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... Center, Huntsville, AL, USA Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project Status Hammond, Monica... of the development of a robotic lunar lander. The goal of the project... support the development of a small lunar lander for lunar surface science. This includes... the flight of the robotic lander, (i.e., testing and analyzing various phase... the design of the robotic lander, which is to demonstrate autonomous... gas testing of the robotic lander design; (5) develop and test landing.... CASI Flight Tests; Lunar Surface; Risk; Robotics; Lunar Exploration 20100017708 Texas Univ... risk mitigation for the Altair Lander. However, the use of water...; Thermal Energy; Solar Heating; Lunar Environment; Lunar Surface; Lunar Exploration; Temperature Effects; Thermodynamic... Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander Bannon, Erika T.; Bower, Chad E.; Sheth... a mission profile for the Altair Lunar Lander. This paper summarizes results from... thermal vacuum testing. Author Altair Lunar Lander; Electrochromism; Heat Radiators; Mathematical Models... have become available (e.g., Clementine, Lunar Prospector, Galileo). Lunar science has also advanced... Geological Surveys; Lunar Maps; Structural Properties (Geology); Paleontology; Lunar Surface; Galileo Spacecraft...: 1) Prebreathe Protocols; 2) Lunar Suit Testing and Development; and 3) Lunar Electric Rover and..., USA Overview of the Altair Lunar Lander Thermal Control System Design Stephan... generation Lunar Lander. The planned Altair missions are very different than the Lunar... challenging thermal requirements. Author Altair Lunar Lander; Control Systems Design; Temperature Control... collecting samples during the lunar daylight Author Lunar Exploration; Apollo Spacecraft; Roving... found to be lunar in composition, though non-lunar contaminants may exist... the bulk soil. CASI Lunar Composition; Lunar Rocks; Lunar Soil; Regolith 20100017474 NASA... users? schedules. Derived from text Lunar Rocks; Lunar Surface; Regolith; Simulation 20100017515..., including the quantity of residual Lander oxygen and hydrogen propellants available.... Author Life Support Systems; Lunar Bases; Lunar Surface; Manned Space Flight; Extravehicular... phase-change nanostructures – 34 ALTAIR LUNAR LANDER Electrochromic Radiator Coupon Level Testing... Use on Altair Lunar Lander – 64 Overview of the Altair Lunar Lander Thermal Control... DESIGN Overview of the Altair Lunar Lander Thermal Control System Design – 195... Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander – 64 Preliminary Assessment of the... Approach and Results – 31 Robotic Lunar Lander Project Status – 29 Development FLORIDA... Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander – 64 Intelligent Flexible Materials for... – 127 Overview of the Altair Lunar Lander Thermal Control System Design – 195... Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander – 64 HIGH POWER LASERS High... Status Report 26 – 71 LUNAR BASES Lunar Outpost Life Support Architecture Study... LUNAR COMPOSITION Examining the Uppermost Surface of the Lunar Regolith – 200 Lunar Geologic... to Support Extended-Duration Lunar Exploration – 52 Lunar Outpost Life Support Architecture... Lunar Exploration – 52 Lunar Daylight Exploration – 198 Robotic Lunar Lander Project Status – 29 Development LUNAR... Performance in Simulated Lunar Gravity – 134 LUNAR LANDING MODULES Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration – 196 LUNAR MAPS... the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – 24 LUNAR ORBITER Tracking Data Certification for the Lunar... Uppermost Surface of the Lunar Regolith – 200 NASA Lunar Regolith Simulant Program... for Lunar Oxygen Generation – 31 Thermal Properties of Lunar Regolith Simulants – 197 LUNAR SOIL Examining the Uppermost Surface of the Lunar Regolith – 200 LUNAR SURFACE... Impact-Melt Rocks – 83 Robotic Lunar Lander Project Status – 29 Development Thermal... – 200 Overview of the Altair Lunar Lander Thermal Control System Design – 195... Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander – 64 Evaluating the Asymptotic Limits... with Space Flight – 126 Robotic Lunar Lander Project Status – 29 Development RIVERS... Exploration Rover Opportunity – 112 Robotic Lunar Lander Project Status – 29 Robotic Range... Use on Altair Lunar Lander – 64 Overview of the Altair Lunar Lander Thermal Control... Extended-Duration Lunar Exploration – 52 Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation... Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander – 64 Bearinger, Jane F. Science and... Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration – 196 Bassler, Julie Robotic Lunar Lander Project... Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander – 64 Boyce, J. M. Topography of the... Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration – 196 Hammond, Monica Robotic Lunar Lander Project... Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration – 196 Morse, Brian Robotic Lunar Lander Project... Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander – 64 Settersten, Thomas B. Collisional Quenching... – 47 Overview of the Altair Lunar Lander Thermal Control System Design – 195... Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander – 64 Stansbery, E. G. Modeling of LEO...



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... Estimate............................................................................................................. 40 Cost Estimates ....................................................................................................................................................................... 42 Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept... shadowed areas of the lunar poles - the Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer (LPVE... Marshall Space Flight Center’s, Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project team in partnership... 2005. The Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer concept involves placing a lander and rover (with an instrument payload) in a permanently sun-shadowed lunar... met, this mission concept utilizes a lander to deliver either a battery- or... rover to the surface. The lander is of a minimal capability, making... shadowed crater’s Earthshine zone. The lander would be nonfunctional after the... penetrating radar Exospheric mass spectrometer Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept... measurements, and to functional requirements. Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept...). A staged cradle lander mission architecture matured for the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program... solutions against a floor-level mission. Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept... are provided in section 5. Additional lander and rover descriptions are given... mission design concept. The integrated lander and rover are launched together... of the braking burn, the lander will separate from its solid... (TRN) Figure 1: Mission Design Concept Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept... rover will egress from the lander and begin the surface science... mission. After rover egress, the lander has no further functions. Table... allowance. Table 4: Notional LPVE Instruments Lander Payload Objective Mass Power kg...-25 and an expected typical lunar lander duty cycle. By contrast, qualified... the DACS thrusters prove unsuccessful. Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept... accomplish both Priority 1 and 2 science. Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept... Rover is deployed from the Lander, the RNS obtains measurement of... Value Units Downhole Neutron Spectrometer (Lunar Prospector/DHYDRA heritage) 1 per Rover... Spectrometer (GCMS) unit for analysis. Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept... sampling locations and measured volatiles. Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept... up the lunar exosphere by opening a chamber to the ambient lunar environment... (MOMA, CONTOUR, LADEE heritage) 1 per Lander Number of channels 1 serial digital...: a Solid Rocket Motor for braking; a lander stage for descent, precision landing... battery and ASRG rover configurations. Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept... antennas used during cruise. Lander The lander provides all propulsion and attitude... landing. After rover egress, the lander has no further functions. Therefore... insulation, SRM plume shield The lander has no legs, but instead... ASRG lander has smaller solar arrays than the battery lander because the... needed prior to landing. The lander uses the rover’s processor, star... mass and complexity of the lander. Payload mobility, navigation, and hazard... support rover egress from the lander in either direction. These cameras... the SRM, the lander, and the rover. Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept Study 25 Table 10: SRM / Lander Characteristics Table 11: Rover Characteristics Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer... mass of the SRM, the lander, and the rover. Table 12... reduction in rover battery and lander solar array masses allows the... configuration while minimizing mission cost. Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept... lists Lander and Second Stage technology maturity levels. Table 15: Lander/SRM Technology Maturity Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission... Concept Study 34 4. Development Schedule Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept... described in Table 21. The Lander and Rover developments are distinct... the Rover rather than the Lander. Introduction of the ASRG into... integration. Figure 8: LPVE Mission Schedule Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept... Phase B to Delivery of Flight Lander Start of Phase B to Delivery... Rover Integration & Test System Level Lander Integration & Test System Level Combined... 22: Enabling Technology Development Needs Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept... details and dependencies for instrument, lander, and rover development schedules from... needed. Figure 9: LPVE Detailed Schedule Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept...: - Results from International Lunar Network (ILN) and Lunar Geophysical Network (LGN) analyses.... The estimates also cover the lander and rover test beds and... dollars. Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept Study 43 Appendices Lunar Polar... and approaches, basic architecture concept Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer Mission Concept... Element 06 – Lander NASA WBS Element 06 – Rover Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer...



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... Service Large Science Platforms ...........................................18 3.3 Lunar Exploration ........................................................................................................26 3.4 Orbital Aggregation and... Process 23 Figure 3.3-1 Lunar Lander 29 Figure 3.3-2 30-Day Lunar Habitat 30 Figure... 32 Table 3.3-3 Lunar Exploration Mission Requirements 37 Table 3.3-4 Lunar Exploration Key Technology..., and Service Large Science Platforms Lunar Exploration Orbital Aggregation and Space..., including other Lagrange points, the lunar surface, and various other destinations... delivering crews between Earth, Lunar L1, and the lunar surface, high-efficiency... infrastructure is the Lunar L1 Lagrange point. 3.1.2.1 Benefits of Lunar L1 Staging... facility located at Lunar L1 for staging lunar exploration missions may also... as the L1 Outpost, Lunar Landers, the Lunar Habitat, and resupply items... NEXT Design Reference Missions 3.3 DRAFT Lunar Exploration Recent scientific discoveries of... in the lunar polar regions by the Clementine and Lunar Prospector spacecraft... of the lunar mantle, past and present solar activity, lunar ice at..., extraction of metals from the lunar soil, and materials processing. 3.3.1 Connection... reports and recommendations for future lunar missions. These recommendations can be... actually tested in the lunar environment on lunar materials. Some proposed processes... of the lunar near side and all latitudes of the lunar far... Martian permafrost 3.3.2.1 Mission Architecture The lunar exploration design reference mission takes... located at Lunar L1 (the L1 Outpost). For the lunar surface mission scenario currently under consideration, a lunar lander will be delivered to Lunar... prior to mission commencement. The Lunar Lander is the crew transportation element... ferries exploration crews from Lunar L1 to the lunar surface and back... the lunar surface constraints are a significant concern. For rendezvous in lunar orbit... crew will prepare for lunar surface departure. The Lunar Lander is designed to... expeditionary-type mission where the lander is capable of sustaining a crew... the lunar surface. In this mode, the crew uses the lander as... the Lunar Lander is to ferry the crew to and from the Lunar Habitat pre-deployed at either the lunar North or...-day Habitat for extended lunar missions while the Lunar Lander awaits crewed ascent in survival power mode. 3.3.2.2 Architecture Elements Lunar Lander The Lunar Lander... are spent on the lunar surface. The lander is comprised of two... is caFigure 3.3-1: Lunar Lander pable of delivering 50 kg of Lunar samples to... used to resupply the Lunar Habitat. Lunar Habitat The Lunar Habitat is a surface...-legged main landing gear. The lander is propelled by four loxmethane... nearly continuous sunlight throughout the lunar day; therefore photovoltaic power generation... crew quarters, galley, and wardroom. 3.3.2.3 Lunar Surface Timeline This section aims... safely back to the surface lander or habitat. When EVA work... extends beyond 5 km from the lander/habitat, the farthest point on..., maintenance or other support functions. 3.3.2.4 Lunar Surface Science 3-Day Surface Missions... science payload capacity of the Lunar Lander, a portion 14 Operations Concept Definition... to 10 km from the lander, and collect samples using the... geology tools, sample containers, and Lander Geoscience Laboratory are to be... oxygen from the lunar regolith will enable future lunar residents to stay... NA 1 28.7 self 0.18 Lunar Tools Lunar Geology Tools QTY Mass (kg... 2 0.2 0.5 - 0.00 0.00 Lunar Sample Containers NA 1 35.5 - 0.06 Lunar Tools 0.13 QTY.... Laser Ranging Retroreflector Steerable Automatic lunar Ultraviolet Telescope AUTO 0 200 80... Particle Lunar Env. Exp. 0.08 1 2.5 NA 0.01 A pollo Exp. Ops. Lunar Dust... 0.05 Time Personnel Equipment M ass Lander Geoscience Laboratory (hrs) Totals Power... aid of human piloting. Table 3.3-3: Lunar Exploration Mission Requirements 3.3.4 Key Technology... exploration, robotic rover systems Table 3.3-4: Lunar Exploration Key Technology Investments 3.3.5 References...”, December 1999 4. “Lunar Lander Design Report,” NASA JSC, November 2000. 5. “Lunar Habitat Design... Reference Missions DRAFT 7. Kennedy, G., Hair, J. “Lunar L1 Architecture: Surface Timeline, Science... lunar surface for scientific operations and that the L1 Outpost with Lunar Lander... moon. After the L1 Outpost/Lunar Lander stack has completed its journey... perform a lunar excursion are now at the Outpost. Before the lunar excursion... with the exception of the Lunar Lander have returned to LEO and.... For instance, pre-deploying the lander has no affect on the.... 0 All-Up Pre-Deploy Lander Pre-Deploy Lander and Propellant On the...) local science mission utilizing predeployed lander (DAV) at Mars. Crew descends... is on transitioning from the lander to the surface habitat. This... surface is required. Lastly, the lander is connected to the surface... surface is required. Although the lander is in a semidormant mode, emergency...



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... RELATIVE NAVIGATION FOR AUTONUMOUS PRECISION LUNAR LANDING Yunju Na(1), Yooyeoun Jung....ac.kr (1) (2) (3) Abstract: For autonomous lunar landing, reliable navigation results are... are not available in the lunar environment, the vision based navigation... powered descent phase of the lunar landing. The goal of this... LIDAR sensor for autonomous precision lunar landing. The simple mission is... Precision Lunar Landing. 1. Introduction Many countries have a goal to launch the lunar lander... lunar exploration is rising more and more in space development. Specific lunar missions are also being designed continuously – finding water in lunar polar region, lunar surface sample return, exploration... these technologies, the goal of lunar landing became autonomous landing at... just landing somewhere. Although the lunar orbiter collect and provide the... hazard and unexpected situation around lunar surface can happen whenever during... in the vicinity of the lunar surface is important for precise.... The navigation sensors attached to lander be utilized for gathering necessary... lunar environment, vision sensor has important role in navigation system during lunar... a typical vision sensor used for lunar landing since it is weight.... The lander has lunar map or landmark database obtained by lunar orbiter before..., terrain relative navigation based on lunar digital elevation map (DEM) is... for the ESA Lunar Lander [5-7], and Chang’e 3, which landed to lunar surface in... LIDAR sensor for autonomous precise lunar landing. To design the navigation... autonomous precise and safe lunar landing, simple lunar landing mission was defined... ALHAT project [1-4] and the ESA Lunar Lander [5-7]. Landing precision, safety and environments... deciding mission requirements and unmanned lunar landing was assumed in this... landing site finally. And the lander should land vertically in a safe... rocks is important. If the lander detect hazard around landing site.... The navigation system of the lander is started powered descent phase... is the last phase of lunar landing after orbit descent phase... scanned terrain data while the lander moves along the defined landing... the altitude is about 100 m, lander is started pitch-up maneuver... phase of 30 m altitude, the lander operate descent and do vertical... landing. Figure 1. Mission Scenario for Lunar Landing This section is introduced... whole powered descent phase in lunar landing. In this paper we... to estimate current status of lander for precise landing except hazard..., it is not available in lunar environment. Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU... sensors which are available for lunar landing. The star sensor is... time. The IMU measures the lander’s velocity, orientation and gravitational forces... measures of the distance to lunar surface at a point. Figure 2. Sensor... with body frame of the lander and the flash LIDAR and... to side of the lander face to lunar surface. They are combined... according to attitude of the lander. The principle of the flash... position on lunar surface and Z is the altitude of the lander from... velocity, ω , and acceleration, a , of the lander. These measurements are converted to... reduce these error for precise lunar landing. The terrain relative navigation... estimate current status of the lander by combining secondary sensor measurements... and current status of the lander are input of terrain mapping... position, velocity, attitude of the lander and biases as X  q r v ba bg... quaternion for attitude of the lander, r and v are the position and...   ω q r  v v  a  2 ω  v   ω  ω  r  gm b  η a (1) a bg  ηg  0 z y   ω  z 0 x   y x 0     ω  ω   ω   T , 0  ω (1) Here, gm is the lunar gravitational acceleration at the position... the angular velocity of the lander. Terrain mapping is the procedure... is distorted according to the lander’s motion as attitude, velocity and... considering current status of the lander, data correction for motion should... considering the motion of the lander. These estimated position is entered... relative navigation for autonomous precision lunar landing. It include the simple... Relative Navigation Approach for Precise Lunar Landing.” IEEE Aerospace Conference, 2008... and James Carpenter. “The ESA Lunar Lander Mission.” AIAA SPACE 2011 Conference... Bidaux, and Pablo Colmenarejo. “ESA Lunar Lander: Approach Phase Concept and G&C Performance... Ramon, and Luis F. Penin. “ESA Lunar Lander: Approach Phase Concept and G&C Performance.... “Precise Positioning of the Chang’E-3 Lunar Lander Using a Kinematic Statistical Model.” Chiness.... “Novel Terrain Relative Lunar Positioning system Using Lunar Digital Elevation Maps.” Recent... Terrain Relative Navigation for Precise Lunar Landing.” AIAA Guidance Navigation and... Navigation Performance During Translunar Cruise, Lunar Orbit, Descent, and Landing.” Journal... J. Verweld. “Relative Optical Navigation for a Lunar Lander Mission.” Advances in Aerospace Guidance... Navigation System for Pin-Point Lunar Landing.” 19th The International Federation...



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...-656 Conceptual Design of Crew Lander for Exploration of the Moon... lander for exploration of airless moons. This crew lander is designated as Lander Module 1 (LM1). This lander is designed... braking. The LM1 functions as lander vehicle, habitat, and rover. It... reduce development cost, the LM1 lander features a geometrical layout, structural concept.... The LM1 lander incorporates technologies from recent NASA Altair lunar lander concept definition... missions are presented to develop lander design requirements: Missions to the... used to flight test the lander prior to using it on... for the LM1 crew lander vehicle. This lander design is a proposed solution... airless moons, designated Lander Module 1 (LM1). This lander is designed to land... flight performance for this lander. The LM1 crew lander provides two-way... to 30 days. The crew lander is designed for abort to... for rescue missions. The LM1 Lander features a geometrical layout, structural concept....2 The LM1 lander incorporates technologies from recent NASA Altair lunar lander concept definition... used to flight test the lander prior to using it on... presented for the LM1 crew lander. This design is a proposed solution... Module (CM) 5-Port Docking Mars Lander Modules Module (DM) LM2, LM3... & H2O) Ganymede, Callisto, Earth’s Moon Lander Key Design Features Module LM1... for the LM1 Crew Exploration Lander. A. Design Reference Mission 1 (DRM 1) – High... parking orbit with the Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) burn using the..., the Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) burn places the vehicle into lunar orbit. A stay time of 180 days in lunar orbit... reason the first lander cannot return, the second lander can be flown... Lunar Crew Exploration Lander Vehicle A. Design Overview and Assumptions The LM1 crew lander... radiation environment. The LM1 crew lander normally carries two astronauts, with... of 125 kg). The LM1 lander extensively utilizes lightweight composite structures... in the AS. The LM1 lander has a 6-axis reaction control systems... and docking translation maneuvers. The lander RCS engines utilize storable, hypergolic... profiles similar to the Apollo Lunar Module, but is larger, with...,5, 6 MMH/NTO engines,7 and Apollo Lunar Module 8-11 design data with... operations concept. The LM1 crew lander is designed for abort-to... dual landers enables the second lander to be used to rescue... are presented in Tables 1 and 2. Lander ascent and descent flight performance... used on the LM2 Mars lander. The DS landing legs and... mechanisms as the LM3 Mars lander. Structural thicknesses have been reduced... up to 4.1 kW peak power. Lander wheel drive motors consume 1 kW... common to the LM2 Mars lander, with the same basic layout... Missions DRM 1 – Trans-Lunar Injection, Outbound Transit, Lunar Orbit Insertion, and Ready... (2 pl) Reflective Thermal Foil around Lander Base Descent Stage Cutaway through... (Gear Deployed) FIGURE 3. LM2 Crew Lander Configuration Drawings – Elevation Views. 6 American... Shown Deployed) FIGURE 4. LM2 Crew Lander Configuration Drawings – Cross Section Views... 5) Callisto (DRM 4) Earth’s Moon (DRM 1) Lander Mission Profile Nominal Descent 1 Rescue... power. Periodic automated checkouts of lander systems will be performed. Spaceship... enters the LM1 and the lander undocks from the main ship.... 15d. This maneuver inserts the lander into an elliptical transfer orbit... work. D. Surface Operations The LM1 lander provides a roving habitat for the... 15f shows the LM2 crew lander in its landed configuration. A ladder... implementation of the LM1 crew lander vehicle. These key enabling technologies.... Conclusion The Spaceship Discovery LM1 lander design is a proposed solution to... Moon. The LM1 functions as lander vehicle, habitat, and rover. It... Apollo Lunar Module. It incorporates the results of recent NASA Altair lunar lander design studies. To reduce development cost, the LM1 lander features.../LM3 Mars landers. The LM1 lander design and operations concept stresses... crew landers enables the second lander to be used to rescue... Support of the NASA Altair Lunar Lander Concept Definition,” AIAA-2008-7798..., pp. C1-C4. 9“ Apollo 11 Lunar Landing Mission Press Kit,” (NASA...



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... the first members of NASA’s Lunar Science Institute, headquartered at Ames... research related to NASA’s existing lunar science programs, in coordination with... Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland; the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston... Institute in Boulder, Colorado; the Lunar University Node for Astrophysics Research... NASA’s Lunar Science Institute of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and... for lunar research included the study of the history of lunar impacts... the dynamic response of the lunar environment; and the use of..., 2009 NASA had modeled the Lunar Science Institute after its Astrobiology... to return astronauts to the lunar surface safely. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne... to land gently on the lunar surface. The test set a record... rocket, causing problems for the lander and the crew. However, in..., “NASA Selects Research Teams for Lunar Science Institute,” news release 09... 2008 and had begun its lunar orbit on 8 November 2008. The... orbiter, and ESA would provide a lander and a research balloon. The Titan... announced that Chang’e-1, China’s first lunar probe, had impacted the Moon... using stereo radar. The planned lunar impact, the culmination of the... it land the second Chinese lunar probe, scheduled to launch in.... 28 Xinhua News Agency,, “China’s Lunar Probe Chang’e-1 Impacts Moon,” 2 March.... NASA planned to launch its Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in May..., a ballute-assisted orbit capture of a lander vehicle above the surface of... inflation tubes connected to the lander via multiple tethers. The spacecraft...’s ExoMars mission consisted of a fixed lander and a rover that would collect... Lander Radio-Science on ExoMars (LaRa) would relay data from the lander.... 83 11 June JAXA’s first lunar probe Kaguya (Selene) successfully completed... the Moon, to map the lunar surface and to study the... 2011); Shino Yuasa, “Japan’s First Lunar Probe Ends Mission,” Associated Press... June NASA successfully launched its Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite.... 87 NASA, “NASA Successfully Launches Lunar Impactor,” news release 09-143... on a mission to map the lunar terrain in preparation for a future... 128 Ed Johnson, “India Ends Lunar Mission After Losing Probe Signal... for transit to and from lunar orbit. Bolden reflected on NASA...-development tests on two prototype lunar rovers in the Arizona desert... environments on Earth. For the lunar-rover test, two crew members... 300 hours inside NASA’s prototype Lunar Electric Rover and scouting the... of the wavelengths at the lunar surface was consistent with the... parts per million in the lunar soil. To confirm the VIMS... molecules and hydroxyl on the lunar surface, revealing that the entire... during some portion of the lunar day. 144 30 September NASA... Instruments Reveal Water Molecules on Lunar Surface,” news release 09-222... Centaur had traveled toward the lunar surface at a speed of 1.5 miles.... 147 NASA, “NASA Spacecraft Impacts Lunar Crater in Search for Water... 9 October 2009 impact on the lunar surface had succeeded. During LACROSS..., “Teams Win at NASA National Lunar Robotics Competition,” news release 09... would host the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander X-Prize Challenge (NGLLXPC) awards at... a vehicle to the Moon. The lander had to take off vertically... point, and land successfully. The lander must complete the entire exercise... and X Prize Announce Winners of Lunar Lander Challenge,” news release 09-258... 18 November 2011); Lunar X Prize, “$1,650,000 Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander X PRIZE Challenge....org/media/news/1650000northrop-grumman-lunar-lander-x-prize-challenge-ngllxpc-awarded-nov... collaborate in lunar and asteroid science research. The Saudi Lunar and Near... affiliate partner with the NASA Lunar Science Institute at NASA’s ARC... 2 Lander Radio-Science on ExoMars Langley Research Center launch-abort system Lunar... laser-imaging detection and ranging Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter M3 MESSENGER MHD... and Safety Center Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander X Prize Challenge National Oceanic and... Space Agency, Global Aerospace Corporation, Lunar X Prize, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Space...



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... Utilization and Capability Demonstration Cis-Lunar Servicing and Deployment Deep Space... International Cis-Lunar Missions Step 2 Exploration Test Module Cis-Lunar Crewed Visits... Summary Mission Scenario: Moon Next Lunar Exploration ISS Utilization and Capability... Opportunities for Commercial or International Lunar Missions Small-Scale, Human-Scale... Exploration Cis-Lunar Opportunities for Commercial or International Cis-Lunar Missions Near... Ton Commercial Next Gen Cargo Lander Crew Spacecraft MPCV Commercial Cargo... Communication Assets Lander Descent Stage Lunar Surface Cryogenic Elements Propulsion Lander Ascent Stage...-Earth Asteroid LaGrange Points/Cis-Lunar Space Demonstrate innovative deep space...-Low Lunar Orbit Crew-to-Lunar Surface — 7-day Sortie Mission Crew-to-Lunar Surface — 28-day Extended Stay Mission Cargo-to-Lunar Surface (small) Cargo-to-Lunar Surface (large) Unique... destination objectives by enabling access. Lunar Cargo Descent Stage System designed... 8-metric tons on the lunar surface. Lunar Ascent Works in combination with... up to Cargo Lander 1-metric ton on the lunar surface. 17 To... demonstrate human operations in cis-lunar space, enabling future missions such... deep space habitat in cis-lunar space to demonstrate the capabilities... Utilization and Capability Demonstration Cis-Lunar Servicing and Deployment Deep Space... International Cis-Lunar Missions Step 2 Exploration Test Module Cis-Lunar Crewed Visits... — Asteroid Next ISS/LEO Cis-lunar Near-Earth Asteroids • Advancing in.... Initial flights of the cargo lander not only demonstrate its reliability... of availability and extractability of lunar volatiles. Key features of this... on the large number of lunar robotic missions planned during 2010... deployment of medium cargo lander and large cargo lander, sized to ultimately... power • A limited, yet adaptable, human lunar campaign that may be extended... term, if warranted. After the lunar missions, exploration of near-Earth... Strategy Mission Scenario: Moon Next Lunar Exploration ISS Utilization and Capability... Opportunities for Commercial or International Lunar Missions Small-Scale, Human-Scale... Exploration Cis-Lunar Opportunities for Commercial or International Cis-Lunar Missions Crewed... Ton Commercial Next Gen Cargo Lander Crew Spacecraft MPCV Commercial Cargo... Communication Assets Lander Descent Stage Lunar Surface Cryogenic Elements Propulsion Lander Ascent Stage... such as Rover, Surveyor, and Lunar Orbiter defined the boundary conditions... and characterized areas of the lunar surface for subsequent human exploration... LRO Luna-Glob LADEE Lunar Lander MAVEN MO ‘01 Lander/Rover Orbiter Sample... Technologist3. Marigold growth experiment using lunar soil simulant, Ukraine. The following... capability is also needed, e.g., for lunar missions.     Nanotechnology (TA10) New advanced... the Regolith Environment Science Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload and... Services Moon Precursor Moon Next Lunar Orbital Mission Asteroid Next EML1... Discovery and Emerging Technologies Human Lunar Return e Habitat First Human Asteroid... Propulsion Space Exploration Vehicle Lander Descent Stage Lander Ascent Stage Conclusion International...



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....3 Analysis Methodologies…………………………………………………………………..35 10.4 L1 Lunar Lander Results………………..………………………………………………...36 ii 10.5 Findings... Horizontal Lander Concepts……………………….…………………….4 Figure 1.3: Final Configuration of the L1 Lunar Lander…………….……………………...4 Figure 1.4: L1 Lunar Lander Four-View & Dimensions…………….………………………5 Figure 1.5: L1 Lunar Lander Ascent Stage ………………………….………………………6 Figure 1.6: L1 Lunar Lander Descent... Lander Schematic Ascent & Descent Stage…………….13 Figure 3.1: L1 Lunar Lander…………………………………………………………………14 Figure 4.1: L1 Lunar Lander EPS Concept………………………………………...…………19 Figure 4.2: EPDC System For Lander... Lunar Lander ECLSS…………..……………….28 Figure 9.1: L1 Lunar Lander Avionics Architecture……………….…………...………….….34 Figure 10.1: L1 Lunar Lander... Lunar Lander Dry Mass Targets……….………………………………………....2 Table 1.2: L1 Lunar Lander Mass Statement………….………………………………………...9 Table 1.3: L1 Lunar Lander Power... the L1 Lunar Lander……………...………..…………29 Table 8.2: Lunar Lander Crew Accommodations………………………………….…………….30 Table 8.3: Lunar Lander Crew Health Care……………………………………..……………….31 Table 10.1: L1 Lunar Lander Prioritized Cumulative LRU Sparing………………………….…40 Table 10.2: L1 Lunar Lander PHA... Chief Engineer David Fletcher – L1 Lunar Lander Element Lead Mike Drever – Information...-days at the lunar south pole, the L1 Lunar Lander which performs three... L1 Lunar Mission Architectu vii L1 Lunar Lander 1.0 Element Description The L1 Lunar Lander (L1LL) is the crew transportation element in the L1 Lunar... Lunar Lander is to ferry the crew to and from the L1 Lunar... module for extended Lunar missions while the L1 Lunar Lander awaits crewed ascent... a Lunar lander and ascent vehicle capable of reaching any point on the Lunar... L1 Lunar Lander: 4 crew • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 8-day mission duration • • • 58-hour transit to Lunar Surface... Horizontal Lander Concepts Figure 1.3: Final Configuration of the L1 Lunar Lander 4 Figure 1.4: L1 Lunar Lander... concept for the L1 Lunar Lander: Pre-Launch • Lander powered up for pre... Crew Egress/ Viewing Figure 1.5: L1 Lunar Lander Ascent Stage Operations Concept (cont... Surface Science Equipment Figure 1.6: L1 Lunar Lander Descent Stage Operations Concept (cont... Lunar Lander Mass Statement Concept Total Mass Wet Mass Dry Mass Lunar Lander 29655.26 23021.18 6634.08 Lunar Lander Electrical Power 250.00 27.00 223.00 Lunar Field... 768.96 Lunar Lander Propulsion 25800.65 22806.07 2994.58 Lunar Lander Structure 1202.50 0.00 1202.50 Lunar Lander Avionics 114.30 0.00 114.30 Table 1.2: L1 Lunar Lander Mass... Powered Ascent Dock w/Gateway 2.0 L1 Lunar Lander Descent/Ascent Propulsion System 2.1 Functional... L1 Lunar Lander propulsion system are to provide a powered descent to the lunar... Lander (HL) as well as the reference Mars missions. The L1 Lunar Lander... LO2/LCH4 Lander Schematic Ascent & Descent Stage 13 3.0 L1 Lunar Lander Structural Design...: Figure 3.1: L1 Lunar Lander The primary structure of the lunar lander is idealized into... the mass rollups. 16 4.0 L1 Lunar Lander – Electrical Power System 4.1 Functional Description...: Figure 4.1: L1 Lunar Lander EPS Concept Figure 4.2: EPDC System For Lander Based On EPCU Standard H/W and Enclosures 19 5.0 L1 Lunar Lander Thermal Control System 5.1 Functional description and design requirements The L1 Lunar Lander... Lunar Lander 6.1 Functional description and design requirements The EVA system on the Lander... 7.0 L1 Lunar Lander Surface Science 7.1 Functional description and design requirements The lunar field... another landed element. 26 8.0 L1 Lunar Lander ECLSS 8.1 Functional Description and Design... Reference Design for the L1 Lunar Lander Technology Function/Subfunction Atmosphere Control... Lunar Lander is described in Table 8.3. T.Sullivan/SD3 provided this list.Table 8.5: Lunar Lander... requires further study. 32 9.0 L1 Lunar Lander Avionics System 9.1 Functional Description and... out the L1 Lunar Lander mission from launch to Lander disposal. These provisions... the L1 Lunar Lander vehicle. The avionics system proposed for the Lander was... h T V ) LD R =16 Kbps Figure 9.1 – L1 Lunar Lander Avionics Architecture 9.4 Technology needs and... generated for the L1 Lunar Lander by the L1 Lunar Lander team subsystem leads.... 36 10.4 L1 Lunar Lander Results 10.4.1 L1 Lunar Lander Subsystem Availability Results Availability... the Lander unreliability so sparing analysis was not conducted. L1 Lunar Lander Subsystem... L 0.8 Subsystems Studied Figure 10.1. L1 Lunar Lander Subsystem Availability Figures 10.2, 10....3 TCS Subsystem Sparing Results L1 Lunar Lander ECLSS Subsystem Sparing Analysis (1000...



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...-1992: First Lunar Outpost (FLO) missions. the Scout, Artemis (Common Lunar Lander) and... the Scout and Artemis (Common Lunar Lander) payloads for the catalog. The... Solar Telescope Lunar Solar Observatory Lunar Neutrino Telescope Lunar Pinhole Occulter Facility Lunar Calorimeter... (SLIM) Lunar Observer Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Lunar Gravity Experiment C° Artemis (Common Lunar Lander) Mission Description (LUMIS) and Payloads Lunar Lander Geophysics Package Lunar Geophysics Network... Altimeter Lunar Lunar Lunar Lunar Planetary Institute Roving Vehicle Transit Telescope Ultraviolet Mapping Lunar Surface... a lunar orbiting mission, the Lunar Scout, and a robotic mission using a common lunar lander, the... INSTRUMENTS 1/17/92 PAYLOAD SUMMARY LANDER Estimated Estimated Estimated Estimated GEOSCIENCE... collected during an extended lander stay on the lunar surface, or during... the lander or habitat prior to delivery on either the lunar or... in a single analysis Power Consumption Lander geoscience laboratory: 181 W discontinuous Habitat... a laboratory module or lander prior to launch for the lunar surface. Consequently... on lander/habitat design. design). suggesting technology readiness to a lander or habitat.... Lander laboratory instruments will be an integral part of the lander; included in lander design at the beginning... Artemis-class lander or as a payload on the first piloted lunar mission... designs require tight lander orientation. Daytime operations on the lunar surface require... the lunar surface autonomously atop the Artemis using a soft landing spacecraft lander... lander and remain there to keep it as far above the lunar... lunar cycle). The telescope will have no other interface with the lander... to be landed on a common lunar lander. The instruments will measure the... of future orbital and lander missions. Description The Lunar Observer Laser Altimeter... of future orbital and lander missions. Description The Lunar Gravity Experiment will... I • C. Artemis Mission (Common Description P_ Lunar Lander) and Payloads PAGE I_L,_.NK... Payloads Artemis (Common Program: Lunar Mission Lander) Mission Description and Description The... lander with little to no integration between the payload and the lander... lunar lander, later named Artemis, was to use orbital data from past lunar... 94 budget process. Artemis (Common Lunar Lander) Program: Science Payloads In July... on the Concept of a Common Lunar Lander" which included discussions on the... could be delivered by a common lunar lander. Scientists and engineers later designed... follow in this section. Lunar Lander Geophysics Package Lunar Geophysics Network In Situ... Integrated Lunar Regolith Analyzer 157 PAGE I_LAI"_ l'_3T rlLMEI_ LUNAR Date: LANDER GEOPHYSICS... environment. A geophysics package deployed on a lunar lander such as Artemis can contain... Workshop on Lunar Lander, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. 159 LUNAR GEOPHYSICS Date... on the Concept of a Common Lunar Lander, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX... the Workshop Concept of a Common Lunar Lander, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX... on a soft lander should not be set on the lunar surface. Estimated... on the Concept of a Common Lunar Lander, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.... Crew Interaction None Payload Delivery Lunar Lander Estimated None Set-up Time.... 167 (LIBS) for Lunar Lander to the Moon, Lunar and COMBINED INSTRUMENT Date.... Crew Interaction None Payload Delivery Lunar Lander Options Estimated None Time Maintenance.../X-Ray Diffraction Lunar Lander Mission, in Workshop on Early Robotic Missions Lunar and... interplanetary reference. Interaction Payload Delivery Lunar Lander Options 170 Estimated None Maintenance... Crew None Interaction Payload Delivery Lunar Lander Options Estimated TBD Time Maintenance.... Constraints Interaction Payload Delivery Options Lunar lander--can be deployed Estimated None... Technology Delivery Options orbiter and lunar lander Set-up deployed rover. Time... Strategy Constraints Interaction Payload Delivery Lunar Lander Options Estimated Time Set-up... sampled. Interaction Payload Delivery Options Lunar Lander. Can be deployed at fLxed... Strategy Constraints Interaction Payload Delivery Lunar Lander Options Estimated None Time Maintenance... Set-up on a hard lander, soft lander, Time Needs 194 rover, or... collected during an extended lander stay on the lunar surface or during... the lander or habitat Prior to delivery on either the lunar or... INSTRUMENT MASS POWER VOLUME (k_) (W) (m^3) LANDER GEOSCIENCE LABORATORY Binocular microscope Mossbauer... in a single analysis Power Consumption Lander geoscience laboratory: 181 W discontinuous Habitat... necessary, based on lander/habitat design. suggesting to a lander technology readiness or... appropriate sections. First Lunar Outpost Lunar Lunar Lunar Lunar Lunar Small Solar Small Lunar In-Situ P_... Experiment to the Moon," 243 Lunar Operations," Lunar Lander," NASA Planetary NASA Reference...



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119 PRECEDI_G LUNAR LANDER J. M. Stecklein and [L3_E CONCEPTUAL DESIGN A.J. ... the problems of building a lunar lander to support a small lunar surface base. A series... (LLO) (less lander will be heavier (15-30%) A lander capable of multiple roles, way some low lunar or taking... of the lander, An equation was the Apollo lunar so that it... in several the lander at one and propellants. On a lunar from mass... must lunar show to store Low-Earth-orbit basing for the lander... period will maintainability to range lander (LOX/LHz) design (LEO) maintainable... lander to a permanent vehicles out detail in the Lunar lander Conceptual 1988). One lander... Lunar Bases and Space Activities Fig. 1. such as the computers, the lander... represented or not OTV and lander in lunar orbit. at all with... al.: Lunar to deliver the case, the after delivering lander Tables orbital... 2 show altitude up with goes lunar how lander up. Table orbit altitude.... _"°'i crew/cargo lander. I 1 i I40 _ I J + of 15 ° in low lunar lander maCs increases LOX... Mass lander. Orbit = 93 km; MR = 6.0 O/H; 122 2nd Conference on Lunar Bases and TABLE 1. Circ. Orbit Altitude Space Activities lander rna_... in lunar feature. the site a lander equatorial will associated as become. with Lunar... lander with an aerobrake. An OTV specially configured to carry the lander will be required, or the lander will require... Earth. thrusts The lander must flexibility in lunar needed is ENGINES will... Some stock station. Bringing the lander illustrates this. Given will already... losses periodically mission propellants with lander range is roughly variety loading... loading lander In addition serviced (2) options These 40% of the lunar weight.... of 6 ft/sec 2 or TABLE 4. lander Other operation inclination equatorial, For... each require lander might use one or two engines lander four. Other... engines lunar Additional technology development time studies programs. for the lunar program. lunar lander... or is lower. lander the will be for lunar two of the.... unless comparison. is needed design lander a regener- system ration combinations a pressure... engines PROP_ throttling a pressure-fed lander Earth-storable Achieving the required... d_ent--stage=_sichamber while the lunar lander the studies cycles. combination propulsion... are underway are planned. The lunar lander propulsion system can propulsion could... lander The penalties ratio required and a dedicated lander crew On not cargo lander... Another function a throttling if one lander a dedicated deal. complicated might Engine... lb the unmanned lunar descent, Stecklein and the lunar normal lander landing still... Liquid are extracted propellants lunar into from the lander main the gas... required. calibration. lander of a costly system central unmanned fault lander. lunar readily achievable... lander manned. identification, In AND multipurpose as power for NASA manned lander systems as possible and still If the lunar lander is.... chamber with would be one lunar lander through the space shuttle era... flat software Comparison supports From lunar lander crew members. The display system... the lander. and logic, DMS processor. and RCS engines lunar on the lunar... that might be comparable to lunar lander systems, were added up. The... complete the lunar the energy descent, to the trip, estimated lander mission... lunar days in LEO -- 720 kWhr The surface, lives in the lander... increase). Figures 5 and multipurpose MULTIPURPOSE LANDER WEIGHT kg total the STATEMENTS... this lander how to the a surface in the figure. in lunar and... lander (single-stage) LRUs, and broken; gear lunar is being 1 shows lander propellants... diameter, The of the lander can be made lander lander landers, connections crew H2 tanks are of this lander pressurized... The of propellant. this lander cargo 6 show lander. The in orbit 118... et al.: Lunar 39 156 Delta NzO4/MMH V, Ascent lander conceptual multipurpose.../LH2 reusable lunar lander, side view. Fig. 6. LOX/LH2 1/2" = 1 METER reusable lunar lander, top view. 130 2nd Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities = = ! Fig. 7. Iander on surface. Fig. 8. Lander.... 9. Figure lander 8 shows may loading normal Advanced storable reusable lunar lander, side view. on the lander also the egress, serve lunar without ADVANCED LANDER... COST if propellant figure illustrates Lander vehicle. component, DESIGN weight. Figures... show the LOX/LH2 lander, except lander, though considerably a lander using heavier with... MULTIPURI_SE CONCEPTUAL Advanced storable reusable lunar lander, top view. capability to NzO4... previously described lander. are The propellant capacity of this lander is 35..., adj. to 1988 SM) New lunar Lander ( 1 unit, 1988 SM) "These numbers... incurred Corp., after et al.: Lunar lander conceptual design 131 REFERENCES Apollo... Spacecraft Center, Eagle Engineering (1988) Lunar Lander Concq0tua/Design, Report No. 88...