Спутник технологический. Lunar. [Редактировать]

КА Lunar (другое название Vermont Lunar Cubesat), массой 1 кг, создан в Техническом колледже Вермонта для отработки технолгий, которые в будущем будут использоваться при создании аппаратов, предназначенных для изучения Луны.

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна производитель - США
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг1

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром Уоллопс
2Дата пуска2013-11-20
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Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Lunar». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Unit 2 The Lunar Disk Apollo Landing Sites Regolith Formation Lunar Surface Differentiation Impact Craters Clay Lava Flows Lava Layering Lunar Landing Sites Lunar Roving Vehicle Moon Anomalies... for Unit 3 Lunar Land Use Life Support Systems Lunar Biospheres 99 100... book contains: • information on the Lunar Sample Disk, • Activity Matrices -- Skills... Learning From Regolith Formation Apollo Lunar Surface Differentiation Impact Craters Clay... Layering Lunar Landing Sites Lunar Roving Vehicle Moon Anomalies Unit 3 Future Lunar Land Use Life Support Systems Lunar Biosphere vi Exploring... Learning From Regolith Formation Apollo Lunar Surface Differentiation Impact Craters Clay... Layering Lunar Landing Sites Lunar Roving Vehicle Moon Anomalies Unit 3 Future Lunar Land Use Life Support Systems Lunar Biosphere Exploring the... Learning From Regolith Formation Apollo Lunar Surface Differentiation Impact Craters Clay... Layering Lunar Landing Sites Lunar Roving Vehicle Moon Anomalies Unit 3 Future Lunar Land Use Life Support Systems Lunar Biosphere viii Exploring... are the bright lunar highlands (also known as the lunar terrae, which... predicts that the lunar were collected during the first lunar landing, the... nothing but plagio- the forthcoming U. S. Lunar Prospector Mission, clase. [See the... scientists to propose (boldly again–lunar scientists several wavelengths. Scientists at... and pyroxene formed from the lunar magma lunar mare basalts also contain... The first lunar meteorite discovered in Antarctica hails from the lunar highlands... of the lunar magma ocean. Beneath the mantle lies a small lunar core... the lunar sample collection in a specially constructed facility called the Lunar Curatorial... graphics with captions explaining eclipses, lunar phases, tides, and other phenomena... to compare with the lunar samples in “The Lunar Disk” activity on... Apollo The Lunar Disk Apollo Landing Sites Regolith Formation Lunar Surface Differentiation Impact Craters Clay Lava Flows Lava Layering Lunar Landing Sites Lunar Roving Vehicle Moon Anomalies... their own lunar missions in the “Lunar Landing Sites” and “Lunar Roving Vehicle..., 255 p. Annotated picture book of lunar geologic features. U.S. Government Printing Office... A Rocky Moon: A Geologist's History of Lunar Exploration, by Don E. Wilhelms, 1993... samples. Each lunar disk contains six small samples of lunar material. Descriptions... Lunar Disk magnifying lens or stereo microscope “Lunar Disk Sample Chart” 4. Which lunar... Mission/ Collection Site Classification Origin Lunar Disk Sample Chart Exploring the... Teacher Page Lunar Surface It is beneficial to do “The Lunar Disk... tools toothpick flags Lunar Sample Disk 3. Prepare a model lunar surface by placing... plagioclase feldspar in the ancient, lunar highlands crust. Scientists surmise feldspar... Craters Aristarchus Typical characteristics of a lunar impact crater are labeled on... students design a spacecraft, choose a suitable lunar landing site, and present their... be appropriate for lunar base development? See the “Lunar Land Use” activity..., 1993. Use these lunar landing sites in the “Lunar Roving Vehicle” activity... the terrains. Use these lunar sites in the “Lunar Land Use” activity... Teacher Page Lunar Roving Vehicle Purpose To construct a model of a lunar roving vehicle. Background The Apollo lunar roving vehicle was... missions. The lunar rover neatly folded up inside the lunar lander during...-116-HQ Lunar Roving Vehicle Purpose To construct a model of a lunar roving... 3 The Future Lunar Land Use Life Support Systems Lunar Biosphere The activities... of developing lunar projects. In response, the U.N. has set up a Lunar Council... Teacher Page Lunar Land Use Distribute “Information Sheets” to the Lunar Council... approached the United Nations with lunar proposals. feasible beneficial In response... Lunar Council. 4. Each development team must present a plan for approval. 5. The Lunar... of the project. Lunar Geologist : studies the Lunar Sample Disk and researches...-HQ 105 Names: Date: Lunar Land Use Lunar Council Information Sheetl Engineer...-116-HQ Names: Date: Lunar Land Use Lunar Council Information Sheetl E Bulletins... below: Lunar Council Bulletin 1-1 To: All development teams From: Lunar Council Regarding... the following for their lunar biospheres: 1. best lunar soil mixture for example... before you start to build a lunar biosphere. soil atmosphere organism photosynthesis.... Agglutinates: Common particle type in lunar sediment; agglutinates consist of small... or time. Lunar: Of or pertaining to the Moon. Lunar Prospector: U. S. Discovery... Lunar Exploration Lunar Prospector Mission http://cass.jsc.nasa.gov/moon.html Lunar & Planetary Institute (Exploring the Moon) http://lunar.arc.nasa...) http://juggler.lmsc.lockheed.com/lunar/ Lunar Prospector homepage from Lockheed-Martin...



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... Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093USA LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... with APOLLO. 2 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING SCEINCE SCEINCE Lunar Laser Ranging... Africa, former OCA LLR equipment LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... retroreflector initiated a shift from analyzing lunar position angles to ranges. Today... Apollo 14 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING SCEINCE SCEINCE Lunar Retroreflectors French..., 3-D scanning, altimetry, etc. Apollo 15 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... ps (detector / spot size, location) LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... 45 (1487) 50 rms (cm) 9 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING SCEINCE... astrometry, geodesy, geophysics, lunar planetology, gravitational physics LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING...; 15 on Apollo 15 11 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... RELATIVITY Lunar Laser Ranging Science Lunar Science: „ LLR measurements are sensitive to: – Lunar rotation & orientation variations, tidal displacements „ Lunar rotation variations sensitive... lunar core. „ Moon-centered coordinates of four reflectors are determined 12 LUNAR LUNAR... OF GENERAL GENERAL RELATIVITY RELATIVITY Lunar Laser Ranging Science (continued) Earth... – Gravitational inverse square law 13 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... Earth and Moon, and a fluid lunar core. „ Dynamical Partial Derivatives: – Numerical..., core, and relativity parameters. 14 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... rotation „ Effects at lunar reflector: – Tidal effects – Lunar orientation and rotation „ Time... expansion of reflectors Science Products: „ Lunar ephemerides and orbit: – are a product... – Relativistic precession of lunar orbit (geodetic precession) „ Lunar Science: – Lunar tides, characterized by.... – Free rotation modes indicate stimulation. LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... observatory on the Southern Hemisphere LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... near Full and New Moon LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... ⎝ G G RS ⎞⎟ G + bNewtonian + bRelativity 3 ⎟ RS ⎠ 18 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... High-Level Overview of Lunar Environments 19 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING... the Lunar Orbit periodic perigee motion secular nodal motion 20 LUNAR LUNAR LASER... GENERAL RELATIVITY RELATIVITY Mean Lunar Orbit „ Mean Lunar Orbit: – Semimajor axis 384... the e2 (2l) term. 21 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... − the cause is unknown. 22 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and..., Vokrouhlicky, Williams and Dickey 23 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... RELATIVITY RELATIVITY Largest Perturbations to Lunar Orbit TL : Earth-Moon distance... Relativity Perturbation type Tidal perturbations Lunar figure Earth's figure Poissson terms... (5) Preferred frames α1 Preferred frames α2 27 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... (the associated argument is called D). LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... distributed well within 1.5 cm 360 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... precession ⇒ β − 1 = (1.2 ± 1.1) × 10 −4 G G = (4.9 ± 5.7) × 10 −13 yr −1 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... Project & Apparatus: Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation „ Move LLR... ladder attached to the scope. LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... RELATIVITY Laser Mounted on Telescope LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... gadgetry on the optical table. LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... – 2-D tracking capability facilitates optimal efficiency LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... First Light: July 24, 2005 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... First Light: July 24, 2005 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... RELATIVITY RELATIVITY Blasting the Moon LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and...-timed background photons (bright moon) LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and.... Single-photon random error budget LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... is the next logical step LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... with a 12.5 hr period 41 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and..., but is mostly constant 42 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... the surface. Apollo 14 Lunokhod 2 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... on-going modeling effort 44 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... Generation of Lunar Laser Ranging „ A next-generation of the lunar laser ranging.... Science Outcome: – – – – Properties of the lunar interior, including liquid core and... on their operational characteristics. 45 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... that would benefit from a bright lunar target (i.e., laser transponder). OPTICAL OPTICAL...) Next Step – Interplanetary Laser Ranging LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and...: Principle JG Rstn G ρ JG Rland G r LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and...) at ranges of 2 AU. 57 LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and... 4.7×10-3 lunar orbit 3×10-4 lunar orbit 3×10-4 Martian orbit 3×10-4 both lunar & Martian..., J.G. Williams, [arXiv:gr-qc/0611095] LUNAR LUNAR LASER LASER RANGING RANGING and...



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....-_,'._ " .... ..,r iqOT FILME.D CONCEFrUAL ANALYSIS OF A LUNAR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM Trevor D. Hoy ], Lloyd... human development base Langley Research lunar phases. Masses life manifested and... base applications, were resupply study lunar Center, lunar commercial and A manifest of... the Johnson concepts option volume, lunar for manufacturing, technology system. fi... define the of the lunar base priority lunar base requireand the point... As the mas,ses different ] Lunar Basel [ Mission _ Modet ] • JSC Derived... ,s _ .._nalysls I • Technolog)f Options Trade Studies Lunar Base System | _-- IRec°mmendati°nl... AFB, OH USAF Space • • • • ITransportation _ [ Lunar [_ Vehicle "_"-_Transportationr=_ Ana ys s l Requ... lunar This the and that landers, developed. solve timeline maintenance program lunar... are outpost lunar For (LEO) of the impact. vs. lunar-derived mcnts... Academy of space. colonization Center Lunar baseline generated, that ,systems Center... Space that feasible of transportation a lunar A lunar the maintenance Space and Space... Bases economic the Important and Lunar 1985) research, resources, Commission 1986... VA 23665-5225 The 3 Fig. 1. Lunar base studies methodology. 4 2nd volume... (1)separate expendable Lunar requirements information transportation factors on such lunar (2)reusable OTVs... SttT)S colonization I Phase to Lunar base the lunar the This for surface...:(induding i[ .scenario, on operations. base lunar Phase capability Moon. and of... (kW) Function Lunar surface mapping 19952000 -- -- • Preliminary selection Lunar .sorties to establish... database occupancy requirements delivered phase lunar permanent The In be research... reconnaissance sdeniific veoukl limited processing, lunar- th_ re.arch), facifity provide... incorporate missions Facilities site . Unmanned lunar orbiter satellite = F space iii IV...- increase functional capabilities 2018 F_stablish lunar base with minimum 20182028 5-11... storage and servicing modules TABLE 2. Lunar Lunar Facility Mass (Ibm) Habitation Module... material/components 9 manned 2 (a and manned lunar resulted and base of 13... II lunar and the to Earth lunar orbit braking with surface lunar 3. the... operational SYSTEM WEIGHT transportation of a lunar base vehicle (HLLV) for trar_sfer...,800 approx. Ibm Ibm (b) (a) Lander Lunar Payload 2nd Stage Ascender Manned... on Lunar package; different capacity OTV for practicable payloads LUNAR and the... lunar begins or two-stage) system lander, and tation .system consists lunar payload. The consists of the ascender. only in lunar powered... OI'V cargo missions) Earth orbit lunar propulsively or by aer0braking with..., the lunar lander and the OTV is discarded in lunar by the...,003 298,904 16,467 Lunar lander Lunar ascender 8,360 29,920... A FORTRAN the capsule, injection the lunar performs insertion missions, mission to... the lunar orbit insertion (LOI) discarded in lunar orbit, and the descender lunar with in discarded aerobraking lunar surface. For the expendable is discarded on the lunar surface orbit. and lunar of the OTV...: (3) propellant (Ibm). Roy et at.: Lunar CARGO base transportation conceptual analysis... Stag_e 1 Fig, 3. Lander MISSION Ascender Lunar mission scenarios: (a) one.stage, expendable... reusable (/IV. 2nd Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities 8 cARGO..., not delivery was varied lunar ETO vs. lunar payload the next were... from the lunar surface and iterates backward from the lunar surface to... (d)one-stage, and expendable aerobraked; LUNAR OTVs: (a) one-stage, nonaerobraked, cargo... Each nonaerobraked Stages trend identical lunar regardless the OTV the using... I 0 30000 (Ibm) and nonaerobraking t 20000 0 LUNAR (lso = 460 sec): (a) reusable, manned... aerobraking system becomes ogy for lunar base missions. Specific Impulse The... see. = 440 see. system using lunar-derived oxygen offers substantial ETO... a factor effect of using manned lunar-derived missions reduces system ETO... aerobraking, the O tu same manned a lunar-derived an Earth-derived capsule... the use lunar-derived 300000 Ibm for Ibm for the lunar-derived... a reusable with Comparisons mass for lunar descent and ascent, circularization maneuvers..., aerobraked. I 14 2rid Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities 300000... 03 < O 03 03 < I f ----LUNAR LOX EARTH LOX ...... f J 0 ..... 0 l 20000 LUNAR i 40000 PAYLOAD MASS __._ 100000 uJ ,o× ] I 0 0 I l 20000 40000 LUNAR (Ibm... (Ibm) MANNED Fig. 9. Impact of lunar-derived LOX: (a) reusable, cargo, one... (k Ibm) Stored 142,Lunar-Derived LOX manned, 2.5 million (lunar-derb,,cd is... = 460 sec Impact of lunar-derived objectives lunar transportation Payload LOX on... on any ,space Phase II lunar total weight _= n g O I.W ! kO× i 60000 400000... the analysis that construction II lunar base a tremendous will place and... l_nal Mendell W.W.., ed. (1985) Lunar Bases Century. Lunar and Planetary Institute, reusable... Innsbruck, D., of lunar analysis the and development Astronautical of a lunar Federation, I I pp...



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... countries quickly realizing that any lunar landing attempt would involve spacecraft... Generated by Doxygen 8 Astronautics Trans-Lunar Injection Trans-Martian Injection 2.3.3.1 Hohmann... Moon lander. As the final lunar orbit rendezvous maneuvers would take... elliptical Earth orbit or hyperbolic lunar orbit. TIPS: • double click on... elliptical Earth orbit or hyperbolic lunar orbit. TIPS: • double click on... sent from Earth. Both Trans-Lunar Insertion and Trans-Earth Injection... landing, coplanar orbit ajustments, Trans-Lunar Injections, etc. were also controlled... sent from Earth. Both Trans-Lunar Insertion and Trans-Earth Injection... landing, coplanar orbit ajustments, Trans-Lunar Injections, etc. were also controlled... Launch to Lunar Orbit Program 12 Launch To Lunar Orbit (Lunar Excursion Module) • Program 15 Program 15 Trans Lunar Injection... Program 15 P15: TLI (Trans Lunar Injection ) . This programs initiate a series... Insertion P17 relates to the lunar circularization maneuver known as the... without performing a burn • Real Trans lunar injection ( and coast ) will be... , render the original TLI (Trans lunar Injection ) unable to have enough... DPS (Descent Propulsion System), the Lunar Module descent engine. When the... Program 15 P15: TLI (Trans Lunar Injection ) . This programs initiate a series... Insertion P17 relates to the lunar circularization maneuver known as the... without performing a burn • Real Trans lunar injection ( and coast ) will be... , render the original TLI (Trans lunar Injection ) unable to have enough... DPS (Descent Propulsion System), the Lunar Module descent engine. When the... • P23 CisLunar, P15 Trans Lunar, P16 Lunar orbit insertion • P52 Orbital alignment implemented • P72, P73, P79 LM Lunar orbit rendezvous implemented • P20 Correct minimul Lunar altitude intersection... System (SLS) missions - full SLS lunar missions from launch, rendezvous, docking, translunar injection through to lunar landing, reentry and splashdown • comprehensive... Doxygen Chapter 8 Apollo8TLI Apollo 8 Trans Lunar Injection COUNTDOWN PREPARATIONS Apollo 8 launch...-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both... and procedures relating to future lunar operations. All primary mission objectives... to sharpen the accuracy of lunar orbit determination and the successful... burn to simulate reentry from Lunar Transfer orbit • A dummy freeflight around... trajectory • A full lunar orbital flight , requiring Translunar injection , Lunar orbit insertion , and... less impressible than the full lunar orbit mission , it required much... loop around the moon • Apollo 9 Lunar Orbit mission • Apollo 10 Earth.... • Apollo 11 "Dress rehersal" of lunar landing • Apollo 12 First moon... for a set of lunar missions. • Proton -> LKOB Circum Lunar missions • Chelomey ( TAI... orbit at 32.6 degrees. Trans Lunar Injection Generated by Doxygen 9.1 ApolloProgramMissions... lunar orbit insertion. The second and final midcourse correction prior to lunar... hours, 35 minutes, five seconds. Lunar Orbit Apollo8LunarOrbitInsertion Apollo8LunarOrbit During the... during translunar coast, two during lunar orbit and two during trans... Cut-Off (SECO) 9.1.3 Apollo8LunarOrbitInsertion Apollo 8 Lunar Orbit Insertion COUNTDOWN PREPARATIONS Apollo... Doxygen 9.1 ApolloProgramMissions 9.1.4 101 Apollo8LunarOrbit Apollo 8 Lunar Orbit COUNTDOWN PREPARATIONS Apollo 8 launch... Center • Earth Parking orbit • Trans-Lunar Injection • Staging , Transposition Rotation & Docking...,( Lunar reference based ) • Lunar Orbit Insertion • Descent Orbit initiation & Powered Descent • Final Lunar... prograded , just in case :) 9.1.8 Trans-Lunar Injection Once over the designated... to run program P15 (∗trans lunar injection) , that will fire SaturnIVb... ) 9.1.11 Mid course trajectory correction,( Lunar reference based ) The Apollo Program... by Doxygen 9.1 ApolloProgramMissions 9.1.12 109 Lunar Orbit Insertion The Apollo Program... Canary Island station. 9.1.14 Final Lunar Landing The Apollo Program missions... Coplanar Orbits Coplanar Orbits Trans Lunar Injection TransLunar Injection Free Return... new orbit. 10.3 Trans Lunar Injection Trans Lunar Injection is an orbital... Apollo Command/Service Module and Lunar Module to the Moon.[5][6] The... apollo stack to achieve trans lunar injection, that is , propell the... lines prior to the trans-lunar injection burn. Apollo SpaceCraft Generated... was needed to accomplish the lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR) mission mode... which ie accompliehed with the lunar excursion \ \ 2' module. The command module... control for the spacecraft. i : \ The lunar excursion module (LEN) which houses... communications between the CSM and Lunar Module employed two VHF scimitar... Armstrong's return. Lunar Descent During the lunar landing, the Lunar Module undocked from... the CSM the Lunar Module was ejected into lunar orbit to crash.... 11.7 Altair Lander The Altair Lunar Lander is a multi-purpose vehicle...



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..., the spacecraft then transfers to a lunar orbit that is stable (i.e., no...-quiet region located on the lunar farside. INTRODUCTION This paper presents... of maneuvers reach lunar orbit. The final lunar orbit does not require..., CO 80309 §§ Principal Investigator, NASA Lunar Science Institute, NASA Ames Research... numerical integrator, which included a LP150Q lunar gravity model. To speed up... accuracy, a 70 degree and order lunar propagation model was used, while...) shadow cones on lunar farside, with view normal to lunar equator. 2 TRAJECTORY... by identifying acceptable ranges of lunar orbit altitude and inclination values... years within the spacecraft’s ΔV capability. Lunar Orbit Altitude and Inclination In... orbital lifetime of low altitude lunar orbits. A similar study was performed... determine the stability of all lunar orbit inclination values (0 to 180...) in the radio-quiet region. A lunar orbit inclination value was considered... Altitude vs. Lunar Orbit Inclination for an initially circular lunar orbit at... II, which is favorable for lunar-return (image from Ref. [7]). 5 Figure...) of the spacecraft’s trajectory at lunar encounter directly after leaving the... planes significantly inclined to the lunar equatorial plane. Figure 8 shows the... result in lunar orbit inclinations significantly inclined to the lunar equatorial plane... m/s in this 24 hour period lunar orbit. The resulting total ΔV, including... efficient way to change the lunar inclination was explored (see Trajectory... Method #2 A method of solving the lunar inclination problem encountered in Trajectory... Method #1 involves using the initial lunar encounter targeted from the Sun... a chance to enter lunar orbit, but as a lunar flyby opportunity to change... benefits greatly from the targeted lunar flyby (Fig. 10, D), which rotates... 8, 2021 (Fig. 10, G). The subsequent lunar capture orbit is inclined 26... GTO to Lunar Orbit using a Sun-Earth WSB lunar transfer and lunar flyby... change while in an elliptical lunar orbit (see Trajectory Design Method... approach to reach a low-inclination lunar orbit. For selected GTO launches... Tanabe et al12). This super-lunar apogee location is essentially shielded... the point of reaching lunar distance (projection onto lunar orbit plane) over... crossed the lunar orbit plane en route to super-lunar apogee enabling... no lunar flyby was needed. Therefore, DARE’s analysis assumed a direct lunar transfer...). All other analyzed trajectories utilized a lunar flyby to place the spacecraft... orbit in the lunar orbit plane. To demonstrate the lunar flyby solution... this superlunar apogee to target a lunar flyby (Fig. 15, C) which places... cross the lunar equatorial plane at the time of the lunar flyby and thus a 0 degree lunar orbit inclination is... since the lunar equatorial plane is inclined 6.5 degrees to the lunar orbit plane. After the lunar flyby, an Earth... with apogee near lunar distance to allow for lunar intercept and orbit..., E) to target a 24-hour period lunar orbit, two months after separation... targeting the Moon from a super-lunar apogee maneuver. This maneuver is... naturally crosses the lunar orbit plane after leaving super-lunar apogee, the.... The lowest total ΔV requirements (among lunar flyby trajectories) were yielded from... to yield lunar transfer orbits with natural crossings of the lunar orbit.... Trajectory solutions from GTO to lunar distance (X direction in Earth-centered... the lunar orbit plane (lunar orbit dashed in light blue). Direct lunar transfers... the lunar orbit plane (lunar orbit dashed in light blue). Direct lunar transfer... (top-right) to the lunar orbit plane (lunar orbit dashed in light..., with a view normal t to the lunar equatorial plane (bottom-right). Trajectory... orbits, B) super-lunar apogee, C) Lunar Flyby Earth Phasing Orbit, E) Lunar orbit insertion (LOI... node following after apolune (F). Acceptable lunar science orbit of 125 km... the lunar orbit plane (shown dotted in light blue). Direct lunar transfer... degrees; 125 km circular baseline lunar orbit with 0 degree inclination assumed... the Moon Lunar Orbit Phasing: minor phasing maneuvers with Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... of Mission Disposal: impact with lunar surface Totals MAXIMUM TOTAL ∆V Requirement... lunar orbits was performed to determine candidate inclination ranges for DARE lunar... to land or impact the lunar surface. A lunar lander may choose to... WSB (methods #1 and #2) or super-lunar apogee (method #3) to take advantage... higher-declination approaches to the lunar orbit plane. REFERENCES 1 McKinley, B., Briggs... V., “An Analysis of near-circular lunar mapping orbits”. J. Earth Syst. Sci... of Weak Stability Boundary Ballistic Lunar Transfer Trajectories”. AIAA/AAS Aatrodynamics.... 8 Penzo, P., Bender, D., and Cassell, C., “Multiple Lunar Swingbys for Small Body and.... 9 Genova, A. L., “Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by..., N., “Transfers to Libration Points Using a Lunar Swingby,” Bachelor’s Thesis, University of... the Earth-Moon System Using a Lunar Swingby,” International Symposium on Space...



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...-robotic” systems) and the Apollo lunar roving vehicle (a “crewed” system). In... water flows; • accessing volatiles in lunar cold traps for both human... require multi-sol autonomous operations. Lunar and other planetary surface missions... challenge. For example, motors for lunar cargo vehicles have to sustain... of the heat during the lunar day while “disconnecting” thermally from... success. For the case of a lunar-orbit rendezvous, the timeline associated... Center Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Latching End Effector Lunar Excursion... Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction Radio Frequency Remotely... -- 2024 2016 2 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... -- 2024 2016 2 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... -- 2024 2016 2 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... 2033 -- 2027 3 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... by commercial entities. The Apollo Lunar Excursion Module (LEM) demonstrated rocket... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... specific resistance) over > 99% of lunar and Mars terrain, carrying large... State of the Art: Apollo Lunar Rover. Capability Performance Goal: Reduce... capable of operating on both lunar and Martian environments. Parameter, Value... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... Needed Capability: Wheel for large lunar and Mars rover that travels... capable of being used on lunar and Martian crewed rovers. Capability... of aluminum – not compliant; Apollo Lunar Rover wheels were woven grid... to Mature Technology New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... torque, speed, and lifetime for lunar and Martian crewed rovers. Improve... to Mature Technology New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... worthy sensors into Martian and lunar missions is a challenge. Technology State... -- 2024 2016 2 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... 2033 -- 2027 3 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... 2033 -- 2027 3 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... 2033 -- 2027 3 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... 2033 -- 2027 4 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... 2033 -- 2027 3 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... 2033 -- 2027 3 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... 2033 -- 2027 3 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample.... Technology State of the Art: Lunar Surveyor and Mars Phoenix Technology... 2033 -- 2027 3 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample...), Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), and Lunar Sample Return. Parameter, Value: Mars... Technology Performance Goal: Excavation for Lunar Sample arms. Larger terrestrial prototypes.... Capability State of the Art: Lunar Surveyor Scoop, Mars Viking Capability... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... Other Worlds: DRM 7 Crewed to Lunar Surface Enhancing 2027 2027 2021... -- 2026 2023 3 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... -- 2026 2023 3 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample..., Value: Latency (lunar): 10 sec with 50% jitter Bandwidth (lunar): 50 Kbps..., Value: Latency (lunar): 10 sec with 50% jitter Bandwidth (lunar): 50 Kbps... -- 2026 2023 3 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) in-situ... -- 2026 2023 3 years New Frontiers: Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample... operations in LEO, deep space, lunar, and martian orbital environments. Reduce... Environments: LEO orbit, deep space, lunar orbit and surface, Martian orbit... in LEO, deep space, and lunar and martian environments. Capability State..., in LEO, deep space, and lunar and Mars orbital environments. Docking...; Operating Environments: LEO, deep space, lunar orbit and surface, Martian orbit...: Granular-material simulants exist for lunar regolith, but higher-fidelity simulants... used. Recent mission such as Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer...



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... Launch Vehicle Technology, CASC Director Lunar Exploration and Space Engineering Center... Session - Track 4-1/1 KL 3 China’s Chang’e- 5 Lunar Probe and China’s Deep Space... Station and Space Exploration Track 3 - Lunar Exploration Track 4 - Exploration of Near... International Convention Center Organiser: International Lunar Observatory Association (ILOA) Featured speakersinclude... of International Lunar Observatory Association, Wang Jing of the Lunar Ultra-Violet... Technology, among others. The International Lunar Observatory effort to establish an... and the subsequent Lunar exploration mission before 2030. Organiser: Lunar Exploration and... Space Agency (ESA), retired Director Lunar and Planetary Science Laboratory, MACAU... space programs, including manned spaceflight, lunar exploration, the Beidou Navigation System... launch the ceremony of Chang’e 4 lunar program international partnership establishment. Speakers... Jizhong Liu Shiquan Director, China Lunar Exploration and Space Engineering Center... Space Agency 3.1A Lunar Mission updates 203 C 3.1B Lunar Policy 203 C 17... please see p. 25 Organiser: International Lunar Observatory Association (ILOA) Speaker: Steve Durst Director and Founder International Lunar Observatory Association 19:15 – 21... 10 years of operations. 3.2A Lunar Missions planned 203 C 5.1 Mars Exploration... 3: The Engineering Plan of China’s Lunar Exploration Program Phase III and...” for the lunar exploration project by launching the Chang’e-5 lunar probe by..., sampling and return. Through the lunar exploration project, topographic and geological... and laboratory research conducted on lunar samples; geological survey and research... 13.2 Small Satellites 203 B 3.2B Lunar Technologies 203 C 6.1 Exploration of Other... Airbus Defence & Space Chief Engineer Lunar Exploration and Space Engineering Center... Models for Space Exploration 203 D 3.3 Lunar Concepts 203 C 8.2 Key Technology of... Rongquiao Olga Volynskaya Chief Engineer, Lunar Exploration and Space Engineering Center... Technical Sessions No. Description Room 3.4 Lunar Analysis & Simulation 203 C 8.3 Key Technology... opens the Chang’e 5 Lunar Probe’s Return -China’s Lunar Exploration Program-VR/AR... organised by CSA and China Lunar Exploration and Space Engineering Center... track presents recent lunar mission results; upcoming planned robotic lunar missions; analyses... the lunar surface. The track illustrates an unprecedented diversity in lunar exploration... the exciting emergence of commercial lunar enterprise that together promise to... shape the future of modern lunar and planetary space exploration. 4. Exploration... Engineering, China GLEX-2017.3.1A.4 3. Lunar Exploration Coordinator(s): Bernard Foing , ESA... , Canadensys Aerospace Corporation, Canada; 3.1A. Lunar Mission updates June 6 2017, 17... GOOGLE LUNAR XPRIZE MISSION AND LONG TERM PLANS FOR LUNAR EXPLORATION Kyle... SYSTEM MANAGEMENT MODULE FOR AUTONOMOUS LUNAR LANDING MISSIONS Adheesh Boratkar, Team... Durst, International Lunar Observatory Association, United States 3.2B. Lunar Technologies June 7 2017... OF RELAY COMMUNICATION SYSTEM FOR LUNAR FARSIDE EXPLORATION Shi Liu, Beijing... States GLEX-2017.3.1B.8 THE LUNAR REFORMATION: A REFORMED PLAN FOR RETURNING... COMMUNICATION RELAY SATELLITE FOR CHINESE LUNAR FARSIDE EXPLORATION MISSION Lihua Zhang... SENSOR NETWORK FOR EXPLORATION OF LUNAR ENVIRONMENT Yin Long, Institute of..., United States GLEX-2017.3.2A.3 LUNAR SCIENCE ENABLED BY A CISLUNAR OUTPOST... of Spacecraft System Engineering, China 3.3. Lunar Concepts June 8 2017, 11:00 — Room 203 C GLEX-2017.3.3.1 LUNAR POLAR SAMPLE RETURN MISSION Antonella... WAVELENGTH RADIO MISSION FOR CHANG’E-4 LUNAR FAR-SIDE LANDING MISSION Jinsong... A KIND OF RECONFIGURABLE AND RESUABLE LUNAR PROBE ZHANG Wangjun, Beijing Institute....space, United States GLEX-2017.3.3.9 LUNAR NAVIGATION SYSTEM DESIGN Lei Huang, BITTT, China GLEX-2017.3.3.10 LUNAR INDUSTRY&RESEARCH BASE CONCEPT Mykhailo... OF REUSABLE AND LIGHTWEIGHT MANNED LUNAR LANDER FOR CREW TRANSPORTATION Ping... OF TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF REUSABLE “LUNAR” RUNWAY SPACECRAFTS Ilya Smorshko, Central...-EARTH LINK COMMUNICATION ABILITY OF LUNAR DETECTOR Wang Xiaonan, China Academy... OF LUNAR COMMUNICATION ENVIRONMENT AND RESEARCH &ANALYZING OF CHANNEL ON LUNAR EXPLORATION...., LTD, China GLEX-2017.3.4.6 THE LUNAR FARSIDE LANDER POSITIONING USING A FOUR... AND KEY TECHNOLOGIES Zhe Zhang, Lunar Exploration and Space Engineering Center...-I), Italy GLEX-2017.5.1.8 EXPLORING OBVIOUS LUNAR IONOSPHERE BASED ON THE SERVICE... EMERGENCY ESCAPE TRAJECTORY IN MANNED LUNAR LANDING MISSION Chen Haiping, National... LOW-THRUST TRANSFER TRAJECTORY OF LUNAR EXPLORATION Ran An, China Academy...-2017.3.4.11 GLEX-2017.3.4.12 3.4. Lunar Analysis & Simulation 4. Exploration of Near... BIOREGENERATIVE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR LUNAR PALACE 1 Hong Liu, Beihang University... FOR ENGAGING STAKEHOLDERS FOR GLOBAL LUNAR EXPLORATION Angeliki Kapoglou, Stanford d.school... CONTROL FOR MULTILAYER INSULATION OF LUNAR LANDER Xi Zhu, Beijing Institute....P.1.78 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF MANNED LUNAR EXPLORATION MISSION BASED ON HUMAN...



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... five years. India's Chandrayaan-1 entered lunar orbit, released its Moon Impact... regions of the Moon. China's lunar probe Chang'e 1 was guided to... 16-month mission. Japan's Kaguya lunar orbiter ended its 21-month... the Moon. NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and... was guided to a crash in a lunar crater with the intent of... planned to carry the Altair Lunar Lander’s first test flight with... the four-seat Altair lunar lander on to lunar orbit; the fairing... be needed for the complex lunar-launch flight profiles, which will... the Moon on 14-day lunar flights. First launch of the..., which would take all human lunar exploration out of the critical... respective targets. India's Chandrayaan-1 entered lunar orbit on 8 November, 2008. Launched... October 2008 and placed into a lunar transfer orbit (see last year... its final 100-km circular lunar orbit on 13 November 2008... Chandrayaan-1 mother ship. The spacecraft’s Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument, which measures... water per cubic meter of lunar soil and rock. This observation... the solar wind strike the lunar surface, freeing oxygen atoms in... by the Russian Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector aboard NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... presence of hydrogen, probably in lunar ice, in areas outside the permanently shadowed craters at the lunar south pole. India announced on... 2012 launch of Chandrayaan-2, a joint lunar lander and robotic rover mission... in Bangalore. On 1 March China's lunar probe Chang'e-1 was guided to... data, including images of the lunar surface and maps of its...'s Qingdao and Kashgar. Japan's Kaguya lunar orbiter (see prior reports) ended... micrometeoroids weather the newly exposed lunar soil over time. The impact... it raised. NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and...-bearing compounds. The Russian-built Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) is... when cosmic rays strike the lunar surface. The Lyman-Alpha Mapping... by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter... 240-km x 25-km elliptical lunar orbit on 23 June. It... any other location at the lunar south pole. Cabeus is a large... 14 September for the agency’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer... and composition of the lunar atmosphere from a lunar orbit, is scheduled to..., Hawaii, as part of NASA's lunar In Situ Utilization Project. The... Systems, was chosen for its lunar-like soil conditions. The system... be required for a lunar outpost, indicating that lunar astronauts may be able... oxygen and water supplies from lunar rocks and soil. On 26... order to stage and practice lunar exploration and studies on Earth... to compete for the Google Lunar X-Prize, and the first from... to hop across the lunar surface. A third Google Lunar XPrize team, Astrobic... the Level-2 $1 million Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge prize by accomplishing... 50 m apart strewn with mock lunar rocks and reach an altitude... time required to go from lunar orbit to the surface. Masten... technology for the future Altair lunar lander vehicle, demonstrated combustion stability... tests, which included simulation of a lunar landing, was 2,935 seconds. In... examples were a Mars lander and a lunar rover. Canada has been at... of science and technology, including lunar exploration, personal spaceflight, and renewable... serve as judges in the lunar exploration and personal spaceflight categories... Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Beginning this... spacecraft traveling to and from lunar orbit. The agreement is unprecedented... above), and the Chang’e 2 robotic lunar orbiter, due for launch in... is planning to conduct a human lunar-mission concept study. However, he... also cited China’s planning for a lunar sample-return mission “before 2017... Mankind Principle: the Moon and Lunar Resources” by Juan Manuel de... will compete for the Google Lunar X Prize. Team Selenokhod was noted.... The location would be for a "lunar base," which one senior scientist.... India aims to share the lunar base with the global community... the aegis of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a partnership of 10...



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... the Planets __________20 Analysis of Lunar Data _____________Study of Man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21... 1975. Observations of Mercury revealed a lunar-like cratered surface, an unexpected... scans. While passing through the lunar orbit on November 5, new photography... obtained. These hundreds of new lunar photographs were utilized to calibrate... launches in 1978. Analysis of Lunar Data In 1974, the effort... from lunar flights, Earth-based obsc‘rvations, and laboratory expcriments. A Lunar Data... and improve our knowledge of lunar origin, history, coinposition, and present... and planets, Agreement on basic lunar mapping principles was obtained during... were produted and distributed to lunar investigators for intensive study. Geochemical... extend the detailed knowledge of lunar surfacp composition at the landing... planetary missions. The five Apollo Lunar Surface ‘Experimental Packages {ALSEP’s) placed... valuable scientific result of the lunar program may well be an... of large lunar boulders are revealing important relationships between lunar rock types... space, study of these oldest lunar rocks provides data bearing on..., presently believed preserved as the lunar highlands, resembles a relatively lightweight, light... similar genesis. Analyses of the lunar minerals reveal that they were... new investigations under the NASA Lunar Sample Research Program. 39 Disseminating... positions and receive/transmit frequencies. Lunar Ranging The National Bureau of... gathering power for use in lunar ranging. The system has been... an improved knowledge of the lunar mass distribution and location of reflectors with respect to the lunar center of mass scheduling Earth... Support Activities Analysis of Apollo Lunar Samples NBS is determining the chemical and isotopic composition of lunar samples collected on the various... missions. Recent work indicated that lunar soils show an isotopic abundance... of lunar rocks. Studies now in progress are analyzing additional lunar samples... to all parts of the lunar surface and to determine what.... Geologic analyses and mapping of lunar data from Apollo 15, 16..., Space Physics, and Planetary and Lunar Exploration, in a critical examination of... Materials Various investigations continued on lunar rock and soil samples returned... the minerals and glasses of lunar crustal rocks as an aid... between recovered meteorites and returned lunar soil samples, continued in the... of Mineral Sciences. Analysis of lunar material concentrated on Apollo 17... Skylab and the ERTS programs. Lunar research focused on the geological... and geophysical experiments, including the Lunar Sounder. Center personnel participated in... USSR Academy of Sciences in lunar cartography. Subsequent to this meeting...: a) the basic principles for compiling lunar maps; b) establishment of a unified selenodetic... Astronomical Union, a revision of the lunar nomenclature system was undertaken. Names... to craters and other lunar features on lunar maps at 1 :250,000... United States scientific accomplishments in lunar and interplanetary exploration and they... to be accomplished. The Apollo lunar surface and Pioneer Jupiter missions... hardware and a model of the Lunar Rover at the Fair. Two..., consisted of a space suit, a lunar rock, lunar hand-tools, a reproduction of the.... (Italian launched.) Study of solar-lunar-terrestrial relationships in the radiation... the moon, by use of lunar orbit. Study of interplanetary environment... operation of lunar module to landing and takeoff from lunar surface and... system including lunar midule descent to 47,000 f t from the lunar surface. First manned landing on lunar surface and safe... manned deployment of experiments on lunar surface. 137 APPENDXX CLContinued History.... 295 h 12 min. Second manned lunar landing. Continued manned exploration and... 16 h 59 min. Third manned lunar landing. Mission demonstrated pin-point... June 30, 1971. Fourth manned lunar landing and first Apollo “J” series mission which carry the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Worden’s in-flight... return trip. Fifth manned lunar landing, with Lunar Roving Vehicle. 301 hr.... Sixth and final Apollo manned lunar landing, with roving vehicle. 672...



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... Natural History. *Now at the Lunar & Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas. NASA... certification as for borrowing the Lunar Sample Disk. These briefings are... group which curates the Apollo lunar samples. A companion facility is at... the whole Moon. Studies of lunar rocks returned by the Apollo... metal that is Aristarchus. The lunar crater Aristarchus is about 40... of achondrites which include both lunar and martian meteorites. They are... sinking in magmas. These include lunar anorthosite breccias which formed by... pyroxene and olivine sinking. More lunar and martian meteorites have been... as meteorites? Before the Apollo lunar landings a few scientists thought that... Moon. But none of the lunar rocks returned by six Apollo... years later when the first lunar meteorite, ALHA81005, was identified in... many samples collected in the lunar highlands (see companion volume Exploring...). Since 1982, a total of fifteen lunar meteorites have been identified. These... basalts and breccias from the lunar mare. Moon. This photograph of... soil. The intensive studies of lunar samples and meteorites in the... stayed active longer and have Lunar meteorite ALHA81005. This 31 g (ping... by impacts in the lunar highlands. Other lunar meteorites are dark colored... on their surfaces, such as lunar basalts which are 3-4 billion years..., perhaps Mars. The absence of lunar meteorites was used to argue... first one, and then several, lunar meteorites refuted that argument. The... history. Iron, stony-iron meteorites, lunar anorthosites, and seismic studies of... 4.4-4.5 and 4.2-4.5 billion years, respectively. The lunar cataclysmic bombardment (discussed in the... studies of meteorites and Apollo lunar samples and from telescopic studies... geologic exploration! The six Apollo lunar landings spacecraft. The NEAR mission..., water, and even food in lunar factories and greenhouses. Ideas for... Stony - achondrites basaltic achondrites planetary- lunar - martian Stony-irons Irons varied... anorthosites, meteorites mare basalts, meteorites lunar metamorphic rocks Mars geology, meteorites... Diablo, Meteor Crater impacts sent lunar meteorites to Earth impacts sent... rocks, geology meteorites crater, meteorite lunar meteorites Mars meteorites Ir in soils, fossils Mars meteorites lunar basalts, meteorites fossils breccias, craters... clues and studies of the lunar rocks returned by the Apollo... basins with the naked eye. Lunar craters were not described until... a regolith breccia similar to some lunar breccias. The curators also sent... for national treasures like the lunar samples or rare meteorites. NASA... of a cube 40 b. were studying lunar samples that had been brought... a globe or later with the lunar samples. a map. The towns nearest... the meteorites? attention to the lunar samples and forgot this wonderful... the imminent return of Apollo lunar samples. The scientists welcomed the... any samples yet. b. were studying lunar samples that had been brought... be used later with the lunar samples. b. The Mexican government was... turned their attention to the lunar samples and forgot this wonderful... benefits of space exploration? 5. Might a lunar base be cheaper to run... mining expedition: Earth, a space station, a lunar base, other? Why? Extensions 1. Create... have learned from meteorites and lunar materials. 2. Estimate the cost differences... System REVEALED Scientists at the Lunar and Planetary Institute have released... or comet dust, or time. Lunar meteorites: meteorites that have been... System, 40 slides with guide. Lunar Planetary Institute 3600 Bay Area...