Спутник технологический. Lunar. [Редактировать]

КА Lunar (другое название Vermont Lunar Cubesat), массой 1 кг, создан в Техническом колледже Вермонта для отработки технолгий, которые в будущем будут использоваться при создании аппаратов, предназначенных для изучения Луны.

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна производитель - США
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг1

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#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром Уоллопс
2Дата пуска2013-11-20
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Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Lunar». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Tune Impact Craters Moon Landforms LUNAR BASE ACTIVITIES Activities Overview Procedure... DVD, LRO/LCROSS Activities, and Lunar Base Activities. Together these materials... introduce NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar Crater Observation and... related to the mission, including lunar landforms, impact craters, geologic history... the design and creation of a lunar station. Teams of participants investigate... important topics related to future lunar missions, including technological, environmental, and... inquiry NSES CONTENT STANDARDS DVD LUNAR BASE ACTIVITIES LAVA LAYERS ORBITER... Moon: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar Crater Observation and... the LRO/ LCROSS mission, including lunar landforms, impact craters, geologic history... activity, participants will learn about lunar stratigraphy created by lava flows... will build a model of NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), built from... of a lunar outpost. LRO follows in the footsteps of Ranger, Lunar Orbiter... building a lunar outpost means spending extended periods on the lunar surface. LRO... identification of lunar resources. It will study how the lunar radiation environment... the lunar surface. ©2008 American Museum of Natural History The Lunar Reconnaissance... activity, participants will learn about lunar stratigraphy created by lava flows... NASA’s Lava Layering Activity: http://lunar.arc.nasa.gov/education/activities.../LCROSS ACTIVITIES build the orbiter Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter This diagram shows... lunar surface. Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment LROC Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera... is almost always shining. LOLA Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter This instrument... Museum of Natural History LEND Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector This instrument... contained water.) 6. What is the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter? How long will... NASA’s Make a Crater Activity: http://lunar.arc.nasa.gov/education/activities... Sheet • NASA photographs of the lunar surface • Landform Identification Sheet Introduction... will be sending a spacecraft — the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) — to orbit... best place to build a future lunar outpost. Exploration 1. Talk with participants... 2). Adapted from NASA’s Lunar Landform Identification Activity: http://lunar.arc.nasa.gov... Museum of Natural History 36 LUNAR BASE ACTIVITIES OVERVIEW Team Investigations... design a sustainable ecosystem for the lunar station. Geology Investigation http://corecatalog... design a power station for the lunar station. Navigation Investigation http://corecatalog... Museum of Natural History 37 LUNAR BASE ACTIVITIES procedure Team Investigations... with a few essential questions about lunar exploration. Use the following questions... Museum of Natural History 38 LUNAR BASE ACTIVITIES procedure Team Investigations... have planned a habitable and sustainable lunar station. 2. Divide the group into... Museum of Natural History 39 LUNAR BASE ACTIVITIES procedure Team Investigations... Together (35 minutes) 1. Completion of lunar station (25 minutes) Have teams... in a labeled envelope) • Key of Lunar Metals and Minerals • Plain geological... with metals and minerals overlay • Lunar Mining Area worksheet • Article (distribute... 1 & 2 (cut and distribute separately) • Sample Lunar Base designs • Article (distribute as... your ecosystem on the lunar station. 5. Construct your lunar ecosystem by fitting... Vision for Space Exploration goals.” Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS are... early missions will help determine lunar landing sites and whether resources... 54 Geology Investigation Key of Lunar Metals and Minerals worksheet Instructions... a gathering of scientists at NASA’s Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) meeting... lunar poles,” Neal continues. That’s important, because one candidate location for a lunar... safest spots for permanent lunar bases. Representative lunar seismograms from the Apollo... lunar soil to about 2,500ºC. Test samples included ilmenite and Minnesota Lunar... the composition of the lunar soil. Actual lunar soil is too highly... protects the LSAM during launch. Lunar Module This vehicle carries explorers... Navigation Investigation diagram Orion and Lunar Module This diagram shows the... survival and the construction of a lunar base. priority Calculate Actual Percentage... launch in 2008 onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. LOLA works... by lunar orbiters and Apollo astronauts. But much of the lunar surface... in the true elevation of lunar 85 Navigation Investigation article a hitchhiker... to prevent respiratory infection Minimize lunar dust exposure Monitor heart and... card Basic Lunar First Aid Kit data card Basic Lunar First Aid... respirations. Medical data card Basic Lunar First Aid Kit cardiopulmonary resuscitation... data card Scenario ! environmental emergency A lunar construction astronaut was outside working... Scenario injury emergency ! In the lunar nuclear power plant, a technician burned... suffocates” from a pneumonia-like condition. Lunar dust is, like quartz, a compound...



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... is greater than the parts. A lunar settlement continues humanity's movement to... solar system constitutesa politically neutral LUNAR BASES AND SPACE ACTMTIES OF... possibility of an independent,competitive lunar project complementing a U.S. initiative. Contemporary space... U.S. political process inevitably will include lunar surface activities" (Duke et al... importance-many of the barriers O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided by... a competition to complete a successll manned lunar expedition and that no other... memorandum to the President recommendingthe lunar landing effort was signed by...-scienwcbut "c~1ian"projects such as lunar and planetary exploration are, in... thefluidfiont of the cold war. O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided by... undertaking was technologically feasible; a manned lunar mission had been under serious... been identified. NASA had selected a lunar landing as the appropriate long... outside government participate in this O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided by... its technical capabilities fully occupied; O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided by... lasting power of that support. O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided by... space exploration that includes establishing a lunar base, that commitment would have... Presidential commitment in principle to a lunar base program would, of course... out the program under consideration; O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided by... the studies and exploratory research O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided by... be absolutelyrequired for enterpriseslike the lunar base,then persons interested in... lunar base become a reality. REFERENCES Duke M. B., Mendell W. W., and Roberts B. B. (1985) Towards a lunar... station. Science, 223,793-794. O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided by... System THE BUDGETARY FEASIBILITY OF A LUNAR BASE Wallace 0. Sellers M e M Lynch 8 Co... stringency, the financial feasibility of a lunar base is certainly a legitimate issue... estimates have indicated that a permanent lunar facility with significant scientific andlor... / Sodeta1Issues Figure 1. Cost estimates of lunar base colonization. emphasis on self... our projections, we assume that O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided by... 1970 1970 -- 3.6% 3.3% 3.3% 3.2% 3.0% 3.3% 3.5% 3.9% 3.6% 4.0% 'Average for decade O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided by...).In Papers Presented to t h e ~ p o s i u m on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of.... U . S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System LUNAR STATIONS: PROSPECTS FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION... about space stations, and particularly lunar station planning. That expedition stimulated... prospect for international cooperation in lunar station planning. In considering policies... consider their policies for hture lunar station planning, it is inevitable... Sciencesor the National Research Council. O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided by... for other space activities. True lunar industrialization or commercial activity in... participate in scientific and other lunar ventures. NATIONAL ENTERPRISE The exploration... NASA Astrophysics Data System Smfth:Lunar Stations and International Cooperation / 7 19... a manned expedition to the Moon. O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided by... the implications for cooperation in lunar activity if national enterprise continues... with lunar development along the lines of this model. The lunar settlement... of international cooperation on the lunar surface. O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided... NASA Astrophysics Data System Smith: Lunar Stations and International Cooperation / 72... union that would together coordinate a lunar observational program of several decades... by uncoordinated effort. Another direction lunar cooperation might take would be... a joint lunar effort. In this case there would develop a lunar program that... Rim high technology nations such O Lunar and Planetary Institute Provided by... a bilateral or trilateral effort for lunar activity. TRANSNATIONALISM There has been... communities for the planning of lunar stations. Transnationalism seems to work... conclude that true transnationalism in lunar base planning is a possibility, even... for true transnational cooperation in lunar station development would require a separate... the affairs of nations?Transnationalismin lunar scientific or observational cooperation could... that would, in fact, plan lunar station activities. The International Telecommunications... NASA Astrophysics Data System Smith: Lunar Stations and International Cooperation / 723... private sector enterprises to operate lunar research facilities. Again, there are... in which international cooperation in lunar station planning might proceed. There... only early rationale for extended lunar activity, the traditions of international... NASA Astrophysics Data System SOVIET LUNAR EXPLORATION: PAST AND FUTURE JamesE... space capabilities applicable to advanced lunar missions and to make estimates... full chronicle of past Soviet lunar exploration is required The successful... successes in the fall, a lunar impact and a lunar farside photographic fly-by...



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... Mars Programs................................................................... 42 Chinese Lunar Programs..................................................................................... 43 Indian Lunar Space Missions.............................................................................. 44... Launchers............................................................................................................. 89 Earth Observation................................................................................................ 97 Lunar and Mars Space Exploration..................................................................... 99... was born. A generation for which Lunar habitats, Mars missions and interplanetary... satellites and the construction of lunar solar power stations. CHAPTER 6: COMPETITIVENESS... development of autonomous space operations, lunar and planetary resource utilisation1, reconfigurable... technology innovation. 3.7 Ansari X-Prizeand Google Lunar X-prize International competitions for encouraging... Lunar X-prize. The objective of the Google Lunar X PRIZE is to land a lunar rover on the lunar surface.... Companies involved in the Google Lunar Prize gain primarily indirect benefits... witness the creation of Lunar Solar Power Stations. Lunar mining and solar..., from Google Lunar X-prize: http://www.googlelunarxprize.org/lunar/about-the-prize....com/missionlaunches/progress_iss_020425.html ENDNOTES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Lunar and planetary resource utilisation, such... was born; a generation for which Lunar habitats, Mars missions and interplanetary... performed. These missions brought back lunar samples and resulted in scientific..., such as scratch resistant lenses, lunar boots, kidney dialysis machines, water... Cordless tools- drills, dust vacuums Lunar boots Hospital monitoring equipment Water... Module (CSM), the Lunar Module (LM) and the Lunar Rover. The Apollo... 2020 (see Figure 2). Thus, using Lunar exploration as a Copyright © 2011, IGI... of a lunar landing system, enabling implementation of autonomous, automatic European lunar exploration and participation in international human lunar surface missions... the lunar surface. Figure 4 shows an overview of the European Lunar Logistics... Space Exploration Concepts Figure 4. European lunar logistics lander (ESA, 2008) the... Astronautical Sciences (ISAS), launched the lunar mission MUSES-A/Hiten with the... for possible Lunar visits by 2030. It launched the lunar mission Muses.../missions/nozomi/ JAXA. (2008). Japans Lunar Exploration. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from... already built a Lunar base and solar energy generating lunar farms. However, launch... reduction. Solar powered satellites and lunar solar power stations (LSPS) are... as heavy human-rated launchers, lunar orbiters, landers, habitats and transfer... re-entry vehicle Developing a Logistics Lunar Lander Developing Life Support and... for In Situ Resources (ISRU) lunar exploration space missions Participating in... cooperation, thus focusing on robotic lunar exploration and examining the need... by Japanese astronauts Technology Development Lunar orbit insertion & observation from orbit... Development of a large scale lander Lunar utilization Remote sensing of surface... Construction demonstration on the Moon Lunar observatory International Collaboration Data exchange... Europe’s technology competencies for future Lunar and Mars exploration. The increased.../index_e.html Kawaguchi, J. (2008). Japan’s lunar exploration program. Presentation on October..., T., & Kato, M. (2008). The Next Japanese Lunar Mission, SELENE-2: Present Status and.... Paper presented at the NLSI Lunar Science Conference. Tkatchova, S. (2006). From... satellites and the construction of lunar solar power stations. 2. FUTURE MARKET... Sector ISS flights SpaceShipOne flights Lunar Hotels Space Ports Parabolic Flights... for generating oxygen and supporting a lunar base (Ghose, 2010) Planetary resources... possibility to develop long term Lunar base. Potential evidence of interplanetary... the possibility of constructing lunar hotels for future lunar space tourists. These... indicates consumer interest. The Google Lunar X-prize is an international competition... of a lunar probe that will take images of the Lunar surface. The... landing a lunar probe that can travel 500 meters over the lunar surface... in the Google Lunar X-prize or being involved in lunar space tourism... (i.e indirect benefits). REFERENCES Adventures, S. (2010). Lunar Mission. Retrieved May 24, 2010.... spaceadventures.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=Lunar.Details CNES. (April 2010). Les...-north-pole/ Google Lunar X-prize. (2010). About the Google Lunar X-prize. Retrieved May 24, 2010 from http://www.googlelunarxprize.org/lunar... critical competencies and technologies (i.e. lunar orbiter, landers, lunar rovers, habitats, etc.) for.... Planetary resource utilization refers to lunar and planetary resource utilisation, such... satellite 167 Lunar habitats 30 Lunar Module (LM) 32 Lunar Rover 32 Lunar Solar...



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... Sector: The Google Lunar X PRIZE – Moon 2.0 .......................................... 73 I. Google Lunar X PRIZE ........................................................................................ 73 1. History... of International Law CLEP Chinese Lunar Exploration Network CNES Centre National... Global Exploration Strategy GLXP Google Lunar X PRIZE GNSS Global Navigation Satellite... International Law Association ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group IMARS International... coined for Google Lunar X PRIZE, see e.g. X PRIZE Foundation, “Google Lunar X PRIZE: Introductory...]. 13 See X PRIZE Foundation, “Google Lunar X PRIZE Q & A”, Question no. 6, online: accessed...: Jane’s Information Group, 2003) on lunar exploration; see also compilation of... Lindroos, ed., The Soviet Manned Lunar Program, online: Federation of American... 30 Approved in 2006, a national lunar exploration programme which emphasizes reliance... Joint Working Group Report on Lunar Cooperation, October 2007, online: accessed... July 2008; Ian Crawford, “UK Lunar Exploration Activities”, 23 October 2007... Space Activities.119 The robotic lunar exploration program is structured along..., Kourou, 11 February 2008. “China’s Lunar Probe Chief Commander: Scientific Exploration... (27 November 2007). 121 “China’s Lunar Probe Chief Commander: Scientific Exploration... Activities and Canadian Plans in Lunar Exploration”, 23 October 2007, ICEUM9... forward a concrete proposal for a national lunar 127 Australian Government Space Engagement... direct “descendents” from the SMART-1 lunar orbiter, and provide a good example... 29 July 2008. 141 “国际月球探测的发展历程和方向” Chinese Lunar Exploration Network (CLEP), online: accessed... cancellation of the lunar programs (Pioneer, Ranger, Surveyor, Lunar Orbiter, Explorer 35... in 1990, Clementine in 1994, Lunar Prospector (19981999), whose common objective... power or communications services to lunar outposts, that potentially could be... missions. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar Crater Observation and.... 160 Geoffrey Yoder, “Lunar Architecture update: Constellation Lunar Study Status, Partnership Flexibility.... G. Shkuratov et al., “A prospective Ukrainian Lunar Orbiter Mission ‘Ukrselena’”, 23 October... abandoned its extensive and successful lunar exploration program (Luna, Zond) after...), ESA’s Venus Express (2005), NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (2008) and NASA... the Beatenberg Declaration. The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) was....168 164 See ESA, International Lunar Exploration Working Group, online: accessed... eventually Earth orbit and the lunar surface. The inexorable human expansion... celestial bodies, i.e. the “use” of lunar resources). While endeavours to further... and individual programs, see “合作与单干并 存——国际探月新动向” Chinese Lunar Exploration Network (CLEP) (17 May... “uses”, including the construction of a lunar-based low-frequency radio telescope... International Law: Could a Lunar Settlement claim the Lunar Real Estate it needs... Prospect of Commercial Exploitation of Lunar Resources” (2007) XXXII Annals of.... 72 D. Private Sector: The Google Lunar X PRIZE – Moon 2.0 The private sector... therefore deserves special attention. I. Google Lunar X PRIZE 1. History and Theory of... X PRIZE Foundation, “Media Backgrounder Google Lunar X PRIZE”, online: accessed 10 January... Lunar X PRIZE. 2. The Challenge: A privately funded Moon 2.0? In short, “The Google Lunar... 2008. 251 X PRIZE Foundation, Google Lunar X PRIZE Draft Competition Guidelines, 13... governmental financing specific to Google Lunar X PRIZE efforts”. Even the use...: Globalization in Practice? The Google Lunar X PRIZE subscribes to the “Any... benefits is necessary to specify (lunar) utilization rights to incentivize and... Exploration Strategy and the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The GC could furthermore... Joint Working Group Report on Lunar Cooperation, October 2007, online: BNSC...: accessed 29 July 2008. ———. Google Lunar X PRIZE Draft Competition Guidelines, 13... Prospect of Commercial Exploitation of Lunar Resources” (2007) XXXII Annals of... Activities and Canadian Plans in Lunar Exploration”, 23 October 2007, ICEUM9..., Yu. G. et al., “A prospective Ukrainian Lunar Orbiter Mission ‘Ukrselena’”, 23 October... International Law: Could a Lunar Settlement claim the Lunar Real Estate it needs...-389. Yoder, Geoffrey. “Lunar Architecture update: Constellation Lunar Study Status, Partnership Flexibility...: accessed 29 July 2008. “China’s Lunar Probe Chief Commander: Scientific Exploration...: accessed 29 July 2008. “国际月球探测的发展历程和方向” Chinese Lunar Exploration Network (CLEP), online: accessed...: accessed 29 July 2008. “合作与单干并存——国际探月新动向” Chinese Lunar Exploration Network (CLEP) (17 May...: accessed 30 July 2008. ———. “Google Lunar X PRIZE: Introductory Video”, online: XPF... Lunar X PRIZE Q & A”, online: accessed 10 January 2008. 119 ———. “Media Backgrounder Google Lunar... 29 July 2008. ESA. International Lunar Exploration Working Group, online: accessed.... Encyclopedia, online: X PRIZE Foundation. Google Lunar X PRIZE, online: accessed 29 July...



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... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): Leading NASA’s Way Back to the Moon Lunar... Observation Campaign............................................................................................................................. 35 Future NASA Lunar Missions.................................................................................................................................. 36 Program/Project Oversight....edwards-1@nasa.gov Kimberly Newton Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Marshall Space...@nasa.gov Nancy Neal Jones Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Project Office Goddard... live mission coverage of LRO’s lunar orbit insertion, which occurs approximately... of the lunar flyby and live coverage of the LCROSS lunar impacts... century lunar endeavor will be the launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Lunar Crater Observation and..., collecting detailed information about the lunar surface and environment. After a year... the bottom of a permanently shadowed lunar crater. Whatever LCROSS discovers about...) altitude circular lunar polar orbit. LCROSS has a Lunar Gravity-Assist, Lunar Return Orbit... the spacecraft after separation, during lunar orbit insertion, and for mission... Investigator is Dr. Stewart Nozette, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston. The... Shepherding Spacecraft will impact the lunar surface four minutes after the... the lunar surface at approximately 60–70 degrees to the lunar surface... 2 Centaur Main Engine Cut-Off 2 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Spacecraft Separation Centaur... Earth rise. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Lunar Crater Observation and... on the lunar surface. There are spectacular vistas on the lunar surface... humanity’s economic sphere to conduct lunar activities with enormous benefits to... step. Existing lunar datasets (including Lunar Orbiter, Apollo, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector) are insufficient to completely plan future lunar operations, especially.... President John F. Kennedy proposed a manned lunar program. Ranger 7 produced the fist... multispectral mapping of the moon. Lunar Prospector launched. NASA’s Vision for... develop a deeper understanding of the lunar environment, paving the way for... • Spacecraft functional checkout • LOI planning Lunar Orbit Acquisition Start of LOI... of closeN/A out activities • Perform lunar orbit capture maneuver • Achieve 30... effects in spacecraft systems. Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) Goals The... exploration. The temperature of the lunar surface and subsurface is a critical... only conducted during the lunar day, NASA’s new lunar exploration program will...-noise ratio. Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) Goals The Lunar Exploration Neutron... the neutron component of the lunar radiation environment, also extremely important... space. 17 Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Goals The Lunar Orbiter Laser...) investigation will provide a precise global lunar topographic model and geodetic grid... near-permanent illumination throughout a full lunar year. In addition to these... structure and geological evolution. LROC Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Thousands of... evaluation, and crustal evolution. LEND Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector Maps of... in lunar soil or concentrations of implanted hydrogen. DLRE Diviner Lunar Radiometer... response. Map radiation reflected from lunar surface. Mini-RF Technology Demonstration... directed a radio transmitter toward the lunar polar regions, and antennas at... slow them down. As Lunar Prospector scanned the lunar surface, its neutron... high-resolution cameras, called the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). As... much better resolution than Lunar Prospector’s, called the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector... craters. The instrument, called the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), records... shadowed craters near the lunar poles by NASA’s Lunar Prospector. These readings may be an indication of lunar water... impacting the lunar surface and creating a second debris plume. Lunar orbiting satellites... the experience gained from NASA’s Lunar Prospector mission. NASA Ames Research... moon and enter into a Lunar Gravity Assist, Lunar Return Orbit (LGALRO) to..., the LCROSS spacecraft impacts the lunar surface creating a second debris plume... small robotic missions, Clementine and Lunar Prospector, found evidence of possible... create a significantly larger crater than Lunar Prospector (LP) that impacted the... for this innovative mission. NASA’s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... 0 StarField SciCal S Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Lunar Swingby TCM-4 S Day 5 Day 6 Day... Payload Calibration Shepherding Spacecraft The Lunar Prospector spacecraft found evidence that... permanently shadowed areas of the lunar poles. 34 TCM-7 Centaur S-S/C Impact... a gravitational sense. 2012 LADEE (orbiter) Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer... Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Kaguya lunar orbiter mission, which will enhance... scientific return from LRO. The Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Office, Marshall...



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... of reusable shuttles, space stations, lunar bases, and Mars expeditions—seemed... Exploration Vehicles (Orion), to support lunar operations. The "Vision for Space... prospect of commercial involvement in lunar operations, in addition to commercial... on the lunar surface or in free space using lunar materials. Other... commercial firms separating oxygen from lunar rocks and providing support services... technology development occurs to support a lunar outpost, that a robust space transportation... the lunar surface, it would significantly change the economics of lunar development... pound. While this actually makes lunar titanium less attractive as a transportable... flexibility far beyond today's capabilities. Lunar oxygen would enable this capability... recent years concerning lunar industrial-scale production, but a lunar materials extraction economy... vehicles using chemical propulsion. The lunar Lagrange points are at a similar... Sun aids in developing the lunar industrial infrastructure, considering that the... in the previous sections. With lunar manufacturing and propellant production enabled... produce propellants and metals for lunar industrialization. Plentiful energy is the... reduction in cost to provide lunar oxygen, metals, and manufacturing infrastructure... B. Roberts, "Strategies for a Permanent Lunar Base," in Lunar Bases and Space Activities... 21st Century, ed. W.W. Mendell (Houston: Lunar and Planetary Institute Press, 1986..., 1929), 111. 22. Steven Wintergerst, "Lunar Laws," December 24, 2004, available... Velocity Impact," LPSC 2045.pdf, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston.... Support to lunar base. Many studies have shown that a lunar base has..., exploration, and industrial research. Indeed, a lunar base is the centerpiece of... accomplish a far-reaching program of lunar and planetary exploration, another critical... was never enthusiastic about human lunar exploration, and especially about the... believed hypersonic space planes and lunar bases would serve national security... mission with what amounts to a lunar-class transportation system. By eliminating... operations beyond those needed for lunar transportation to accomplish piloted Mars... question whether the current NASA lunar program even includes a willingness to... building material.5Oxygen extracted from lunar materials can support life and... in cislunar space.Both lunar orbit and the lunar surface are possible... titanium concentration mapped from orbit. Lunar materials offer many possible uses... a neutron spectrometer flown on NASA's Lunar Prospector spacecraft21 in 1998. Water... form, greatly simplifying scenarios for lunar return and habitation.Broken down... L1 to the lunar surface. The preferred site for a lunar outpost is... support extended exploration around the lunar outpost and perhaps ballistic flights... finding, characterizing, processing, and using lunar resources as soon as possible....A cislunar transportation system, fueled by lunar propellant, will be the transcontinental... A. Ehricke, "Lunar Industrialization and Settlement—Birth of a Polyglobal Civilization," Lunar Bases and...). L.A. Taylor, E. Hill, and Y. Liu, "Unique lunar soil properties for ISRU microwave... Space Resources Roundtable 2005 (Houston: Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2005), 2075... (2000), E2, 4175–4195. A. Binder, "Lunar Prospector: Overview," Science 281 (1998... M.S. Robinson, "Illumination Conditions at the Lunar South Pole," Geophysical Research Letters.... Heiken, Vaniman, and French. 26. "Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter," available at . 27... Point as a Transportation Node for Lunar Exploration," AAS/AIAA Spaceflight Mechanics..., B.F. Kutter, and J. Barr, "A Commercially Based Lunar Architecture,"AIAA Space 2009 Conference..., the Moon Agreement requires that lunar resources, once exploitation commences, be..., space tourism, space hotels, and lunar and asteroid resource development. Space... sites, satellites, space stations, and lunar installations typify potentially helpful confidencebuilding... a decisive advantage. In space. Five lunar libration points may constitute strategic... correct.31 Figure 18–2. Map. Lunar Liberation Points The U.S. National Commission... a command module, service module, and lunar excursion module atop a Saturn V launch... Lavochkin Design Bureau, Moscow-Khimki: lunar and planetary probes, military reconnaissance... capable of being manufactured in a lunar variant, including a stronger heat shield... attempts at breakout projects (human lunar flight, advanced robotic Mars probes... undertake lunar missions. The Chang'e program was intended to involve a lunar orbiter mission in 2007 followed by a lunar lander in... for Development of Our Nation's Lunar Exploration Technology" was incorporated in... for low-cost space missions. A lunar orbiting mission, Chandrayaan, was launched... an International Lunar Network, an open framework of robotic lunar science missions... for details on the International Lunar Network program, available at . Randall... vehicle propulsion systems, Mars and lunar in 9 situ resource utilization technology...



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... in dispersal of species. Cis-lunar manufacturing experience will provide the... orbit their target systems in lunar-built ships of suitable artificial... ownership claims of Dennis Hope’s “Lunar Embassy”.) In the 1940s, with... 1950s further stimulated interest in lunar, Martian, and other celestial real... of this is the aforementioned Lunar Embassy, which has been selling... spends several pages deconstructing the Lunar Embassy’s claims in particular, using... of professional astronomers: even the Lunar Embassy, Pop notes, recognizes its..., non-profit organizations, sponsorships, and lunar real estate sales that have... to discuss Lunar advertising. George Allan England published “The Lunar Advertising Co... laser, a more efficient battery, lunar manufacturing, or a lunar power grid. A mile of..., I would build a space elevator, not lunar Christmas lights. The trick may... be worth $216 million per lunar month or $3 billion a year. Maybe... adding video to an existing lunar solar power broadcast buildout might..., hurricane, or asteroid strike, the lunar lasers can shoot a message that... the literacy promotion potential of lunar TV. There are a lot more... don’t bet too heavily against lunar advertising on Ladbroke’s. However, the... of those polled were against lunar advertising. We may have a property... there will spring into being a lunar authority charged with preventing harmful..., before raising billions to put lunar television in place, the would... broad international local support for lunar TV before attempting development. Unlike... amongst all nations. Therefore, local lunar development companies should be established... of George Allan England’s “The Lunar Advertising Co. Ltd.” and the... soon to talk about private lunar missions and colonization. The time... and lotteries in spurring commercial lunar developments. (credit: NASA) Races, beauty..., franchises, and buildout requirements for lunar property by Sam Dinkin Monday... break up the discussion of lunar property rights into three areas...). While I am a firm believer that lunar tourism is a multi-billion dollar... might put the probability of lunar tourism being a $30-billion market... of lunar transportation. If an investor instead sees that the lunar tourism... international cooperation to the UN lunar youth hostel? Getting there first... spectrum claims. I want lunar patent rights, lunar copyrights, and lunar trademarks. I want telecom... of government, law, and business. Lunar property rights can hasten or... for constructing the infrastructure of a lunar base before entrepreneurs and engineers... of financing and peopling his lunar colony by dissolving the problem... justify the construction of multiple lunar hotels. Exotic vistas combined with... of Earth's power needs then lunar and astroidal resources will have..., an SSTO RLV from the lunar surface is doable. Propellent supplied... the aerospace industry. The 3 second lunar light lag permits use of... LEO, EML1, and on the lunar surface, a human presence would become... spurious claims of ownership of lunar real estate, simply for the... at the First Convention of Lunar Explorers, Palais de la Decouverte, Paris, 8-10 March 2001. Lunar Real Estate: Buyer, Beware! Virgiliu..." company is Dennis Hope's Lunar Embassy, lunar sales date back to 1955... first "extraterrestrial estate" agency, the Lunar Embassy. In 1980, unaware of... a claim over the Moon and a "lunar constitution"5, subsequently copyrighting his work... real estate certificates from the Lunar Embassy9, including Hollywood celebrities like... by the activities of the Lunar Embassy for reasons I will further... the Lunar Embassy's raison d'etre is precisely alienation of lunar land; last..., the Soviet reaction to earlier lunar real estate affairs was that.... As the Lunar Embassy itself points out, the Lunar Deeds are "novelty... been made animus jocandi. The Lunar Embassy does contradict itself, however... recorded and registered in the Lunar Embassy's registration database and every..., D T Vaniman and B M French (eds), 1991, " Lunar Sourcebook - A User's Guide to the.../01/00], present location unknown. 6. Lunar Embassy, 'The General FAQ List.../00]. 7. Saint-Germain, op.cit. 8. Lunar Embassy website, http://www.lunarembassy... & Technology 513, at p.514. 29. Lunar Embassy, 'The General FAQ List... system of solar power generation, lunar and asteroidal mining, orbital industrialization... to establish a "space line" and lunar settlement by risking their own... had previously been valueless. Creating lunar property could be the incentive... year after year selling unrecognized Lunar land deeds, when there is... that anyone wanting to establish a lunar settlement might have to pay... settlement is the following: Can lunar land really be worth enough... that should be used for a Lunar settlement because, of course, the... a new "space race"? The first lunar settlement would have a big advantage... that came later. Clementine and Lunar Prospector have demonstrated that the... that will rule on whether lunar land sales are valid transactions... Moonrise takes place on that lunar mountain, which Bova named "Mt...



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... low-temperature alteration rock suites; lunar analogue basaltic and anorthositic rock... vol min FJS-1 BAS600 PSA003 Lunar mare simulant Ilmenite-bearing basalt... data) Lunar anorthositic MAI001 PSA001 PLG122 CHX009 Shimizu-HS Anorthosite Lunar highlands... minerals representative of a range of lunar and martian settings and a suite... broadly divided into martian analogue, lunar analogue, and impactite subgroups. It... to these major rock types, lunar regolith also contains several glass... (Gaddis et al., 1985). Many lunar samples contain a late differentiation product...; Korotev and Gillis, 2001). The lunar surface or near-surface, particularly... of widespread hydration of the lunar surface by multiple spacecraft instruments... human presence on the Moon. 1.2.1. Lunar anorthositic suite The light regions... of lunar meteorites indicate that while the majority of the lunar highlands..., 1993; Korotev et al., 2009). 1.2.2. Lunar basaltic suite Basalts make up... on the nearside (e.g., Lucey, 2004). Lunar basalts are chemically very reduced... et al., 2003; Korotev, 2005). Lunar basalts are dominated by clinopyroxene... al., 2003; Korotev, 2005). While lunar basalts also contain a number of... solid planetary surfaces. Both the lunar and martian surfaces have been... Fig. 3. Emissivity spectra of lunar analogue materials. (A) Lunar highlands (anorthositic) materials. (B) Mare... spectra of lunar analogues Thermal emission data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.... 3 shows thermal emission spectra of lunar analogue materials for the highlands... nature of lunar regolith greatly reduce the spectral contrast of lunar materials... spectra of lunar analogue materials should be collected under lunar-like conditions.... close to those acquired under lunar conditions, as strong thermal gradients... coarse particulates. For comparison to lunar spectra, the finely particulate size... to be collected in a simulated lunar environment (e.g., Donaldson Hanna et al...ficult to address adequately for lunar analogue materials that are related... volatile, reactive species in the lunar crust and interior. Despite recent..., and adsorbed molecular water) in lunar samples (e.g., Pieters et al., 2009...; Saal et al., 2013), the lunar surface and interior remain extremely... from known lunar rocks incorporated in some of the lunar simulants. Planetary... lunar analogues were chosen to represent the broad division of the lunar... lowtemperature, Mars analogue igneous, Lunar analogue basaltic, Lunar analogue anorthositic, and Impactite.../). The CSA suite also contains lunar-analogue and impact-affected materials..., M.D., 1991. Mineral compositions in pristine lunar highland rocks and the diversity..., L.A., Nazarov, M.A., Cohen, B.A., 2004. Petrogenesis of lunar highlands meteorites: Dhofar 025, Dhofar... under a simulated lunar environment: application to the diviner lunar radiometer experiment. J. Geophys.... Ferroan anorthosite-widespread and distinctive lunar rock type. Earth Planet. Sci..., C.M., Hawke, B.R., 1985. Remote sensing of lunar pyroclastic mantling deposits. Icarus 61..., B.L., 2000. The materials of the lunar Procellarum KREEP Terrane: a synthesis of..., A.H., Zhang, Y., Neal, C.R., 2013. Water in lunar anorthosites and evidence for a wet..., J.J., Haskin, L.A., Korotev, R.L., Wieczorek, M.A., 2000. Major lunar crustal terranes: surface expressions and..., M., Bunch, T.E., 1970. Mineral chemistry of lunar samples. Science 167, 597 &. Keil.... Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. 21, 229–289. Korotev, R.L., 2005. Lunar geochemistry as told by lunar meteorites. Chem. Der... lunar meteorites and their implications for compositional remote sensing of the lunar surface and the composition of the lunar crust. Geochim... and lithological diversity among brecciated lunar meteorites of intermediate iron concentration... the Moons surface-composition from Lunar Orbit. J. Geophys. Res. 98, 23535..., K., 1991. Additional complexity in the lunar crustpetrology of sodic anorthosites and...–472. Papike, J.J., Ryder, G., Shearer, C.K., 1998. Lunar samples. In: Papike, J.J. (Ed.), Planetary..., D.H., 1972. Crystallization of plagioclase in lunar basalts and its significance..., M.C., Cooper, R.F., 2008. Volatile content of lunar volcanic glasses and the presence..., J.A., Rutherford, M.J., 2013. Hydrogen isotopes in lunar volcanic glasses and melt inclusions... Regolith spectroscopy environmental chamber (PARSEC). Lunar Planet. Sci., XLVI, abstract 2025... geochemistry of lunar granite 12032, 366-19 and implications for lunar granite... lunar crater central peaks via thermal infrared spectra from the Diviner Lunar.... Temporal and spatial variability of lunar hydration as observed by the..., 1858–1872. Wakita, H., Schmitt, R.A., 1971. Lunar Anorthosites-Plagioclase crystallization. Science 172... and lunar crust formation. Geology 5, 425–428. Wells, E., Hapke, B., 1977. Lunar soil...–979. Wells, E.N., Cassidy, W.A., Hapke, B.W., 1972. Lunar and laboratory glasses and spectrum... mantle origin of olivine around lunar impact basins detected by SELENE...



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... PROPOSED BY NEAR EARTH 25 LUNAR / NEO COMMERCIAL SERVICES ..............................................................................26 2.5.1 CURRENT... COMMERCIAL SPACE INDUSTRY RELATIVE TO LUNAR/NEO GOALS 26 2.5.2 BARRIERS TO... EARTH ............................................................. 102 6 LUNAR AND NEO COMMERCIAL SERVICES .............................................................. 104 6.1 6.2 6.6 LUNAR/NEO GOALS ................................................................................................... 104... COMMERCIAL SPACE INDUSTRY RELATIVE TO LUNAR/NEO GOALS ............... 105 6.2.1 INDUSTRY PARTICIPANTS... Space Commercial Laboratory Applications (SCoLA) Lunar / NEO Commercial Services Commercial Application... Analysis COTS/CRS, CRuSR, Innovative Lunar Demonstrations Data (ILDD), and the..., international space agencies and supporting lunar/NEO commercial users. Such an... Program used extensively in Canada. 2.5 Lunar / NEO Commercial Services 2.5.1 Current State... Space Industry Relative to Lunar/NEO Goals The lunar and NEO services... participant teams in the Google Lunar X PRIZE (GLXP). Although no participant... relevant barriers to developing commercial lunar or NEO services are: (i) uncertain... is for Lunar/NEO telecom services. COTS-type contracting for lunar/NEO...-like program dedicated to developing lunar and NEO transport solutions, followed... worth pursuing and supporting. The Lunar Lander Challenge won by Masten... laboratory services, and (iv) commercial Lunar and NEO missions. Specific new..., Aerojet has proposed concepts for lunar cargo transfer based on their... Supporting Commercial Space Development NASA lunar/NEO/Martian exploration efforts. The... Development 6 Lunar and NEO commercial services 6.1 Lunar/NEO Goals The Lunar/NEO working... Earth Objects. More specifically, the Lunar/NEO working group was tasked... to the lunar surface or NEOs, mining and processing of lunar or NEO resources and transportation of lunar or NEO... o If a commercial lander can support lunar landing delta-V’s, it can handle... Commercial Space Industry Relative to Lunar/NEO Goals Serious attempts by... BlastOff! project to develop a complete lunar mission. Both of these projects... provide an entertainment experience through lunar rovers, similar in some ways... Radio Shack. • Lunar Transportation Systems, a venture to provide lunar resupply logistics services... the competition for the Google Lunar X Prize, although many competitors have... an intent to pursue commercial lunar transportation services as well. 6.2.1 Industry... the NASA Commercial Lunar Working Group at the Lunar Science Forum on... 2009 predicted that the commercial lunar services market for NASA-related... the next decade. A NASA robotic lunar exploration program (RLEP) study concluded... robotic precursor missions to survey lunar landing sites and support future... evidence of increased interest in lunar exploration and the existing customer... interviews with industry participants, the Lunar/NEO working group found that... uncertain business plans 4) Regulatory risk a) Lunar and NEO services are dependent... its existing programs to support Lunar/NEO commercialization, it appears progress... & budgets Political / Regulatory: Treaties & indemnification Lunar/NEO Barriers Moderate Moderate High... in competitively awarded contracts for Lunar or NEO transportation and logistics... traditional competitively awarded contracts for lunar/NEO transportation services would be... fill niches in lunar surface capability, science in cis-lunar space and... interest to firms participating in Lunar/NEO commercial markets. The same... be started by introducing commercial lunar or NEO services for ancillary... lunar mission. ILDD’s main benefit, therefore, is to amplify the Google Lunar... enough to validate the technology. Lunar ‘Prize-on-Prize’ Challenge Proposal... as basis for Lunar Prize for certain capabilities (Ex: Lunar Robotics Navigation) New Centennial Challenge Prizes • Lunar Night Energy.... Could include power-beaming to lunar surface. • Lunar Robotics Tasks Challenge: A new... extraction etc.) demonstrated in the lunar regolith environment. • Laser Communications: Earth... investors for new activities (say, lunar landers) will take high-profile... contractual backlog, a startup company for Lunar or NEO activities may still... investment. Longer term - lunar development authority. Develop lunar infrastructure (lunar research park). COMMENTS... parcel with considerations into what a Lunar Authority may eventually look like... impact on the Lunar/NEO barriers to investment. Lunar/NEO Barriers Investor... High Moderate Moderate High Moderate Lunar/NEO Barriers Moderate Moderate High...-like program dedicated to developing lunar and NEO transport solutions followed... – Geostationary Earth Orbit GLXP – Google Lunar X PRIZE GN&C – Guidance, Navigation and... – High Earth Orbit ILDD – Innovative Lunar Demonstrations Data Part 2 134 of... – Request for Proposal RLEP – Robotic Lunar Exploration Program RLV – Reusable Launch...



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... #1 December 1986 by the Milwaukee Lunar Reclamation Society chapter of the... with the opening of the Lunar frontier, suggesting how pioneers can... a great successes for the Soviet lunar exploration program. Among its instruments... “contact” possible. Right: NASA's LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) recently discovered the... Moon’s Earth-facing side for lunar meteor impacts for the past... models to simulate formation of lunar craters by asteroid impacts. They... central peak of the prominent lunar crater Tycho The findings of... the central peaks of large lunar craters such as the 58... the moon's gravity uneven, affecting lunar-orbiting spacecraft. http://www.nasa... pull. Mascons lurk beneath the lunar surface and cannot be seen... Science. "GRAIL data confirm that lunar mascons were generated when large...'s bulls-eye is caused by lunar material melted from the heat... by masses hidden beneath the lunar surface. ## NASA Builds Mock Moon...-based robot to conduct simulated lunar tasks. The football field-size... Crew Vehicle parked at the lunar L2 Lagrange Point, where the... the Moon’s farside. A proposed L2 lunar farside piloted mission that uses... by the CRaTER Instrument aboard Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter indicate that space... the Moon's gravity uneven, affecting lunar-orbiting spacecraft. As a result of... gravitational pull. Mascons liebelow the lunar surface and cannot be seen.... The GRAIL data confirms that lunar mascons were generated when large... as mascons." The origin of lunar mascons had been a mystery in.... On a gravity map of the lunar surface, a mascon has a target pattern...'s bulls-eye is caused by lunar material melted from the heat... Australia used computer modeling of lunar gravity and topographic data to... by the CRaTER Instrument aboard Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter indicate that space... Peter Diamandis (of the Google Lunar X-Prize team) Introducing “Space Selfies... Development - Executive Director of LUNAX (LUnar National Agriculture eXperimnet) - University of... put on the two day Lunar track at ISDC. David Dunlop... were Co-Chairs of the Lunar Track. The first day programming... of exploration of lunar lava tubes with a program of lunar scientists including... participation of staff from the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal at... to have a presentation at the lunar by Apollo 11 Astronaut Buzz.... Peter Kokh built a model of a lunar lavatube for the ISDC and... the conference display room. The Lunar track was well attended. We... making recorded sessions of the Lunar track available on the Moon... Maria Catalina of the Google Lunar X-Prize Team Stellar to attend... of landing people on the lunar surface has been set aside... tested that might lead to a lunar lander is called Morpheus, a project... pounds of cargo on the lunar surface, say a robot, a small rover... a plant to extract oxygen from lunar soil. It incorporates a number of... return to the moon , perhaps a lunar mission could be conducted in... interest in any and all lunar missions. Perhaps this because this... NASA. For advocates of a continuing lunar exploration program that is indeed... three or four years with a lunar destination have remained unfunded. The... the string of NASA funded lunar missions, LADEE is now scheduled... have application not only to lunar destinations but could also be... funded and yield another NASA lunar landing mission, the first NASA... to 1100 lbs to the lunar surface. This is more than... communications system down to the lunar surface. Solar Electric Ion Propulsion... to also provide for changing Lunar orbits once at the Moon... the way down to the lunar surface. If the Space Technology... in such demonstrations. The Innovative Lunar Data Demonstration Model can also... a commercial market in accessing the lunar surface, and the ability to... of SMD funding for new lunar missions is making for a long... birth of commercial model of lunar access. This economic climate has... that NASA's continuing role in lunar development and the efforts of... San Diego, participated in the Lunar Track. They met many of... permanently shaded areas of the Lunar Poles harbor comet-derived ices... through the expense of sending a “Lunar Polar Ice Surveyor/Sampler” to.../mmm_themes/ Our point is that lunar pioneers can’t afford to wait... prospecting and extracting efforts. No Lunar orbiter yet flown has been... instruments chosen to fly on lunar orbiters have been selected to... whether they get into the lunar materials industry business or not... be stolen from the precious lunar reserves for one-use non... the Mare Imbrium splashout zone. Lunar Prospector in 1998-9 mapped these... at low resolution. Could future lunar orbiter instruments detect PGMs and... sky and not from the lunar interior, a statement that may not....pdf 213 pages - a compilation of lunar biosphere articles from 25 years... being cut-off from the lunar surface, from the star-filled... Earth • Loss of benefits of a "lunar" calendar: the unique 14.75... screen. Right: scale of a typical lunar lava tube compared with the...