Спутник ФКИ. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). [Редактировать]

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO, Лунный орбитальный зонд) — автоматическая межпланетная станция NASA, искусственный спутник Луны. Запуск с помощью ракеты-носителя Атлас V состоялся 19 июня 2009 года в 01:32 (Мск), что позже запланированного времени почти на полтора часа. Задержка произошла из-за неблагоприятных погодных условий. 23 июня 2009 года зонд вышел на лунную орбиту. LRO вместе с другим аппаратом Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) являются авангардом программы НАСА «Lunar Precursor Robotic Program» по возвращению на Луну.
Орбитальный аппарат несёт на себе комплекс из шести научных инструментов и одного прибора для проверки новых технологий.

  • RaTER (Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation) — основным предназначением этого прибора является оценка вредного воздействия космических лучей и солнечной радиации на биологические объекты.
  • DLRE (The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment) — измерение теплового излучения лунной поверхности и его изменения в течение суток, информация нужная для будущих работ на поверхности Луны.
  • LAMP (The Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project) — прибор для поиска льда в неосвещённых кратерах. Он наблюдает отражение ультрафиолетового излучения звёзд (линии серии Лаймана) от лунной поверхности.
  • LEND (The Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector) — прибор российского производства, для составления подробных карт содержания атомов водорода в лунной поверхности.
  • LOLA (The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter) лазерный альтиметр для составления точной карты высот.
  • LROC (The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera) главная оптическая камера, для получения фотографий поверхности Луны с разрешением до полуметра, с помощью которых будут искать подходящие места для посадки пилотируемых экспедиций. LROC состоит из трех камер: камеры низкого разрешения (WAC) и двух камер высокого разрешения (NAC), первая из которых предназначена для получения общих планов местности, а две другие — для фотографий с большим разрешением. Планируется сделать фотографии примерно 8 % лунной поверхности, в том числе:
    • всех мест, связанных с деятельностью человека: мест посадок пилотируемых кораблей «Аполлон», американских и советских автоматических станций, а также кратеров, образовавшихся при падении искусственных спутников Луны и других аппаратов;
    • 50 «зон повышенного интереса», отобранных учеными;
    • околополярных районов, которые сейчас считаются наиболее перспективными для организации обитаемой базы. 
  • Mini-RF (The Miniature Radio Frequency) — тестирование нового легковесного радара с синтезированной апертурой

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1LROНайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США
3Страна производитель - США

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12014-01-12. Теперь о «погодных условиях» в космосе можно узнать, став слушателем интернет-радиостанции, которая получает данные от лунного орбитального зонда LRO - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Радиостанция работает в режиме реального времени, получая данные о радиационном окружении космического аппарата и переводя их в постоянный поток музыки. Уровни радиации определяют, какой инструмент наиболее характерен, музыкальный ключ, который используется, и высоту тона. Уровень радиации определяет CRaTER – прибор, оснащенный шестью датчиками, установленный на LRO. Его основным назначением является оценка вредного воздействия космических лучей и солнечной радиации на биологические объекты. Датчики ежесекундно измеряют количество частиц в окружении и передают их Live Radio (Живому Радио) CRaTER, где программное обеспечение переводит цифры в звуки гаммы из четырех октав. Каждую секунду проигрывается шесть тонов, по одному на каждый датчик. Более высокие, звенящие тона означают меньшую радиационную активность, а более низкие, мрачные тона – более высокую активность. Программное обеспечение выбирает основной инструмент и музыкальный ключ, основываясь на недавней активности. Когда уровень радиации ниже всего, главным инструментом будет пианино, и оно будет играть мелодию одной из мажорных октав. Однако, как только уровень радиации повысится, будет выбрана одна из минорных октав, и вместо пианино будет выбран один из семи других музыкальных инструментов (стальной барабан, гитара, маримба, банджо, скрипка, виолончель, бонго). Слушать космическую радиостанцию могут официальные подписчики на продукцию CRaTER онлайн, через приложение. Поток данных LRO идет в прямом эфире, только каждый раз, когда космический аппарат перемещается за Луну, он не может соединиться с собирающими данные антеннами на Земле, поэтому при-мерно на час передача данных прекращается. В этот период станция повторно использует данные предыдущего часа. Тэги: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг500
2Масса, кг1846
3Мощность, Вт1850

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС (планируемый ), год5

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2009-031A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор Космическое агентство США
2Производитель Goddard Space Flight Center
3Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2008-01-01540.1
4Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2008-01-0193.3
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2008-01-01420.8
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2008-01-0125.8
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2009-11-01590.4
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2009-11-0194.4
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2009-11-01473.1
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2009-11-0122.9

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2009-06-18 at 21:32:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xLunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
3Полезная нагрузка 1xLunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS)
4Ракета-носитель 1xАтлас 5 401

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... the Lunar Surface Using the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... the Lunar Surface Using the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... Diviner Lunar Radiometer is a nine-channel radiometer on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched... board the SELENE/Kaguya lunar satellite LCROSS Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite LN2 Liquid Nitrogen LOLA Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter LRO Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter MCS Mars Climate Sounder. A radiometer on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter... Observer (PMIRR-1) and Mars Climate Orbiter (PMIRR-2) PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene PRT Platinum... Radar Experiment ......................................................32 2.3.1.2 Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer....................................................32 2.3.1.3 Lunar Prospector Surface Impact... Particle Detection ................ 43 2.7.1.1 Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer ................................................... 43 2.7.1.2 Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray... The Diviner Lunar Radiometer ..................................................................................71 3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................71 3.2 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) ...................................................................71 3.3 The Diviner Lunar Radiometer ..............................................................................73 3.3.1 Aims Outlined in the LRO AO... more detailed reconnaissance. The objective of the unmanned NASA Lunar Orbiter Program was... remote sensing. Luna 10, an orbiter launched in 1966, contained several... Sanidine Orthoclase Figure 1-2: Lunar Ternary diagrams. Characteristic lunar rocks can be represented... another American orbiter, Lunar Prospector, in 1998, and then a resurgence in lunar remote... instrument suite, the NASA Lunar Prospector. 2.3.1.2 Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer Figure 2-1: Epithermal... Mapper (M3) on the Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter [Pieters et al., 2009]. Water... Wavelength Infrared Camera The Clementine orbiter contained a Long-Wavelength Infrared (LWIR... decreasing faster during the lunar night-time. Lunar regolith typically has a lower... lunar day (e.g. Figure 2-4) 2.7 Mineralogy and Surface Processes Until the launch of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... Japanese space agency‟s (JAXA) Kaguya lunar orbiter, launched in 2007, also contained... be directly comparable to lunar observations. 2.9.3.3 Simulating the Lunar Environment 1: Heating from.... 3.2 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission was developed as part of the NASA Lunar Precursor...., 2007]:  The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), for mapping the lunar global topography... near-surface water-ice.  The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), composed of near... being integrated onto NASA‟s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). A near build-to-print... the LRO spacecraft, giving it an unobstructed view of the lunar surface... flown on the Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft. In this investigation, the... bad lunar analogues, the lunar surface is very mixed, or the lunar CF... Lunar Surface Rock Abundance and Regolith Thermophysical Properties Using LRO Diviner Data, Lunar... UV-visible spectroscopy of lunar red spots, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.../BF00562206. Chin, G. et al., (2007), Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Overview: The Instrument Suite and.... Diviner website, (unknown year), “LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer: Data Product Descriptions”, Retrieved... for Petrogenesis as Deep-seated Lunar Crust, Lunar and Planetary Institute Science... Lunar Surface Petrology Using the MidInfrared Emissivity Maximum with the LRO Diviner Radiometer, 37th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science... of the 2009 LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer Compositional Investigation, Lunar and Planetary Institute..., E05S06. McEwen, A. S., (1996), A Precise Lunar Photometric Function, Lunar and Planetary Institute - 248... J. H. Allton, (1993), JSC-1: A new lunar regolith simulant, Lunar and Planetary Institute Science... the Moon from Lunar Orbit, Lunar and Planetary Inst., 24th Lunar and Planetary..., D. A., et al., (2009), The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, Space Science Reviews... Silicate Reststrahlen Bands in Lunar Infrared Spectra, Lunar and Planetary Institute Science..., D. F. Everett, C. L. Baker, and K. N. Safdie, (2010), Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Spacecraft Design, Space... Emission Observations to Derive Lunar Surface Properties?, Lunar and Planetary Institute Science..., G. Chin, and J. Garvin, (2010), Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): Observations for Lunar Exploration and Science, Space...



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... and into the era of lunar exploration.” 2 7 January NASA announced that... to share power with a docked orbiter; added a platform intended to hold... kilograms (331 pounds) of simulated lunar soil—regolith—within 0.5 hours, using... (SRBs) had separated from the orbiter. According to Shuttle Program Manager... fabric heat shield on the orbiter’s left tail section. Managers feared... military reconnaissance information at a 1.0-meter (3.3-foot) resolution. 85 The National Reconnaissance Office... Blamed for Fire Alarm on Orbiter,” New York Times, 13 June... had selected proposals for future lunar-science activities and had established... had made possible. Under the Lunar Sortie Science Opportunities (LSSO) Program... astronauts could deploy on the lunar surface. Scientists planned to use... the Moon’s interior; to examine lunar dust, which creates problems for...—the Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research (LASER) Program and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Participating Scientist Program. The LRO mission, scheduled to... researchers analyzing data from the orbiter’s six instruments. Under the LASER... proposals for research investigating the lunar environment to determine how to... Defense Report, “NASA Sets New Lunar Science Programs,” Aviation Week, 28... to supervise the robots at lunar outposts. Scientists had chosen Haughton... 2010); Stefanie Olsen, “NASA Tests Lunar Robots in Arctic Crater,” CNET... appeared to have missed the orbiter. 112 10 August NASA Administrator... Observed, But Appears To Miss Orbiter,” NASASpaceflight.com, 8 August 2007, http... the protective tile on the orbiter’s underside, inspections during orbit had... mission objectives, including roaming the lunar surface for at least 500... 2.9-tonne (2,900-kilogram or 3.2-ton) lunar orbiter carried various instruments that would... obtain detailed data about the lunar topography and surface-mineral composition... mission as the most significant lunar expedition since America’s Apollo program... mission of 1994, and NASA’s Lunar Prospector mission of 1998– 1999.... 135 X Prize Foundation, “Google Sponsors Lunar X Prize To Create a Space Race...://www.googlelunarxprize.org/lunar/press-release/google-sponsors-lunar-x-prizeto-create-a-space... detailed images that NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) had captured during the..., “After Long Delay, Japan Launches Lunar Orbiter,” Los Angeles Times, 14 September... Press, “Japan’s Space Agency Launches Lunar Probe,” 14 September 2007. 137... Principal Investigator, 139 NASA, “NASA Orbiter Provides Insights About Mars Water...=10&RESULT FORMAT=&fulltext=Mars+Reconnaissance+Orbiter&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT (DOI..., the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) would fly aboard NASA’s LRO, which... concentrations of hydrogen at the lunar surface, or just below it... through a series of maneuvers, Japan’s lunar satellite, SELENE, had reached orbit..., SELENE would place its main orbiter Kayuga in an orbit approximately... Press, “Japan’s SELENE Probe Reaches Lunar Orbit,” 5 October 2007. 148 Spacewarn...’s Republic of China launched its lunar orbiter Chang’e 1 aboard a Long March-3A... and mineral composition of the lunar surface. 156 26 October Mission... Associated Press, “China Successfully Launches Lunar Probe,” 24 October 2007. 157... responsibility for designing the lunar lander and other lunar-surface systems, such... of Ares 5, the lunar lander, and for other lunar-surface systems, as...- and flight-test operations for lunar projects. NASA assigned GRC lead responsibility for developing the lunar lander’s ascent stage and Ares... for Orion and avionics for lunar landers. GSFC would also develop... lunar EVAs. JPL would have a variety of supporting roles in the lunar-lander project and lead responsibility for a particular robotic lunar-surface... assembly of the human lunar lander, help integrate lunar-habitat modules, and... 5 and structures and mechanisms for lunar-surface systems. As NASA’s primary... support the testing of the lunar-lander descent engine. 159 Mission... Field Center Roles for Ares 5, Lunar Lander,” Space.com, 30 October... Program to design a spacecraft for lunar exploration. Under the terms of.... The agreement allowed for joint lunar exploration through 2017. 167 13... China’s mission to document the lunar landscape. China unveiled the image..., “China Shows First Image from Lunar Probe,” 26 November 2007; Xinhua News Agency, “China’s First Lunar Probe Enters Moon’s Orbit,” 5 November... LEND LRO LSSO Langley Research Center Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Sortie... Surveyor Memorandum of Understanding Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Marshall Space Flight Center Mars... System National Research Council National Reconnaissance Office National Science Foundation PICA...=&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=Mars+ Reconnaissance+Orbiter&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT (DOI...



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... by the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) on the Lunar Atmosphere and... megabits per second (Mb/s) from lunar distance, roughly three to six... Ka-band system on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The system demonstrated Serially Concatenated... with supporting near-Earth (including lunar) optical communications. This technology progresses... in power efficiency. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is the SOA in... Technology Name Description 5.4.6.1 Primitive Body/Lunar Proximity Operations and Pinpoint Landing...) communicate with another rover or orbiter in proximity, determine a precise range... LEO LEGEND LIDAR LKF LLCD LRO LTP MEMS MESFET MIMO MMIC... Telecommunication Union Intra-Vehicular Activity Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer... Ranging Linear Kalman Filter Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Licklider Transmission Protocol... Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter MilliSecond Pulsar Mean Time To.... counting detector for PPM 16 (Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration) 62 micron.... Technology State of the Art: Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) ~ 1 meter... the Art: IRU used in Lunar Laser Capability Performance Goal: Very..., 40% efficiency at Ka-Band; LRO: 40 watts, 40% efficiency at... or less missions: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), Kepler, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), etc. Technology Needed for... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enabling 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enabling 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enabling 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... specialized trans-Earth injection (TEI), lunar orbit insertion algorithms. sequencing. Orion... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... and Landing DRAFT 5 .4 .6 .1 Primitive Body/Lunar Proximity Operations and Pinpoint Landing... designing and optimizing primitive body/lunar proximity operations and pinpoint landing... sensors that allow primitive body/lunar proximity operations and pinpoint landing... lander guidance based on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter terrain maps. Capability Description... terrains of Martian canyons and lunar polar craters requires adaptation and... missile TRN for Mars and lunar missions. Capability State of the... (Prox-1) links used with Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to surface rovers. Capability Performance... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... second from Earth-Mars (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter’s antenna can beam data to...



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... exploration programs Ranger, Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter were all designed to look... 1966 onwards, Luna 9, Surveyor 1 and Lunar Orbiter 1/2 supplied the first images of... and the release of an orbiter to study the Martian atmosphere... a great success with three other orbiter missions. The landing of two... planning to send first an orbiter and then a lander to Mars... of lunar missions run by Japan, India, and China. The lunar mapping database was given a significant boost by the USA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... Earth, such as solar and lunar eclipses, had a powerful mythological significance... completely solidified, to form the lunar highland crust. Elements such as.... However, data from the lunar probe Lunar Prospector which orbited the Moon... of a number of recent international lunar missions. Data from a U.S.-built spectrometer... in lunar research, the past 15 years have seen several orbiter missions...‘s LCROSS impact experiment (2009), India‘s orbiter mission Chandrayaan-1 (2008 until 2009... Cabaeus crater, photographed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, target area of the LCROSS... lunar gravity field (2011 until 2012) and above all the USA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we are fairly familiar with... of the craters on the lunar surface. Craters featuring central depressions... Mount (ATM) Solar physics probe, lunar orbit American-German mission, solar... Landing and Orbiter, first images from the surface Landing and Orbiter, images from the surface Orbiter, images from the... of the central cloud cover Orbiter, radar mapping of 95 percent... Landing after direct injection into a lunar impact trajectory, 10,338 images... lunar day, 812 images on the second lunar day Lunar Orbiter 1 10 Aug 1966 Lunar... 22 Oct 1966 Lunar Orbiter 2 Luna 13 06 Nov 1966 Lunar Orbiter 3 05 Feb... crater Lunar orbit, data transmission ended on 19 Jan 1968 Lunar orbit... in the Solar System Lunar Orbiter 4 Surveyor 4 Explorer 35 Lunar Orbiter 5 Surveyor 5 04 May... Moon Apollo 13 Luna 16 Lunar orbit Lunar orbit, 844 images, particularly... using a polarizing filter; soil analyses Lunar orbit, collection of data of... important conditions for landings from lunar orbit First manned Moon landing... Imbrium, remote controlled semi-automatic lunar rover, more than 200 panoramic... 1971 Hadley area, first manned lunar rover Landing in Mare Foecunditatis... Jan 1974 controlled semi-automatic lunar rover Lunar orbit at 212 km... 1 22 Oct 2008 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) 92 17 Jun 2009 Lunar Crater Observation and..., no data transmission from lunar orbit possible Lunar orbit, multispectral mapping of... lunar orbit, amongst others Gamma Ray Spectrometer, Alpha Particle Spectrometer European lunar orbiter..., geochemistry, and exospheric environment Japanese lunar orbiter, global observation of the Moon..., geography, and gravitation First Chinese lunar orbiter, satellite test, 3D images, study... and amounts of elements Indian lunar orbiter, technology mission, production of global..., LROC (Lunar Reconnaissance Camera), LOLA (Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter) Impactor, launched along with LRO, search... spectrometer, ultraviolet-visible spectrometer and lunar dust experiment. In addition technical... communication system in April 1965 Lunar images, flight to Mars Overview... of landing capsule (crash-landing), orbiter took TV images Reached Mars... orbit on 12 Feb 1974, orbiter worked a few days only, transmission..., landing capsule missed its target Orbiter and lander, reached Mars orbit... Dec 1998 Orbiter Mars Polar Lander 03 Jan 1999 Orbiter and lander... and CO2 budget, Mars Climate Orbiter Color Imager and Pressure Modulated... Recon- 12 Aug 2005 naissance Orbiter (MRO) Phoenix 04 Aug 2007... landing missions European mission with orbiter and lander Beagle 2, lander separation... Borrelly Hayabusa 09 May 2003 Orbiter and lander with sample return... ChuryumovGerasimenko Dawn 27 Sep 2007 Orbiter to 4 Vesta (arrival in July... of Saturn and its moons Orbiter, exploration of the Saturnian system...-Wachmann 3 and possibly comet d’Arrest Orbiter and lander, measuring and mapping... about the Moon from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, and about the Asteroid Vesta... Lunar Orbiter 1-5, Apollo, Galileo, Clementine, Lunar Prospector, Cassini, SMART 1, Kaguya, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Mariner 9, Viking Orbiter... Exploration Rover 1 & 2, Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Phoenix, Mars Science Laboratory Asteroiden... moons. Launched in 1989, the orbiter – after a journey of several years..., and Callisto. Released by the orbiter months before it arrived at... the VIRTIS spectrometer on the orbiter and the ROLIS camera, the... planViews of the Solar System orbiter and a British-built lander modet... mapping of the Mars Express orbiter. In addition, 99 How can... of the current American Mercury orbiter, MESSENGER. The mission comprises two... by ESA, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) is supposed to explore... surface, whereas the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO) built by the Japanese...



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...­ ration for Space Shuttle retirement. Lunar Architecture Team In FY07, the ESMD further developed its lunar architecture (addressing how humans will...) through the work of the Lunar Architecture Team (LAT), staffed by... in 2005, and the 180 lunar objectives and A c t i v i t i e s Exploration Systems Mission... an internal study of the lunar surface system architecture. During FY07... LAT studied and evaluated six lunar surface system campaign options, assessing... the near-term requirements for lunar missions. In addition, in conjunction... high-priority technology needs for lunar exploration; risk mitigation related to... lunar robotic missions to gather data relevant to future human missions. Lunar... A e r o n a u t i c s S p a c e R e p o r t o f t h e P r e s i d e n t 6 tion, and engineering requirements for lunar surface hardware. humans to the... selec­ The first lunar robotic mission is the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), which will provide... site selection. A secondary payload, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite...), will provide additional data on lunar resources. In FY07, the LPRP... Critical Design Reviews for the Lunar LRO and the LCROSS. Human Research... were used in Orion’s design lunar missions. • Delivered human performance data... affect EVA suit design for lunar surface missions. The human performance.... Results indicated that a 10 km lunar traverse is possible. • Matured several... to lunar dust and produced an inhalation standard to support lunar surface... program developed techniques to create lunar dust simulants with chemical and...­ tribution properties similar to actual lunar dust. A c t i v i t i e s cycles to assess the...-lead technologies needed for the lunar exploration missions in 2020. During... for the lunar lander descent stage. use on the lunar lander ascent stage. avoiding hazards during lunar landings. • Demonstrated oxygen production from simulated lunar regolith in... fuel cell power system for a lunar rover that can carry large...-concept inflatable habitat for the lunar outpost. • Developed a lithium-ion battery... to provide power for the lunar outpost. • Demonstrated an advanced video... Mars Exploration Rovers and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Communications services also were provided... of Events and F i s c a l for future lunar/Mars missions. 19 recommendation accepted... first observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, scientists were able to view...-anticipated Air Force and National Reconnaissance Office spacecraft. These launches, scheduled... (HiRise) camera aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). This camera provides the... of U.S. instruments on the Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter (scheduled for launch in 2008... Exploration, the DOS established the Lunar and Planetary Spectrum Initiative to..., other Federal agencies (e.g., the National Reconnaissance Office and the U.S. Air Force... to study the surface and lunar orbit. This work has great... the most complete collection of lunar images of any RPIF in... least an altitude equal to lunar distance from Earth. b. This Earth... 40° TacSat 2 2006-058A National Reconnaissance Office NASA nanosatellite “Astrobionics” experiment... LCROSS LEO Launch Abort System Lunar Architecture Team Large Area Telescope Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... and Ranging Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Langley Research Center Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Launch Services...-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Marshall Space Flight Center Murchison... MWA Y e a r M 141 F i s c a l LIDAR LPRP LRC LRO LSP LSST LULC A e r o n a u t i c s a n d S p a c e R e p o r t o f t h e P r e s i d e n t 142 NPP...



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... Lunar Exploration Analysis Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.3. ILN International Lunar Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.4. NLSI – The NASA Lunar Science... been identified. The Uranus Orbiter and Probe mission was selected...-X, Space Exploration Institute. and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LRO). Investigating the distribution of water... Bills and Ferrari (1977) from Lunar Orbiter and Apollo 15 and 16... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO: Chin et al., 2007; Vondrak et al., 2010) and the Lunar...). The lunar radiation environment is being quantified by the LRO mission... signature (Hayne et al., 2010). LRO Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) data... al., 2010). China’s Chang’E-2 Moon orbiter has been launched on 1 October... an orbiter and landing probe. Contact in situ investigations in the lunar... a Russian lunar lander and an Indian orbiter and mini-rover. A lunar multielement mission... structure. Lunar crustal rocks. Lunar poles. Lunar volcanism. Impact processes. Lunar regolith. Lunar dust and atmosphere environment. 3.3. International Lunar... international lunar exploration, from the analysis and integration of current lunar orbiter data, to the development of lunar landers and... (MER), Mars Express (MEx), Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and Phoenix, have added... environments. Observations from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed possible flowing water... ESA intends to provide a Mars Orbiter and an Entry, Descent and... Module (EDM). The Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) will accommodate scientific instruments... with the Chinese Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) orbiter. However, due to an engine... exploration that begins with orbital reconnaissance and in situ martian surface...) into orbit. A Mars Sample Return Orbiter (Sample capture and Earth Entry... scientifically and technically. Orbital reconnaissance, experience with surface operations and... rendezvous with a Mars Sample Return Orbiter that returns the collected samples... ascent vehicle, and Earth-return orbiter. Planning for sample handling and... interpreting and validating information from orbiter and rover missions on extraterrestrial... to provide data to an orbiter directly. Also, the challenge of..., with a phased approach with orbital reconnaissance, small landers, a network of landers..., plasma and radiation. China’s Yinghuo-1 orbiter hitchhiked on the Russian Phobos... will send the Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) orbiter piggyback on the Russian mission... Orbit LER Lunar Exploration Roadmap LHB Late Heavy Bombardment LRO Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter MA Moon... Exploration Rover MEx Mars Express Orbiter MGB Microgravity Glove Box MISSE...-Purpose Logistics Module MRO Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter MSL Mars Science Laboratory MSR.... Current and near-future lunar missions include the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in orbit since... on Oceanic Research European Moon Orbiter NASA Science Mission Directorate Space... Engineering and Mathematics Trace Gas Orbiter Europlanet Trans National Access United... Outer Space Affairs Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) orbiter piggyback on the Russian Phobos... Martian Landers MAVEN Trace Gas Orbiter MSL Martian Rovers Mars Sample... ESA and ASI. Trace Gas Orbiter EDM ExoMars planned Launch 2010.... The Russian lunar program encompasses Luna-Glob (a Moon orbiter and landing probe... Resource/1 (a lunar lander in combination with the Indian Chandrayaan-2 orbiter and minirover... and data collection. The Chang’E-2 orbiter was the first mission within... their lunar-focused activities, the Chinese will send the Yinghou-1 (YH-1) orbiter... 2012. ISRO would contribute an orbiter – Chandrayaan-2 – and a mini-rover to... recent fleet of orbiter precursors for science, technology and reconnaissance. The second...: a synthetic aperture radar on lunar reconnaissance orbiter, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference... Chin, G., Brylow, S., Foote, M., et al. Lunar reconnaissance orbiter overview: the instrument suite and...) instrument on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter (LRO) mission, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference... LRO: Testing Local Areas with High Concentrations of Hydrogen at the Lunar... mapping of the lunar south pole using the LRO neutron detector experiment... of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. J. Geophys. Res. 114 (53), E00D06... the CRISM instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Nature 354, 305–309, 2008..., M.C., Greenhagen, B.T., et al. The lunar reconnaissance orbiter diviner lunar radiometer experiment. Space Sci. Rev... LROC Team. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera: first results, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary Science... of radiation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.... Vondrak, R., Keller, J., Chin, G., Garvin, J. Lunar reconnaissance orbiter (LRO): Observations for lunar exploration and science. Space...



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...-40 Advanced Capabilities Theme Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Exploration Technology Development... Earth-observing missions.  The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) entered orbit around Mars... International Space Station (ISS).  The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) passed a Preliminary Design Review, allowing... Complex in support of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory... October 2007. Mars Exploration Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) began its two-year... periods throughout its history. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter arrived in March 2006 and... Exploration Rovers, and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter at Mars. Missions in formulation... mission review each year. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter MRO, which began its science... Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Scout (Phoenix) Mars... the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program (LPRP) will launch the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)--the first lunar... increase in costs for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Exploration Technology Development Program: An... the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP) and includes the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), as well as future lunar... increase in costs for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, as well as an Institutional... risk. The first lunar robotic mission is the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), which will provide... engineering requirements for lunar surface hardware. The first mission, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), will launch... destinations. Outcome 6.1 By 2008, launch a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that will provide information about... Engineering Review (PER) for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Lunar Precursor Robotic Program APG 8AC15... suit designs. Lunar Precursor Robotic Program In 2006, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission passed... Budget Authority ($ millions) Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Other FY 2006 FY... FY 2007 PB Request Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter FY 2008 PB... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), is in development, with launch planned late in October 2008. LRO... achieve Outcomes 6.1 ("by 2008, launch a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that will provide information about... for a human lunar sortie by 2020. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter project is a lunar-orbiting satellite... conduct an initial reconnaissance of the Moon. The orbiter will map and...: Exploration Systems Advanced Capabilities Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Budget / Life Cycle... Project Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter In FY 2006, the launch vehicle for the Lunar Robotics Orbiter (LRO... Advanced Capabilities Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Project Purpose The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the... Systems Advanced Capabilities Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Project Parameters LRO has a dry... Systems Advanced Capabilities Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Project Commitments LRO will launch... Systems Advanced Capabilities Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Schedule Commitments LRO received confirmation... 2008 Development Cost Summary Project Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Base Year Base Year Development... Advanced Capabilities Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Project Management The LRO Project Office... Systems Advanced Capabilities Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Project Risk Management Title... as Hubble Space Telescope, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and Galileo. SCP will... band to support Kepler, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and other mission will begin... Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter missions will be completed and..., the next-generation Mars rover, lunar reconnaissance, and a mission to study the... Science Lab 2009, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). These projects received authority to....0 2007 134.9 15 Launch Readiness Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter 2007 420.8 2007 420.8 0 Launch... Exploration APG 7SSE9 Begin Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) primary science phase. Mars... destinations. Outcome 6.1 By 2008, launch a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that will provide information about... (Authority to Proceed) for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Outcome 6.2 Outcome 6.3 By 2012, develop... destinations. Outcome 6.1 By 2008, launch a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that will provide information about... Engineering Review (PER) for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Advanced Capabilities... Low Frequency Instrument MRO Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter LISA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna... Spacecraft–C LRO Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter MUSS Multi-User Systems and Support LROC Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera MUST...



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0.27/5
... 4-1). The stations with lunar capability also tracked the lunar reflectors, one of which was rediscovered on the lunar surface... for 2009-2010. The NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft and its laser altimeter... of precise orbit determination in lunar orbit. The network continued to... calibration LRO June 17, 2009 Lunar orbit NASA (US) Lunar studies POD in lunar... Missions Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (Figure 4-4) is the first mission of NASA’s Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP). The LRO mission objective is... at least two years. The LRO Laser Ranging (LR) system uses... on the Earth to LRO to determine LRO position at sub-meter... of the Moon (on the lunar near-side or whenever possible... the laser signal, records Figure 4-4. LRO spacecraft that information and provides it to the onboard LRO data system for storage and...



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...). The missions reviewed were Cassini, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Mars Exploration Rover (MER, also... Express (MEX), Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and Mars Science Laboratory... community, based on the members’ lunar, Mars, and outer planets experience... the other covered Cassini and LRO. Both met in May. There... or enhanced missions: • Cassini – Excellent (E); • LRO – Very Good/Good (VG/G) and... Senior Review suggested descoping some LRO instruments that are at the... into Mars orbit, India’s Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) will arrive, and... activities are ESA’s Trace Gas Orbiter and the ExoMars Rover in... has gone further than the lunar rovers did including the Soviet... letter of cooperation also includes lunar projects. Dr. Green said that... will always be looking for lunar opportunities, however. Dr. Green also... are seven subcommittees dealing with lunar samples, Stardust, Genesis, cosmic dust.... The lunar curation task force conducted a site inspection of lunar sample curation... has reduced the number of lunar samples out in the community... is looking at protocols for lunar sample handling, and part of... described the activities of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG). The... request. Initiatives include an international lunar workshop in 2015 to re.... There are also curation issues. LRO offers new opportunities. Other issues... be a town hall at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC... to advance basic and applied lunar and planetary science research in... for in-person meetings. A virtual lunar science forum in 2013 used... opportunities to network. SSERVI manages a lunar mapping and modeling portal. Commercial... an asteroid sample to cis-lunar space is not designed as... R&A restructuring • Lessons learned from the LRO mission (ESMD/SMD partnering) – (Vondrak... an asteroid sample to cis-lunar space is not designed as..., Worcester Polytechnic Institute Stephen Mackwell, Lunar and Planetary Institute Norman Pace..., LADEE finds lunar “dust cloud”. LRO Camera Identifies Recent Craters. Lunar interior properties.... A young solidification age for the lunar magma ocean. Sulfuric Acid Rain... Martian Craters LADEE characterized the Lunar exosphere 45 Planetary Sciences Subcommittee...



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... Missions and Data Analysis LUNAR QUEST PROGRAM …………………………………… Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment... generations. Samples currently include Apollo lunar samples, Antarctic meteorites, solar wind... close quarters. It comprises a large orbiter, which is designed to operate....0% Lunar Science Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Surface Science Lander Technology Lunar... satellite and possibly surface missions. Lunar Quest addresses the science priorities... of the Moon.” Lunar Quest complements other lunar missions sponsored by NASA and international agencies. An LRO Narrow... of lunar materials from any lunar site. Projects included are the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, Lunar Management, and Lunar Science Research. These projects address Lunar Quest objectives, which include providing opportunities to conduct lunar-focused science missions and research; re-establishing lunar science and a lunar... SCIENCE LUNAR QUEST ACHIEVEMENTS IN FY 2011 Striking new lunar images and... raw lunar data and high-level products, including mosaic images, which LRO... SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE LUNAR QUEST LUNAR SCIENCE RESEARCH The Lunar Science Research project... participation and collaboration within the lunar science community. It is composed... opportunities that include: the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI), a virtual institute... implementation; the Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research program, a lunar-only element in the annual ROSES competitive research announcement; and Lunar Data, which supports lunar data archives and distribution to the science community. LUNAR MANAGEMENT Lunar Management provides management and oversight of selected flight missions reviews. LUNAR RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER The primary objective of the HEOMD LRO mission was to conduct investigations that prepare for future human lunar exploration. Specifically LRO scouted for safe and... exposure to the lunar radiation environment. Final delivery of LRO exploration data... Science missions. Program Schedule The Lunar Quest program will end shortly.... PS-12 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE LUNAR QUEST Program Management & Commitments MSFC... Lunar Quest program, providing overall mission management oversight. Project/Element Provider LRO...: M SFC, JHU-APL Cost Share: N/A Lunar Science Provider: HQ Project M anagement.... PS-13 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: LUNAR QUEST LUNAR ATMOSPHERE & DUST ENVIRONMENT EXPLORER..., and time variability of the lunar atmosphere. LADEE’s measurements will The... eight major priorities for future lunar science missions. grains. Additionally, LADEE... from lunar orbit. LADEE will measure lunar dust and examine the lunar atmosphere.... PS-14 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: LUNAR QUEST LUNAR ATMOSPHERE & DUST ENVIRONMENT EXPLORER... Ultra Violet Spectrometer (UVS), and Lunar Dust EXperiment (LDEX). The mission... instruments, LADEE will carry the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) sponsored... PS-15 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: LUNAR QUEST LUNAR ATMOSPHERE & DUST ENVIRONMENT EXPLORER.... PS-16 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: LUNAR QUEST LUNAR ATMOSPHERE & DUST ENVIRONMENT EXPLORER... PS-17 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: LUNAR QUEST LUNAR ATMOSPHERE & DUST ENVIRONMENT EXPLORER... NASA Center: ARC Cost Share: N/A Lunar Dust EXperiment (LDEX) Instrument Provider...-18 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: LUNAR QUEST LUNAR ATMOSPHERE & DUST ENVIRONMENT EXPLORER (LADEE... the Neutral Mass Spectrometer. The Lunar Dust Experiment was competitively selected... the Lunar Quest program, the Discovery program is absorbing ongoing lunar science... target, Pluto. It will conduct reconnaissance of Pluto and its moons... SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE MARS EXPLORATION Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and the 2011 Mars... NASA/ ESA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter 2016 (EMTGO) mission and planning....6 15.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 M ars Express 2005 M ars Reconnaissance Orbiter 30.1 40.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 242.9 174.0 65....9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2016 ExoM ars Trace Gas Orbiter 32.6 27.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Change From FY... Rover, Mars Express, 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and the 2011 Mars... Development Operations 2005 MARS RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), currently in extended... for September 2014. 2005 MARS RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER Using the 2005 MRO data... for a Uranus orbiter and probe, and an Enceladus orbiter. The objectives of the Uranus mission will include inserting an orbiter... primary objectives of the Enceladus orbiter will include determining the nature... manages the mission. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras...