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....3 Analysis Methodologies…………………………………………………………………..35 10.4 L1 Lunar Lander Results………………..………………………………………………...36 ii 10.5 Findings... Horizontal Lander Concepts……………………….…………………….4 Figure 1.3: Final Configuration of the L1 Lunar Lander…………….……………………...4 Figure 1.4: L1 Lunar Lander Four-View & Dimensions…………….………………………5 Figure 1.5: L1 Lunar Lander Ascent Stage ………………………….………………………6 Figure 1.6: L1 Lunar Lander Descent... Lander Schematic Ascent & Descent Stage…………….13 Figure 3.1: L1 Lunar Lander…………………………………………………………………14 Figure 4.1: L1 Lunar Lander EPS Concept………………………………………...…………19 Figure 4.2: EPDC System For Lander... Lunar Lander ECLSS…………..……………….28 Figure 9.1: L1 Lunar Lander Avionics Architecture……………….…………...………….….34 Figure 10.1: L1 Lunar Lander... Lunar Lander Dry Mass Targets……….………………………………………....2 Table 1.2: L1 Lunar Lander Mass Statement………….………………………………………...9 Table 1.3: L1 Lunar Lander Power... the L1 Lunar Lander……………...………..…………29 Table 8.2: Lunar Lander Crew Accommodations………………………………….…………….30 Table 8.3: Lunar Lander Crew Health Care……………………………………..……………….31 Table 10.1: L1 Lunar Lander Prioritized Cumulative LRU Sparing………………………….…40 Table 10.2: L1 Lunar Lander PHA... Chief Engineer David Fletcher – L1 Lunar Lander Element Lead Mike Drever – Information...-days at the lunar south pole, the L1 Lunar Lander which performs three... L1 Lunar Mission Architectu vii L1 Lunar Lander 1.0 Element Description The L1 Lunar Lander (L1LL) is the crew transportation element in the L1 Lunar... Lunar Lander is to ferry the crew to and from the L1 Lunar... module for extended Lunar missions while the L1 Lunar Lander awaits crewed ascent... a Lunar lander and ascent vehicle capable of reaching any point on the Lunar... L1 Lunar Lander: 4 crew • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 8-day mission duration • • • 58-hour transit to Lunar Surface... Horizontal Lander Concepts Figure 1.3: Final Configuration of the L1 Lunar Lander 4 Figure 1.4: L1 Lunar Lander... concept for the L1 Lunar Lander: Pre-Launch • Lander powered up for pre... Crew Egress/ Viewing Figure 1.5: L1 Lunar Lander Ascent Stage Operations Concept (cont... Surface Science Equipment Figure 1.6: L1 Lunar Lander Descent Stage Operations Concept (cont... Lunar Lander Mass Statement Concept Total Mass Wet Mass Dry Mass Lunar Lander 29655.26 23021.18 6634.08 Lunar Lander Electrical Power 250.00 27.00 223.00 Lunar Field... 768.96 Lunar Lander Propulsion 25800.65 22806.07 2994.58 Lunar Lander Structure 1202.50 0.00 1202.50 Lunar Lander Avionics 114.30 0.00 114.30 Table 1.2: L1 Lunar Lander Mass... Powered Ascent Dock w/Gateway 2.0 L1 Lunar Lander Descent/Ascent Propulsion System 2.1 Functional... L1 Lunar Lander propulsion system are to provide a powered descent to the lunar... Lander (HL) as well as the reference Mars missions. The L1 Lunar Lander... LO2/LCH4 Lander Schematic Ascent & Descent Stage 13 3.0 L1 Lunar Lander Structural Design...: Figure 3.1: L1 Lunar Lander The primary structure of the lunar lander is idealized into... the mass rollups. 16 4.0 L1 Lunar Lander – Electrical Power System 4.1 Functional Description...: Figure 4.1: L1 Lunar Lander EPS Concept Figure 4.2: EPDC System For Lander Based On EPCU Standard H/W and Enclosures 19 5.0 L1 Lunar Lander Thermal Control System 5.1 Functional description and design requirements The L1 Lunar Lander... Lunar Lander 6.1 Functional description and design requirements The EVA system on the Lander... 7.0 L1 Lunar Lander Surface Science 7.1 Functional description and design requirements The lunar field... another landed element. 26 8.0 L1 Lunar Lander ECLSS 8.1 Functional Description and Design... Reference Design for the L1 Lunar Lander Technology Function/Subfunction Atmosphere Control... Lunar Lander is described in Table 8.3. T.Sullivan/SD3 provided this list.Table 8.5: Lunar Lander... requires further study. 32 9.0 L1 Lunar Lander Avionics System 9.1 Functional Description and... out the L1 Lunar Lander mission from launch to Lander disposal. These provisions... the L1 Lunar Lander vehicle. The avionics system proposed for the Lander was... h T V ) LD R =16 Kbps Figure 9.1 – L1 Lunar Lander Avionics Architecture 9.4 Technology needs and... generated for the L1 Lunar Lander by the L1 Lunar Lander team subsystem leads.... 36 10.4 L1 Lunar Lander Results 10.4.1 L1 Lunar Lander Subsystem Availability Results Availability... the Lander unreliability so sparing analysis was not conducted. L1 Lunar Lander Subsystem... L 0.8 Subsystems Studied Figure 10.1. L1 Lunar Lander Subsystem Availability Figures 10.2, 10....3 TCS Subsystem Sparing Results L1 Lunar Lander ECLSS Subsystem Sparing Analysis (1000...



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...-1992: First Lunar Outpost (FLO) missions. the Scout, Artemis (Common Lunar Lander) and... the Scout and Artemis (Common Lunar Lander) payloads for the catalog. The... Solar Telescope Lunar Solar Observatory Lunar Neutrino Telescope Lunar Pinhole Occulter Facility Lunar Calorimeter... (SLIM) Lunar Observer Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Lunar Gravity Experiment C° Artemis (Common Lunar Lander) Mission Description (LUMIS) and Payloads Lunar Lander Geophysics Package Lunar Geophysics Network... Altimeter Lunar Lunar Lunar Lunar Planetary Institute Roving Vehicle Transit Telescope Ultraviolet Mapping Lunar Surface... a lunar orbiting mission, the Lunar Scout, and a robotic mission using a common lunar lander, the... INSTRUMENTS 1/17/92 PAYLOAD SUMMARY LANDER Estimated Estimated Estimated Estimated GEOSCIENCE... collected during an extended lander stay on the lunar surface, or during... the lander or habitat prior to delivery on either the lunar or... in a single analysis Power Consumption Lander geoscience laboratory: 181 W discontinuous Habitat... a laboratory module or lander prior to launch for the lunar surface. Consequently... on lander/habitat design. design). suggesting technology readiness to a lander or habitat.... Lander laboratory instruments will be an integral part of the lander; included in lander design at the beginning... Artemis-class lander or as a payload on the first piloted lunar mission... designs require tight lander orientation. Daytime operations on the lunar surface require... the lunar surface autonomously atop the Artemis using a soft landing spacecraft lander... lander and remain there to keep it as far above the lunar... lunar cycle). The telescope will have no other interface with the lander... to be landed on a common lunar lander. The instruments will measure the... of future orbital and lander missions. Description The Lunar Observer Laser Altimeter... of future orbital and lander missions. Description The Lunar Gravity Experiment will... I • C. Artemis Mission (Common Description P_ Lunar Lander) and Payloads PAGE I_L,_.NK... Payloads Artemis (Common Program: Lunar Mission Lander) Mission Description and Description The... lander with little to no integration between the payload and the lander... lunar lander, later named Artemis, was to use orbital data from past lunar... 94 budget process. Artemis (Common Lunar Lander) Program: Science Payloads In July... on the Concept of a Common Lunar Lander" which included discussions on the... could be delivered by a common lunar lander. Scientists and engineers later designed... follow in this section. Lunar Lander Geophysics Package Lunar Geophysics Network In Situ... Integrated Lunar Regolith Analyzer 157 PAGE I_LAI"_ l'_3T rlLMEI_ LUNAR Date: LANDER GEOPHYSICS... environment. A geophysics package deployed on a lunar lander such as Artemis can contain... Workshop on Lunar Lander, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. 159 LUNAR GEOPHYSICS Date... on the Concept of a Common Lunar Lander, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX... the Workshop Concept of a Common Lunar Lander, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX... on a soft lander should not be set on the lunar surface. Estimated... on the Concept of a Common Lunar Lander, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.... Crew Interaction None Payload Delivery Lunar Lander Estimated None Set-up Time.... 167 (LIBS) for Lunar Lander to the Moon, Lunar and COMBINED INSTRUMENT Date.... Crew Interaction None Payload Delivery Lunar Lander Options Estimated None Time Maintenance.../X-Ray Diffraction Lunar Lander Mission, in Workshop on Early Robotic Missions Lunar and... interplanetary reference. Interaction Payload Delivery Lunar Lander Options 170 Estimated None Maintenance... Crew None Interaction Payload Delivery Lunar Lander Options Estimated TBD Time Maintenance.... Constraints Interaction Payload Delivery Options Lunar lander--can be deployed Estimated None... Technology Delivery Options orbiter and lunar lander Set-up deployed rover. Time... Strategy Constraints Interaction Payload Delivery Lunar Lander Options Estimated Time Set-up... sampled. Interaction Payload Delivery Options Lunar Lander. Can be deployed at fLxed... Strategy Constraints Interaction Payload Delivery Lunar Lander Options Estimated None Time Maintenance... Set-up on a hard lander, soft lander, Time Needs 194 rover, or... collected during an extended lander stay on the lunar surface or during... the lander or habitat Prior to delivery on either the lunar or... INSTRUMENT MASS POWER VOLUME (k_) (W) (m^3) LANDER GEOSCIENCE LABORATORY Binocular microscope Mossbauer... in a single analysis Power Consumption Lander geoscience laboratory: 181 W discontinuous Habitat... necessary, based on lander/habitat design. suggesting to a lander technology readiness or... appropriate sections. First Lunar Outpost Lunar Lunar Lunar Lunar Lunar Small Solar Small Lunar In-Situ P_... Experiment to the Moon," 243 Lunar Operations," Lunar Lander," NASA Planetary NASA Reference...



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119 PRECEDI_G LUNAR LANDER J. M. Stecklein and [L3_E CONCEPTUAL DESIGN A.J. ... the problems of building a lunar lander to support a small lunar surface base. A series... (LLO) (less lander will be heavier (15-30%) A lander capable of multiple roles, way some low lunar or taking... of the lander, An equation was the Apollo lunar so that it... in several the lander at one and propellants. On a lunar from mass... must lunar show to store Low-Earth-orbit basing for the lander... period will maintainability to range lander (LOX/LHz) design (LEO) maintainable... lander to a permanent vehicles out detail in the Lunar lander Conceptual 1988). One lander... Lunar Bases and Space Activities Fig. 1. such as the computers, the lander... represented or not OTV and lander in lunar orbit. at all with... al.: Lunar to deliver the case, the after delivering lander Tables orbital... 2 show altitude up with goes lunar how lander up. Table orbit altitude.... _"°'i crew/cargo lander. I 1 i I40 _ I J + of 15 ° in low lunar lander maCs increases LOX... Mass lander. Orbit = 93 km; MR = 6.0 O/H; 122 2nd Conference on Lunar Bases and TABLE 1. Circ. Orbit Altitude Space Activities lander rna_... in lunar feature. the site a lander equatorial will associated as become. with Lunar... lander with an aerobrake. An OTV specially configured to carry the lander will be required, or the lander will require... Earth. thrusts The lander must flexibility in lunar needed is ENGINES will... Some stock station. Bringing the lander illustrates this. Given will already... losses periodically mission propellants with lander range is roughly variety loading... loading lander In addition serviced (2) options These 40% of the lunar weight.... of 6 ft/sec 2 or TABLE 4. lander Other operation inclination equatorial, For... each require lander might use one or two engines lander four. Other... engines lunar Additional technology development time studies programs. for the lunar program. lunar lander... or is lower. lander the will be for lunar two of the.... unless comparison. is needed design lander a regener- system ration combinations a pressure... engines PROP_ throttling a pressure-fed lander Earth-storable Achieving the required... d_ent--stage=_sichamber while the lunar lander the studies cycles. combination propulsion... are underway are planned. The lunar lander propulsion system can propulsion could... lander The penalties ratio required and a dedicated lander crew On not cargo lander... Another function a throttling if one lander a dedicated deal. complicated might Engine... lb the unmanned lunar descent, Stecklein and the lunar normal lander landing still... Liquid are extracted propellants lunar into from the lander main the gas... required. calibration. lander of a costly system central unmanned fault lander. lunar readily achievable... lander manned. identification, In AND multipurpose as power for NASA manned lander systems as possible and still If the lunar lander is.... chamber with would be one lunar lander through the space shuttle era... flat software Comparison supports From lunar lander crew members. The display system... the lander. and logic, DMS processor. and RCS engines lunar on the lunar... that might be comparable to lunar lander systems, were added up. The... complete the lunar the energy descent, to the trip, estimated lander mission... lunar days in LEO -- 720 kWhr The surface, lives in the lander... increase). Figures 5 and multipurpose MULTIPURPOSE LANDER WEIGHT kg total the STATEMENTS... this lander how to the a surface in the figure. in lunar and... lander (single-stage) LRUs, and broken; gear lunar is being 1 shows lander propellants... diameter, The of the lander can be made lander lander landers, connections crew H2 tanks are of this lander pressurized... The of propellant. this lander cargo 6 show lander. The in orbit 118... et al.: Lunar 39 156 Delta NzO4/MMH V, Ascent lander conceptual multipurpose.../LH2 reusable lunar lander, side view. Fig. 6. LOX/LH2 1/2" = 1 METER reusable lunar lander, top view. 130 2nd Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities = = ! Fig. 7. Iander on surface. Fig. 8. Lander.... 9. Figure lander 8 shows may loading normal Advanced storable reusable lunar lander, side view. on the lander also the egress, serve lunar without ADVANCED LANDER... COST if propellant figure illustrates Lander vehicle. component, DESIGN weight. Figures... show the LOX/LH2 lander, except lander, though considerably a lander using heavier with... MULTIPURI_SE CONCEPTUAL Advanced storable reusable lunar lander, top view. capability to NzO4... previously described lander. are The propellant capacity of this lander is 35..., adj. to 1988 SM) New lunar Lander ( 1 unit, 1988 SM) "These numbers... incurred Corp., after et al.: Lunar lander conceptual design 131 REFERENCES Apollo... Spacecraft Center, Eagle Engineering (1988) Lunar Lander Concq0tua/Design, Report No. 88...



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... 1981 Venera 14 1981 Venus Lander The lander survived for 57 minutes... Lander Launched 03 Dec 1965 Lunar Impact First Probe to impact the Lunar... for 65 and Lander minutes after landing Venus Lander Transmitted data after... minutes. Venus Lander The lander survived for 127 minutes. Lunar Impact Method EDL... 1.5m/ freefall to the Moon Lunar Lander Damaged during landing, no sample... 1971 Mars orbiter and lander The Mars 2 lander descent sequence failed and... and lander Mars 5 FAILED 1973 Mars orbiter Mars 6 FAILED 1973 Mars lander... absorber See Mars 2 Orbiter not lander Entry at 5.6km/s / aerobraking to... Orbital Information: Orbit Central Body Lander Venus Epoch Start Epoch End... left and right corners. (Venera 9 Lander, surface image) Surface of Venus... Orbital Information: Orbit Central Body Lander Venus Epoch Start Epoch End... over 2 meters across. (Venera 10 Lander, surface image) References: B28822-000A... Orbital Information: Orbit Central Body Lander Venus Epoch Start Epoch End..., consisted of a flight platform and a lander probe. Identical instruments were carried... orbit. After ejection of the lander probe, the flight platform continued... Orbital Information: Orbit Central Body Lander Venus Epoch Start Epoch End... Orbital Information: Orbit Central Body Lander Venus Epoch Start Epoch End...). The Venera 13 descent craft/lander was a hermetically sealed pressure vessel... differentiated melanocratic alkaline gabbroids. The lander survived for 127 minutes (the... the area around the lander. Venera 13 Lander black and white images of Venus' surface Venera 13 Lander images of the surface of Venus. The lander touched...-110A (flight platform) Venera 14 Lander; Venera 14 Flight Platform, 12939... Orbital Information: Orbit Central Body Lander Venus Epoch Start Epoch End...). The Venera 14 descent craft/lander was a hermetically sealed pressure vessel... lander survived for 60 minutes. Both images show part of the lander... shows a test arm. (Venera 14 Lander, YG06848) Reference: B45942-000A Harvey.../planetary/planets/moonpage.html Soviet Lunar Lander Missions The image at the... Orbital Information: Orbit Central Body Lander Moon Epoch Start Epoch End... Orbital Information: Orbit Central Body Lander Moon Epoch Start Epoch End... 9 Lander and Flight Apparatus Models of the Luna 9 bus and lander on... Orbital Information: Orbit Central Body Lander Moon Epoch Start Epoch End... Orbital Information: Orbit Central Body Lander Moon Epoch Start Epoch End...-supplied laser corner-reflector. The lander and rover together weighed 1814... was a Moon lander mission, which was intended to return a lunar sample to... no samples were returned. The lander continued transmissions for 3 days after... Orbital Information Orbit Central Body Lander Moon Epoch Start Epoch End... orbiter and lander (1971) Mars 3 - Soviet Mars orbiter and lander (1971) Mars 4 - failed Mars 6 - Soviet Mars lander (1973) Mars 7 - failed Mars 2 Lander Mars 2 Lander Other Name(s) Launch... module and an attached descent/lander module. The primary scientific objective... and exposing the instrumentation. The lander was equipped with two television... in Russia 68 Mars 3 Lander Mars 3 Lander Other Name(s) Launch Date/Time... Orbital Information: Orbit Central Body Lander Mars Epoch Start Epoch End... module and an attached descent/lander module. The primary scientific objective... and exposing the instrumentation. The lander was equipped with two television... to the side. Simultaneously the lander retrorockets were fired. The entire... the martian surface around the lander, atmospheric temperature, pressure, density, and... the martian surface around the lander, atmospheric temperature, pressure, density, and.... 79 SUMMARY OF RUSSIAN PLANETARY LANDER MISSIONS.............................. 1 SUMMARY TABLE ............................................................................................................ 1 VENUS ............................................................................................................................... 5 VENERA... CRAFT ......................................................................................... 28 MOON.............................................................................................................................. 31 SOVIET LUNAR LANDER MISSIONS ................................................................................ 31 LUNA 2 .......................................................................................................................... 32 LUNA... TO MARS ........................................................................... 66 MARS 2 LANDER ............................................................................................................ 66 MARS 3 LANDER ............................................................................................................ 69 MARS 4 (FAILED) .......................................................................................................... 72...



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...-01-2366 Comparative Configurations for Lunar Lander Habitation Volumes: 2005-2008 Marc...-01-2366 Comparative Configurations for Lunar Lander Habitation Volumes: 2005-2008 Marc... contemplated candidate volumes for the Lunar Lander since the beginning of the... Constellation Lunar Lander, the 2007 Lander Design Analysis Cycle -1 (LDAC-1) and the 2008 Lunar Lander... investigation is how well the lunar lander supports crew productivity. INTRODUCTION Under... of concepts for the crewed Lunar Lander. This interaction has followed two... a Request for Information for the Lunar Lander Concepts Requirements Description, based largely... became known as the Constellation Lunar Lander or CLL). In the second... Broad Area Announcement for the Lunar Lander Development Study (LLDS) based on... of the Lunar Lander and examines the design assumptions for each lander option... traces the progress of the Lunar Lander habitation concepts through this formative... in the Lunar Surface Outpost. However, the designs of the lunar lander until... lunar lander story begins with NASA’s publication of several sets of lunar mission... recent Lunar Lander baseline concepts. 2005 NASA ESAS LSAM 2006 NGC Constellation Lunar Lander RFI Response 2007 NASA Lander Development Analysis Concept (LDAC-1) 2008 NGC Altair Lander Development...” 118 days “Lunar Outpost” ~194 days > 6 months 2 204 days LUNAR LANDER CONFIGURATION VOLUMETRICS... four baseline studies for the lunar lander. It explicates the designations of...), part of it addressed the lunar lander that would become part of... FIGURE 1. Northrop Grumman sketch of a lunar lander concept for the 2004-2005... NASA’s in-house Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) atop a full lander configuration. FIGURE... architectural design problem of the lunar lander ascent stage on its own.... 2006 CONSTELLATION LUNAR LANDER RFI life as part of the lunar surface infrastructure... May 2006, NASA released the Lunar Lander Concept Requirements Description Request for..., better known as the Constellation Lunar Lander (CLL) RFI. The RFI defined...: o Innovative lander design concepts o Concepts for integration of the lander and surface.... TABLE 3. Lunar Lander Shroud Diameter and Net Lander Payload to Trans Lunar Injection (TLI) from NASA’s 2006 Lunar Lander RFI... cargo lander Shroud Exterior Diameter (m) Shroud Interior “Working Diameter” (m) Net Lander Payload... commonality with a dedicated cargo lander gave the lunar lander an aspect of being... people. From this robot cargo lander, the “derived desirement” for autonomous... was sufficient to accommodate the lunar lander concepts. As the 7 On the... of the Outpost. 2006 CONSTELLATION LUNAR LANDER RFI CONCEPTS TABLE 1 shows the... in the lander. Criteria Apollo 17 Lunar Module (NASM, 2009) Altair Lunar Lander (NGC LLDS, 2009) Number of crew on the lunar surface... six Northrop Grumman 2006 Constellation Lunar Lander RFI concept(s). Concept 2. SurfaceStaged Deployed... reference missions. Additionally, the LDAC-1 Lander design does not protect for... to the design of the lunar lander. The advocates of any redundancy.... 11, 2008 Lunar Lander Development Study BAA, NASA articulated the Lunar Lander Project Office... Team prepared for the 2008 Lunar Lander Development Study. When Using a Crew... habitable volume of the lunar sortie habitat. 2008 LUNAR LANDER DEVELOPMENT STUDY In... awarded five contracts for the Lunar Lander Development Study (LLDS). The purpose... lander configurations, shows how the allocation of volume changes from one lunar lander... final design concept for the Lunar Lander Development Study. This version incorporates.... Northrop Grumman concept for the Lunar Lander Development Study, October, 2008, with... of four Lunar Lander Concepts for the allocation of pressurized volume. Lunar Lander Concepts... “concepts for integration of the lander and surface systems, e.g., deployment of... substantiated aspect of the four lunar lander concepts, but they are the... Sortie Lander and for the LSO suits in the Outpost Lander. It... egress. This chronological survey of lunar lander concepts yields useful findings. These... – This survey of the four lunar lander concepts shows how almost every... is more important for the lunar lander modules to be arranged symmetrically... presented the major developments in Lunar Lander design over the past four... Lunar Lander Development Study, Houston: Johnson Space Center. Donahue, Benjamin B. (2006, September). Lunar Lander... Lunar Lander, 13 December 2007. Northrop Grumman Corporation (2008, Oct. 23). Constellation Lunar Lander... of the Lunar Outpost – Fiscal Year 2008 (Revision A) CLL: Constellation Lunar Lander, 2006, also called the Lunar Lander Concept Requirements Description...: Lunar Lander Project Office at Johnson Space Center, Houston Texas LLO: Low Lunar... Orion and the Altair. LLDS: Lunar Lander Development Study contract, 2008. 23...



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101 LUNAR BASED John LANDER ON THE STAGE REQUIREMENTS CIVIL ... This paper will examine the lunar lander stages that u_ll be necessary.... Lunar lander stage sizing wal be dis_ based on the projected lunar payloads.... Factors that u_ll influence the lander stage design will be identified... these factors will he (1) lunar orbiting and lunar surface lander bases; (2) implications of... reusable lander stages; and (6)the descent/ascent trajectories. Data relating the lunar lander... renewed interest activities indicate technological lunar in lunar the progam resources. engineering... on exploration and Data program. lunar lander would design requirements It is... account. assumptions and payload lunar requirements that lander can transport of the... the and the transportation mission lunar payloads aspect stage, with the... was the determines requirements, operations lunar associated surface. was the nature...% lunar orbit real the point. land These and may be lander would propellant Manettag stages to orbit a lunar orbit, be... more point require- or the lander from the LI itself. point... tation node or were evaluated. lander stage This assumes exist and... tions. The two spacecraft utilize lunar-produced most options base that... of total less In addition lander chosen scenario trajectory landing that... appeared as a basis the three lunar are many aspects size the... considered themselves. The within for a lunar aspect type many provides two... consider exploration range of the lunar exploration mission There exploration characteristics stage sequence necessary requirements lunar the distribution NASA intention CNDB... The Study lunar lunar range conceptual (CNDB). that would that these lunar program... subsequent engineering studies. surface overall lunar Needs both culminate greatly on... that would specific as liquid lunar envisioned provide or as a point... node 102 2nd DIRECT Conference LUNAR on Lunar LANDING AEROASSIST MISSION Bases... limited capability as a link or lunar surface sensing of the Moon... ' the point, but with other LUNAR ORBIT MISSION stage base this... to be based produced. service lunar at the would (Eagle surface... for a lander lunar need to transport would be the for lunar most This... efficient vs. weight trartsfer in lunar propellants p. 26). of the base...). A fuel depot I AEROASStST_ a on the lunar surface, to be carried all... payload allow resources for p. 4). the lunar surface. If the iander base... Earth would have way lunar need 1984, lander would be somewhat would... also some other advantages for a lunar orbit transportation node. One advantage... biggest transportation node exchanging payloads, Lunar mission profile options. advantage a particular... nodes lunar lander requirements from would allow for trartsportation or on the lunar surface. The lunar orbit or on the lunar surface. scenario... orbit, surface. Each of low lunar point mission at the libration... addition using lunar orbit. was selected. nodes, of the there lunar would... could be maintained orbit, lunar the lunar majority would of space activity... required to ttanst_rt payloads or lunar resources between the Earth and... be a useful be Earth. The lander mission could to achieve scenario... designed would from to minimize lunar the the exploration achieve these... The lunar orbit used in this altitude polar orbit, which lunar surface since the once 1984, in lunar orbit. Liquid... surface be filled in lunar orbit. some the lunar locations is produced... and forth would only orbit a lunar due disadvantage at the L 1 libration... the surface stored and in lunar with lunar service orbit capability profile... disadvantages as a trartsportation node. If a lunar lander transportation node were located in... surface lander lunar is that it provides a convenient location for crews, and lunar resources between transfer stages and lunar landers. Lunar sensing could an orbiting station; in fact the lunar... in the plane of the lunar polar orbit. Similarly, the approach... Mulqueen: TABLE 4. Lunar Option 1,2,&3 lander Option Expendable Ascent Veh. Expendable Lander vehicle cost summary 1 ( 1988 Option Reusable Lander Expendable Lander dollars Lunar landers basea the 117 CNDB in millions). Option 2 Reusable Lander on Expendable Lander 1 Expendable Lander 2 3 Reusable Lander 1 Reusable Lander 2 DDT&E Stage... 7228 payload will lunar be models useful in lander the requirements future as Eagle Engineering Center, change. Kirkland Lunar.... (1984) Lunar characteristics Orbital Study L K (1986) Civil Needs Woodcock In Lunar Planetary for NASA Johnson Surface Return, Internal of lunar missions. and R. W. Vance, In Lunar eds.), pp. 16... for NASA Marshall McCauley Center. Lunar New York Marietta 2600, The...-124. and Report, Lunar and Planetary Institute, modes for lunar basing. Century...



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....1.5.B.3 NASA’S INTERNATIONAL LUNAR NETWORK ANCHOR NODES AND ROBOTIC LUNAR LANDER PROJECT UPDATE Brian... Nodes mission development and the lander risk-reduction design and test... University Applied Physics Laboratory. The lunar lander concepts developed by this team...-ice on the lunar surface. INTRODUCTION: NASA ROBOTIC LUNAR LANDER DEVELOPMENT One of... Nodes mission would develop a broad lander capability and establish surface and... to airless bodies. Two candidate lunar lander missions—a geophysical network and an... multiple key aspects of lunar and planetary science. Lander technology developed for... team was renamed the Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project (RLLDP) with the... to complete an array of lander technology risk-reduction tasks and.... LUNAR POLAR VOLATILES MISSION Introduction The joint MSFC–JHU/APL robotic lander... [1]. The resulting mission concept provides a lander capability with significant design maturity... ILN core lander capability for multiple science and exploration missions. Lunar Polar... available lunar orbiting communications asset, direct line of sight between the lander... Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG)powered lander to also function as an... a single stationary polar lander in a permanently shadowed lunar crater. Specific landing site...-relative navigation for a safe landing. Lander Payload Drill and Deployment Mechanism... batteries remains for the LPV lander to handle surface peak power.... Fig. 3: LPV lander in surface operations configuration. The LPV lander is shown... Figures 2 and 3, respectively. The total lander dry mass is ~275 kg... two primary ILN lander bus concepts. The LPV mission lander, which has... A studies for the ILN mission, lander subsystem technology risks were identified..., with their status presented below. Lander (Instruments stowed for launch/cruise... mission concepts and all small lander (landers with <150-kg payload... Antenna (cruise only) Fig. 2: LPV lander in cruise configuration. 5 Subsystem Power... lunar night Power system electronics Table 2: Comparison of ILN and LPV lander... impacts regulator performance 140 1. Solar Lander Day Ops Only 120 2. ASRG... Power Available (Watts) Fig. 4: Generic lander payload mass versus power.   Outlet... risk. The first test bed lander has been constructed, and initial... specific impulse. A second test bed lander called the “warm gas” test... the same time. The Robotic Lunar Lander Design Team (RLLDT) is studying... Figure 7. on a notional ASRG-powered lander platform. An ASRG-powered platform... are desired to reduce the lander dry mass. A leading candidate for... mechanisms technology are discussed below. Lander Leg Stability Because the descent... flight lander in order to predict the behavior of the lander at...: (1) a simple rigid block lander; (2) a ½-scale lander model of a flight lander with elastic deformation... flexible architecture of the robotic lunar lander to envelope multiple missions, to... to, available funding. The basic lander bus constitutes a transportation system that... and exploration, and this robotic lander will satisfy requirements of the... important, many of the robotic lander technologies to be demonstrated also... attachment to the lander. This discrete attachment approach minimizes lander mass and... 8 shows the separation test setup. Lander Structural Design and Fabrication Processes... Lunar Quest Program Office, the ILN Science Definition Team, the Robotic Lunar Lander... ILN Anchor Nodes and Robotic Lunar Lander Project GLUC-2010.1.5.B.3 JHU/APL.../Robotic Lunar lander history • Robotic Lander Project Activities Status • Single Site Lunar Polar Volatiles... Lunar Lander project team continuing with Risk Reduction technology development and examining lander bus applications to other lunar science missions GLUC... Internal Robotic Lander Project Activities Status • Conducted a Single Site Lunar Polar Volatiles... – – – – Single stationary polar lander to permanently shadowed lunar crater. ASRG powered and..., NASA Internal 6 Notional Science Payload Lander Payload Element Objective Drill and... drill MSL delivery system implementation, lander packaging. Deliver drill material to...-Decisional, For, NASA Internal 7 LPV Lander Concept comparison ILN Design Approach... 9 or Atlas V 401 -511 • Single lander on Atlas V 401 (ASRG mission... Use Only Deltas For highlighted Lander Configuration Neutron Spectrometer (deployed) Drill... for Flight Robotic Lander Design: Phase 1 (Cold Gas) Robotic Lander Testbed - Cold... airless bodies – Emulates robotic flight lander design for thruster configuration in... Development Approach for Flight Robotic Lander Design: Phase 2 (Warm Gas) Warm... – Designed to emulate Robotic Flight Lander design sensor suite, software environment... Hot-Fire Tests for Robotic Lunar Lander  Objective: a) Leveraging DOD thruster technology...: Composite panel fabrication and testing, lander leg stability testing, star motor... hold awaiting Decadal Survey results • Lander bus design has been refined... present an opportunity for a robotic lunar lander to support exploration objectives GLUC...



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... silane from lunar materials as a propellant to combine with lunar-produced oxygen... cache in the lunar vicinity. This necessitates a particular lunar staging point. Although... as well as lunar orbits) is possible, a polar lunar orbit has been... the lunar period (lunar month) so that alignments for Earth departure and lunar... change accomplished entering lunar orbit. For this study, lunar orbit altitude was... - A M I V A L O U T - O F R I N E ANGLE [m TRANSFER ORBITA N 0 LUNAR ORBIT) ~ -PLANE CHANGE ENTERING LUNAR OREIT Figure 6. Problem... change entering lunar orbit leaves the plane change departing lunar orbit as...~st) PLANE CHANGE IN LUNAR ORBlT O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided by... resupply scenario presumed a lunar base crew of 12, lunar staytime of 164... on the lunar surface, the surface-refueling and orbiting lunar station (OLS... without lunar resources. The ILSS mode also expendsa stage,the lunar lander, and... to lunar orbit and the propellant to be transfered to the lander after its return from the lunar surface. If... not constrained by lunar orbit selection factors.Its lunar stage is a somewhat... operations in zero g, as the lander stage must be loaded with... I r u K n O N (TI4 • RElROFlRETO LUNAR ORBIT &SURFACE LANDING STAGE 2 R E W N S ON LUNAR BOOSTTO TU RETROFIRETO... LO Figure 9. Comparison of lunar mission modes LUNAR STAnON (LUNAR ORBIT. n n L o ORBIT. OR..., one for the lunar orbit and one for the lander. This avoids..., the lunar lander and its crew cab were assumed jettisoned in lunar orbit to reduce Earth departure mass. O Lunar and Planetary... Name - Booster Lunar Propellant Stage Pro~ellant Orbit Lander from Load State... metric tons of lunar surface payload plus a lander to lunar orbit using two... major transportation elements. Lunar Base Description The lunar base model examined was... scienceand some lunar materials utilization.With this base model, lunar oxygen production... oxygen is provided for a Reusable Lunar Lander/Launcher (R-LEM) so that only... metric tons of propellants). 2. Expendable Lunar Lander (E-Lander)-A LX),/LH, landing stage with... Lunar Lander/Launcher (R-LEM)-A 5 metric ton L02/LH2 single-stage vehicle using lunar-produced 0, for propellant. 6. Reusable Lunar Landing Manned Module... maintained and stored at the lunar base. O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided... Launch Manifest and Lunar Mission Schedule Cargo Wt* Lunar Flight No. Flight... Dec 5- 12 3 100 100 21 E-lander, +base element #I L5- 1 SD-ULV... E-lander, +base element #2 100 SDULV LOWLH2 propellant supply unit STS-ACC E-lander, +base element #3 100 SDULV LOWLH2 propellant supply unit STS-ACC E-lander, +base element #4 100 SDULV LOWLH2 propellant supply unit STS-ACC E-lander... 100 20 L5-5 STS-ACC E-lander, +E-UMM/Ascent, +OMM, +4 crew +2 ton...; Check out cargo; & mate stack; -(2 W s , E-lander, and base element) Prepare (Check...; Check out cargo; & mate stack; -(2 W s , E-lander, and base element) 0 100 0 100...; Check out cargo; & mate stack; -(2 W s , E-lander, and base element) 0 100 L5... stack; -(2 W s , E-lander, and base element) 0 100 Manned Sortie Prepare 2 W s and E-lander; Check OMM, ELLMM/Ascent; mate stack -(2 W s , OMM, E-LLMM/Ascent, & E-lander); And transfer crew to OMM MS-(4M t2t Prepare 2 W s and E-lander...; mate stack -(2 W s , OMM, E-LLMM/Ascent, & E-lander); And transfer crew to OMM... unit 100 Feb 6-2 STS-ACC E-lander, +base element #5 21 April 6-3 SD... unit 100 May 6-4 STS-ACC E-lander, +E-LLMM/Ascent, +OMM,+4 crew +2 ton... unit 100 Aug 6-6 STS-ACC E-lander, +base element #6 21 Oct 6-7 SD... unit 100 Nov 6-8 STS-ACC E-lander, +E-LLMM/Ascent, +OMM,+4 crew +2 ton... out cargo; & mate stack; -(2 dVs, E-lander, and base element) 0 L6-2 MS... E-lander; Check OMM, ELLMM/Ascent; mate stack -(2 dVs, OMM, E-LLMM/Ascent, & E-lander... out caigo; & mate stack; -(2 dVs, E-lander, and base element) 0 L6-4 MS... E-lander; and OMM; Checkout E-LLMM/Ascent; Mate Stack -(2 W s , OMM, E-LLMM/Ascent, & E-Lander... a pair of CrrVs with an E-Lander and an unmanned base element... depamng space station with lander and module. O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided...-lunar injection burn; 3-jiirst stage returns to space station;4-second stage, lander, and manned module insert into lunar orbit; 5-lander descends; 6-ascent stage departs lunar... for both the W and the lunar lander. Such propellant is only the... W s , plus a lunar lander, plus various manned and unmanned lunar carg6 elements. O Lunar and Planetary... the lander and the manned module and for heling the lander. It... planetary mission launch from lunar orbit using lunar produced oxygen for propellant...; 6-jettison MOV aeroshell; 7-lander and orbiter separate; 8-lander enters Mars atmosphere; 9-landing... rendezvous and asteroid/comet survey; 5-lander on surface, spacecrafl in orbit.... 7. Examination of lunar orbital photography shows that this site O Lunar and Planetary... of silane from lunar materials may require a key, lunar-produced intermediate, magnesium...



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Lunar Lander Configurations Incorporating Accessibility, Mobility, and ... a human lunar lander, known as the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). A practical lunar lander must... operations on the lunar surface, which drive needs for lander mobility and ease of transfer between the lander cabin... suited to a mobile lander. Concept 3 is a single stage lander which descends and... has explored a diverse set of lunar lander designs. Lockheed Martin participated in... set of concepts for a human lunar lander including the exploration of a wide... human lunar landers which address propulsion design issues associated with the lander... a ‘taxi’ rather than a ‘camper.’ The lander should support the crew for... live in the lander for weeks at a time. The lander should also be compatible with eventual transition to lunar-produced... other practical propellant combination. III. Lunar Lander Design Philosophy A. Cryogenic Design Principles.../LH2 propulsion for a two-stage lander with ESAS-like design requirements... a potential design solution that satisfies a lander’s needs. Requirements for minimum mass... LO2/LH2 propulsion for the lander reduces system mass, especially when... long mission duration requirements, the lander will need to control the... improvements that can satisfy the lunar lander thermal requirements. The improved cryo... guide the design of a cryogenic lander. Figure 3. Multiple LO2 and LH2... complexity of the baseline ESAS lunar lander. Image courtesy of John Frassanito... not be too severe. Because lander configurations are efficient passive LO2... is more reliable. For the lander application Common Bulkhead described in... this application. Therefore, a single engine lander can use the existing RL10... before flight. The first two lander concepts presented here use unusual... And Cargo Access to Lunar Surface Once the lander arrives on the... difficult to configure a large cryogenic lander to do this well. Due... propellant tanks and engines, many lander configurations place the crew and... surface. The lander designed for NASA’s 1992 First Lunar Outpost study required... of the lander. A few medium sized cargos, such as unpressurized lunar rovers..., uncrewed, cargo missions. The same lander system proposed for crew can.... Cargo must be considered for lunar lander design in part because of... three scenarios in which a mobile lander will be useful. During initial... effectively. For this scenario the lander can have very slow mobility... to implement. Lander mobility will also be valuable once a lunar base has been established. When the lander touches down...’s 2006 Request for Information on Lunar Lander Concepts Studies7, and internally generated... include: The lander carries 4 astronauts to the lunar surface. The lander is responsible for performing a 1100 m/s (3609 ft/s) Lunar... 1: Dual Thrust Axis Lander The Dual Thrust Axis lander uses an axial... initial deceleration phase. The Concept 1 lunar lander implements this design approach using... the lander at low velocity a few thousand feet above the lunar surface... of lateral thrusters around the lander enables management of widely varying... Figure 6. The Dual Thrust Axis lander satisfies the opposing objectives of... and local environment. The horizontal lander configuration is optimal for the... support systems. V. Concept 2: Retro-Propulsion Lander Concept 2 is similar to Concept... Concept 1 (Fig. 13). If the lander is visiting a surface outpost, the.... For this reason the Concept 2 lander is configured for a 7 day surface... mission. VI. Concept 3: Single Stage Lander Concept 3 takes advantage of the... stage lander to perform LOI, descent, landing, and ascent to lunar orbit... concept. In the past, most lunar lander concepts have been two-stage... concluded that a single stage cryogenic lander would probably be less expensive... a single stage lander can even be lighter than a twostage lander. Many engineers... if the lander is responsible for the LOI burn, the lander mission... the lunar surface. lower than for a launch vehicle. Building a single stage lander... subsystem-level modeling of the lander shows that single stage designs... of time in the lander cabin. The Concept 3 lander has plenty of... has significant benefits for the lunar lander. Minimum mass, practical heat leak... for limited mobility. The three lander concepts presented in this paper... geometric issues of a cryogenic vertical lander. The large service module can... payloads to the lunar surface. 2) The Concept 2 Retro-Propulsion Lander jettisons its... lander with easy surface access. This approach is attractive for a mobile lander... base 3) The Concept 3 Single Stage Lander is potentially the least expensive... abort options than a two stage lander and requires better thermal management... B. “Comparison of Propulsion Options for a Lunar Lander Ascent Stage” AIAA-2005-6740..., September 2005. 7 NASA JSC Solicitation: Lunar Lander Concept Studies, May 25, 2006...



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... PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR AN UNMANNED LUNAR CARGO LANDER Submitted James NATIONAL Advanced... UNMANNED LUNAR CARGO LANDER The first vehicles to land on the lunar surface during the establishment phase of a lunar base will be unmanned lunar... be protected against the hostile lunar environment for six to twelve... manned mission arrives. changes The lunar environment is characterized by large... protection system for an unmanned lunar cargo lander. The protection system is... packaged and stored above the lander common module. After landing, the... is deployed to cover the lander using a system of inflatable struts... the fuel tanks. Once the lander is unloaded and the protection... the common module, or as a lunar surface garage that can be used to sort and store lunar surface vehicles and equipment. The..., Thermal Protection, Spacecraft Protection, Micrometeorite, Lunar ' Lander t "2 1 :_.... C_los ., ;,.._._._ me. t_ too....5 With sides both lander (A = ltR[,+ lander on absorbed the solar lunar covered, the... Moon x 10-8 (ix) = 0.2, coating on lunar are: T= C1 4=234K=_39C - of... degrees Celsius and the daytime lander temperature therefore remains lower than... micrometeorite (R') and length The the lander is Aland life (t) of the...-6 grams: where ANALYSIS (L) of the lander surface area of a semi- = r_R... suggested that lead lander available micrometeorite high and lander concept data is... lander nor of any team Blanket an atmosphere, meteorite probability protection lunar... on the decreasing protection struts lander (s) between inflatable system have are... inflated, diameter the design Minimum lander can occur hyper When thickness... a bumper lander. to use an is provided. spallation the lander and the lunar a cross The chose Wall the lander wall... system wall provides lander wall thickness of the lander sufficient protection. is... kilograms, cargo capacity of the lunar lander. which is 1.3 percent of the... a single axis of H2 Figure H-l" LANDER SHOWING PROTECTION IN CONCEPTUAL CONTAINER...