Спутник ФКИ. Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). [Редактировать]

Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS, Космический аппарат для наблюдения и зондирования лунных кратеров) — название автоматической межпланетной станции НАСА, запущенной 18 июня 2009 года в 21:32:33 UTC (19 июня в 01:32:33 мск) вместе с Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter к Луне в рамках космической программы Lunar Precursor Robotic Program. От полёта LCROSS ожидалось получить окончательные сведения о наличии водяного льда на южном полюсе Луны, который мог бы сыграть важную роль для будущих пилотируемых экспедиций на Луну.
9 октября 2009 года в 11:31:19 UTC в районе кратера Кабеус (Cabeus) упал разгонный блок «Центавр». В результате падения выброшено облако из газа и пыли. LCROSS пролетел сквозь выброшенное облако, анализируя вещество, поднятое со дна кратера. LCROSS упал в тот же кратер в 11:35:45 UTC, успев передать на Землю результаты своих исследований. С лунной орбиты за падением следил зонд «LRO», с околоземной — космический телескоп Хаббл и европейский спутник «Odin». С земли — крупные обсерватории.

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США
3Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг621
2Платформа 1xEagle-0

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС, дней144

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2009-031B

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор NASA / ARC
2Производитель Northrup Grumman

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2009-06-18 at 21:32:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xLunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
3Полезная нагрузка 1xLunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS)
4Ракета-носитель 1xАтлас 5 401

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... satellite. What followed was a series of lunar missions run by Japan, India, and...’s twin satellite mission Image: A view of the northern rim of Cabaeus crater, photographed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, target area of the LCROSS... main belt, between 1996 and 2002. Worldwide observation campaigns supplied measurement data that permitted determining the rotation characteristics and... from orbit, orbit entry failed and satellite flew by, next possibility to... Scarab and PRARE Landsat: Series of American Earth observation satellites, Landsat 1-3 improved and... Meteorological Satellite‘,Japanese weather satellite, geostationary orbit, VISSR (Singe Imaging Visible and IR... National Satellite System’, geostationary platform for communication purposes and for Earth observation, VHRR... American weather satellites, additional observation of atmosphere temperatures and humidity, ocean surface... Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite), SPOT 3 additional POAM (Polar Ozone and Aerosol... May 2002 MOS: ‘Marine Observation Satellite’, Japanese Satellite for observation of atmospheric water vapor... 7 Feb 1990 IRS: ‘Indian Remote Sensing Satellite’, Sun-synchronous orbit, three LISS... 1988 OKEAN-O: Russian satellite system for observation of ice and oceans with radar... Remote Sensing Satellite’, global coverage of oceans, coastal areas, polar caps, observation of wave lengths and heights, wind speeds and directions, ice... 1995 JERS: ‘Japan Earth Resources Satellite’, Earth observation satellite, sunsynchronous orbit, SAR (Synthetic... Experiment‘ and Poseidon (CNES): long term observation of global ocean circulation and surface... monitoring (OrbView 1), multispectral Earth observation (OrbView 2) and high resolution imaging (Orbview 3) OrbView... of charged particles, electric and magnetic fields and observation of the interaction between... commercial satellite for high resolution imaging, panchromatic sensor with 1 m resolution and multispectral...’s and cloud’s radiation budget, MISR (Multi-Angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) for observation using 9 angles and 4 wavelengths, MODIS (Moderate Resolution...: ‘Challenging Mini-Satellite Payload‘, German mission, observation of the structure and dynamics from... satellite, observation of changes in the ozone layer and search for water and oxygen.... Febr. 2001 Quickbird: commercial satellite for Earth observation, resolution: 0.6 m per pixel nadir... satellite for fire remote sensing, allows measurements of dimensions and temperature of fires, observation and... (MWR), Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) and Laser Retro-Reflector... 2002 ICESat: ‘Ice, Cloud and Elevation Satellite‘, American mission, measurement of the... Aura: Observation of the composition, chemistry and dynamics of Earth’s atmosphere, observation of ozone, air quality and climate...-American mission, observation of the atmosphere, ionosphere, climate and weather COSMIC 24 Apr 2006 Cloudsat: experimental satellite for observation of clouds and rainfall with radar Cloudsat 28 Apr 2006 CALIPSO: Observation of the role of clouds and atmospheric aerosols on...‘, observation of polar mesospheric clouds, their origin, differences and their thermal, chemical, and dynamic environment AIM 25 Apr 2007 Terra SAR-X: first Earth observation satellite...: ‘Indian Mini-Satellite, multispectral and hyperspectral cameras IMS 1 Cartosat: satellite mainly for cartographic... generation long term observation of the global ocean circulation and surface topography... 2008 GeoEye: commercial American satellite, panchromatic and multispectral image data with resolutions... Lunar orbit at 212 km altitude, long term 02 Jun 1974 observation of physical aspects of the Moon 28 Sep 1974 After lunar... Oct 2008 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) 92 17 Jun 2009 Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) 17..., mineralogy, geochemistry, and exospheric environment Japanese lunar orbiter, global observation of the Moon regarding mineralogy, topography, geography, and gravitation First Chinese lunar orbiter, satellite test, 3D images, study of the distribution and amounts... failed Detailed mineralogical observation of the surface and study of the radiation... in high latitudes, observation of the polar climate and weather, composition of... unit, Earth orbit and subsequently loss of the satellite Yinghuo-1 08 Nov..., loss of the satellite Rover mission, landing in Gale crater, rover ‘Curiosity...-sensing data about Earth are kept on file at DLR‘s Earth Observation...



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... payload, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), will provide additional data on lunar resources. In FY07... the Lunar LRO and the LCROSS. Human Research Program (HRP) The HRP investigates and... and space, including national policy development, satellite operations, technology development, measure­ ment and calibration, international cooperation, trade promotion, and... and property in North, Central, and South America by significantly improv­ ing satellite... POES satellite, NOAA-N Prime, and began preparations for environmental testing of the satellite in 2007. This satellite... search and rescue organiza­ o f P r e s i d e n t 52 such change.” Several National Environmental Satellite Data and Information change, and to lay the foundations.... Satellite instruments, such as NOAA’s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Imager, detect and... and harvest decisions. Ocean observation networks potentially improve NOAA’s storm surge a n d forecasts and... for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services com­ Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON... and NASA on the GOES-R and NPOESS satellite programs to aid future calibration and... the development, calibration, and characterization of satellite imagers and sensors. The NIST also... drought and generally decreasing rainfall trends. Corona satellite photographs from 1967 and aerial... procurement and development of the Space Segment (satellite and land-imaging sensor) and the Launch Segment (rocket, launch ser­ vices, and... and receiving station antenna network; 2) the data processing and archive segment, including satellite data archiving, image processing, and a user portal for data access; and... and is maintained at the USGS’s Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science... using orthophotography and high-resolution satellite data. • Utah State University and the Utah... NASA and USGS satellite data (e.g., MODIS, Landsat) to forecast the spatial and tempo... primarily to commercial communications satellites and Earth observation satellites. During FY07, the... satellite services industry. The inaugural report examined six wholesale and two retail satellite... satellite service, and vehicle occupants can use them to transmit and receive video and... to future NASA satellite systems and collaboration with international remote sensing researchers. The..., and the reestablishment of native species. This research emphasized aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems and showed great potential for... the use of NASA remote sensing satellite products for crop-yield estimation... used remote sensing products to carry out conservation programs. Aerial and satellite imagery... and image processing from airborne platforms, utility of satellite communication data links, and unpiloted aerial vehicle (UAV) development and mission... type and burned-area maps for large regions of the U.S. • Satellite imagery and... eliminate redundant satellite purchases and decrease satellite data costs. The FAS’s satellite remote sensing program..., accurate, and unbiased estimates of global area, yield, and production. Satellite-derived early warnings of unusual crop conditions and production... satellite imagery and data products throughout the U.S. Government. In addition, the FAS and... for cooperation on satellite navigation systems, Earth observation programs, and space exploration initiatives... collaborative work on Earth observation, Earth and space science, and space exploration. The... frequency compatibility and interoperability and our common interest in satellite-based search and rescue..., a satellite of the Milky Way, which distinguished contributions from stars and dust and... Observation (COSMO) Civilian and military Classified Martian Arctic at a site 68.35°N and... System Lunar Architecture Team Large Area Telescope Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite Low-Earth Orbit Light Detection and Ranging Lunar Precursor Robotic... Program National Telecommunications and Information Administration National Water Level Observation Network National..., and Forage Q QZSS Quasi-Zenith Satellite System R R&D RAWS RDT&E RFP Research and Development... Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Transition-Edge Sensor Time History of Events and... USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science U.S. Mission Control Center U.S. Total...



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... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Bildplatten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Missionsdaten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 7.5.1. Lunar Orbiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 7.5.2. Galileo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 7.5.3. Clementine... Start 1979 INSAT „Indian National Satellite System“, geostationäre Plattform sowohl... Meteorological Satellite“, japanischer Wettersatellit, geostationärer Orbit, VISSR (Single Imaging Visible and... 2009 32 SPOT „Systeme Probatoire d’Observation de la Terre“ – Serie franz... Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite), SPOT 3 zusätzlich POAM (Polar Ozone and... 18. Febr. 1987 „Indian Remote Sensing Satellite“, sonnensynchroner Orbit, drei LISS (Linear.... April 1995 „Japan Earth Resources Satellite“, Erderkundungssatellit, sonnensynchroner Orbit, SAR (Synthetic... 1) 31. März 1991 „European Remote Sensing Satellite“, globale Abdeckung von Ozeanen, Küstengebieten... 1998 04. Mai 2002 „Marine Observation Satellite“, japanischer Satellit zur Beobachtung von...-99) Cluster CHAMP Challenging Mini-Satellite Payload, deutsche Mission. Ziele der.... Okt. 2001 TES (TEchnology Experiment Satellite) Mission zum Test neuer Technologien... Radiometer (MWR), Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) und Laser... Ocean Circulation Explorer) 6.3. Bildplatten Earth Observation Images STS-1 through STS-44... der Wolkenhöhen, MISR PIA04387 Crater Lake in Oregon, MISR PIA04388..., 1991 STS040-614-058 Meteor Crater, Arizona, USA, 1991 STS-41G... Indexes (16 mm and 70 mm). Handbook of Lunar Soils. Part I: Apollo... 12 Lunar Photography. - NASA, 1970. Apollo 12 Photography Index (70 mm and 16 mm). - NASA, 1969. Apollo 17 Lunar Photography Index... (70 mm and 16 mm). - NASA, 1970. Handbook of Lunar Soils. Part... 15 Panoramic and Metric Photography Index. - NSSDC, 1972. Apollo 15 Lunar Photography.... Lunar Orbiter Lunar Orbiter Photographic Supporting Data. - NASA, 1971. (NSSDC 71-13) Lunar... as viewed by Lunar Orbiter. - NASA, 1970. - (NASA SP200) Lunar Orbiter Photographic... SP-206) Lunar Polar Orbiter Mission Summary for Lunar Polar Orbiter. - JPL...: Documentation and Environment of the Apollo 16 Samples. - NASA, 1972. 7.5.1. Lunar Orbiter Apollo 16 Index of Mapping Camera and Panoramic Camera Photographs. - NASA, 1972. Lunar Orbiter: 1-5 series (Microfilm) Lunar... Oberflächenmerkmale Lunar Orbiter-Aufnahme mit eingezeichneten Kraterzählgebieten Lunar Orbiter-Aufnahme... orientiert, Aufnahme: Lunar Orbiter V (LOV-H102) Vallis Alpes, Aufnahme: Lunar Orbiter Apollo... 17: Heckpartie des Lunar Rover Apollo 17: Lunar Module in der Region... Ranger 3 (P-2149b) Mission Lunar Prospector LP01 Sonde Lunar Prospector am Mond, künstlerische.../lunar_missions.html Lunar Science and Exploration http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/ Lunar Exploration http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/lunar/ Lunar Phases... and Soils from the Moon http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar... Clementine Lunar Map 2.0 (Beta) http://www.nrl.navy.mil/clm/ Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter http://lunar.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Lunar Prospector Homepage http://lunar.arc.nasa.gov/ Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) http://lcross.arc.nasa.gov/ LUNAR PROSPECTOR SPECTROMETERS http://lunar.lanl.gov/ 7.8. Karten China's Lunar... dem steinigen Gelände Big Crater, Teil des 360°-Farbpanorama Viking...-Mast „Big crater” im Südosten der Landestelle in 3D „Big crater” im... Twin Peaks-Region Dünen, Big Crater und Twin Peaks, rechtes Bild... Bild eines Stereobildpaares Dünen, Big Crater und Twin Peaks, linkes Bild...finder Landestelle, Anaglyph des „Big Crater”, Auflösung: 5 m pro Bildpunkt „Mars... nahe des Randes des South Crater in Südpolregion bei 78,0° S, 336... and other formats, Motion video sequences in MPEG and other formats, Observation reports and other technical information in ASCII and PS... conducted through unmanned Ranger, Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter spacecraft. 19. Moon – Old... history of lunar studies before the first Moon landing and the major... traverses of the lunar surface, film taken from the Lunar Rover, subsatellite... Animation and Video File for NASA-TV Ganymede G2 Encounter & Spacecraft and Satellite... Terrain“ 3. Europa-Encounter E12, Spacecraft & Satellite Positioning 4. Europa-Encounter E12, Closest....1997 5. Europa-Encounter E13, Spacecraft & Satellite Positioning 6. Europa-Encounter E13, Closest... UM T Lunar Map (based upon spacecraft data) Lunar Earthside, Farside and Polar Charts... Orthophotomosiac (OM) with nomenclature and contour lines (T) Lunar Orbiter Photomap or Relief...



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An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Anthony Colaprete, Richard C. Elphic, Jennifer ...-9880-6 An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Anthony Colaprete · Richard C. Elphic · Jennifer... 2012 Abstract The Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), an accompanying payload to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... and lunar orbital assets were also coordinated to observe the impact and subsequent crater and...-manifested with LRO was the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). During the development of LRO... the hydrogen and place constraints on its distribution and concentration. Furthermore, LCROSS aimed to characterize the lunar regolith within... task LCROSS used Author's personal copy An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite the... of Shackleton crater near the lunar south pole. However, Simpson and Tyler (1999... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) are stacked in the launch configuration 3 The LCROSS... from a PSR and observe the impact ejecta and resulting crater. The LCROSS mission utilized... fuel and part of the venting was used to put LCROSS and the Centaur on a lunar swing-by trajectory. At this point the LCROSS SSC took control of the Centaur. The lunar swing-by placed LCROSS into a near polar Earth orbit. LCROSS performed... copy An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite 4 The Impact While similar in... crater parameters that drove mission design included crater size, total excavated mass, and... Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite into understanding the LCROSS impact (e.g., Hermalyn and Schultz 2010... copy An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite before the Centaur impact (in... volatiles, the LCROSS impactor should impact within a permanently shadowed crater. 3. Observable by...). As the impact modeling and Earth-based observation capabilities matured, it became... approached, and all on-board SSC instrument operation and LRO observation participation was... An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite Fig. 4 Modeled LCROSS impact site as viewed... for LCROSS planning purposes. LRO, launched on 18 June 2009, entered lunar... the lunar south pole specifically to provide better information for final LCROSS.... 8 LCROSS Spacecraft, Instruments and Measurements A brief description of the LCROSS shepherding spacecraft (SSC) and... control and orbit maneuvering. Author's personal copy An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite..., communications card, and power and thruster control electronics. While the LCROSS SSC did... spacecraft +X direction and were accommodated in the Payload Observation Deck (POD). This... throughout the LCROSS mission for testing, calibration, post-separation Centaur observation, and the... Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite Table 4 Measurements and Objectives of LCROSS Instruments Instrument Measurements Objectives Visible Camera Surface and ejecta... and any remnant crater heat Visible Spectrometer • Visible emission (e.g. OH− , H2 O+ ) • Surface and... plume temperatures through luminance decay observation period the instrument measurements were... ejecta curtain develops and fills the spectrometer FOVs, and (3) Crater—the period of... and the newly formed crater would begin to be visible in the LCROSS Author's personal copy A. Colaprete et al. cameras. These observation sequences... cruise and was practiced in Operational Readiness Tests prior to impacts. 9 Observation Campaign The LCROSS Observation Campaign was a key component of the LCROSS mission. A brief description of the Observation Campaign is provided here and... Observation Campaign was to train as many observing assets on the LCROSS... from this unique experiment. The Observation Campaign could also serve as... astronomers was essential to the Observation Campaign since these types of... the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite order to ensure functional communications between the SOC and each..., online updates, and a secure server for file transfers. The LCROSS Observation Campaign Coordinator... order to complement the other Observation Campaign datasets. Each observing team... the LCROSS impact events. The inclusion of amateur astronomers in the LCROSS Observation... observation team as it was the only other asset, besides the LCROSS... near 2.9 µm and the slit viewer with a K filter for imaging observation of ejecta... LCROSS mission provided important Author's personal copy An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... of lunar polar hydrogen observed by previous missions. It appears the LCROSS... scale <1 km. LCROSS has not answered all questions regarding lunar polar water...



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... Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation satellite (ICEsat), and other... Research, Global Earth Observation, the Oceans Action Plan, and the Vision for... and began operations of the CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite... and land Elevation Satellite, Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite; Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment; and... Change Research Initiative, Global Earth Observation, and the Oceans Action Plan. This...) and Ka-band precipitation radar (KaPR), respectively, providing a 3-dimensional observation of rain and... inter-agency and international planning processes for operational Earth observation measurements to... and Climate Experiment [GRACE], CloudSat, and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite...: climate variability and change and weather. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations... technologies that enable new Earth-observation measurements and information products. Advanced Technology...-continuous observation of the Sun, a high science data downlink rate, and contact..., and magnetic fields. High-temporal and -spatial resolution will permit direct observation of... gas and ice giant planets. Kepler is the only planned observation system... propose for observation time; HST data archives; life-extension and operations of... Directorate (-$4.3); and c) the transfer of the Near Earth Object Observation (NEOO) from... Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP) and includes the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), as well as future lunar missions... Directorate (-$4.3); and c) the transfer of the Near Earth Object Observation (NEOO) from... payload, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), will provide additional data on lunar resources. The AC..., Operations and Supportability; Fission Surface Power Systems; and Near Earth Objects Observation. The Human Research Program (HRP) investigates and mitigates... Review (CDR) and Mission Readiness Review (MRR) for the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite. Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Outcome 6.2 By 2012, develop and test technologies... October 2008. NASA selected the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), to launch as a secondary payload... spinning and tumbling of a satellite. This added $15 million. The Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was... and radiation environments, and assay potential resources. Launching with LRO is the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). This low-cost secondary payload will investigate the presence of lunar... 2020. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter project is a lunar-orbiting satellite with six instruments and a technology... and LCROSS has not yet been determined. Once the various architecture and small satellite... tank. Also in 2006, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was competitively selected as a secondary... for communication and scientific investigation of the lunar surface. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) will launch with LRO as a secondary payload to investigate lunar surface... is building the LCROSS sensing satellite, with payload suite procurement and integration performed by... and mission planning efforts to enable a human lunar sortie by 2020. LRO and LCROSS... Directorate (-$4.3); and c) the transfer of the Near Earth Object Observation (NEOO) from... Earth Objects Observation (NEOO) Project which detects, tracks, and characterizes asteroids and comets... Earth Objects Observation This project is detecting, tracking, and characterizing Near Earth... and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter missions will be completed and the Distress Alerting Satellite... Relay Satellite (TDRS) Continuation Project supports the Agency's goal to establish a lunar... Review (CDR) and Mission Readiness Review (MRR) for the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite. Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Advanced Capabilities Lunar Precursor Robotic Program... Missions of Opportunity Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite MO&DA Mission Operations and Data Analysis Landsat... Colleges and Universities SFS Space and Flight Support TDRS Tracking and Data Relay Satellite SHFH Space Human Factors and...



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.../s11214-011-9753-4 The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload Development and Performance in Flight Kimberly... The primary objective of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was to confirm the presence... · Spectroscopy · Impactor · LCROSS · LRO · Class D 1 Introduction and Mission Overview The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission’s objective was to sample and analyze...; and (4) Characterize the lunar regolith within a permanently shadowed crater on the Moon. LCROSS launched with the Lunar... and mitigated against possible instrument failure. As seen in Table 2, The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 25 Fig. 1 (a) LCROSS in its launch configuration between the LRO and... 4 minutes.) The LCROSS S-SC is not required to maintain observation of the... and instrument priority is shown in Table 3. Assignment of instrument The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 27 Table 3 LCROSS Level 3 science requirements and science instrument... the inboard side of the LCROSS The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 29 spacecraft R6...) The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 31 Fig. 3 The LCROSS payload science instruments and optics. The... operation was 4.8 Watts (TEC The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 33 off) but reached... and openly, throughout the mission The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 35 design, development and operation. LCROSS... three times to The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 37 Table 5 LCROSS payload powered testing... Design and Environmental Test 5 Observation Strategy Specific science requirements determined all LCROSS payload... goal requirements and fit within the allocated band- The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 39 Table 7 Measured mass (kg) and on orbit... minutes and performed a braking burn to slow down the S-S/C The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 41 Table 9 LCROSS payload on orbit activations... allowed for synthesizing visible and near The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 43 infrared camera... The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 45 Fig. 5 Knowledge of the co-alignment and FOV... The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 47 Fig. 7 LCROSS visible camera image mosaic during lunar swingby....com, www.agi.com. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 49 Fig. 9 The FOVs... Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 51 Fig. 11 UV-visible spectrometer (VSP) spectrum from lunar...’s first and last spectral pixels have wavelengths 1.175 µm The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 53... the pre-launch baseline. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 55 Fig. 14 (a) Solar... measurement and that derived from NSP2’s flight measurement. Deeper The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload..., 15b and 18a). Figure 19 shows the ratio between a corrected The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS... setting changes. This approach The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 61 Fig. 20 Single... formed crater in several images. This was essential for identification The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS... the lunar South Pole at the day and time of the LCROSS impact..., and also higher in priority, was lost during swingby. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload...-stamping function and error logs helped identify this The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 67.../ D. Andrews, LCROSS: a high-return, small satellite mission, in Small Satellite Systems and Services, the... LCROSS impact. Science 300, 477–479 (2010) J. Heldmann, A. Colaprete, and 67 authors. LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) observation campaign: strategies, implementation, and lessons learned. Space...). États-Unis d’Amérique The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload 69 T.L. Segura, A.S. Lo, H. Eller..., Secondary payloads using the LCROSS architecture, in 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference...



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... four different spacecraft (Lunar Prospector, Chandrayaan-1, Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite LCROSS, Fig. 1. One of the... Moon featuring the Mouchez crater near to lunar zero longitude. Illumination variations... of Bills and Ferrari (1977) from Lunar Orbiter and Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites... various science and technology investigations. Among them were three remote sensing instruments: an X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS), a lunar infrared spectrometer (SIR) and the...; Vondrak et al., 2010) and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS: Colaprete et al., 2010a) was...) Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft shows a very young lunar crater on the side of the... advance lunar science and exploration, including location and study of potential hazards and resources... of a Russian lunar lander and an Indian orbiter and mini-rover. A lunar multielement mission (lander, rover, re-transmitting satellite), Luna... structure. Lunar crustal rocks. Lunar poles. Lunar volcanism. Impact processes. Lunar regolith. Lunar dust and atmosphere environment. 3.3. International Lunar Exploration..., heliophysics, and Earth-observation studies (3 objectives, 28 investigations). Use the unique lunar environment... directly applicable to lunar and Mars exploration, and providing a valuable and visible “milestone” akin... a fleet of orbital and landed spacecraft. Orbital remote sensing has revealed a complex.... Conventional satellite development for the most part is a capital- and expertiseintensive endeavor... of small satellite technology was not lost on governmental space and research... (Balogh and Haubold, 2009; Balogh et al., 2010). As small-satellite technologies... (1) safe and precise transportation to lunar or planetary surfaces, (2) communication, and (3) power and (especially... and development of a Global Lunar Robotic Village will encourage and stimulate the peaceful and... rovers and instruments, and cooperative Robotic Village operations (see Section 6.1). 6.4.1. Google Lunar X Prize and... tems, through field research and supporting satellite observation as well as studies to..., Earth observation programs from the ISS or from the lunar surface are... LADEE Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer LAMP Lyman-alpha Mapping Project LCROSS Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite LEAG The Lunar Exploration Analysis Group LEND Lunar Exploration Neutron... 2016 and 2018, respectively. Launch System Human Transport Capabilities Astronaut Corps Satellite... the exploration and utilization of the Moon – our natural satellite” (International Lunar Workshop... and provides analysis in support of lunar exploration objectives and their implications for lunar architecture planning and activity prioritization. It provides findings and... of lunar regolith and crust, local geochemistry, and in situ resource utilization demonstrations. A lunar communications relay satellite is under discussion to support activities on the lunar.... Water and more: an overview of LCROSS impact results, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary..., S., Binder, A.B., Lucey, P.G. Lunar Fe and Ti abundances: comparison of lunar prospector and clementine data... lunar Procellarum KREEP Terrane: a synthesis of data from geomorphological mapping, remote sensing, and... in lunar melt inclusions. Science 8, 213–215, 2011. Hawke, B.R., Bell, J.F. Remote sensing studies of lunar dark-halo impact craters: preliminary results and implications..., M.C., et al. Diviner lunar radiometer observations of the LCROSS impact. Science 330..., D. and the LCROSS Science Team. Lunar Crater observation and sensing satellite (LCROSS) mission: results from the visible camera and UV.... Hot bands observation of water in ejecta plume of LCROSS impact using the Subaru telescope, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary..., W., Jingshan, J. Scientific objectives and payloads of Chang’ E-1 lunar satellite. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 114... lunar surface. I: regional values and crustal content, in: Proceedings of the 8th Lunar and..., C.M., Tompkins, S. Tsilokovsky crater: a window into crustal processes on the lunar farside. J. Geophys... Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Abstract #1993, 2010. Spence, H.E. and the Crater Science Team. Lunar..., J., Jiang, J. Scientific objectives and payloads of Chang’ E-1 lunar satellite. J. Earth System Sci. 114... Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, with Global Lunar Conference (GLUC), and Beijing Lunar...



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... of the SMOS-2 Earth observation and soil moisture satellite. NASA launched the Wide...'s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) indicated the mission successfully uncovered water in a permanently shadowed lunar crater. Scientists... Taiyuan Satellite Launch Centre in Shanxi Province. The Yaogan VIII remote-sensing satellite and science researching mini-satellite, Hope One were... the Mediterranean basin Observation) series is an Earth observation satellite system funded by the Italian Ministry of Research and Ministry... Earth observation satellite to be built for Europe's Global Monitoring for Environment and... small satellite ever to be launched, defining new standards in Earth observation and... 26-year-old Landsat 5 remote sensing satellite has cheated death once again... a Boeing 601 satellite that will provide enhanced Earth-observation and weather-monitoring services... into programmes and budgets. The ESA’s 8000-kilogram Envisat Earth observation satellite is... 2009, preliminary data from NASA's Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite, or LCROSS, indicated - 40 - the mission successfully uncovered water in a permanently shadowed lunar crater. >> Scientists then said that the discovery of volatiles in lunar... in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science and exploration... Forum addressed satellite downstream applications such as navigation, communication, Earth observation, and location... Earth observation satellite >> November 2010 The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) and the... IAA and IISL a conference entitled “Current legal issues for satellite Earth observation”, which... included Treaty monitoring and law enforcement through satellite Earth observation; Privacy conflicts from... Earth observation satellites from SA, Kenya, Nigeria and Algeria; and a space weather satellite, which... 2012 and 2014. The first satellite will be used for Earth observation and the other for space weather and climate studies. A joint satellite could... satellite will carry a high-resolution optical remote sensing instrument for Earth - 96 - sensing and Earth observation. >> Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) and... - communication satellite GSAT-4 and remote sensing satellite Cartosat-2. While the launch of GSAT-4 and GSAT... capability and its first communications satellite. SSTL will design and produce an Earth observation satellite... its first Earth observation satellite called THEOS (Thailand Earth Observation Satellite), which currently has... an optical Earth observation satellite system, its associated ground infrastructure and training of... French and German governments said they would jointly build an Earth observation satellite... and Thales Alenia Space announced the official start of the Gokturk observation satellite... a telecommunications and navigation business unit, as well as an Earth observation and science business unit. The telecommunications and navigation business... Galileo navigation satellite, Giove-A and SSTL's geostationary communications satellite programme. The Earth observation and science business unit was responsible for the medium wave infrared and... national and international organisations, with the purpose of coordinating the Earth observation satellite... of selected Earth Observation (EO) initiatives, new satellite missions, and scientific achievements during...) and Astrium, France, carries three payloads dedicated respectively to meteorology, ocean observation and...-alpha mapper and cosmic ray sensor. LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) was launched with LRO and included... the EPOCH (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization) investigation and DIXI (Deep Impact eXtended... a successful impact in the southern lunar crater Cabeus, thereby demonstrating the existence..., and characterizing the radiation environment of the Earth’s Moon. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was launched on the same vehicle that carried LRO. LCROSS guided... Spectrometer Argon Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite Anti-Satellite Agenzia Spaziale Italiana/Italian... Programme for Life and Physical Sciences ENVIronmental SATellite Earth Observation Electric Propulsion Diagnostic... mission Energization and Radiation in Geospace (Japan) European Remote Sensing Satellite European Space... Line Inter-hemispheric Plasmasphere Remote sensing satellite, formerly ROCSAT-2 (Taiwan Province of... 2 Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph experiment Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (NASA...



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...; and NASA’s Lunar Science Institute of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric... of the Haworth crater at the Moon’s south pole and the western rim of the Seares crater at its... Satellite (GOSAT), would help scientists calculate the density of carbon dioxide and... satellite that would observe sprites and gamma-rays generated during thunderstorms; and KKS 1, a cube satellite designed to demonstrate a micropropulsion system and three-axis... Launches Satellite To Track Greenhouse Gases,” 23 January 2009. 3 Aeronautics and Astronautics...-pound (1,905-kilogram, or 1.9-tonne) satellite, and the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute... built satellite aboard a Safir-2 rocket. Iranian scientists had designed the research and... launched its National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite, NOAA 19, or... the latest and final spacecraft in the Advanced TIROS-N (ATN) satellite series. Lockheed Martin had been designing and building for NASA and NOAA since the first Television and Infrared Observational Satellite (TIROS) weather satellite... Home-Built Satellite into Orbit,” 3 February 2009. 15 NASA, “NASA and Google... 10 February A Russian satellite launched in 1993, and that engineers believed to... and analyze data from satellite-, airborne-, sea-, and land-based sensors. Governments, businesses, and... 559.2 miles) typical for Earth-observation satellites. Mission managers remarked that... Bang. Bloom added that the observation of GRB090423 marked the beginning... Laboratory’s TacSat-3 satellite, which was the primary payload, and other NASA CubeSat... along the crater’s edge and then had traveled down into the crater. The... satellite, researchers had conducted the first global analysis of the health and... June NASA successfully launched its Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) aboard an Atlas-V rocket from... the 1,290-pound (585-kilogram) LCROSS and the 5,216-pound (2,366-kilogram...’s MFSC and the Chandra X-ray Observatory announced that a long observation from Chandra, the SST, and ground-based observatories... 2009. 91 NASA, “NASA and NOAA’s GOES-O Satellite Successfully Launched,” news release... Earth Observation System of Systems, a collaborative effort to share and integrate Earth observation data from various instruments and systems, to monitor and... satellite data and computer weather models with artificial intelligence techniques to identify and... (TRMM), CloudSat, and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellites..., integrate, and test a new low-Earth-orbit space-science satellite for GSFC... the eighth satellite modeled after LEOStar 2 and the fifth SMEX satellite to use... Satellite Crash,” 17 July 2009. 39 Aeronautics and Astronautics: A Chronology, 2009 Wakata and.... Chandra had made its first observation of E0102 shortly after its... Orbital Navigator Satellite), part of a study to demonstrate autonomous rendezvous and docking... the multinational Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Precipitation Constellation. The GPM... Global Change Observation Mission satellite. 111 31 July Space Shuttle Endeavour and its...), carrying a telecommunications satellite for Japan—JCSAT 12—and a broadcasting satellite for Australia— Optus... with Satellite Launch,” Spaceflight Now, 25 August 2009. 47 Aeronautics and Astronautics... satellite reached its target altitude, causing the satellite to overshoot its mark and... 2010. They also connected GPS satellite antennas and completed a variety of small... for the mission finale, the LCROSS satellite had separated from its Centaur... the LCROSS science team. Jennifer L. Heldmann, ARC coordinator of the LCROSS observation campaign.... 147 NASA, “NASA Spacecraft Impacts Lunar Crater in Search for Water Ice... announced that LCROSS’s observation of its 9 October 2009 impact on the lunar surface had succeeded. During LACROSS’s descent into the Centaur crater... but distinct debris plume. LCROSS Principal Investigator and Project Scientist Anthony Colaprete.../mission_pages/LCROSS/main/LCROSS_impact.html (accessed 30 September 58 Aeronautics and Astronautics... and Technology (KACST), to collaborate in lunar and asteroid science research. The Saudi Lunar and... Board Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations Congressional Budget Office... system or global positioning satellite Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment gamma-ray...-abort system Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Low Frequency Instrument laser-imaging detection and ranging Lunar Reconnaissance... Tracking and Data Relay Satellites Television and Infrared Observational Satellite Telemetry, Information, Transfer, and...



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... in Solar and Space Physics (2004) Utilization of Operational Environmental Satellite Data: Ensuring Readiness for 2010 and Beyond (SSB with ASEB and... crust and possibly the lunar mantle, along with answers to questions on crater and basin formation, lateral and vertical compositional diversity, lunar chronology, and the... location for observation and study of Earth, near-Earth space, and the universe... benefits and the costs of using the Moon as an observation platform... and approach to planetary science and improvements in use of remote sensing and field and... most common type of satellite atmosphere FIGURE 1.1  Lunar science encompasses four overarching... the recognition from detailed crater counts that lunar volcanism extended far later... remote sensing, especially infrared spectroscopy, shows that the diversity of the lunar... modern and computationally intensive techniques and analysis and the integration of remote sensing and new...-Apollo missions that returned global lunar remote sensing data. The pioneer was... to accommodate this fundamental observation into current understanding. Lunar Prospector also identified... observed in lunar mare basalts in samples and in remote sensing data indicates... of secondary impact craters on crater counts. Lunar Environment 1. The bombardment history... the creation of lunar basins. From the returned samples and crater statistics, it..., such as crater ejecta deposits, and radiometric ages of lunar soil spherules. Current... detected and omitted from crater counts. Detailed studies of young lunar impact craters and the distribution and... the lunar magma ocean continues to serve scientists well, geophysical, remote sensing, and sample analyses reveal a lunar crust that varies both laterally and vertically... structure and geologic evolution of the lunar crust. From the global remote sensing coverage of the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions of the 1990s and...-yet-unvisited lunar terrains, both by local and regional remote sensing and sample analysis... the south polar lunar crater Shackleton showed that this crater exhibited radar scattering... unusual lunar environments (crater central peaks, excavated lower-crust and mantle materials, and pyroclastics... at 2 to 3 crater radii. Continuing improvements in remote sensing might yield observational... future lunar exploration. It carries an array of modern remote sensing instruments... polar areas, and study the lunar radiation environment. A secondary payload, Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), launched with... terrestrial crater record through fieldwork and zircon evidence. Compare new remote sensing data... lunar chronology is derived from combining lunar crater counts with radiometric sample ages and is thus the most precise—and..., and isotopic characterization of diverse lunar rocks. Higher-resolution geochemical and mineralogical remote sensing... crust and possibly the lunar mantle, along with answers to questions on crater and basin formation, lateral and vertical compositional diversity, lunar chronology, and the... the observations of every LEO and GEO satellite in existence, making possible... geosynchronous orbiting weather satellite observations at 0.1 percent precision and so permit issues... Exploration (IMAGE) satellite in 2000, images of Earth’s magnetosphere and ionosphere have... location for observation and study of Earth, near-Earth space, and the universe... benefits and the costs of using the Moon as an observation platform... of adaptability, quick reaction, and discerning observation offer the best potential for... supported by the general observation that the lunar geologic variety occurs on... and approach to planetary science and improvements in use of remote sensing and field and... observation or terrestrial analysis via documented sample return. Secondary goals: 3. Goals and.... Examples are major lunar astronomical observatories or Earth observation systems that might... Space Administration lunar orbiter Chesapeake—an ancient subsurface impact crater located in... Earth LCROSS—the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite, a secondary payload to be launched with the Lunar Reconnaissance... first phase of lunar exploration is centered on remote-sensing observations, we... (SMART-1, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, SELENE RSAT, and VSAT) and subsequent impacts of lunar crafts should.... Lucey’s lunar research has primarily involved the examination of remote sensing data as it relates to the composition of the lunar crust and... Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby and NASA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory satellite mission that...