Спутник ФКИ. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). [Редактировать]

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO, Лунный орбитальный зонд) — автоматическая межпланетная станция NASA, искусственный спутник Луны. Запуск с помощью ракеты-носителя Атлас V состоялся 19 июня 2009 года в 01:32 (Мск), что позже запланированного времени почти на полтора часа. Задержка произошла из-за неблагоприятных погодных условий. 23 июня 2009 года зонд вышел на лунную орбиту. LRO вместе с другим аппаратом Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) являются авангардом программы НАСА «Lunar Precursor Robotic Program» по возвращению на Луну.
Орбитальный аппарат несёт на себе комплекс из шести научных инструментов и одного прибора для проверки новых технологий.

  • RaTER (Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation) — основным предназначением этого прибора является оценка вредного воздействия космических лучей и солнечной радиации на биологические объекты.
  • DLRE (The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment) — измерение теплового излучения лунной поверхности и его изменения в течение суток, информация нужная для будущих работ на поверхности Луны.
  • LAMP (The Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project) — прибор для поиска льда в неосвещённых кратерах. Он наблюдает отражение ультрафиолетового излучения звёзд (линии серии Лаймана) от лунной поверхности.
  • LEND (The Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector) — прибор российского производства, для составления подробных карт содержания атомов водорода в лунной поверхности.
  • LOLA (The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter) лазерный альтиметр для составления точной карты высот.
  • LROC (The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera) главная оптическая камера, для получения фотографий поверхности Луны с разрешением до полуметра, с помощью которых будут искать подходящие места для посадки пилотируемых экспедиций. LROC состоит из трех камер: камеры низкого разрешения (WAC) и двух камер высокого разрешения (NAC), первая из которых предназначена для получения общих планов местности, а две другие — для фотографий с большим разрешением. Планируется сделать фотографии примерно 8 % лунной поверхности, в том числе:
    • всех мест, связанных с деятельностью человека: мест посадок пилотируемых кораблей «Аполлон», американских и советских автоматических станций, а также кратеров, образовавшихся при падении искусственных спутников Луны и других аппаратов;
    • 50 «зон повышенного интереса», отобранных учеными;
    • околополярных районов, которые сейчас считаются наиболее перспективными для организации обитаемой базы. 
  • Mini-RF (The Miniature Radio Frequency) — тестирование нового легковесного радара с синтезированной апертурой

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1LROНайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США
3Страна производитель - США

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12014-01-12. Теперь о «погодных условиях» в космосе можно узнать, став слушателем интернет-радиостанции, которая получает данные от лунного орбитального зонда LRO - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Радиостанция работает в режиме реального времени, получая данные о радиационном окружении космического аппарата и переводя их в постоянный поток музыки. Уровни радиации определяют, какой инструмент наиболее характерен, музыкальный ключ, который используется, и высоту тона. Уровень радиации определяет CRaTER – прибор, оснащенный шестью датчиками, установленный на LRO. Его основным назначением является оценка вредного воздействия космических лучей и солнечной радиации на биологические объекты. Датчики ежесекундно измеряют количество частиц в окружении и передают их Live Radio (Живому Радио) CRaTER, где программное обеспечение переводит цифры в звуки гаммы из четырех октав. Каждую секунду проигрывается шесть тонов, по одному на каждый датчик. Более высокие, звенящие тона означают меньшую радиационную активность, а более низкие, мрачные тона – более высокую активность. Программное обеспечение выбирает основной инструмент и музыкальный ключ, основываясь на недавней активности. Когда уровень радиации ниже всего, главным инструментом будет пианино, и оно будет играть мелодию одной из мажорных октав. Однако, как только уровень радиации повысится, будет выбрана одна из минорных октав, и вместо пианино будет выбран один из семи других музыкальных инструментов (стальной барабан, гитара, маримба, банджо, скрипка, виолончель, бонго). Слушать космическую радиостанцию могут официальные подписчики на продукцию CRaTER онлайн, через приложение. Поток данных LRO идет в прямом эфире, только каждый раз, когда космический аппарат перемещается за Луну, он не может соединиться с собирающими данные антеннами на Земле, поэтому при-мерно на час передача данных прекращается. В этот период станция повторно использует данные предыдущего часа. Тэги: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг500
2Масса, кг1846
3Мощность, Вт1850

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС (планируемый ), год5

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2009-031A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор Космическое агентство США
2Производитель Goddard Space Flight Center
3Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2008-01-01540.1
4Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2008-01-0193.3
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2008-01-01420.8
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2008-01-0125.8
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2009-11-01590.4
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (формулировки проекта), млн. долл.2009-11-0194.4
9Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2009-11-01473.1
10Прогнозируемая стоимость (работы с аппаратом), млн. долл.2009-11-0122.9

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2009-06-18 at 21:32:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xLunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
3Полезная нагрузка 1xLunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS)
4Ракета-носитель 1xАтлас 5 401

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... September. Space Exploration. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), launched in August 2005... its return to Earth. Shuttle orbiter Atlantis, launched on 9 September, docked... Shuttle fleet stand-down following orbiter Columbia’s failure. In a 6-1/2-hour spacewalk... of the four sensors inside orbiter Discovery’s liquid hydrogen fuel tank... should they have struck the orbiter. Subsequent observation by a camera mounted... the orbiter’s thermal protection system, and 350 digital photos of the orbiter... based on China’s FSW recoverable reconnaissance satellite, with a payload consisting of... to the mission’s primary Shuttle orbiter. On 7 July NASA downgraded its... Lift Vehicle, Ares-5. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), launched on 12 August... window; a Mars science and communications orbiter to be launched in 2013...-cm-aperture Lorri long-range reconnaissance imager provides planetary-surface resolution... on 13 April that the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), planned for launch in October... with the LRO, India’s Chandrayaan lunar orbiter and other spacecraft. The LRO/LCross mission is the first in NASA’s Robotic Lunar Exploration... highly successful mission, ESA’s Smart-1 lunar orbiter was guided to a controlled crash... outlined China’s multi-step lunar -81- exploration programme: a lunar orbiter mission in 2007... (Chang’ E3). The Japanese (JAXA) orbiter mission SELENE (Selenological and Engineering... Frontiers programme. A new mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), is being developed by NASA..., and a lunar radiation environment sensor. A current proposal is for the LRO to be launched together with the Lunar Crater Observation... launched the Messenger mission, a Mercury orbiter, as a part of its Discovery... mission consists of a Mercury Planetary Orbiter (for high resolution multi-wavelength... physics studies), and a Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (dedicated to a study of particles... Programme. Principal goals for the orbiter's latest mission extension include continued... of observations with NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter; imaging of possible landing sites... achieve a low Mars orbit. The orbiter carries three science instruments (THEMIS.... Mars Express consists of an orbiter with eight experiments. These are... separation from the Mars Express orbiter and nominal injection, entered the... early 2004, the Mars Express orbiter delivered new science results related... well as with NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission during the extended mission... of past water. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched in August 2005, arrived... for future missions. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter carries six science instruments, three... clouds and dust storms. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM... than one metre. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter carries the most powerful camera... landers and rovers. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter also carries a sounder to find... higher-resolution instruments. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also serve as the... expected to use the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in coming years. -122- The... for the development of a Mars orbiter, a descent module and a Mars rover... Rosetta project consists of an orbiter with eleven experiments and a lander... redundant radio channels to the orbiter due to a commanding error. One... Titan’s formation. -127- The Cassini orbiter also made extensive studies of... had been successfully achieved. The orbiter carries out remote visual, infrared... to observing Titan, the Cassini orbiter is making extensive measurements of... first one, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), will study the surface... second one, the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), will investigate the magnetic... joined by the NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). MRO was inserted into... size. Over extended periods, Solar Orbiter will deliver images and data... will be explored by a magnetospheric orbiter (MMO), that is an element... the comet. The NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Category III), successfully launched from... an Atlas-5 launch vehicle. The orbiter (MRO) contains a high resolution camera... Mars Odyssey. ESA’s Mars Express orbiter (Category III) continues its mission... Aparatus Proposed ESA/JAXA Mercury orbiter (2012) Balloon-borne Experiment with... X-Ray Observatory (NASA) Lunar mission (India) Lunar orbiter (China) Lunar rover (China) Sample return... Chandrayaan-1 Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer US Lunar orbiter NASA/CSA satellite A mission consisting... Ray Energetics and Mass Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Centre Royale de... Orbiter Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer Monitor Experimental (Russia) Mercury Planetary Orbiter Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mesospheric Summer Echoes Meteosat Second... and Atmospheric Administration Japanese Mars orbiter (US) National Polar-orbiting Operational... SOHO Sojourner Solar A Solar B Solar Orbiter SOLAR-2000 SORCE SOXS Soyuz... SunRISE Selenological and Engineering Explorer orbiter mission (JAXA) Space Environment Monitor...



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.... It calls for an open lunar architecture that other nations and... data from ESA’s Mars Express orbiter indicated massive deposits of water... 15 June, leaving its two U.S. reconnaissance payloads in lower altitudes and... arrival on 10 June, the orbiter’s thermal protection system was examined...’s robotic Canadarm and the 15-m Orbiter Boom Sensor System extension, and... be “cosmetic” damage to the Orbiter’s thermal protection system, both the... carboncarbon protective material on the Orbiter’s nose and wing leading edges... of the orbiter’s belly using laser sensors on the Orbiter Boom Sensing... geological sampling during upcoming manned lunar missions, and built an undersea... collection, and check out potential lunar spacesuit designs. On 19 June.... It would consist of an orbiter and a carrier spacecraft that would... December 2006; the other used a lunar gravity-assist maneuver to place... images taken by the MARS Reconnaissance Orbiter of the two Viking spacecraft... System (HiRise) on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) began to degrade early... Scout programme to send an orbiter to Mars in 2011 to... data from ESA’s Mars Express orbiter, released on 14 March, indicate... year’s report and below), the lunar programme architecture is aimed at... plan calls for an open lunar architecture that other nations and... U.S. scientists on instruments for the U.S. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, and are working together to...’s notional plan would establish the lunar base at the Shackleton crater... of diversity in lunar sampling, NASA stated that its lunar mission architecture... for placing 6 tonnes on the lunar surface. The planned Shackleton Crater... September NASA unveiled a new modular lunar architecture based on large, movable... September, fueled by the current lunar exploration programmes of China, India... finer-grain sensors of NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) planned for launch next year... for further study by the LRO. A second goal for the Selene... around the Moon, to map lunar gravity by using Doppler ranging... neutral particles in the lunar environment, along with a lunar perspective on Earth... it into its 96-km lunar orbit. Its first images of... of a series of four advanced lunar missions, followed on 24 October... 31 October 2008 by NASA’s LRO. On 28 September, at the... of the lunar surface, measure the thickness of the lunar regolith, identify... placed in a circular 200-km lunar orbit. The mission was supported... network. The Chinese follow-on lunar projects announced at the IAF... to a lunar transfer orbit and then placed in a 100-km lunar orbit... 90-day tour on the lunar surface would be powered first... for the 2007 Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge on 21 June... cargo- and crew-carrying lunar-surface-to-lunar-orbit ferries. The seven... (USA) announced the $30-million Lunar X-Prize, to be sponsored by..., including a 500-m traverse on the lunar surface and transmitting at least..., surviving a full lunar night, or roving on the lunar surface for more... for the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter, a two-satellite mission to be... second satellite, the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, is to be developed and... for a key component of NASA’s lunar exploration program. Aerojet completed over... engine technology critical to the Lunar Surface Access module (LSAM). In... descent stage of NASA’s planned lunar lander. Goal of the tests... ROEM(Renseignement d’Origine ElectroMagnetique) electromagnetic reconnaissance program. Astrium is lead manager...’s Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector will fly on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to search the lunar... exploration, which includes a lunar orbital module and a lunar lander with a mobile scientific... of a satellite vehicle composed of a lunar orbital module and a lander with... first unmanned flight would include a lunar orbiter that will fire 12 penetrators... first be tested through NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter project, to be launched in...



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... 3.1 Robotic Network Science – The International Lunar Network ……………………… 16 3.2 Joint Development for... Lunar cartographic reference system as might be undertaken by the International Lunar... – The Moon and Mars 2.2.1 Moon Lunar scientific exploration will involve three... ‘of the Moon,’ which involves lunar geology, geochemistry and geophysics, will...-dimensional topographical map of the lunar surface on both the near... creating a detailed map of the lunar surface scientists can answer questions... will launch its Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) with a surface impactor, the Lunar Crater Observation and... and characterizing the lunar surface and geological structure. Following LRO from NASA... Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer... to characterize the atmosphere and lunar dust environment. The creation of detailed maps of the lunar surface and subsurface is necessary..., to do further studies of lunar regolith and to characterize the... lunar surface will help identify safe landing locations for the Altair lunar... in 2003), and the U.S. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (launched in 2005). In addition... the near surface. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has been successfully providing high... <$500m) mission called MAVEN, an orbiter that will provide information about.... 3.1 Robotic Network Science – The International Lunar Network In March 2008 NASA... International Lunar Network (ILN) to the international community at the Lunar and... to study local or global lunar science. Such experiments might include..., astronomical instruments, electromagnetic profiling of lunar regolith and crust, local geochemistry... States was held at NASA's Lunar Science Institute, located at the... launched separately: one carrying an orbiter that includes the Earth return... launch vehicle and the Altair lunar lander. Together, these vehicles will... its first important milestone for lunar exploration, a Lunar Capability Concept Review (LCCR... study that looked at possible lunar mission scenarios and compared them... capability to deliver the Altair lunar lander, four astronauts and cargo... exploration missions. A variant of the lunar lander will serve as an... carrier, taking modular outpost components, lunar rovers, and scientific equipment to... ISWG is preparing a number of lunar surface exploration scenarios and associated... completed their conceptual studies for a Lunar Surface Architecture. Space Law: Selected... from lunar and Mars missions (see paras 2.2.1 and 2.2.2) • Chandrayaan orbiter mission • Kaguya orbiter mission (see also JAXA Exploration Highlights in Annex) • Chang’e 1 orbiter mission... (see para 1.2.3) Initiation of International Lunar Network (ILN) initiative by NASA...-Globe 2013 ESMO orbital Google Lunar Selene-2 X-prize Chang’e-2 (rover) Chandrayaan... developed mission scenarios for human lunar exploration and derive from the... on-board the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and ESA Mars Express missions... an AO for small missions, a lunar orbiter has been selected and the... exploration technologies and preparation for Lunar exploration). o The development of a GIS... mission in competition is the lunar orbiter previously mentioned. The MDS experiment... with NASA, considering areas of lunar research on which to cooperate... of a Joint Working Group on lunar exploration was published in 2008... human exploration activities. The MoonLITE orbiter would act as a telecommunications station... Sample Return, Mars Science Orbiter, Lunar mobility system, Lunar ISRU system and a robotic... facility in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. Lunar Exploration Orbiter The German Space Agency DLR... high-resolution data with global lunar coverage for a broad variety of...-A achieved so far, are secured. Lunar Soft-Landing Demonstrator – first steps... studies on the definition of a Lunar Lander. The ELIPS-Period 3 P rogramme... the Advanced Re-entry Vehicle, Lunar Lander activities and scenario studies... to which NASA and ESA’s lunar exploration architecture concepts could complement... I and V space transportation systems and lunar surface exploration architecture concepts. A similar... ISS lifetime extension and the lunar lander development activities. Space Law... well as impressed images JAXA’s Lunar orbiting explorer “Kaguya” has taken... SELENE-2, aiming to acquire the lunar soft landing and rover technology... Space Station, took part in a lunar science mission with India and... instruments aboard the country's first lunar explorer, Chandrayaan-1. The Indian Space... 22 from Sriharikota, India, entering lunar orbit on Nov. 8. NASA's Moon... NASA's increased understanding of the lunar environment as we prepare for.... Finally, NASA completed the important Lunar Capability Concept Review milestone in... supporting widespread exploration of the lunar surface. Space Law: Selected Documents... mankind principle: the Moon and lunar resources”, by Juan Manuel de... a presentation entitled “Findings from Japan’s lunar explorer ‘Kaguya’”, given by the... of Intent Regarding the International Lunar Network • Hiroshi Kiyohara - Chief Attorney...



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...: About the LRO/LCROSS Mission Lava Layers Build the Orbiter The Moon Tune Impact Craters Moon Landforms LUNAR BASE... to the Moon DVD, LRO/LCROSS Activities, and Lunar Base Activities. Together.... LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES This set of activities introduce NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar... related to the mission, including lunar landforms, impact craters, geologic history... important topics related to future lunar missions, including technological, environmental, and... CONTENT STANDARDS DVD LUNAR BASE ACTIVITIES LAVA LAYERS ORBITER MOON TUNE LANDFORMS IMPACTS ECOSYSTEM GEOLOGY HABITAT ENGINEERING NAVIGATION MEDICAL LRO... explore the Moon: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing... lunar outpost. View the LRO/LCROSS Media on the DVD. Phase Two: LRO... important topics about the LRO/ LCROSS mission, including lunar landforms, impact craters... multiple volcanic eruptions. Build the Orbiter Age Level: 8-14 Time Frame... will build a model of NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), built from edible or non... will be to launch the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), an unmanned satellite that will... of a lunar outpost. LRO follows in the footsteps of Ranger, Lunar Orbiter, and Surveyor... LRO go beyond the requirements of these previous missions because building a lunar outpost means spending extended periods on the lunar surface. LRO will... identification of lunar resources. It will study how the lunar radiation environment... and vapor above the lunar surface. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in orbit around the...: http://lunar.arc.nasa.gov/education/activities/active7.htm 11 LRO/LCROSS... reasons? 12 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES Build the orbiter Build the Orbiter In this activity, participants will build a model of NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO.... 4. Have groups look at the orbiter and identify and read about... the orbiter. Wrap-Up Have each group present their completed orbiter. Call.../lro.shtml 13 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES build the orbiter Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter This diagram shows the LRO... Effects of Radiation Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment LROC Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera This is... is almost always shining. LOLA Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter This instrument will... in dark shadows. LAMP Lyman Orbiter Laser Altimeter This camera looks... from space hit the lunar surface. 14 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES the Moon... contained water.) 6. What is the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter? How long will it orbit... for extended stays at lunar outposts around 2018. LRO will provide important... LRO the / “L” stands for “lunar,” Which is another word for “Moon.” “R” means “reconnaissance... for “orbiter” Which means to circle ‘round and ‘round. The LRO will...: http://lunar.arc.nasa.gov/education/activities/active15a.htm 18 LRO/LCROSS... Sheet • NASA photographs of the lunar surface • Landform Identification Sheet Introduction... will be sending a spacecraft — the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) — to orbit the Moon. This... 2). Adapted from NASA’s Lunar Landform Identification Activity: http://lunar.arc.nasa.gov/education/activities/active13a.htm 23 LRO/LCROSS... 34 LRO/LCROSS ACTIVITIES moon landforms Copernicus 19 20 18 35 LUNAR... design a sustainable ecosystem for the lunar station. Geology Investigation http://corecatalog... design a power station for the lunar station. Navigation Investigation http://corecatalog... items from the reproducibles. 37 LUNAR BASE ACTIVITIES procedure Team Investigations... with a few essential questions about lunar exploration. Use the following questions... with metals and minerals overlay • Lunar Mining Area worksheet • Article (distribute... 1 & 2 (cut and distribute separately) • Sample Lunar Base designs • Article (distribute as... your ecosystem on the lunar station. 5. Construct your lunar ecosystem by fitting... the same rocket as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) satellite, due to launch from... Moon’s vicinity independent of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. On the way to the... Vision for Space Exploration goals.” Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS are the first... a gathering of scientists at NASA’s Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) meeting... lunar poles,” Neal continues. That’s important, because one candidate location for a lunar... safest spots for permanent lunar bases. Representative lunar seismograms from the Apollo... the composition of the lunar soil. Actual lunar soil is too highly... Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter. It’s scheduled to launch in 2008 onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... 1990s by MOLA, the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. LOLA, a close relative... by lunar orbiters and Apollo astronauts. But much of the lunar surface... card Basic Lunar First Aid Kit data card Basic Lunar First Aid... respirations. Medical data card Basic Lunar First Aid Kit cardiopulmonary resuscitation... data card Scenario ! environmental emergency A lunar construction astronaut was outside working...



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....1007/s11214-009-9529-2 The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment D.A. Paige · M.C. Foote... Abstract The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will be the... will enable characterization of the lunar thermal environment, mapping surface properties... volatile cold traps in the lunar polar regions. D.A. Paige ( ) · B.T. Greenhagen · M.T. Sullivan... Moon · Lunar · Diviner · Thermal · Radiometer · Mapping · Temperature · Infrared · Mineralogy · Petrology · LRO · Reconnaissance Orbiter 1 Introduction... Lunar Radiometer Experiment, which is one of seven instruments aboard NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO... of the Diviner investigation. 1.1 The Lunar Thermal Environment Observations and models... of the lunar soil, and the length of the lunar day, the... latitudinal and diurnal variation in lunar daytime temperatures is controlled mostly... subsolar Fig. 1 Model calculations of lunar surface temperature variations as a function... expressed in lunar hours which correspond to 1/24 of a lunar month. At... summer and winter solstices The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 127 Fig. 2 Model... long lunar night is the sensible heat stored in the lunar subsurface... significantly complicates the interpretation of lunar thermal observations and thermal model... rayed craters, which suggested The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 129 Fig. 4 Balloon... thermal and spectroscopic properties of lunar samples. Measurements and samples acquired... the fine-grained lunar regolith. After exposure to the lunar environment over.... Since the lunar surface is in radiative equilibrium during the lunar day... behavior of the Moon The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 131 Fig. 6 Clementine... Diviner Lunar Radiometer was conceived and proposed in response to NASA’s LRO... and tested for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission at NASA’s Jet... c) Polar 2. Map properties of the lunar surface: a) Bulk thermal properties b) Rock... and thermophysical properties c) Assess potential lunar volatile resources 2.3 Investigation Approach Diviner... to allow confident prediction of lunar surface temperatures in daytime, nighttime... a range of scientific problems and lunar exploration activities. Two immediate applications... the lunar poles, and the definition of sites for future lunar bases and permanent habitats. 2.3.2 Mapping Lunar Surface Properties... every location where sufficient The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 133 Diviner coverage... of lunar surface materials that can be correlated with other lunar compositional... and physical properties of the lunar surface. 2.3.3 Investigating Polar Cold Traps... in the uppermost lunar regolith and temperature. The Lunar Prospector (LP) Neutron... should enable better localization of lunar polar neutron anomalies. Correlating compositional... at the highest signal The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 135 Table 1 Diviner... to accomplish its lunar science goals. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 137 Fig... Diviner instrument and DREB The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 139 140 D.A. Paige... position for ten seconds, The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 141 Fig. 13... scenarios including large spacecraft rolls, Lunar Reconnaissance Camera (LROC) high resolution imaging... a sun-safe manner. 3.4 LRO Orbit and Lunar Seasons The LRO orbit plane has... pole. As Diviner’s The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 143 Fig. 14 Statistical... 20 to 415 K The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 145 Fig. 17 Signal... conservative analysis of these The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Table 3 Estimated in... correction for this The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 149 Fig. 22 Normalized...’s thermal emission measurements. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 151 Fig. 26 Polar... in a channel. For interpretation of lunar data, however, the unique instantaneous... over these spectral filters. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 153 Fig. 29... do not completely eliminate The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 155 them. Note... products will be archived The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 157 Table 4 Diviner... produces very little contrast The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer 159 The calibration... future publications. 6 Summary The Diviner lunar radiometer experiment will provide comprehensive... better defining and understanding the lunar thermal environment, the geologic history... of the lunar surface, and the distribution and history of lunar volatiles..., D.A. Paige, Lunar Planet. Sci. 37 (2006), abstract 2406 B.T. Greenhagen, D.A. Paige, Lunar Planet.... 2503–2513 S.L. Lawson, B.M. Jakosky, H.S. Park, Lunar Planet. Sci. 28 (1997), abstract... (1970) J.W. Salisbury, G.R. Hunt, L.M. Logan, in Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 4th (1973...



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...: May 6, 2018 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Data Management and Archive Plan LRO GSFC CMO May.... LRO Data Management and Archive Plan 431-PLAN-000182 Revision - B LUNAR RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER PROJECT...  Overview  ...................................................................................................................  2-­‐1   2.1   LRO  Context  and  Goals  ....................................................................................................................  2-­‐1   2.2   LRO  Instruments  ...............................................................................................................................  2-­‐1   3.0   Roles  and  Responsibilities  ..................................................................................................  3-­‐1   3.1   LRO  Project  Office...)  ...................................................  5-­‐1   5.3   Diviner  Lunar  Radiometer  Experiment  (DLRE)  .....................................................................  5-­‐1   5.4   Lyman-­‐Alpha  Mapping  Project  (LAMP)  .....................................................................................  5-­‐1   5.5   Lunar  Exploration  Neutron  Detector  (LEND)  ..........................................................................  5-­‐2   5.6   Lunar  Orbiter  Laser  Altimeter  (LOLA)  ......................................................................................  5-­‐2   5.7   Lunar  Reconnaissance  Orbiter  Camera  (LROC... the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Missions describes the roles and responsibilities of the LRO Mission...-0010 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Requirements 431-ICD-000049 Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Project: External Systems Interface Control Document for the Lunar Reconnaissance Ground System 431-OPS-000042 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Concept of Operations 431-PLAN-000079 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission... Interface Control Document for the Lunar Reconnaissance Ground System PDS reference documents... document entitled: "Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Project: External Systems Interface Control Document for the Lunar Reconnaissance Ground...-000182 Revision - B LRO is the first mission of the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP). LRO was launched... the Moon. LRO specific objectives are: • Characterize the lunar radiation environment, biological... Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE): Diviner maps the temperature of the entire lunar...): LAMP observes virtually the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet... starlight and interplanetary Lyman alpha. • Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND): LEND... flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence.... • Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA): LOLA determines the global topography of the lunar... regions. • Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC): LROC acquires targeted images of the lunar surface... at multiple wavelengths of the lunar poles to document the changing... (MOC) All LRO data are transmitted from the LRO Orbiter to the MOC... the SOCs. These data include lunar ephemeris, leap seconds, planetary constants... SOC. The MOC archives all orbiter data along with mission products..., including tissue-equivalent plastic. 5.3 DIVINER LUNAR RADIOMETER EXPERIMENT (DLRE) Principal Investigator... solar and infrared radiation), and 1-D lunar thermal model • Fine-component thermal...-frost concentration maps of the lunar polar regions. Mapping resolutions as... for frost abundances down to 1.5%. 5.5 LUNAR EXPLORATION NEUTRON DETECTOR (LEND) Principal... 100 parts per million (ppm) 5.6 LUNAR ORBITER LASER ALTIMETER (LOLA) Principal Investigator.... LRO Data Management and Archive Plan 5.7 431-PLAN-000182 Revision - B LUNAR RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER CAMERA... North and South Lunar Poles over the course of 1 lunar year at... summer (uncontrolled) mosaics of the lunar poles (+/- 4 degrees). (Narrow Angle Camera... and melts, and the lunar regolith. 5-4 CHECK WITH LRO DATABASE AT: https... pole over the course of 1 lunar year at an average time... by Apollo Pan camera (1 m/p) and Lunar Orbiter (1 m/p) 1c 5 128.00 N 1c 5 1,280... Radar and reflected off the lunar surface 1 3 600 (ESM mission) N N N Note... Effects of Radiation DLRE Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment DM&AP Data... LDWG LRO Data Working Group LEND Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector LOLA Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter LPO LRO Project Office LPRP Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program LRO Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LROC Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera...



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... was a night launch of the orbiter Endeavour, delivering the Tranquillity node...-131, a predawn launch of the orbiter Discovery, delivered supplies and equipment... final scheduled mission for the orbiter Atlantis, delivering a Russian-built module... Japanese launched the Venus Planet Orbiter (Akatsuki). A Dnepr-1 rocket lofted the.... It launched the Venus Climate Orbiter (Planet-C, AKATSUKI) together with IKAROS...-1) for the Venus Climate Orbiter. The orbiter was not injected into the... carrying a payload for the National Reconnaissance Office lifted off from Cape... Space Station (ISS), using the orbiter Atlantis, including two important external... was a night launch of the orbiter Endeavour, delivering the Tranquillity node..., a pre-dawn launch of the orbiter Discovery, delivered supplies and equipment... final scheduled mission for the orbiter Atlantis, delivering a Russian-built module... million years ago. >> NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, completed the exploration phase of... NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. >> During January 2010, NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter started to... transmissions from Phoenix. >> >> Mars Odyssey orbiter completed some 30 overflights without... for orbital operations. >> >> NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter put itself into a precautionary standby... seven instruments on board NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. >> PDS serves as NASA’s permanent... Europe, a Moscow newspaper reported. >> NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is allowing researchers to create... completion of Satcom, Satnav and Reconnaissance programmes, combined with the cancellation... announced that it would launch a reconnaissance satellite dubbed the ‘Fajr’ in... with the French defence ministry's reconnaissance satellite was launched in December... was likely the Cosmos 2421 reconnaissance satellite launched by the Russian... crashed onto the lunar surface. Current missions LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter), NASA’s latest lunar mission, was.... LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) was launched with LRO and... LRO. Chang’e 2, China’s second lunar probe, was launched 1 October 2010 and entered lunar...) and an orbiter, for launch after Chandrayaan-2. LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust.... In 2009, the LRO/LCROSS impact experiment and lunar spectral data from..., GEochemistry, and Ranging), NASA’s Mercury orbiter mission was launched on 3 August..., consisting of ESA’s Mercury Planetary Orbiter (for high resolution multi-wavelength... studies), and JAXA’s Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (dedicated to studying particles and... one Earth year. Venus Climate Orbiter, a Japanese mission designed to focus... of the spacecraft from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter showed evidence of severe ice... achieve a low Mars orbit. The orbiter carries three science instruments (THEMIS... well as with NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission during its extended mission... its Martian journeys. MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) was launched by NASA in... clouds and dust storms. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM... to Earth by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, in addition to data from... Rosetta project consists of an orbiter with eleven experiments and a lander... had been successfully achieved. The Orbiter carries out remote visual, infrared... - 184 - orbiter and a Jupiter system exploration ending with a Ganymede orbiter, and a Saturn system mission including a Titan orbiter and descent... Jupiter Europa Orbiter and the ESA Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter, currently in competition... travelling at its fastest, Solar Orbiter will remain roughly positioned over... atmosphere over several days. Solar Orbiter will exploit new technologies being... relay techniques). The NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) reached lunar orbit on 23 June 2009... LRO. Careful orbit planning led to a successful impact in the southern lunar... technology for future lunar exploration. Kaguya consists of the orbiter at about... separated from the Chandrayaan orbiter and struck the lunar south pole near... contain water ice. • NASA’s Lunar Reconaissance Orbiter (LRO) was launched in February 2009... Phoenix data. ESA’s Mars Express orbiter (Category III) continues is mission... missions. - 253 - The NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) continues its science mission... from the asteroid Itokawa. Several lunar orbiter or lander missions are planned...’s Luna Resource-1 (Russian lunar lander with Indian orbiter) and Luna Resource-2 (Russian... Telescope Proposed ESA/JAXA Mercury orbiter (2013) Balloon-borne Experiment with... (NASA) Lunar orbiter (China) Lunar rover (China) Lunar soft lander and rover (China) Lunar sample... Science and Technology (EC) Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars Commercial... Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter Limb Profile Monitor of the Atmosphere Laser Ranging Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Microgravity Science Glovebox Mass Spectrometer... (JAXA) Selenological and Engineering Explorer orbiter mission (JAXA) Space Environment Monitor...



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... & Agenda 4 LRO PDR Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Project Craig Tooley February 7, 2006 2008 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) First Step in the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program Robotic Lunar Exploration Program LRO Objectives • Characterization of the lunar..., and lunar science goals – LRO address both science and exploration objectives • LRO instrument suite complements international lunar... 8 Ranger 9 Surveyor 1 Lunar Orbiter 1 Surveyor 2 Lunar Orbiter 2 Lunar Orbiter 3 Surveyor 3 Lunar Orbiter 4 Surveyor 4 Explorer 35 Lunar Orbiter 5 Surveyor 5 Surveyor 6 Surveyor... Soft Lander Orbiter Lander (crashed) Orbiter Orbiter Soft Lander Orbiter Lander (crashed) Orbiter Orbiter Soft Lander Soft Lander Soft Lander Orbiter (1st Human to orbit the moon) Orbiter Test LM in lunar orbit Mare Tranquillitatis (1st manned lunar landing..., 1st geologist lunar astronaut) Lunar Orbit radio-astronomy explorer (RAE-B) Orbiter (BiStatic radar...) Orbiter (Neutron Spectrscopy indications of polar “water’) Gordon Chin - Science Overview 3 LRO... Project LEND Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector LOLA Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter LROC Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera... and Value Reqt’s for LRO 2008 NASA LRO Chang’E-1 Lunar - A (from NASA ORDT... Payload (JAXA orbiter ~ 2007) [100km orbit, 1 yr] (ESA lunar 2005 orbiter) [250km periapsis...-LRO-M10 The LRO shall characterize the deep space radiation environment in lunar... print copy of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Climate Sounder (MCS... cycle. RLEP-LROM100 The LRO shall characterize lunar mineralogy by mapping the.... Gordon Chin - Science Overview 24 Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Instrument Team... the surface LOLA Measurements LRO Measurement Datasets Lunar Shape, Topography Surface Slopes...-LRO-M30 LRO Mission Requirement Required LOLA Data Products The LRO shall measure lunar...-LRO-M80 The LRO shall assess meter-scale features of the lunar surface... generation. RLEP-LRO-M60 Gordon Chin - Science Overview 28 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC... acceptable. RLEP-LROM100 The LRO shall characterize lunar mineralogy by mapping the... resolution”. RLEP-LRO-M40: “ The LRO shall obtain geodetic lunar global topography (at...”. RLEP-LRO-M60: “The LRO shall obtain landform-scale imaging of lunar surfaces...-RF Lunar Demonstrations SAR Imaging (Monostatic and Bistatic) Chandrayaan-1 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Chandrayaan-1 LRO Monostatic...-LRO/LN KSC-ICD-TBD RF ICD Between LRO and the Lunar Network LRO..., MRD-164 circular polar lunar orbit. The LRO spacecraft shall be a 3-axis... The LRO shall include an instrument complement consisting of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), the Diviner Lunar Radiometer... 1 MRD-3 RLEP-LRO-P50 Launch Trajectory LRO shall utilize a direct lunar transfer trajectory... than 20 deg at the lunar solstice. LRO shall have the ability... course Comply--GN&C RLEP-LRO-P60 Maneuvers corrections, lunar orbit insertion, station... sun while maintaining a lunar referenced orientation. Level 1 RLEP-LRO-P60 Comply--GN... a lunar referenced orientation. Level 1 RLEP-LRO-P60 Level 1 MRD-17 Momentum LRO shall... Lunar RLEP-LRO-P20 Eclipses MRD-20 Spacecraft Level 1 Safing RLEP-LRO-P20 LRO shall be capable of withstanding a worst case lunar eclipse... allocations given in the LRO Technical subsystem, Orbiter SE Resource Allocations Specification... allocations given in the LRO Technical subsystem, Orbiter SE Resource Allocations Specification...-LRO-P80 Knowledge Level 1 MRD-43 Time RLEP-LRO-P80 Maintenance The Orbiter...-157 Clock RLEP-LRO-P80 Stability The orbiter clock shall be stable... be Comply--Orbiter SE 1.06 Reserves maintained per the LRO Systems Engineering... The orbiter shall function nominally within the Comply--Electrical SE RLEP-LRO... The orbiter shall function nominally within the Comply--Thermal RLEP-LRO-P60... be Comply-RLEP-LRO-P80 n Control maintained on the Orbiter and its subsystems, at Contamination all times, per the LRO... Time RLEP-LRO-P80 Messages The C&DH shall generate an Orbiter Time... Command RLEP-LRO-P80 Origination All commands sent to the orbiter shall... (+/- 5km) near-circular polar lunar orbit. LRO-P70 Spacecraft Pointing Provide a 3-axis... eclipse season, LRO will have a maximum lunar occultation of 48 minutes. • LRO’s orbit will be targeted such that lunar... 2009 lunar eclipses poseno nothreat threat totoorbiter health and safety orbiter health... LRO Mass History Orbiter Mass 2000 1800 1400 LV Throw Mass 1200 Orbiter...



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... 3-5 Exploring the Lunar Surface EDUCATOR’S INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE Exploring the Lunar Surface EDUCATOR’S INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE SpaceMath@NASA 1 Exploring the Lunar Surface... Plan ...................................................................................... 9 Lesson 1: Lunar Pre-assessment .................................................................................... 11 Lesson 2: The Edible LRO Spacecraft ............................................................................ 13...-Moon Study Activity............................................................................ 21 Lesson 6: Lunar Math...................................................................................................... 23 Problem 1 – Zooming in... Problem 2 - The Lunar Surface (Low Resolution) ........................................................ 37 Problem 3 - The Lunar Surface (Medium Resolution)……………………………………..39 Problem 4 - The Lunar Surface (High... hazard for future lunar explorers. SpaceMath@NASA 3 Exploring the Lunar Surface Program... the Lunar Surface So why are the sidereal and synodic lunar months... to solid rock. The lighter lunar highlands solidified first. • 4.0 billon years... water. SpaceMath@NASA 5 Exploring the Lunar Surface Student Learning Components Research... through real lunar data and images. SpaceMath@NASA 6 Exploring the Lunar Surface... school.) SpaceMath@NASA 7 Exploring the Lunar Surface Video Resources: NASAeClips has... videos for grade K-5 students. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission (http://tinyurl.com/7vzrmwb...’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. See how NASA plans to gather data about the unique lunar... and SpaceMath@NASA 9 Exploring the Lunar Surface cocoa. Students practice measurements...@NASA 10 Exploring the Lunar Surface Lesson 1: Lunar Pre-assessment Time: 30... Lunar Surface SpaceMath@NASA 12 Exploring the Lunar Surface Lesson 2: The Edible LRO... the activity as a demo. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Other Names: LRO Launch Date: October 1, 2008... in lithium-ion battteries The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a Moon-orbiting mission scheduled... deep space radiation environment in lunar orbit. Geodetic (geodesic-line) global... shadowed regions. Imaging of the lunar surface in permanently shadowed regions... Exploring the Lunar Surface SpaceMath@NASA 15 Exploring the Lunar Surface Spacecraft.... Tootsie roll Spacecraft cameras (eyes) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) will collect very... Exploring the Lunar Surface SpaceMath@NASA 17 Exploring the Lunar Surface Lesson...!) SpaceMath@NASA 18 Exploring the Lunar Surface Lesson 4: Rock Classification- Backyard... at the lunar surface as future astronauts return to the lunar surface... Digging in Moon Dirt Lunar Habitat Structure NASA’s Lunar Crane There is... the Lunar Surface SpaceMath@NASA 22 Exploring the Lunar Surface Lesson 6: Lunar Math... landing area photographed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter satellite. Students will learn about... the Moon taken by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to learn about how to... size in kilometers. Problem 3 – The Lunar Surface (Medium Resolution) Students use... the lunar surface obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, to study the sizes of lunar... Lunar Surface (High Resolution) Students use a high-resolution image of the lunar surface obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to study the... the Lunar Orbiter and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) satellites, students will study a sequence of lunar images from... the medium resolution camera onboard Lunar Orbiter V spacecraft in 1968. The image... the Lunar Surface H This image was also taken by the Lunar Orbiter V's high...@NASA 32 Exploring the Lunar Surface I This Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) image shows Little West Crater and hundreds of other lunar craters...@NASA 33 Exploring the Lunar Surface J The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter took this high-resolution... the Lunar Surface Problem 2 - The Lunar Surface (Low Resolution) In 2009, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) orbited the Moon and took high-resolution images of the lunar... scale of this image. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) will take high... this on the Moon. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) will gather...@NASA 38 Exploring the Lunar Surface Problem 3 - The Lunar Surface (Medium Resolution... ? SpaceMath@NASA 39 Exploring the Lunar Surface Answer 1- Width = 153 millimeters... the Lunar Surface Problem 4 - The Lunar Surface (High Resolution) NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) from a lunar orbit... of cables running from Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP's) , scientific.../mission_pages/LRO/news/apollo-sites.html SpaceMath@NASA 42 Exploring the Lunar... Lunar Surface Lesson 2 Example of a spacecraft: SpaceMath@NASA 46 Exploring the Lunar... Exploring the Lunar Surface SpaceMath@NASA 50 Exploring the Lunar Surface National...



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... the history of lunar mapping and described the lunar missions planned for... decade. Four missions of lunar orbital reconnaissance were launched and completed in...-1 (India). In addition, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter or LRO (USA) is in an extended... lunar cartography, and scientific use of the vast multinational set of lunar... correlative scientific studies. Only a few lunar orbital missions performing remote sensing... making precise measurements of the lunar gravity field that will likely... inspired by the Google Lunar X-Prize. The US Lunar Precursor Robotic Program... or human exploration of the lunar surface, though the MoonRise sample... and increasingly multinational analysis of lunar data from 2011 onward. 1. INTRODUCTION... SMART-1 Kaguya (SELENE) Chang’e-1 Chandrayaan-1 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Chang’e-2 Country Agency Europe ESA... with thermal control in the lunar orbital environment. High temperatures onboard... topographic modeling (Araki, 2012). The Lunar Imager/Spectrometer System (LISM; Haruyama.../CE2release/cesMain.jsp) 2.2.4 Chandrayaan-1: The Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI) and... wavelength) polarimetric images of both lunar poles down to 80° latitude.../ missions/chandrayaan1/. 2.2.5 LRO: The primary cartographic instruments are the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter... lower resolution include the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) and Lyman... for science and exploration, the lunar remote sensing data discussed here... unification of these high-value lunar data products. Topographic, imaging, and... products are essential for addressing lunar science and exploration goals at... such processing, recommending that all lunar datasets be geodetically controlled (NAC... critical of these new large lunar datasets. Given the funding constraints... the best lunar reference frames are those derived from Lunar Laser Ranging... be used to build a fundamental lunar reference frame and uniform global... 1999—or similar) data and a lunar gravity model (ideally incorporating the... earlier missions such as Lunar Orbiter, Apollo, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector. 3.5 Processing Principles... is improving knowledge of the lunar gravity field, which could significantly... of their products. The NASA Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer... orbiter and a Russian lander carrying an Indian rover. Instruments on the orbiter... 2013 (Xinhua 2012b). The Google Lunar X-prize, announced in 2007, would reward private organizations for lunar landing and operations, and has... announced entrants). The inclusion of lunar laser ranging retroreflectors (LLRR) on... cartographic processing of the existing lunar datasets will be reduced if... increasingly international analysis of existing lunar remote sensing data rather than... 2012. Araki, H., et al., 2009. Lunar global shape and polar topography... geodetic control of lunar data. Sci. Associated with the Lunar Exp. Arch... overview of the spatial properties, lunar coverage, selenolocation, and related Level... conference. Chin, G., et al. 2007. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Overview: The Instrument Suite and...). Delory, G.T., et al., 2009. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer...., 2008. Global lunar-surface mapping experiment using the Lunar Imager/Spectrometer on...–255. Haruyama, J., et al., 2012. Lunar global digital terrain model dataset..., Q., et al., 2010. Improved global lunar topographic model by Chang’e-1 laser..., L.R., and Rosiek, M.R., 2006. Cartography for lunar exploration: 2006 status and planned..., L.R., and Rosiek, M.R., 2007. Cartography for lunar exploration: Current status and planned..., L.R., and Rosiek, M.R., 2008. Cartography for lunar exploration: 2008 status and mission... radargrammetric analysis of Mini-RF lunar images. LPS XLIII, 2772. Krishna... the Chang’E-1: Data processing and lunar cartography. Sci. China Earth Sci... of the Lunar Poles and Application to Geodesy with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. LPS... on Science Associated with the Lunar Exploration Architecture Crosscutting Recommendation. Tracking...). Noble, S.K., et al., 2009. The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Program. LEAG.... Nozette, S., et al., 2010. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF... Mapping Camera (TMC) images for lunar topographic mapping. LPS XLII, 1384. Raney, R.K. et al., 2011. The lunar Mini-RF radars: hybrid polarimetric...-823. Robinson, M.S., et al., 2010. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Instrument Overview. SSR..., 2046. Shum, C.K., et al., 2012. Lunar topography model determined by integrating...., 2010. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter Investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission. SSR 150.... LRO & LGCWG, 2008. A standardized lunar coordinate system for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and lunar datasets. LRO Project and LGCWG White Paper, Version 5, 2008 October 1. http://lunar... April 2012). Wikipedia, 2012 Google Lunar X Prize. http://en.wikipedia. org...). Xinhua, 2011. China’s second moon orbiter Chang’e-2 goes to outer space.... China to launch moon-landing orbiter in 2013. http://news.xinhuanet...