in lunar orbit, the spacecraft's orbit was... most of the lunar surface at a number of resolutions and wavelengths from...:34 and the nominal lunar mission lasted until the spacecraft left lunar orbit... used for imaging. Lunar Prospector (1998-1999) The Lunar Prospector mission was..., measurements of magnetic and gravity fields, and study of lunar outgassing events. The... was deliberately crashed into a crater near the lunar south pole in an... instruments were omnidirectional and required no sequencing. • The Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray..., low-altitude mapping of the lunar gravity field. The Clementine mission... the lunar surface. The MAG measured the magnetic field amplitude and direction... the source of the tenuous lunar atmosphere, and may be the result... style and rate of lunar tectonics. However, it was damaged during launch, and, due to sunspot activity peaking during the mission, the lunar data... Advanced Research in Technology 1) is a lunar orbiter from the European Space... ion drive and study the Moon. It entered initial lunar orbit on... up a large quantity of fresh lunar "soil" detectable by other missions...-1 also mapped the lunar surface in X-ray and infrared, taking images from... Satellite Launch Center. It left lunar transfer orbit on October 31 and entered lunar..., 2008, a map of the whole lunar surface was released, produced from... of the landforms and geological structures of the lunar surface, so as... and mapping the abundance and distribution of various chemical elements on the lunar..., and Ca) previously obtained by Lunar Prospector. • Probing the features of the lunar soil and assessing..., a small relay satellite (formerly called Rstar) and Ouna, a VLBI satellite (formerly called Vstar... the lunar origin and evolution and to develop the technology for the future lunar...)[17] • X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRS) • Lunar magnetometer (LMAG) • Spectral profiler (SP... per pixel) • Laser altimeter (LALT) • Lunar radar sounder (LRS) • Gamma ray... Moon and its geologic evolution, obtain information about the lunar surface environment, and perform radio science on lunar orbit. Kaguya... so far include: • Greatly improved lunar global topography map (from LALT... lows • First optical observation of the interior of Shackleton crater Chandrayaan-1 (2008... (ISRO). The unmanned lunar exploration mission includes a lunar orbiter and an impactor. The spacecraft was successfully inserted into lunar orbit... Chandrayaan at 20:06 and impacted the lunar south pole in a controlled... Moon. • Chemical and mineralogical mapping of the entire lunar surface at high..., & Thorium. • The impact of a sub-satellite (Moon Impact Probe — MIP) on... 15 nm and a spatial resolution of 80 m. • LLRI or Lunar Laser Ranging... the lunar surface and a mass spectrometer for measuring the constituents of the lunar... around the Moon Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (2009) and Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO... Moon, LRO will survey lunar resources and identify possible landing sites. The... vehicle will also carry the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), which is designed to detect... vehicle's spent upper stage strikes a lunar crater. Areas of investigation will include... in Lunar orbit. • The lunar polar regions, including possible water ice deposits and..., and will return approximately 70–100 TB of image data. • CRaTER — The primary goal of CRaTER is to characterize the global lunar radiation environment and its biological impacts • DLRE — The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment will measure lunar... light from stars and the interplanetary medium • LEND — The Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector will provide measurements, create maps, and detect possible near-surface water ice deposits • LOLA — The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) investigation will provide a precise global lunar topographic model and geodetic grid • LROC — The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... of LRO will be the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), which is designed to watch... preliminary findings by the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions which hinted that... in the permanently shadowed regions. LCROSS will fly through the debris... into a different part of the crater.