Спутник ФКИ. Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). [Редактировать]

Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS, Космический аппарат для наблюдения и зондирования лунных кратеров) — название автоматической межпланетной станции НАСА, запущенной 18 июня 2009 года в 21:32:33 UTC (19 июня в 01:32:33 мск) вместе с Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter к Луне в рамках космической программы Lunar Precursor Robotic Program. От полёта LCROSS ожидалось получить окончательные сведения о наличии водяного льда на южном полюсе Луны, который мог бы сыграть важную роль для будущих пилотируемых экспедиций на Луну.
9 октября 2009 года в 11:31:19 UTC в районе кратера Кабеус (Cabeus) упал разгонный блок «Центавр». В результате падения выброшено облако из газа и пыли. LCROSS пролетел сквозь выброшенное облако, анализируя вещество, поднятое со дна кратера. LCROSS упал в тот же кратер в 11:35:45 UTC, успев передать на Землю результаты своих исследований. С лунной орбиты за падением следил зонд «LRO», с околоземной — космический телескоп Хаббл и европейский спутник «Odin». С земли — крупные обсерватории.

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США
3Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг621
2Платформа 1xEagle-0

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС, дней144

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2009-031B

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор NASA / ARC
2Производитель Northrup Grumman

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2009-06-18 at 21:32:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xLunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
3Полезная нагрузка 1xLunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS)
4Ракета-носитель 1xАтлас 5 401

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... to launch Russia’s Kompas-2 Earth-observation satellite from the nuclear submarine Ekaterinberg... remote sensing, and two for foreign clients. ISRO’s Insat-4B communications satellite, scheduled... from the agency’s Earth observation satellites Terra, Aqua, And Earth-Observing-1, along... observation satellite, using an SSTL bus and an Astrium payload. The AstroSAR-UK satellite... two new Earth-observation missions on 8 March. The TanDem-X satellite, planned for... for a new small optical Earth observation satellite, whose development is to be... subsidiary (Israel). China launched Remote Sensing Satellite No. 1 into a 600-km near... Beijing-1 Earth observation satellite, built by Surrey Satellite Technology LTD (UK) and launched by... of a $73-million, 880-kg Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCross). This project, which will be..., India’s Chandrayaan lunar orbiter and other spacecraft. The LRO/LCross mission is the... importance of a European autonomous Earth Observation and of the international dimension of... and security. GMES will be based on observation data received from Earth Observation satellites and ground-based information. These data will be coordinated, analyzed and... operational satellite agency of choice for European Earth Observation programmes for atmosphere and...-use Earth observation satellite network, developed jointly by France and Italy. The system... Conae and the University of Cordoba (Spain) to make Earth observation data and... a small communications satellite and for an African resource and environmental sensing network, to be..., regional observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Rocket System Corporation and JAXA launched... (IADB) to develop a satellite system, PROSAT, for Earth observation applications. The $50... existing satellite capacity in Latin America, particularly of remote-sensing/Earth Observation spacecraft... on the China-Brazil Earth observation satellite (CBERS), and was also prime contractor... 2 October purchased an Earth observation satellite from Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL, UK... and information. GEOSS will build on and add value to existing Earth-observation... on 5 May 2005, is a remote sensing satellite built by the Indian Space... Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1) and the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) and enhances terrestrial... Calipso (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) satellite was launched on 28...-1), Russia’s first civil Earth observation imaging satellite capable of transmitting high-resolution... be the first satellite of Belarus. It was a remote sensing satellite which measured...-2 The Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (Kompsat-2), a Korea Earth Observation satellite, was launched on... Optical and Radar Federated Earth Observation (Orfeo) enterprise comprises a network of Earth observation..., to replace the Spot-5 Earth observation satellite, each being equipped with advanced... sensing of the lunar surface (X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers, multi-band imager and... with the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) that will target the southern polar Shackleton Crater. Utilizing... climate and their relationship to global change by providing a comprehensive observation baseline and... observation without satellite nights. It is being operated in coordination with SOHO and... relation to attitude and constellation control, and maintenance. Outlook Satellite dynamics and, in conjunction... and GOES spacecraft) have continued to provide publicly unique and invaluable continuous observation... has provided near real-time and continuous observation of the solar corona... Imaging Surveyor (Japan) an aurora observation satellite (JAXA) Arctic Lidar Observatory for... Particle X-ray Spectrometer NASA Earth observation satellite Closed Aquatic Habitat Research Facility...-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation Community Atmospheric Model ISRO Remote Sensing Satellite Joint NASA/ESA mission to study Saturn Climate and Weather...-Satellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Applications X-Ray Observatory (NASA) Lunar mission (India) Lunar...-1 Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer US Lunar orbiter NASA/CSA satellite A mission consisting of... and Climate Constellation of small Satellites for Mediterranean Basin Observation Russian satellite launched... Environment Satellite Earth Observation (satellite) Electric Propulsion Diagnostic Package Energetic Proton, Electron and Alpha... ECMWF Re-Analysis European Remote Sensing Satellite European Space Agency Earth Surface... Accelerator in Chiba Observation mission with optical, X-ray and EUV telescopes (JAXA... Debris Collector Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph experiment Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (NASA) Long Duration...înée Compensée pour l’Observation du Principe d’Equivalence Middle Atmosphere Dynamics And Structure Micro... remote sensing satellite Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager Rayleigh, Mie and...



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... the National Center for Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law (Center), its... National Center for Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law Founded in 1999... Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law is a reliable source for creating, gathering, and disseminating objective and timely remote sensing, space, and aviation legal research and materials... The National Center for Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law at University... The National Center for Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law at the... the National Center for Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law (Center) at... instrumentation, observation strategies, and application of state-of-the-art astrophysical and geophysical... observation of the Universe should be taken into account when developing and... investigations of the Earth’s natural satellite, and spacecraft at Mars continued unabated... spacecraft:a main orbiting satellite at about 100km altitude and two small data... launch its Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) with a surface impactor, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). These spacecraft will join their international counterparts mapping and characterizing the lunar... rocket will launch a Chinese Yinghuo-1 satellite and a Russian Phobos-Grunt lander. Phobos... concept is based on a main satellite and two subsatellites. The satellites can... aspects of remote sensing, with special reference to satellite data in international litigation, near-Earth objects and space... other international organizations and assistance provided to telecommunications administrations and satellite operators worldwide. 51. The Subcommittee agreed that international intergovernmental and... Federation and the United States in the International Satellite System for Search and... of the dissemination of Earth observation satellite images through the World Wide... of the dissemination of Earth observation satellite images through the World Wide... and technology such as that used for Earth observation and telecommunications, and exploration activities and... updating the principles of satellite-based remote sensing of the Earth should..., environmental monitoring, distance education and global navigation satellite systems, among other things... laser cannon to anti-satellite missiles. 9. Transparency and confidence-building measures are... been and continues to be to benefit from access to satellite technology for use in aviation communications, meteorology and geographical..., disaster management, environmental protection and other Earth observation applications contribute to achieving... satellite technology for sustainable development, space weather, global navigation satellite systems, search and rescue and space law; 16 18... Global Navigation Satellite Systems towards achieving compatibility and interoperability among global and regional... and in the promotion of the use of global navigation satellite systems and their integration into national infrastructure, particularly in developing countries, and... International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems and its Providers’ Forum; 17... Observation of the Universe is responsible for the LFI hardware development and... Mission Directorate and to the ASI Director of the Observation of the Universe, or their designees; and if unresolved...: - Earth Observation - Satellite Navigation - Satellite Communication - Fundamental Space Science - Applied Space Science and Technology... the period 2009-2010: • Earth observation: Implement an ESA-Roscosmos data...-situ infrastructure relevant to Earth Observation services. • Satellite Navigation: Formal steps will... cooperation in satellite communications with space agencies and other commercial and institutional actors... of satellites, satellite systems or subsystems, and/or satellite components), and/or orbital transfer... of satellites, satellite systems or subsystems, and/or satellite components), and/or orbital transfer motors by Indian Representatives and/or... a conflict between the access control and observation Space Law: Selected Documents 2009... affecting access to the Indian and U.S. satellite transmission services markets. If the... affecting access to the Indian and U.S. satellite transmission services markets. If the... activities using remote sensing, space, and aviation technologies • Bills and legislation • Regulations • Primary... National Center for Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law and its activities, please... The National Center for Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law has the....spacelaw.olemiss.edu/. Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law International Bibliography, 1930... of Remote Sensing Law - $40.00 The Land Remote Sensing Laws and Policies... online National Center for Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law Copyright 2009...



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... of the SMOS-2 Earth observation and soil moisture satellite. NASA launched the Wide...'s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) indicated the mission successfully uncovered water in a permanently shadowed lunar crater. Scientists... Taiyuan Satellite Launch Centre in Shanxi Province. The Yaogan VIII remote-sensing satellite and science researching mini-satellite, Hope One were... the Mediterranean basin Observation) series is an Earth observation satellite system funded by the Italian Ministry of Research and Ministry... Earth observation satellite to be built for Europe's Global Monitoring for Environment and... small satellite ever to be launched, defining new standards in Earth observation and... 26-year-old Landsat 5 remote sensing satellite has cheated death once again... a Boeing 601 satellite that will provide enhanced Earth-observation and weather-monitoring services... into programmes and budgets. The ESA’s 8000-kilogram Envisat Earth observation satellite is... 2009, preliminary data from NASA's Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite, or LCROSS, indicated - 40 - the mission successfully uncovered water in a permanently shadowed lunar crater. >> Scientists then said that the discovery of volatiles in lunar... in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science and exploration... Forum addressed satellite downstream applications such as navigation, communication, Earth observation, and location... Earth observation satellite >> November 2010 The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) and the... IAA and IISL a conference entitled “Current legal issues for satellite Earth observation”, which... included Treaty monitoring and law enforcement through satellite Earth observation; Privacy conflicts from... Earth observation satellites from SA, Kenya, Nigeria and Algeria; and a space weather satellite, which... 2012 and 2014. The first satellite will be used for Earth observation and the other for space weather and climate studies. A joint satellite could... satellite will carry a high-resolution optical remote sensing instrument for Earth sensing and Earth observation. >> Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) and the... - communication satellite GSAT-4 and remote sensing satellite Cartosat-2. While the launch of GSAT-4 and GSAT... capability and its first communications satellite. SSTL will design and produce an Earth observation satellite... its first Earth observation satellite called THEOS (Thailand Earth Observation Satellite), which currently has... an optical Earth observation satellite system, its associated ground infrastructure and training of... French and German governments said they would jointly build an Earth observation satellite... and Thales Alenia Space announced the official start of the Gokturk observation satellite... a telecommunications and navigation business unit, as well as an Earth observation and science business unit. The telecommunications and navigation business... Galileo navigation satellite, Giove-A and SSTL's geostationary communications satellite programme. The Earth observation and science business unit was responsible for the medium wave infrared and... national and international organisations, with the purpose of coordinating the Earth observation satellite... of selected Earth Observation (EO) initiatives, new satellite missions, and scientific achievements during...) and Astrium, France, carries three payloads dedicated respectively to meteorology, ocean observation and...-alpha mapper and cosmic ray sensor. LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) was launched with LRO and included... the EPOCH (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization) investigation and DIXI (Deep Impact eXtended... a successful impact in the southern lunar crater Cabeus, thereby demonstrating the existence..., and characterizing the radiation environment of the Earth’s Moon. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was launched on the same vehicle that carried LRO. LCROSS guided... Spectrometer Argon Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite Anti-Satellite Agenzia Spaziale Italiana/Italian... Programme for Life and Physical Sciences ENVIronmental SATellite Earth Observation Electric Propulsion Diagnostic... mission Energization and Radiation in Geospace (Japan) European Remote Sensing Satellite European Space... Line Inter-hemispheric Plasmasphere Remote sensing satellite, formerly ROCSAT-2 (Taiwan Province of... 2 Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph experiment Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (NASA...



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... recent confirmation by National Aeronautics and Space Administration scientists regarding the... to some challenging legal and ethical questions and call into question the... States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (‘NASA’) launched its Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... of International Law [Vol 11 and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (‘LCROSS’) from Cape Canaveral Air Force... deliberately slammed into the Cabeus Crater at the south pole of... from the surface.3 Shortly afterwards, LCROSS followed the initial impact, analysing... itself also crashing into the lunar surface. Despite some initial disappointment... and back within the space of a week, to claim the 1 NASA, LCROSS... (2 February 2010) Space Travel: Exploration and Tourism . 6 Editorial, ‘A New Space Program... as daily scheduled lunar flights to a series of lunar orbit and lunar pole hotels... place an appropriate and comprehensive body of law and regulation to adequately... Area [the sea-bed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof, beyond the... by national courts, bilateral arrangements, and determinations by intergovernmental organisations. There... objects, the safety and rescue of space objects and astronauts, the prevention...;22 Principles relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer... of international law and promotion of international cooperation and understanding in space.... Further, they facilitate the dissemination and exchange of information through transnational... broadcasting via satellites and remote satellite observations of Earth, and promote general standards... also Christiana Ochoa, ‘The Individual and Customary International Law Formation’ (2007... on Space and Aeronautics and Senate Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space, 108th... for commercial transportation of passengers and goods. However, the technical challenges... Station is between 370 and 460 kilometres and its orbital velocity is... is unclear where (and how) air space ends and outer space begins... distinction between ‘commercial aviation flights’ and ‘commercial space flights’ should now... so-called ‘common interest’, ‘freedom’ and ‘non-appropriation’ principles. These principles... the moon and other celestial bodies, and States shall facilitate and encourage international... the 50 In Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua... 2001 Plus’ — Global and European Challenges for Air and Space Law at... would represent an unsatisfactory and impractical solution and actually lead to greater...’ between air space and outer space. A comprehensive and uniform legal regime that... Tanja Masson-Zwaan and Steven Freeland, ‘Between Heaven and Earth: The Legal.... 58 Bin Cheng, ‘International Responsibility and Liability for Launch Activities’ (1995... developed and developing countries, see Brian M Hoffstadt, ‘Moving the Heavens: Lunar Mining and... covered both ‘professional astronauts/cosmonauts’ and ‘spaceflight participants’, which included those... 6, 21; Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions between Qatar and Bahrain (Qatar v Bahrain... Steven Freeland, ‘There’s a Satellite in My Backyard! Mir and the Convention on... to regulate the industry and provide for standards and protections, there is... any relevant domestic legislation, a uniform and comprehensive regime for passenger liability... the carriage of passengers and of baggage and cargo, as well as... finalised to ‘modernize and consolidate’ the Warsaw Convention, and provides (art 17... the space tourism industry, and the governmental and inter-governmental agencies that... Registration Agreement) ‘jurisdiction and control over such object, and over any personnel... should be specified and what their legal status and enforceability might be... the Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer... provides, inter alia, that remote sensing activities ‘shall be conducted on... and permanent sovereignty of all States and peoples over their own wealth and... of orbital slots to all satellite operators through their respective states... radio frequencies and any associated orbits, including the geostationary-satellite orbit, are limited natural resources and that they must...(s); for an example of paper satellite registration see Don Riddick, ‘Why... Recovery for the Processing of Satellite Network Filings, ITU Secretary-General... the detailed design, development, operation, and utilization of a permanently inhabited civil..., including the moon and other celestial bodies, and conduct exploration of them... the introduction of extraterrestrial matter and, where necessary, shall adopt appropriate... associated with ‘clean’ space technology and practice. Nevertheless, progress has recently... the site of the first lunar landing by humans.113 Similar... Organisation (ISRO), Japan, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National... Agency of Ukraine (NSAU) and Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Rosaviakosmos). 110... formed the basis of the LCROSS experiment referred to above. This... important to develop comprehensive and universal ethical standards and practices to deal...



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... to the Moon DVD, LRO/LCROSS Activities, and Lunar Base Activities. Together these... Moon feature presentation; LRO/LCROSS animations and interviews; and additional media including a visualization... Earth and the Moon, and what makes our planet unique and habitable. LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES This set of activities introduce NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). This mission is collecting data that will help scientists and...’s LRO/LCROSS mission, including animation, interviews with NASA scientists, and related mission... top and bottom of the screen typical of this format. 7 LRO/LCROSS... History 8 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES overview Time Frame Up to two and a half... the Moon: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). This mission will collect data that will help scientists and... to build a future lunar outpost. View the LRO/LCROSS Media on the.../ LCROSS mission, including lunar landforms, impact craters, geologic history, spacecraft design, and the... to launch the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), an unmanned satellite that will... how the lunar radiation environment will affect humans. The satellite will spend... a safe and productive human return to the moon. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) is another... parts of the LCROSS mission are the Shepherding Spacecraft (S-S/C) and the Centaur... produce a crater and will eject tons of debris and potentially water ice and vapor above the lunar surface. The Lunar Reconnaissance... telescope. The LRO mission and the LCROSS mission are scheduled for launch...://lunar.arc.nasa.gov/education/activities/active7.htm 11 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES....shtml 13 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES build the orbiter Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter This... from space hit the lunar surface. 14 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES the Moon... of rocks and water ice, maps and pictures of the lunar surface and its... astronauts to explore Mars and beyond.) 16 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES the Moon... and / they made some big holes, That made the Moon have a crater face. In LRO the / “L” stands for “lunar,” Which is.... Adapted from NASA’s Make a Crater Activity: http://lunar.arc.nasa.gov/education/activities/active15a.htm 18 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES... Moon and Mars. Call on volunteers to identify the parts of a crater (most craters have deep central depressions, raised rims, and a blanket... a crater’s appearance (the nature of the surface, and the speed, size, and mass... diameter of each crater, its depth (using a toothpick), and the distance the... general relationship between a ball’s mass and the crater size? • How did the... general relationship between a ball’s size and the crater size? • How did the... relationship between a ball’s speed and the crater size? Wrap-Up Call on... volume, the larger the crater. 19 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES impact craters Impact... and the maria (numbered 1 and 2). Adapted from NASA’s Lunar Landform Identification Activity: http://lunar.arc.nasa.gov/education/activities/active13a.htm 23 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES moon landforms Moon Landforms (continued) 4. Distribute Landform Information Sheet and... LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES moon landforms Landform Information Sheet central crater uplift Mountain.... crater ejecta Material thrown out from and deposited around an impact crater. dome... from an impact crater. rille A channel in the lunar maria formed by... impact crater with “stair steps” created by slumping due to gravity and... ray rille terraced crater walls wrinkle ridge 26 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES moon... ray rille terraced crater walls wrinkle ridge 27 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES moon... LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES moon landforms Copernicus 19 20 18 35 LUNAR BASE... lunar South Pole. The name of the mission is LCROSS, short for Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite. LCROSS... same rocket as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) satellite, due to launch... LCROSS spacecraft will arrive in the Moon’s vicinity independent of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. On the way to the Moon, the LCROSS spacecraft’s two main parts, the Shepherding Spacecraft (S-S/C) and the Earth... upper stage will separate and then hit a crater in the South Pole... for Space Exploration goals.” Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS are the first of... and mineral and how it might be used to build and maintain your lunar... with and without the metals and minerals overlay) and the Key of Lunar Metals and... just keeps going and going,” Neal says. And for a lunar habitat, that persistence... of Shackleton Crater at the Moon’s South Pole. Neal and his colleagues...



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... lunar orbit. All seven scientific instruments on board the spacecraft were A e r o n a u t i c s a n d R e p o r t CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), impacted a permanently S p a c e o f t h e P r e s i d e n t 2 and other volatiles. During FY... Network (the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System), and the Deep Space Network...-manifested Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite on an Atlas V on June 18, 2009; and the Space Tracking and... Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) series of NOAA satellites that observe Earth’s weather and... from remote platforms; and (4) the Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking system. Like.... NOAA funds and manages the program and determines the need for satellite replacement... design, develop, and launch GOES satellites. After a satellite is launched and checked out... an essential cornerstone of weather observation and forecasting. Atmospheric phenomena are tracked... broadcasts, and participates in the international Cospas-SARSAT Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided... with commercial and foreign entities to proactively prevent satellite collisions and enhance collision... craft and power grids. NOAA’s GOES and Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES... altimetry satellite were handed over to NOAA A e r o n a u t i c s a n d R e p o r t property, and, ultimately, economic health and... States and its surrounding waters, thanks to the Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided... board aircraft and boats and from handheld personal locator beacons. When a satellite finds... Navigation Satellite Systems GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) Real-Time Positioning and Guidelines... investigate satellite applications for improving regional and global-scale weather forecasts and water... weather and climate models; develop techniques to integrate satellite, terrestrial, oceanic, and biological..., and calibration; (2) manufacturing technology; (3) observation and sensing; and (4) spacecraft and living environments. NIST supported accurate and compatible... calibration and characterization of satellite imagers and sensors that are important for defense and... NASA satellite missions at x-ray (International X-ray Observatory), millimeter (CMB Polarimeter Satellite), and submillimeter (Submillimeter and Far-InfraRed Experiment, or... American economy, and create U.S. jobs. OTM represented commercial remote-sensing satellite industry interests within the Remote Sensing Interagency Working... the export of commercial remote sensing satellite systems and negotiates government-to-government... Park and the surrounding high alpine areas, from USGS Earth Resources Observation and..., QuickBird, and WorldView satellite imagery was also pulled from archive, and new satellite tasking... on established satellite optical and radar abilities to map risks and resource sustainability... lunar poles with LRO radar and radiometer data, studied unusual volcanic and impact crater... primarily to commercial communications satellites and Earth observation satellites. The FCC took... of the next generation of satellite remote sensing systems through the Soil... enhanced with airborne and satellite imagery. Both cattle fever tick and screwworm flies... imagery, satellite imagery, and other datasets for program implementation, management, and monitoring, as... and precise determinations of global food supply conditions. The FAS satellite remote sensing... agencies, sharing satellite imagery and products with U.S. Government space agencies and DOD. The... acquisition, archival, and dissemination strategy to eliminate redundant satellite purchases and hence decreased departmental expenditures. The FAS and NASA... from aerial and satellite data, was the primary remote sensing product used by... Navigation Satellite System) applications for infrastructure, sustainable growth, transportation efficiency and safety, and..., the synergy of Earth observation, GIS, GPS, and Webbased mapping tools with....2 97.9 Italian Earth observation and military surveillance radar satellite November 15, 2008 STS... lunar surface and characterize landing sites for future missions Carried Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) (2009-031B), a lunar impact probe for detecting water ice in the lunar... Observation and Science Center European Space Agency Exploration Systems Mission Directorate Environmental Satellite... National Laboratory Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Landsat Data Continuity Mission Low-Earth Orbit Lunar Electric... Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics thermal infrared Television Infrared Observation Satellite TM TPW...



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... Upper Stage During the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Missions Jeffrey P. Honse1... the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) missions. The primary objective of the LCROSS... ice in a permanently shadowed crater near a lunar polar region. The accomplishment of... V rocket’s Centaur upper stage perform a LCROSS orbit insertion as well as... crashes into a lunar crater to create a debris plume. The LCROSS satellite will pass through the debris to collect and relay plume constituent data back to Earth. Prior to the LCROSS..., the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) will be launched simultaneously with LCROSS, requiring... stage will accompany the LCROSS satellite to the moon, and because the Aerojet... partially responsible for performing the lunar trajectory maneuvers en route to... for both the LRO and LCROSS spacecrafts, additional life and low pressure operation... Member 1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Copyright © 2009 by Jeffrey... the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission. Nomenclature... Hydrazine (type of Aerojet catalyst) LCROSS = Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite LRO = Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter MR = Monopropellant...-Violet I. Introduction he Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) missions are planned... summer of 2009. The LRO and LCROSS missions require that the Aerojet... REM to meet the LRO/LCROSS mission requirements. The LRO spacecraft... atop the LCROSS spacecraft during launch, and will separate from the LCROSS spacecraft... safe lunar landing sites, locate potential resources, characterize the radiation environment, and... it is permanently shadowed. The LCROSS spacecraft, depicted with the Centaur... nearly 9,000 km/hr creating a crater at the moon’s permanently shadowed... a debris field through which the LCROSS spacecraft will fly approximately four... field will be analyzed by LCROSS’s on-board instruments to determine... before the LCROSS spacecraft itself impacts the moon2. The LCROSS spacecraft, while... remain for nearly four months5. LCROSS will separate from the Centaur.... 2 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Figure 1. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (Artist’s Conception)2. Credit: NASA Goddard/Chris Meaney. Figure 2. Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite and... contain two lateral engines and two axial engines, and two 2-Engine REMs... and successful heritage in design, qualification, and flight on both spacecraft (NEAR, Lunar... military) and launch vehicles (Atlas and Titan Centaur, Delta III and Delta IV...—two lateral and one axial. In support of the LRO and LCROSS missions... to the moon. The LRO and LCROSS missions require that the Centaur... end of the LCROSS mission to deplete excess fuel and Helium pressurant... the Centaur stage into the lunar surface. Required mission maneuvers include... 4 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics effort and had been fired extensively... performed in support of the LCROSS delta-qualification effort, which consists...-26536E9. 5 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Functionals Catalyst Bed X-Rays... ensure that the hardware’s mechanical and electrical operational requirements were met... and circuit resistance for the valves, and valve voltages for pull-in and... production to demonstrate specification conformance and acceptability of each deliverable item... feed pressure decreases. The LRO/LCROSS mission requires that the REM... variation. 7 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 240 Specific Impulse (sec... variation. 8 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 240 Specific Impulse (sec... the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) missions. Even with increased roughness and substantial... a an alarming rate and both steady-state and pulse-mode performance remained relatively constant and consistent throughout... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Day, B., “LCROSS – Mission,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, URL: http://lcross.arc.nasa.gov/mission.htm [cited 10 June 2009]. Brill, J., “Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, URL: http://lunar.gsfc... – A Flash of Insight,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, URL: http://science... 2009]. Clark, S., “Launch of NASA’s lunar probes delayed to min-June... 2009]. Day, B., “LCROSS,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, URL: http://lcross.arc.nasa.gov/index.htm [cited 10 June 2009]. “LCROSS Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite NASA Facts,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, URL: http://lcross.arc...



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... deployment by 2013. Remote Sensing. Earth observation satellite deployments this year were dominated.... Environmental satellite launches featured the joint U.S.-French ocean-observation Jason-2 spacecraft and China... 2.7tonne advanced Yaogan-III remote-sensing satellite from Taiyuan into a 600-km... Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C9 orbited ISRO’s 690kg Cartosat-2A remote sensing satellite...’s RazakSat remote sensing satellite, planned for a subsequent Falcon-1 launch, and the cremated remains....2. Remote Sensing III.2.1. Earth Observations On 26 November 2007, DigitalGlobe’s Worldview-1 satellite... European countries. The first satellite, the C-band radar observation Sentinel-1 spacecraft, is... 2007. The third satellite in Germany’s SARLupe radar observation system was launched... data from 16 ESA Earth observation satellite projects (see prior reports). During... Earth observation projects. On 21 January Israel’s TecSar/Polaris 1 imaging radar satellite.... Thailand's 715-kg THEOS Earth observation satellite was placed into a 690-km...-resolution dual-use optical Earth observation satellite from Astrium Satellites on 25...-use high-resolution optical Earth observation satellite. Chile’s programme also includes sufficient.... The renamed Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization and Deep Impact Extended Investigation (Epoxi... TerraSAR-X radar Earth observation satellite (launched in April 2007) and the U.S. Missile Defense...-X radar Earth observation spacecraft and the Alphasat communications satellite (see above), and is seeking...), the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). Early in October Mobile Satellite Ventures... Law (ECSL), and included the following topics: Coordination Instruments and Satellite Observation of the... remote sensing, including satellite data and its value as evidence in international and national... Foreign Affairs Ministry. The Earth observation satellite, built at a cost of 25... Astrium-built Earth observation satellites on India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV... for medium-sized communications and - 104 - Earth observation satellites and to provide a backup..., and operating satellite systems. (d) Germany Germany passed a new law on remote sensing, the Act on Satellite Data Security (Satellitendatensicherheitsgesetz... to the dissemination and commercial marketing of satellite-based Earth observation data, in... Plan is the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite Program, approved in 2007, aimed... create and construct jointly a new satellite, SabiáMar, for coastal and oceanographic observation; the... Earth Observation (GEO) meeting. CBERS is the ChineseBrazilian Earth remote sensing satellite initiative... cycle and climate. The satellite is scheduled for a December 2012 launch. A lunar base... Earth observation satellite programmes and for interaction of these programmes with users of satellite... Growth, Technology, and Employment’s Panel of Experts on Satellite Remote Sensing. This group recognized the multidisciplinary nature of satellite Earth observation and... Earth observation activities; and (3) to exchange policy and technical information to encourage complementarity and compatibility of observation and... Observation (GEO). Kopernikus is based on observation data received from Earth Observation satellites and... Calipso (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) satellite was launched on 28 April 2006. Calipso is a joint NASA and... observation satellite owned by DigitalGlobe. It was launched on 18 September 2007, and... art remote sensing satellite with a spatial resolution of about one metre and swath... of satellite radar data from the European Earth Remote Sensing-1 and -2 (ERS-1 and ERS... remote sensing of the lunar surface (X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers, multiband imager and... observation without satellite nights. It is being operated in coordination with SOHO and...-satellite tracking between Kaguya and the relay satellite Okina. Recent results include the observation of the lunar... launch LCROSS, the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite, managed by NASA’s Ames Research Center in California. LCROSS... shadowed crater near one of the lunar poles. A new regime of satellite dynamics..., and characterizing the radiation environment of the Earth’s Moon. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) is planned to launch on the same vehicle with LRO. LCROSS... See Coronas Krypton Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Laser Communication Terminal... (satellite) Linear Energy Transfer Light Detection and Ranging Laser Interferometer Space Antenna Lunar...



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...-2012.0202.4x12501 FEASIBILITY AND DEFINITION OF A LUNAR POLAR VOLATILES PROSPECTING MISSION....J.Cockrell@nasa.gov The recent Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission has provided evidence...-rich site. I. INTRODUCTION The Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission has recently confirmed the... Cabeus crater near the lunar south pole1,2. A surprising finding from the Lunar Reconnaissance... and exploration results. Examples of successful focused, short duration missions include LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... of the quantity, form, and distribution of lunar polar volatiles would help... the lunar surface and the effects of meteorite gardening, photo-dissociation, and solar.... 2: Lunar Prospector neutron data showing enhanced south pole hydrogen. Bottom: LCROSS data showing water ice and vapor. Deposits of... be extracted by melting and electrolyzing the lunar regolith or delivering oxygen... cannot exploit lunar resources until they are mapped and characterized.   II.I Lunar Polar Hydrogen – What We Know and Do...% in polar shadow11. The recent LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) mission measured ~5 wt% water in... the lunar poles are similar to those seen for crater ejecta and blocky..., composition and spatial distribution of cold-trapped volatiles. Since the LCROSS mission impacted into an area of permanent shadow within Cabeus crater near the lunar south pole and detected on the... sensing data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), Deep Impact (EPOXI), and....II The History of Lunar Volatiles: Sources and Sinks Whether deposited in... the presence of lunar volatiles and measuring their distribution and 2) determining if these...: Typical crater sizes and depths with associated mixing timescales. Center: Crater size distribution... Shackleton Crater) to enable long-duration operations25,26,27. The lunar polar... traversing the lunar terrain and acquiring the needed measurements to locate and characterize... traverse on actual lunar terrain which follows a typical crater size distribution for... identified via remote sensing data, 2) Quantify spatial distribution (lateral and vertical) of... surface and volume abundance with geologic context (crater rim, interior, inter-crater, etc.) and... shallow trenches, and NIR reflectance spectrometer (heritage from the LCROSS mission30) for... volatiles11, LEND and Lunar Prospector and LEND neutron spectrometer hydrogen signatures, and results from other missions such as LCROSS and Chandrayaan/M3. 4) Navigable Slopes. Based on rover capabilities for a small lunar lander and small (50 kg) class... topography and slopes at a few ten's of meters and greater. LOLA (Lunar Orbiter... rights reserved. Subsurface and Surficial Volatiles Remote sensing data indicates the presence... temperature mapping and ice stability modelling11, along with the recent LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) findings1 suggest that subsurface volatiles exist near the lunar poles. Remote sensing data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), Deep Impact (EPOXI), and... the north and/or south polar regions.   Hazards and Obstacles LROC (Lunar Reconnaissance... water ice and volatiles near the lunar poles. Areas of lunar permafrost exist... remote sensing and LCROSS discoveries and can further characterize the spatial distribution of lunar polar..., D., Landis, D., and L. Sollitt. The detection of water within the LCROSS ejecta plume..., P.H., Hermalyn, B., Colaprete, A., Ennico, K., Shirley, M., and W.S. Marshall. The LCROSS cratering experiment. Science 330..., J.L., and L. Pedersen. Feasibility and definition of a limited-scale lunar polar volatiles prospecting mission. Lunar and..., R.A., Fong, T., Cockrell, J. and L. Pedersen. Feasibility and definition of a limited-scale lunar polar volatiles... and epithermal neutrons from Lunar Prospector: Evidence for water ice at the lunar..., D.R., Barraclough, B.L., Maurice, S., and A.B. Binder. Chemical information content of lunar thermal and epithermal neutrons..., D.J., and D.B.J. Bussey. Models of the distribution and abundance of hydrogen at the lunar... of lunar polar remote-sensing data sets: Evidence for ice at the lunar..., B., Robinson, M., and P. Spudis. Ideal landing sites near the lunar poles. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, 2004. 26 Kring, D. and... of the lunar exploration architecture with robotic landers and rovers. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, 2007. 27 Plescia, J. Lunar... Ennico, K., Shirley, M., Colaprete, A., and L. Osetinsky. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) payload development and performance in flight...



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... in GEOSS, the Global Earth Observation System of Systems. Climate change... of test satellite pairs that will eventually demonstrate autonomous rendezvous and docking. On June 18, NASA launched LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) and LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance... water ice traces in a lunar polar crater, the LCROSS satellite flew into a heavy debris...’s Cabeus A crater on October 9. It collected and analyzed debris samples and relayed the..., departure, transfer, and insertion into low lunar orbit, finally releasing a lunar impactor for..., and completed its mission in June. An AFRL experimental small satellite, TacSat-3, launched and deployed on May 19... observation of the parachute’s deployment, inflation, and cluster interaction characteristics. NASA’s Engineering and...—an operational U.S. communications satellite in LEO—was struck and destroyed by Cosmos 2251, a long-defunct Russian communications satellite. The debris fragments generated by this event, and by... at the Moon and delivered a lunar probe in late 2008, and conducted science...: the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite, which observed the impact of its upper stage and then... 2004. To implement worldwide satellite-based communications, navigation, and surveillance systems—a key... include precise altitude control systems and satellite modem communications. NASA’s 7-million-ft3... Launch (launch services) and ICO North America (mobile satellite services) filing for..., and risk constraints. Consistent with this perspective, the $26billion Transformational Satellite program... Globalstar, and $526 million for Sirius XM. The commercial remote sensing industry... imaging satellite, and the start of operations for RapidEye’s innovative five-satellite constellation... unprecedented collision of an Iridium and Russian satellite stresses the need to... NASA Kepler space telescope, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite, launched this year. Radioisotope... a Boeing 702 satellite, with another four thrusters in satellite integration and 12 in...-powered satellite, Cosmos-1818, partially disintegrated, posing both debris and radiation hazards. And... using optical fiber sensing, wireless strain gauge, and remote data transmission. Software... Research Lab’s TacSat-3 satellite, and NASA’s PharmaSat microsatellite and CubeSat technology demonstration experiments... in Earth orbit, in lunar orbit, and on the lunar surface. Similarly, the... recently, and the eagerly awaited results from the NASA Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite mission may... continues on the Altair lunar lander and its ascent and descent engines. The..., and lunar soil and regolith. In 2008, researchers measured radiation transport in lunar soil... system and also generates passive electrodynamic drag, which deorbits the satellite within... of Orion and Ares systems as well as lunar surface systems and a lunar outpost.... Demonstrating low-cost satellite design and operations, the Aprizesat-3 and Aprizesat-4 microsatellites, built... Satellite, a provider of low-cost wireless services for worldwide asset tracking and data monitoring. Aprize will offer low-cost satellite data... U.S. Landsat satellite. All five satellites were developed by Surrey Satellite Technology, U.K. To... May. This small satellite carried a Raytheon-built hyperspectral sensor and a panchromatic imager...-21 satellite; launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/LCROSS by an Atlas V; and launch... largest telecommunication satellite (the 6.9-ton TerreStar-1) to a geostationary orbit, and six other... satellite in April. North Korea’s discounted claim to its first successful satellite... navigation satellite and a remote sensing spacecraft; ISRO’s successes with radar imaging RISAT-2 and student...’s tracking and reporting mechanisms for space. NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) were launched in June on a mission critical to future human lunar operations: the search for lunar water. The LCROSS part of...—but LCROSS successfully collected data looking for water. In August, LRO and... aboard LCROSS successfully captured each phase of the impact sequence, and analysis.... The technologies—satellite navigation, dependent surveillance, digital communications, and netcentric operations—are... for Mango and Tango, Feb., p. 16. Satellite System F6: Divide and conquer, Feb... military programs, Feb., p. 4. Satellite System F6: Divide and conquer, Feb., p. 30. F-35’s shadow grows longer, March, p. 18. Satellite navigation... space travel, Feb., p. 24. Satellite System F6: Divide and conquer, Feb., p. 30..., May, p. 38. WILSON, J., Satellite System F6: Divide and conquer, Feb., p. 30. WILSON...