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... Return mission and the ESA Lunar Lander. CSA intends to capitalize on... Mars lander and Osiris-Rex asteroid sample return missions Exomars, Lunar and... phase in 2012. Chang'e 3 is a lunar lander, fitted with a 100-kilogram rover... in preparation of landing mission Lunar Lander and rover 2015 In development... 3 Laboratory, Change'e 1 and 2 Moon orbiters, Lunar lander and rover in Change'e-3 CASC.... Lunar Lander: Though Mars is the current focus of ESA robotic activities, a Lunar Lander... Lander (Astrium UK) - 41 - COFSEP – Final report 2003 Launched SMART-1 ESA Lunar...-chargeable lithium-ion batteries Qinetiq Lander communication system Teldix Wheels Intespace... Rosetta ESA Comet orbiter and lander Spacecraft platform (Astrium UK) Spacecraft..., BepiColombo), and also leading the Lunar Lander program. With its three main... as the Philae lander in Rosetta or the Mascot lander in Japanese... the lander. Global architecture of the lander ground segment, Comet orbiter and lander... sample return with a possible Asteroid lander (MASCOT) Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale MicrOmega... Sample return with a possible Asteroid lander (MASCOT) Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale MicrOmega... with the development of the Lunar Lander in which Germany was the... in robotic mission is the Lunar Lander, which could be launched by... the Phase A of the ESA Lunar Lander and hopes to convince enough... to participate to the ESA Lunar Lander mission, by providing an in... orbiter DLR for the lander Comet orbiter and lander to study the... 2008 Launched Chandrayaan1 ISRO 2014 Lander not approved Hayabusa-2 JAXA Euroconsult... sample return with a possible Asteroid lander (MASCOT) CDA (Cosmic Dust Analyser... Acoustic Monitoring Experiment) ROLIS (Rosetta Lander Imaging System) COSIMA (Cometary Secondary...-2 JAXA Lunar landing mission GEMS (Geophysical Monitoring Station) NASA Mars Lander to... for Solar System Research Exomars Lunar Lander Candidate MarcoPolo R mission * At PI... 2012 ESA / Roscosmos ESA ESA Lunar lander fitted with a robotic rover that... sample return with a possible Asteroid lander (MASCOT) BELA (BepiColombo Laser Altimeter... structures for re-usable launchers, Lunar lander studies ISS/Colombus life support.... Russia recently announced that the lunar lander for Chandrayaan-2 incorporated technologies that... able to develop its own lunar lander before 2013. In its 2012... and lander to search for sub-surface water Comet orbiter and lander... an advance lander and rover that would explore the Lunar South Pole... support. Hayabusa-2 could include a small lander, MASCOT, developed jointly by DLR... Launched Muses-C (Hayabusa) JAXA Asteroid lander and sample return JAXA Institute... Asteroid sample return with a possible lander developed by DLR Tokoho University... and release a lander on the surface on the lunar surface to carry... develop a joint mission involving a lunar orbiter, a lander and a rover. The configuration of... the Russian lunar lander. The mission cost is unknown. Lunokhod Lunar Rovers In... and presently includes a main orbiter, a lander and an additional small satellite... 1999 Launched Mars Polar Lander NASA Mars lander IKI LIDAR (Light Detection... LASMA (Laser mass-spectrometer) Lunar orbiter and lander ADRON ( Active neutron and...) NPO Lavochkin Development of the Lunar lander to release the Indian-built... objective of launching a lunar orbiter in 2020 and a lunar lander by 2025. However... drop a lander on the Martian surface 2003 Launched SMART-1 ESA Lunar orbiter... and Lander 2008 Launched 2018 Planned Chandrayaan-1 ISRO Lunar orbiter Exomars ESA Lander... SciSys Beagle-2 Ground segment and lander software University of Wales, Aberystwyth... experience Comments Rosetta platform, Beagle-2 lander, Exomars rover, propulsion sub-systems... Centre (MSFC) for the future Lunar Lander. Budget dedicated to Space and... Lunar Lander program. Though this Lander will be developed as part of the Lunar... 1998 $655 million Mars Polar Lander Lander 1998 $165 million 2001 Mars... orbit insertion Mars Polar Lander NASA Robotic spacecraft lander to study the... in Mars missions developing a commercial Lunar lander high temperature materials (Shuttle, Orion... and rovers (Exomars 2016 Demonstration lander, Exomars 2018) will combine capability... Luna Glob Moon Moon Chandrayaan-2 Lunar Lander (not approved) Lunokhod-3 (not approved... Lunar Lander, 2018: achieve precise soft landing near the South Pole Moon Lander... living conditions assessment Chandrayaan-2, 2016: Lander which will release the Indian... Mars Exomars, 2016: European Demonstration Lander Mars Rover Exomars, 2018: European... the launch of a Lander and a Rover on the Lunar surface. As ESA... intended to develop a Lunar orbiter by 2020 and a Lunar lander by 2025. These... was responsible for developing a demonstration Lander, which is a capability currently not... funding of exploration missions (Exomars, Lunar Lander) but not invest sufficiently in... ATV and Lunar lander to develop a Cargo Lunar Lander which would resupply the Lunar base...: Invite India to participate to Lunar Lander / Lunar Polar Sample Return mission possibly...



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... Mars Programs................................................................... 42 Chinese Lunar Programs..................................................................................... 43 Indian Lunar Space Missions.............................................................................. 44... Launchers............................................................................................................. 89 Earth Observation................................................................................................ 97 Lunar and Mars Space Exploration..................................................................... 99... was born. A generation for which Lunar habitats, Mars missions and interplanetary... satellites and the construction of lunar solar power stations. CHAPTER 6: COMPETITIVENESS... development of autonomous space operations, lunar and planetary resource utilisation1, reconfigurable... technology innovation. 3.7 Ansari X-Prizeand Google Lunar X-prize International competitions for encouraging... Lunar X-prize. The objective of the Google Lunar X PRIZE is to land a lunar rover on the lunar surface... witness the creation of Lunar Solar Power Stations. Lunar mining and solar..., from Google Lunar X-prize: http://www.googlelunarxprize.org/lunar/about-the-prize....com/missionlaunches/progress_iss_020425.html ENDNOTES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Lunar and planetary resource utilisation, such... was born; a generation for which Lunar habitats, Mars missions and interplanetary... Cordless tools- drills, dust vacuums Lunar boots Hospital monitoring equipment Water... Module (CSM), the Lunar Module (LM) and the Lunar Rover. The Apollo... of a lunar landing system, enabling implementation of autonomous, automatic European lunar exploration and participation in international human lunar surface missions... autonomous lunar Lander that will be delivery cargo and logistics to the lunar surface. Figure 4 shows an overview of the European Lunar Logistics Lander which will be a logistics and cargo Lander. Europe... Space Exploration Concepts Figure 4. European lunar logistics lander (ESA, 2008) the use... Switch to a stationary ‘headlight’ shaped lander with frontal heat shield 1987... reliability Change shape of the lander 1988 Replacement of nuclear power... Switch from one lander to two (a manned and a logistics lander) Copyright © 2011... for possible Lunar visits by 2030. It launched the lunar mission Muses.../missions/nozomi/ JAXA. (2008). Japans Lunar Exploration. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from... already built a Lunar base and solar energy generating lunar farms. However, launch... 100 kilo spacecraft carries a small lander that will land on the... consists of a small orbiter and a lander that will perform an analysis... re-entry vehicle Developing a Logistics Lunar Lander Developing Life Support and Environmental... SELENE-X advanced Lander, there will be plans for Human Lunar exploration. The... a human-rated launcher and develop a lunar lander and transform the HTV into... by Japanese astronauts Technology Development Lunar orbit insertion & observation from orbit... & geophysics Development of a large scale lander Lunar utilization Remote sensing of surface... Construction demonstration on the Moon Lunar observatory International Collaboration Data exchange... Europe’s technology competencies for future Lunar and Mars exploration. The increased.../index_e.html Kawaguchi, J. (2008). Japan’s lunar exploration program. Presentation on October..., T., & Kato, M. (2008). The Next Japanese Lunar Mission, SELENE-2: Present Status and.... Paper presented at the NLSI Lunar Science Conference. Tkatchova, S. (2006). From... Sector ISS flights SpaceShipOne flights Lunar Hotels Space Ports Parabolic Flights... for generating oxygen and supporting a lunar base (Ghose, 2010) Planetary resources... possibility to develop long term Lunar base. Potential evidence of interplanetary... the possibility of constructing lunar hotels for future lunar space tourists. These... indicates consumer interest. The Google Lunar X-prize is an international competition... of a lunar probe that will take images of the Lunar surface. The... landing a lunar probe that can travel 500 meters over the lunar surface... in the Google Lunar X-prize or being involved in lunar space tourism... (i.e indirect benefits). REFERENCES Adventures, S. (2010). Lunar Mission. Retrieved May 24, 2010...-north-pole/ Google Lunar X-prize. (2010). About the Google Lunar X-prize. Retrieved May 24, 2010 from http://www.googlelunarxprize.org/lunar... critical competencies and technologies (i.e. lunar orbiter, landers, lunar rovers, habitats, etc.) for... ExoMars mission and the future Lunar lander, as already initially presented in..., EADS Astrium Germany for the lander platform, OHB for the mechanical.... Planetary resource utilization refers to lunar and planetary resource utilisation, such... satellite 167 Lunar habitats 30 Lunar Module (LM) 32 Lunar Rover 32 Lunar Solar...



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... 20, 2006 www.nasa.gov Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program Schedule... Ball Aerospace Teledyne Brown Raytheon 2 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program Brief... Primary responsibility of the NASA Lunar Precursor Robotic Program is to... missions to achieve NASA’s robotic lunar exploration objectives. This will be... interfaces Building constituencies in the lunar exploration community Defining specific requirements... Industry Day, October 20, 2006 3 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program Robotic... Resolve the unknowns of the lunar polar regions Knowledge of the... (ie, ISRU) Operational experience in lunar environment Create new opportunities for... 20, 2006 4 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program NASA’s Robotic Lunar Exploration Objectives National Aeronautics & Space Administration Objectives for lunar robotic missions: Global mapping of the lunar surface Identify... and sustainable Locate and characterize lunar volatiles Characterize sunlight and surface... exploration Gain operational experience in lunar environments Provide opportunities for industry... Industry Day, October 20, 2006 5 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program Apollo... Administration Apollo had three (Ranger, Lunar Orbiter and Surveyor) robotic exploration... close-up photos of the lunar surface 2. Lunar Orbiters provided medium & high... data to enable sustainable exploration Lunar Orbiter Mock-up in Smithsonian... Industry Day, October 20, 2006 6 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program LPRP... Lunar Robotic Missions 22 23 24 25 Lunar Outpost Buildup 7th Human Lunar... Operations Early Design Activity Lunar Lunar Lander Lander Development Development Lunar Lunar Heavy Heavy Launch Launch... Industry Day, October 20, 2006 7 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program LPRP... ‹ Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS ‹ Lander Sunlight Mission ‹ Small Satellite Mission ‹ Lander Crater Mission with Rover LPRP Industry Day, October 20, 2006 8 Lunar... National Aeronautics & Space Administration Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar mapping, topography, radiation... 2006 Launch: Late October 2008 Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite... Industry Day, October 20, 2006 9 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program LRO... (>200K) Polar coverage 2-month duration Lunar Prospector No imager on-board... Polar coverage 1-yr duration 11 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program LRO... to Other Current Lunar Missions National Aeronautics & Space Administration Lunar orbital missions... Day, October 20, 2006 12 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program LCROSS... to a permanently shadowed region of a lunar pole Observe the impact and... extended OH exosphere Characterize the lunar regolith within the ejecta plume... Day, October 20, 2006 13 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program LPRP... (NOTIONAL) National Aeronautics & Space Administration ‹ Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS Note... concepts for Small Satellite and Lander are only Notional. No decision... concept development. ‹ Lander Sunlight Mission ‹ Small Satellite Mission ‹ Lander Crater Mission with... 20, 2006 14 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program Lander Sunlight Mission (NOTIONAL) National Aeronautics & Space Administration Overview Develop common lander to land in sunlight near lunar pole to characterize environment and deposits Lander becomes standard... Biological radiation response characterization Characterize lunar dust and charging environment Possible... g a i e/D m 15 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program Element Summary – Common Lander (NOTIONAL) National Aeronautics & Space Administration Overview Common Lander designed to... Day, October 20, 2006 16 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program LPRP... ‹ Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS ‹ Lander Sunlight Mission ‹ Small Satellite Mission ‹ Lander Crater... Day, October 20, 2006 17 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program Small... capability Concept of Operations - Notional Lunar orbiter microsat bus 3-axis Stabilized... Day, October 20, 2006 18 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program Small... the surface Lofted dust characterization Lunar exosphere composition and evolution VLF... Low cost advanced communications demonstrations Lunar navigation system (GPS elements) Technology... Day, October 20, 2006 19 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program LPRP... ‹ Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS ‹ Lander Sunlight Mission ‹ Small Satellite Mission ‹ Lander Crater... 20, 2006 20 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program Lander Crater Mission with... the crater floor by the lander (which expires shortly after rover... Day, October 20, 2006 21 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program Data... Day, October 20, 2006 22 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program Conclusions... is configured to support human lunar return by providing key strategic... being worked Initial missions are Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS; both... Day, October 20, 2006 23 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program What... part of a robust and sustainable lunar exploration architecture Critical, yet modest...



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... ................................................................................................................................ 45 Service Offering....................................................................................................................................... 45 Proprietary Lander .................................................................................................................................. 45 Payload Capacity ..................................................................................................................................... 46 Pricing... developing lunar landers with aspirations of reaching the lunar surface. A market for lunar... proposed lander capacity at 500 kilograms. Company / Institution Technology Griffin Lander Astrobotic Polaris Rover Red Rover Chang'e 3 Lander China Chang'e 3 Rover ESA / Astrium Lunar Lander Moon Express Common Spacecraft Bus Mighty Eagle Lander NASA Morpheus Lander Penn State Lunar Lion Lander/Rover Russia... 1: LUNAR LANDER STATUS DETAILS 4 Lunar Payload Markets This study analyzes the demand for lunar... of payload affixed to the lander or rover. This is different... by Astrobotic through its own lander and rovers. Markets & Services: Resource... from satellite deployment to lunar orbit and lunar Lagrange points, driven by... payloads such as a lunar lander or satellite while in lunar orbit (similar to... seekers Lunar hotel / outpost developers Manned lunar missions (Government & civil) Plans for lunar... the lunar surface or from a satellite at lunar orbit or a lunar Lagrange point... the lunar tourism market. Technology Test & Demonstration The lunar surface and lunar orbit... of future human and robotic lander vehicles and exploration systems. The... the lunar surface. 23 Military Reconnaissance Chang’e 3 is the lander for a lunar exploration mission operated by China National Space Administration, incorporating a robotic lander... 2020 including: Luna 25 – Glob Lander (2015), Luna 26 – Glob Orbiter... extrapolate a healthy demand for lunar science and lunar reconnaissance. Therefore national governments.../orbital vehicles. However, the lunar surface and lunar orbit provide an entirely... the team’s lunar lander scheduled for 2015(?). Additionally, the Chang’e 3 lunar lander will carry an astronomical telescope making it the world’s first lunar... lunar orbit and delivering scientific payloads to the lunar surface. Astronomy The lunar surface and lunar orbit will... produce fuel on the lunar surface, from lunar rocks and regolith. A variety... lunar surface through robotic missions. Collecting lunar material and bringing it to a lunar... crews to the lunar surface aboard the Griffin lander. Advertising There are... rights as well for the lander, rover, or other hardware. In... the rover will operate. The lunar lander is likely to get a lot... estimates naming rights of the lander to be half that of... placed on the physical lander, rover, and other lunar hardware. These activities... annual naming rights of the lunar lander and rover for a combined 4 payload... and sponsorship on the lander and other lunar hardware for an equivalent... for naming rights for the lander, rover, and logos & sponsorship by...: Primary: 1. 2. 3. 4. Trans-lunar injection or satellite deployment to lunar orbit/lunar Lagrange points Stationary LunarCube delivery to lunar surface aboard lander Mobile LunarCube delivery on the lunar surface aboard rover Customized payload delivery to lunar surface aboard lunar lander... Proprietary Lander Currently, Astrobotic is the only GLXP team that has a lunar lander to get them from lunar orbit to the lunar surface which.... Further testing and more accurate lander success rates will come following... only other GLXP team with a lander in an advanced stage of... the spacebus prototype dubbed the Lander Test Vehicle (LTV). Moon Express... spacecraft bus technology as their lunar lander in the GLXP competition. Payload... lunar orbit/Lagrange points, 3) payload delivery to lunar surface aboard the Griffin lander, and 4) payload delivery to lunar surface.... Full pricing for TLI, orbit, lander, and rover payload deliveries can... Pricing ($millions) Trans-lunar Injection (TLI) Lunar Orbit Lander to surface Rover (mobile... because they are using a government lander and the full cost of..., build, and test their Griffin lander for $450k. Bob Richards, CEO... map, radiation environment. Mission 2: Fixed Lander. Precision landing, dust characterization, regolith... south polar region. Mission 4: Mobile Lander. Water presence in 20 sites..., effects of lunar environment on life and mechanical structures. Mission 5: Lander Rover...



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... have their eyes turned toward lunar exploration including the U.S., Germany, China..., or compete with, the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) and... to follow, for example, a common lunar reference system to ease cooperation... Orion crew capsule, and the lunar lander, Altair. NASA projects an initial... hardware to space— from the lunar landing craft and materials for... Over,” 61. Frank Morring Jr, “Lunar Rocket Engine Passes CDR,” Aviation... the Moon missions. Altair, the lunar lander, is also in development. Currently... missions. One such probe, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), is scheduled... missions is to create a detailed lunar map, which will help in... understanding of such areas as lunar topography and resources. 248 In... "Altair" as Name for Astronauts' Lunar Lander,” NASA, (2008), http://www.nasa... (accessed 2 March 09). 247 “NASA Lunar Spacecraft Ships South in Preparation.... 249 Frank Morring Jr, “NASA Lunar Orbiter to Join International Constellation... the only organization interested in lunar exploration; ESA is forging ahead... stated by the ESA First Lunar Lander: Request for Information (RFI), Coordinated... European contribution to international human lunar exploration, and to progressively advance... mission goals for the first lunar landing mission. These goals are... the Moon, to characterize the lunar environment and potential in situ... lunar missions will yield data to be incorporated with other agencies’ lunar... to foster international cooperation in lunar exploration. In 2005, the annual... an endless 250 Lunar Exploration Team, ESA First Lunar Lander: Request for Information... group to formulate standardisation of lunar data archives.” 255 Since then... 2008, the conference addressed international lunar surface operations. It is the... from the very beginning’ of lunar collaboration to avoid a ‘situation when... Global Exploration Strategy, NASA developed a lunar plan with input from 14..., and Neelam Mathews. “As Coming Lunar Collaboration Takes Shape, Nations Scramble... 2007). 258 Rob Coppinger, “International Lunar Cooperation is Advancing, but Faces... the use of an Ariane 5 lunar landing system to autonomously deliver... lunar cargo landing systems, communication and navigation systems, lunar orbital infrastructures, and lunar... Unveils Global Exploration Strategy and Lunar Architecture,” NASA Release 06-361... stages. It is true that lunar probe missions and the data... Feelings over Success of Phoenix Lander,” USA Today (21 July 2008... regions. 268 Recently, the Phoenix lander found ice at Mars’ north... use of the ISS and a lunar base to serve as an... Program. Mars Express (with its lander, Beagle 2) was launched in June... for Mars Sample Return Mission,” Lunar and Planetary Institute, 11 December... NASA and ESA numerous probe, lander, and rover missions to the... in motion. Testing of the lunar lander, Altair, is projected to begin... also released an RFI for a lunar lander. Most importantly, however, is the... a significant interest in development of lunar landers, communications, navigation, infrastructures, and... crew capsule, and the Altair lunar lander. The combination of Ares I and... significant interest in development of lunar landers, communications, navigation, infrastructures, and...’s recent request for information for a lunar lander and in NASA’s plan to... October 2008). Coppinger, Rob. “International Lunar Cooperation is Advancing, but Faces... (May 1985). Morring Jr, Frank. “Lunar Rocket Engine Passes CDR,” Aviation... (34): 5. Morring Jr, Frank. “NASA Lunar Orbiter to Join International Constellation... and Neelam Mathews. “As Coming Lunar Collaboration Takes Shape, Nations Scramble... Feelings over Success of Phoenix Lander.” USA Today, July 21, 2008... Exploration Conference, 2005. Lunar Exploration Team. ESA First Lunar Lander: Request for Information... for Mars Sample Return Mission.” Lunar and Planetary Institute, 11 December... ‘Altair’ as Name for Astronauts' Lunar Lander.” NASA (2008). http://www.nasa... (accessed 02 March 09). “NASA Lunar Spacecraft Ships South in Preparation... Unveils Global Exploration Strategy and Lunar Architecture.” NASA Release 06-361...



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... spacecraft will carry three separate lunar surface systems, which should be... Earth orbit, for long-duration lunar stays, and especially for eventual... each carry 16 instruments. Using lunar gravity-assist swingbys, they were...’s future Mars exploration plan: a stationary lander called Phoenix, scheduled for launch... be launched in 2013; and a lander mission in 2016 that could... projects: a Mars Long-Lived -43- Lander Network, a grid of science stations... of a $73-million, 880-kg Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... with the LRO, India’s Chandrayaan lunar orbiter and other spacecraft. The... Lunar Exploration Programme (RLEP), its next planned mission, RLEP-2, will be a lander... spacecraft will carry three separate lunar surface systems: ten High-Speed... Apollo crews. The Polar Station lander is to be released from... and another seismometer to the lunar surface. The Vernadsky Institute of... the nations planning their first lunar explorations; i.e. Japan, China, and India... to Russia in 2012. The lander will be designed to remain.... Funding for Russia’s ambitious new lunar and planetary exploration programme, which... highly successful mission, ESA’s Smart-1 lunar orbiter was guided to a controlled...,000 worth study of a future lunar-lander exploration project. OHB is designing... contribution to a European or international lunar exploration programme. Japan’s Hayabusa spacecraft..., an imaging spectrometer to assess lunar mineral resources. The official memoranda... and propulsion research applicable to lunar and planetary exploration. The Florida.... The teams participating in the Lunar Lander Analog Challenge were rated on... China’s multi-step lunar -81- exploration programme: a lunar orbiter mission in 2007... invited Russia’s participation in cooperative lunar and planetary exploration programmes. During... space. After a 14month cruise, SMART-1’s lunar capture took place on 15..., followed by a spiralling down to a lunar orbit with a 450 km perilune... resources for future exploration. SMART-1 lunar science investigations included studies of... preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission addressed several... with a controlled impact in the lunar Lake of Excellence on 3 September... the data from the SMART-1, Lunar Prospector and Clementine missions into... and data relay), and for lunar environment studies (magnetometer/plasma imager... the Japanese lunar exploration programme, the SELENE-B mission (with a lander element and a demonstration of technologies for future lunar exploration) is... with the objectives of studying lunar origin and evolution, producing a 3-D atlas... mapper, radar). -116- Lunar-A, an ISAS Japanese lunar penetrator mission, is being... Frontiers programme. A new mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), is being... and a geodetic grid, and survey lunar resources. Its instruments include a camera... detector, a surface temperature mapper, and a lunar radiation environment sensor. A current proposal... be launched together with the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... is aimed at studying the lunar regolith and characterizing potential polar... agencies have performed studies of lunar lander missions in the context of... future human exploration. The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILWEG) has... Beijing in July 2006, a ‘Beijing Lunar Declaration’ with 13 recommendations was... the Phoenix 2007 Mars Scout lander and the 2009 Mars Science... Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS), and a lander. The lander, Beagle 2, was planned to be... environment analysis sensors. The Beagle-2 lander, after a nominal separation from the... could be established with the lander after that point. Following commissioning... the extended mission. Two identical lander missions (Mars Exploration Rovers) were... a lander that was intended for use by 2001’s Mars Surveyor lander prior... on the lost Mars Polar Lander. Phoenix will land on the... orbiter with eleven experiments and a lander with nine further experiments. The.... The orbiter will deploy the lander after the first year of... GEO solar array panels, and lunar dust simulants, creation, and transport... good prospects for applications for Lunar and Mars exploration missions. Some... improved orbit solutions for Clementine, Lunar Prospector and Mars Global Surveyor... NASA’s Phoenix mission (a Category IVc lander) is being developed for launch... CNES CNRS CNSA COBE Geochemical lander module (UK) Imaging microsatellite (China... X-Ray Observatory (NASA) Lunar mission (India) Lunar orbiter (China) Lunar rover (China) Sample... Chandrayaan-1 Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer US Lunar orbiter NASA/CSA satellite A mission... Year Imaging Infrared Radiometer International Lunar Exploration Working Group International Living... Pathfinder LPMA LSS LTCS LTE Lunar Prospector LUNAR-A LWS MaCWAVE MAGED MAP... Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph experiment Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... NASA Discovery Program mission Japanese lunar penetrator mission (ISAS) Living With... Planetary Fourier Spectrometer NASA Mars Lander Principal Investigator Positive Ion Probe...



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... 8 Lunar Communications and Navigation 75 8.1 Cost-benefit analysis 75 8.2 Future lunar exploration... Iain Crawford (University College London). Lunar communications and navigation: Logica, Partnerships.... → Communications and navigation architecture for lunar exploration. o Full robotic and human... (ISRU) and titanium production  Chapter 8: Lunar communications and navigation  Chapter 9: Robotics... opportunities: Lunar drilling and low cost launch technology NPV Lunar drilling costs... launch technology (the US Altair lunar lander cargo version) is between US... the lunar surface declines and as the UK’s share of lunar oxygen... three (Titanium produced from Rootile, Lunar communications technology and Robotics: dexterous... produced from Rootile (Lunar robots ) 95.0 Lunar communications technology (Lunar robots ) 95.0 Robotics....0 Human decision aides (Lunar base) 78.3 Psychology of humans (Lunar base) 78.3 ISRU - Nuclear power generation (Lunar base) 75... technology: Forward Planetary Protection for lander and rover (Mars robots) 71... acquisition, transfer and encapsulation on lander and rover (Mars robots) 71... in Lunar environment (Lunar base) 63.3 ISRU - Solar power generation and storage (Lunar... in Lunar environment 63.3 Lunar robots ISRU i.e Titanium produced from Rootile 95.0 Lunar... technology: Forward Planetary Protection for lander and rover 71.7 Remote sample... acqusition, transfer and encapsulation on lander and rover 71.7 Robotic Navigation... technology: Forward Planetary Protection for lander and rover and Remote sample... acqusition, transfer and encapsulation on lander and rover, were candidates for... i.e Titanium produced from Rootile 96.2 Lunar communications technology 96.2 Robotics: dexterous... technology: Forward Planetary Protection for lander and rover 70.5 Remote sample... acqusition, transfer and encapsulation on lander and rover 70.5 Robotics: Autonomous... in Lunar environment 64.1 Lunar robots ISRU i.e Titanium produced from Rootile 96.2 Lunar... technology: Forward Planetary Protection for lander and rover 70.5 Remote sample... acqusition, transfer and encapsulation on lander and rover 70.5 Robotics: Autonomous... i.e Titanium produced from Rootile 95.8 Lunar communications technology 95.8 Robotics: dexterous... technology: Forward Planetary Protection for lander and rover 76.4 Remote sample... acqusition, transfer and encapsulation on lander and rover 76.4 Robotic Navigation... in Lunar environment 61.1 Lunar robots ISRU i.e Titanium produced from Rootile 95.8 Lunar... technology: Forward Planetary Protection for lander and rover 76.4 Remote sample... acqusition, transfer and encapsulation on lander and rover 76.4 Robotic Navigation... 2009 36 Section 5 Lunar and terrestrial drilling 5 Lunar and terrestrial drilling In... by specialists in lunar drilling technology. 4 5.1.1 Costs of lunar drilling We model... period beginning in 2013 (including lander, drill and earth operations) Scenario... (again) beginning in 2013 (including lander, drill and earth operations) Scenario... Section 5 Lunar and terrestrial drilling Table 13: Net present values lunar drilling... Section 5 Lunar and terrestrial drilling Table 14: Net present values lunar drilling... for a lunar furnace (within which the electro-deoxidisation of lunar regolith can... technologies. 13 This is lunar stimulant containing lunar ilmenite and was provided... ). If lunar landing zones are in the lunar sea areas, then lunar ilmenite... everyday terrestial use however in a lunar environment different considerations apply. (Information... is 9.4 tonnes using the Altair lunar lander (cargo version). 17 The estimated... supplies 1/4 of lunar oxygen requirements) Costs (UK supplies 1/6 of lunar oxygen requirements) Costs (UK supplies 1/10 of lunar oxygen requirements... 2009 74 Section 8 Lunar Communications and Navigation 8 Lunar Communications and Navigation 8.1 Cost... services for future lunar exploration. The international vision for lunar exploration begins... to design, build and launch lunar communications infrastructure and equipment. Following... International Lunar Network 26 (ILN), requiring six transceivers on the lunar surface... 2009 75 Section 8 Lunar Communications and Navigation Lunar communications relay satellites: An... stations for communications with the lunar infrastructure. According to specialists currently...’s prices). Lunar communications relay satellites According to the predicted future lunar exploration... from the lunar infrastructure to Earth and between the lunar surface and... for lander and rover Remote sample: acquisition, transfer, encapsulation on lander and... Upstream input Downstream final product Lunar communications technology Downstream satellite ISRU... supplying other space nations for lunar exploration purpose Downstream energy generation... (terrestrial) recipient sector supply chain Lunar exploration using robotics increase in... qualitative assessment Space product/service Lunar exploration using robotics ISRU i.e Titanium... qualitative assessment Space product/service Lunar base for Humans Wireless biotelemetry...



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... Republic KOREAN LUNAR LANDER – CONCEPT STUDY FOR LANDING-SITE SELECTION FOR LUNAR RESOURCE... IV, WG IV/8 KEY WORDS: Lunar Lander Mission, Landing Site Selection, Resource... Planning (MSIP) are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach... Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander – currently in pre... and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches – including... landing sites of the Korean lunar lander could be proposed. 1. INTRODUCTION As... on a phase-A study for a Korean Lunar Exploration Program (KLEP) (Ju et... Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) is to be followed by a Korean Lunar Explorer (KLE) which constitutes an orbiter and a lander unit equipped... lunar mission are (1) investigations of lunar geology and space environment, (2) exploration of lunar... data related to lunar resources. For the exploration of lunar resources two... for the potential establishment of lunar bases or (2) future energy resources... also those from previous international lunar missions. The task of landing... 1. Depiction of the Korean rover, lander and orbiter in operation (source... et al., 2012) for arbitrary lunar regions. In combination with elemental... low resolution e.g. obtained by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer (LP... of such potential hazards for lander units will be conducted visually... operation of a rover on the lunar surface. Among prospective landing sites... et al., 2013). 2.2.1 Lunar polar regions: In the lunar polar regions, several... present only at permanently shadowed lunar polar caps. However, there are... be detected also at illuminated lunar polar regions. Surface volatility temperature... elemental form in the polar lunar regolith. OH-containing minerals can... about the practical utilization of lunar resources (Kim, 2016). Other interesting... for performing successful operation of a lunar rover. Solar energy is required... for performing studies of the lunar surface. Earth’s visibility is required... Sun simultaneously from the polar lunar regions. In contrast, landing at... whether science goals focus on lunar geology or resource exploration. The... structure and composition of the lunar interior provide fundamental information on... in the diversity of lunar crustal rocks. 4. The lunar poles are special... part of solar system history. 5. Lunar volcanism provides a window into the... LROC NAC reflectance data. Figure 2. Lunar crater Korolev X (centered at 200... 7. Latitudinal density plot of the lunar Ti distribution between 60° S (left... GRS data. Figure 7 depicts the lunar Ti distribution as a latitudinal density... abundances below 1 wt% corresponds to lunar highlands. Figure 8 shows a Ti abundance... spectra of lunar mare and highland samples published by the Lunar Soil... the general compositional difference between lunar mare and highland areas, while... planned Korean Lunar Exploration Program (KLEP) involving two orbiters and a lander unit... problems of search of some lunar potential resources by spectral methods... Chin, G. and 16 coauthors, 2007. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Overview: The Instrument... might also pose a risk to a lander. Exemplary results of these remote... step consists of initiating a Korean Lunar Mapping Project to examine scientific... on impact melt properties from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images. Icarus... ramifications for FeO and TiO2: Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer observations. J. Geophys... helium-3 spatial distribution in the lunar regolith layer. Icarus, 190, pp... Selection for Nonlinear Unmixing of Lunar Spectra. European Planetary Science Congress... model for petrologic analysis of Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer data..., V. V., 2012. Origin and stability of lunar polar volatiles. Adv. Space Res...-Lawlor, S., Banaszkiewicz, M., Nathues, A., Ullaland, K., 2012. Lunar iron van Gasselt, S., Nass, A., 2013..., A., Belkhir, F., Wöhler, C., 2014. Construction of lunar DEMs based on reflectance modeling... on elemental abundance maps. European Lunar Symposium, London, UK. This contribution..., S.-J., Lee, W. B., Lee, C. J., 2013. New Korean Lunar Exploration Program (KLEP): An Introduction..., C., Naidu, S., 2010. Observations of the lunar impact plume from the LCROSS... Gasselt, S., Berezhnoy, A. A., Rodriguez, J. A. P., Grumpe, A., 2016. Lunar silicon distribution as observed by..., A. et al., 2014. Characterization of lunar soils through spectral features extraction..., R. V., Keller, L. P., 2000. Spectral characterization of lunar mare soils. LPSC XXXI, abstract... for the European Space Agency's Lunar Lander project. Planet. Sp. Sci., 74... Site Evaluation for the Next Lunar Exploration Project: SELENE-2. American Geophysical... resolution from optical interpolation of Lunar Prospector gammaray spectrometer data. Planet..., M. S., Denevi, B. W., LROC science team, 2011. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter camera global morphological..., L. A., Pieters, C. M., Morris, R. V., Keller, L. P., McKay, D. S., 2001. Lunar mare soils: Space weathering and...



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... Morpheus - David Dunlop NASA’s Morpheus lander Technology Demonstration Mission - David Dunlop... #1 December 1986 by the Milwaukee Lunar Reclamation Society chapter of the... with the opening of the Lunar frontier, suggesting how pioneers can... a great successes for the Soviet lunar exploration program. Among its instruments... “contact” possible. Right: NASA's LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) recently discovered the... Moon’s Earth-facing side for lunar meteor impacts for the past... models to simulate formation of lunar craters by asteroid impacts. They... central peak of the prominent lunar crater Tycho The findings of... the moon's gravity uneven, affecting lunar-orbiting spacecraft. http://www.nasa... pull. Mascons lurk beneath the lunar surface and cannot be seen... Science. "GRAIL data confirm that lunar mascons were generated when large...'s bulls-eye is caused by lunar material melted from the heat... by masses hidden beneath the lunar surface. ## NASA Builds Mock Moon...-based robot to conduct simulated lunar tasks. The football field-size... Crew Vehicle parked at the lunar L2 Lagrange Point, where the... the Moon’s farside. A proposed L2 lunar farside piloted mission that uses... by the CRaTER Instrument aboard Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter indicate that space... the Moon's gravity uneven, affecting lunar-orbiting spacecraft. As a result of... gravitational pull. Mascons liebelow the lunar surface and cannot be seen.... The GRAIL data confirms that lunar mascons were generated when large... as mascons." The origin of lunar mascons had been a mystery in.... On a gravity map of the lunar surface, a mascon has a target pattern...'s bulls-eye is caused by lunar material melted from the heat... Australia used computer modeling of lunar gravity and topographic data to... by the CRaTER Instrument aboard Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter indicate that space... Martian soil by NASA's Phoenix lander that plopped down on Mars... best places to target with a lander or study with an orbiter... Peter Diamandis (of the Google Lunar X-Prize team) Introducing “Space Selfies... Development - Executive Director of LUNAX (LUnar National Agriculture eXperimnet) - University of... were Co-Chairs of the Lunar Track. The first day programming... of exploration of lunar lava tubes with a program of lunar scientists including... participation of staff from the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal at... to have a presentation at the lunar by Apollo 11 Astronaut Buzz.... Peter Kokh built a model of a lunar lavatube for the ISDC and... the conference display room. The Lunar track was well attended. We... making recorded sessions of the Lunar track available on the Moon... Maria Catalina of the Google Lunar X-Prize Team Stellar to attend... tested that might lead to a lunar lander is called Morpheus, a project by... pounds of cargo on the lunar surface, say a robot, a small rover... a plant to extract oxygen from lunar soil. It incorporates a number of... return to the moon , perhaps a lunar mission could be conducted in... Lander Technology Demonstration Mission By David Dunlop Somehow NASA's Morpheus Lander project... interest in any and all lunar missions. Perhaps this because this... NASA. For advocates of a continuing lunar exploration program that is indeed... three or four years with a lunar destination have remained unfunded. The... the string of NASA funded lunar missions, LADEE is now scheduled... have application not only to lunar destinations but could also be... funded and yield another NASA lunar landing mission, the first NASA... a lander which could deliver up to 1100 lbs to the lunar surface.... So I would propose that a Morpheus lander might provide an additional test... communications system down to the lunar surface. Solar Electric Ion Propulsion... to also provide for changing Lunar orbits once at the Moon... part of missions with both lander and orbiter components. I hope that... the way down to the lunar surface. If the Space Technology... in such demonstrations. The Innovative Lunar Data Demonstration Model can also... a commercial market in accessing the lunar surface, and the ability to... birth of commercial model of lunar access. This economic climate has... that NASA's continuing role in lunar development and the efforts of... San Diego, participated in the Lunar Track. They met many of... permanently shaded areas of the Lunar Poles harbor comet-derived ices... through the expense of sending a “Lunar Polar Ice Surveyor/Sampler” to.../mmm_themes/ Our point is that lunar pioneers can’t afford to wait... prospecting and extracting efforts. No Lunar orbiter yet flown has been... instruments chosen to fly on lunar orbiters have been selected to... whether they get into the lunar materials industry business or not... the Mare Imbrium splashout zone. Lunar Prospector in 1998-9 mapped these... at low resolution. Could future lunar orbiter instruments detect PGMs and... sky and not from the lunar interior, a statement that may not....pdf 213 pages - a compilation of lunar biosphere articles from 25 years... Earth • Loss of benefits of a "lunar" calendar: the unique 14.75... screen. Right: scale of a typical lunar lava tube compared with the...



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... 2008 Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Space Competitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Google Lunar X PRIZE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 America’s Space Prize. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Centennial... One of the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge (NG-LLC). Armadillo’s vehicle... the private sector, the Google Lunar X PRIZE gained momentum in 2008... in the $30-million Google Lunar X PRIZE competition. This competition will... One of the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge at Las Cruces International... Lunar X PRIZE, America’s Space Prize, and NASA’s various Centennial Challenges. Google Lunar X PRIZE The Google Lunar X PRIZE is a fairly... since September 2007, the Google Lunar X PRIZE is the joint effort... additional tasks while exploring the lunar surface.1 Space Florida is offering... State of Florida. The Google Lunar X PRIZE has made significant developments... China and Germany.3 Lunar rover mockup of the Google Lunar X PRIZE America... spaceflight is the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge (NG-LLC). This competition... long and land on a simulated lunar surface.7 Each Level awards prizes... and $1 million, respectively, for future lunar exploration excavation and oxygen extraction... developed for the Soviet Union’s N-1 lunar rocket in the 1960s. The... planned mission architecture for crewed lunar missions. The plan calls for..., an Ares V vehicle would place a lunar module and Earth departure stage... levels of the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge (NG-LLC) competition. Both... landing precisely on a simulated rugged lunar surface. Shortly after ignition, when...) to 50 m (165 ft) TBD Lunar Lander Challenge competition Federal Aviation Administration... Holloman Las Cruces International Airport Lunar Lander Challenge Markets competition, future Served... re-compete at the 2009 Lunar Lander Challenge.2 In 2007, Armadillo developed... to compete at the 2008 Lunar Lander Challenge NG-LLC; however, the... ft) Las Cruces International Airport Lunar Lander Challenge competition Federal Aviation Administration... X PRIZE Foundation regarding the 2009 Lunar Lander Challenge.30 Burning Splinter – Unreasonable... modifications including the use of a Lunar Lander Challenge solid peroxide catalyst and... than 2015, while the first lunar flight is currently scheduled for..., that will deliver the Altair lunar lander and the Earth departure stage... and the Altair lander to the Moon. Once in lunar orbit, Altair... the end of the mission, a lunar ascent module will return the... engine to break out of lunar orbit and return to Earth... Sundstrand. Contracts for the Altair lunar lander and earth departure stage have... a Lockheed Martin Athena 2, carrying NASA’s Lunar Prospector spacecraft, successfully lifted off... for their Lunar Lander in competition for the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge.17... support the launch of NASA’s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... the optimal use of a National Lunar Laboratory.3 Under Dr. Levine’s supervision... • Endnotes Endnotes Space Competitions 1. Google Lunar X PRIZE Competition Guidelines webpage. X PRIZE... 2008. http://www.googlelunarxprize.org/lunar/competition/ guidelines. 2. “The X PRIZE Foundation... New Teams Announced in Google Lunar X PRIZE.” 16 December 2008. X PRIZE....org/lunar/ featured-article/two-new-teams-announced-in-google-lunar-x-prize.../cc/index.htm. 7. “Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge.” 27 October 2008. X PRIZE... 2008. http://space.xprize.org/lunar-lander-challenge. 8. “Dueling Murphy.” 27 October....” http://space.xprize.org/ng-lunar-landerchallenge/2008/teams/acuity. Accessed.... “Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge.” http://space. xprize.org/lunar-lander-challenge. Accessed October... of NASA Page 9 Lunar rover mockup of the Google Lunar X PRIZE, courtesy... Administration NG-LLC Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge NLV Nanosat Launch Vehicle...