Спутник технологический. Lunar. [Редактировать]

КА Lunar (другое название Vermont Lunar Cubesat), массой 1 кг, создан в Техническом колледже Вермонта для отработки технолгий, которые в будущем будут использоваться при создании аппаратов, предназначенных для изучения Луны.

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна производитель - США
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг1

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром Уоллопс
2Дата пуска2013-11-20
3Полезная нагрузка 1xKySat-2
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Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Lunar». [Перейти к поиску]


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...-Research Institute Lunar Vehicle flight-developmental testing Lunar Module Lunar Orbital Vehicle Lunar Vehicle... independently of the Lunar Orbital Vehicle (LOK) and the Lunar Vehicle (LK... of the Lunokhod self-propelled lunar exploration vehicle; • exploration of the... Chapter 2 U.S. Lunar Program The history of our N1-L3 lunar program can..., and making him responsible 42 U.S. Lunar Program for developing heavy launch... of a Saturn V launch vehicle. 44 U.S. Lunar Program technical working-level details... the substantial advantage of the U.S. lunar program. Glushko’s negative attitude toward... 9 November 1967, a full-scale Saturn V lunar rocket executed the first unpiloted... at a velocity corresponding to the lunar return velocity. Failures, explosions, and... our routine meetings concerning the lunar operations schedule, Korolev disclosed some... actual conditions leading to a reliable lunar landing gradually increased. Over the... for admiration than the successful lunar landings. Officially, this was a failure... a maneuver, a reliable liftoff from the lunar surface, and subsequent rendezvous with... insufficient funding for a program involving a lunar expedition in the distant future... objective comparative assessment of the lunar exploration capabilities of the N-1 (whose... transition into lunar orbit and brake to descend from lunar orbit; and two vehicles—the Lunar Orbital Vehicle (LOK) and the Lunar... with our proposal about the lunar expedition as a primary objective. Everyone... launch complexes, production of the lunar vehicles, and finally crew training... for Block D) and the lunar orbital and lunar landing vehicles; • OKB-276... the control system for the lunar complex; • NIIAP (N. A. Pilyugin) was tasked... control system for the lunar landing and lunar orbital vehicles; • NII-885... particular, provide a description of the lunar expedition rocket-space complex. The... Moon; • Egress of cosmonaut onto lunar surface, performance of specified exploration... graphical description of the Soviet lunar landing profile using a single N-1 rocket... the lunar surface. The Lunar Takeoff Apparatus lifts off the lunar surface after a short stay and enters lunar orbit, where... crewmembers to participate in the lunar expedition. However, while drafting the... liftoff from the lunar surface and insertion into lunar orbit in the... segments for lunar deorbiting, deceleration during descent, and soft lunar landing. 4. The control system for lunar liftoff and lunar orbital insertion...—the Lunar Orbital Vehicle), and 15 tons is in the lunar module.... They will dock in lunar orbit with the lunar module, which will... mission of “crucial national importance”: a lunar landing expedition. Having realized that... two flights, having confirmed that a lunar landing expedition was planned for... on information about the American lunar successes, finally had the opportunity... are arguing about instruments for lunar vehicles, without having a launch vehicle... of lunar soil to Earth melted away. Our third Ye-8-5 “Lunar excavator... decided to launch the next “Lunar excavator” in September. Accident investigation... broad. After the Americans’ successes, a lunar expedition gradually ceased to be... Lunokhod programs and create a “Lunar Orbital Station–Lunar Vehicle–Lunokhods” project. To..., • develop a principle for the piloted lunar expedition’s interaction with Babakin’s automatic... EKhG, developed specially for the lunar expedition, comprised the main source... disarray and confusion surrounding the lunar program itself intensified at all... future N-1 heavy launch vehicle for a lunar expedition. During all the reorganizations...; and • Ivan Prudnikov—for the lunar complex. • Konstantin Bushuyev was appointed... two problems: execute a lunar [landing] expedition and establish a lunar base—and thus... Americans. They have terminated their lunar program, and we technically, ideologically..., who is responsible for lunar vehicle and lunar base designs. For us... rocket-power generation. Valentin Petrovich’s lunar program stubbornly ignores both hydrogen... a permanent orbital station, a long-duration lunar base, much less an expedition... piloted lunar vehicles. It was assumed that after the first lunar expeditions... operating lunar scientific station, a manufacturing base using local resources, and a lunar interplanetary... in terms of the first lunar expeditions and automatic reconnaissance vehicles... six piloted lunar expeditions, the construction of a permanently operating lunar base and... score by establishing a permanently operating lunar base. Proposals for the delivery... only through the establishment of a lunar base. Today’s unpiloted, automatic satellite... Moon, lunar landing module, and cargo delivery system for a lunar base. Over... circumlunar program 636 L3 human lunar landing project/spacecraft, xxii, xliii..., 615, 620, 621 Lunar Council, 194, 232, 573 Lunar Module (Apollo), 56...-generation probes Ye-8 lunar rover, 259 Ye-8-5 lunar sample return probe, 185.... Unconventional, Contrary, and Ugly: The Lunar Landing Research Vehicle. Monographs in...



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... Andrew Needham, Lunar and Planetary Institute Debra Hurwitz Needham, Lunar and Planetary... developing lunar resources and shortterm business on-ramps of providing lunar transportation... the Lunar Tail: LADEE UVS Measurements [#2147] The LADEE UVS (Lunar Atmosphere... Inclusions from Lunar Magmas [#2446] New volatile analyses of lunar melt inclusions... from Selected Lunar Samples [#1612] Water was extracted from several lunar samples... Water Frost at the Lunar Poles Using the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter... of lunar rayed craters, which allows us to discuss the lunar cratering... in the Lunar Crust [#2479] Using sulfide replacement textures in lunar breccia... Youngest Known Lunar Magmas [#2155] Petrologic experiments on two basaltic lunar meteorite... D. Composition of the Lunar Highlands as Revealed by Lunar Prospector Thermal Neutron... spinel-rich lunar PSA is. 4:45 p.m. Treiman A. H. * Gross J. Glazner A. F. Lunar Rocks Rich... Gas-Saturated Lunar Picritic Magma Based on Experiments and Lunar Sample Data.../CRaTER Discoveries of the Lunar Radiation Environment and Lunar Regolith Alteration by... of Lunar Swirls [#2648] We study LRO LAMP data of lunar swirl... ORALS   3:45 p.m. Ghent R. R. * Carter L. M. Bandfield J. L. Lunar Crater Ejecta: Physical Properties Revealed... J. W. Pieters C. M. Impact Melt Wavefronts at Lunar Complex Craters: Morphological Characteristics and... a.m. Wang K. * Jacobsen S. B. Sedaghatpour F. Chen H. Korotev R. L. Lunar Dunite Reveals the Same Iron... eroded lunar primordial crust. 11:00 a.m. Sun Y. S. * Li L. L. Characterization of Lunar Crust... Ages of Lunar Troctolite 76535 [#2018] Ar age spectra of lunar 76535 may indicate the possibility that the lunar troctolite... in the lunar crust. 3:00 p.m. Spudis P. D. * Murl J. N. Impact Melt from Lunar Multi... p.m. Boehnke P. * Heizler M. T. Harrison T. M. Lovera O. M. Warren P. H. Lunar 40Ar/39Ar Data Does Not... of Lunar Lava Tubes [#2174] Vast empty tunnels/Hiding under lunar seas... core. LUNAR GEOPHYSICS [T604]   Williams J. G. Boggs D. H. Ratcliff J. T. POSTER LOCATION #49 Lunar Tidal Dissipation [#1877] Strong lunar tidal dissipation has... is Young on the Lunar Surface [#1120] The lunar surface/Evolves diffusively... Apatites in Lunar Basalts [#2077] Chlorine isotope data from a lunar melt rock...: Physical Evidence for Lunar True Polar Wander [#2675] Lunar epithermal neutrons show... Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples [#1945] Amino acids in lunar regolith samples... evolve.   Calaway M. J. POSTER LOCATION #570 Lunar Processing Cabinet 2.0: Retrofitting Gloveboxes into... Apollo 16 Lunar Processing Glovebox (cabinet 38) in the Lunar Curation Laboratory... of lunar samples.   122 46th LPSC Program   PLANETARY MISSION CONCEPTS: LUNAR MISSIONS... B. L. Robinson M. S. Speyerer E. J. POSTER LOCATION #574 Lunar Surface Traverse and Exploration Planning... Mission to Study Space Weathering, Lunar Magnetism, Lunar Water, and Small-Scale... on the Lunar Surface? [#1109] We revisit the small, deployable lunar instrument... B. A. Hayne P. O. Paine C. G. Paige D. A. Greenhagen B. T. Lunar Flashlight: Mapping Lunar Surface Volatiles Using a Cubesat... SELENE/SP Lunar Reflectance Model for Lunar Calibration [#1852] SP lunar reflectance model... Feedstock for Lunar Oxygen [#1140] Optimum landing sites for a lunar resources demonstration... Astrobotic Commercial Lunar Delivery Model for Science Missions [#2631] Astrobotic’s lunar delivery... #650 Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk for Educators [#2948] The Lunar and... Apollo Data by the Lunar Data Project/PDS Lunar Data Node [#2101... orbital data by the Lunar Data Project/PDS Lunar Data Node.   Nagihara... histogram of lunar images or DEM data to describe lunar surface morphology... Associated with Lunar Swirls [#2438] Surface processes associated with the lunar swirls... of Lunar Impact Features Larger than 200 km [#1276] All lunar impact... in Lunar Soils [#2560] The mass fraction of SMFe in lunar soils... Small Lunar Cones [#1474] Morphologies and 1–10 m details of small lunar cones... of the Lunar Imbrium Impact Basin [#1719] Geological mapping of lunar Imbrium... Study of Lunar Crater Mosting Using Datasets from Recent Lunar Missions [#1410... Differentiation of Lunar Magma Ocean [#2381] Density instability during lunar magma ocean... Ti in Lunar Zircons Reflect Temperature and Oxygen Fugacity of Lunar Magmas... #119 Lunar Phase Function in the Near-Infrared with the Lunar Orbiter... lunar phase function observed with the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter onboard the Lunar... in Localized Lunar Dark Mantle Deposits [#1398] Spectra of localized lunar DMDs... Iron in Lunar Glasses Using Fe-XAS: Implications for Lunar Eruption Mechanisms... and Mid-Size Lunar Crater Distributions [#2880] Differences in lunar crater areal...) for Future Lunar Mission [#1167] This article presents lunar dust levitation modeling... Hydrogen Distribution Within Lunar Permanently Shaded Regions Using the Lunar Polar Low... of a Lunar Analogue with a Prototype In-Situ Dating Spectrometer [#1361] Lunar analogue...



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... lunar albedo lunar atmosphere lunar based equipment lunar bases lunar cinematography use lunar photography lunar communication lunar composition lunar...) lunar craters lunar crust lunar dust lunar echoes lunar eclipses lunar effects lunar environment lunar equator lunar escape devices lunar evolution lunar... lunar rangefinding lunar launch lunar limb lunar logistics lunar luminescence lunar magnetic fields lunar mantle lunar maps lunar maria lunar mining lunar... rendezvous Lunar Orbiter Lunar Orbiter 1 Lunar Orbiter 2 Lunar Orbiter 3 Lunar Orbiter 4 Lunar Orbiter 5 Lunar Orbiter A use Lunar Orbiter 1 Lunar... Lunar Orbiter 5 lunar orbits lunar perturbation use lunar effects lunar phases lunar photographs lunar photography lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar... lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probe lunar probes lunar... lunar probes lunar probes lunar probes lunar probes lunar programs Lunar Prospector lunar radar echoes lunar radiation lunar rangefinding lunar rays lunar receiving laboratory Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter lunar resources lunar retroreflectors lunar rocks lunar rotation lunar... Ranger 1 lunar Ranger 2 lunar Ranger 3 lunar Ranger 4 lunar Ranger 5 lunar Ranger 6 lunar Ranger 7 lunar Ranger 8 lunar Ranger 9 lunar Sunblazer space Surveyor 1 lunar Surveyor 2 lunar Surveyor 3 lunar Surveyor 4 lunar Surveyor 5 lunar Surveyor 6 lunar Surveyor 7 lunar...



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... LUNAR LANDING PROGRAMME 231 P.S. CLARK . TOPICE CONNECTED WITH THE SOVIET MANNED LUNAR... a dual rendezvous as part of a lunar landing effort. A careful evaluation of... cosmonauts and a space laboratory to lunar orbit. The cosmonauts would then... 4 launch had a lunar target. The nearest launch window for a lunar mission was... mission on July 1 3) . Furthermore, a manned lunar mission would have involved space... of a combined Earth orbit rendezvous/ lunar orbit rendezvous is well argued... Soviets would launch two distinct lunar landers simultaneously. It is even..., rather than planning an early lunar mission, intended to orbit a 200... trans-lunar injection. By contrast, both the Apollo Command and Lunar Modules... much when the (hypothetical) complex lunar vehicle is supposed to fly... planning to launch an unmanned lunar soil retrieval mission [26]. These... 1 3, 1 969 which was, indeed, a possible lunar soil sampling effort. However, no... a difficult mission as a dual­ rendezvous lunar flight. Yegorov, on the other... sufficiently powerful to loft a manned lunar landing spacecraft in 1 969; 4) the...; 5) the Soviets had no manned lunar landing spacecraft in 1 969; 6) it... ( 1 975). C. P. Vick, 'The Soviet G- 1 -e Manned Lunar Landing Pro­ gramme Booster,' JBIS.... D. R. Woods, 'A Review of the Soviet Lunar Landing Exploration Programme,' Spacejlight, 19.... ( 1 976). N. L. Johnson, 'Handbook of S.oviet Lunar and Planetary Explor­ ation,' American... -234, 1987 THE SOVIET MANNED LUNAR LANDING PROGRAMME JOHN PARFITT and... configuration of the Soviet 'manned lunar lander for a direct ascent mission... the capability of performing both lunar and Earth orbital missions. The... spacecraft to test communications over lunar distances. There were rumours that... were related to the manned lunar p:ogramme. Confirmation of this came... 23 1 J. Parfitt and A . Bond Table 1. Lunar Mission Mass breakdown. IIASS (tonneo... have corresponded to a period in lunar orbit prior to injection towards... spacecraft relating to the manned lunar programme were conducted after August... : Metres \ I Proton S L- 1 3 '1''1'- 5 The Soviet Manned Lunar Landing Programme Based on the... direct ascent approach for their lunar landing programme. Confirmation of the... TT-5 left the Soviet manned lunar landing programme without a launch vehicle... abandoned. 7. THE LUNAR LANDER From the evidence considered, the lunar Jander consisted... related to the lunar landing from injection into lunar orbit to part... the lunar surface. However, this is less efficient than the lunar parking... ascent method for their manned lunar landing programme. This approach is... complex Earth orbit rendezvous or Lunar orbit rendezvous methods. The direct... CONNECTED WITH THE SOVIET MANNED LUNAR PROGRAMME PHILLIP S. CLARK Lee, London... concept for the Soviet manned lunar landing mission profile. Additionally, some... the review, a discussion of a possible lunar orbiting Salyut is presented. 2. THE... Length In Earth orbit In lunar flight Diameter & Instrument module (max... orbit or soon after trans­ lunar injection. The instrument module diameter... module Soyuz for the manned lunar landing programme. One can therefore... from a lunar mission. In addition, a preliminary biological investigation of lunar distance radiation... on to a trans-lunar trajectory with the trans­ lunar coast time similar... presented a fresh view of the lunar landing profile [ 1 0]. = = _ .i.5 • Was Zone to... to consider. 236 THE SOVIET LUNAR LANDING MISSION 3.1 _ Was a Rendezvous Planned... of the possible Soviet manned lunar pro­ gramme a rendezvous is implicit... Topics Connected with Soviet Manned Lunar Landing Programme Table 2 provides a summary... are sufficient for the initial lunar explorations, and subsequent missions could perhaps rendezvous on the lunar surface with equipment landed ·using... Trans-lunar injection Mid-course correction Lunar orbit injection Descent to lunar surface Ascent to lunar orbit LUnar orbit... for the Soviet lunar missions. *On the Apollo missions lunar orbit injection... would follow the lunar landing. Since the immediate lunar mission profile did... Velocity Requirements for the Mission 3.2 LUNAR-RELATED COSMOS MISSIONS, 19671971 4.1 The... 1000 25944 8075 Duelled Soyuz Lunar orbit manoeuvres Separate orbital module... Residual propellant kg 202200 Trans-lunar injection Residual Propellant Separate P-2 stage... Mid-course correction Lunar orbit injection Descent to lunar surface Experiments left on Moon Ascent from lunar surface... TABLE 4. Spacecraft Mass Breakdowns. Component Lunar E O Soyuz kg Soyuz kg P-3 Stage... missions were launched when the lunar longitude was 93 degrees (standard..., and the mission abandoned. TABLE 5. Lunar Related Cosmos Missions. Launch Date... connected with the Soviet manned lunar programme. Launch times are calculated... Topics Connected with Soviet Manned Lunar Landing Programme CosiDOS 381 This... a Proton third stage to stimulate a lunar landing/launch profile. The available...



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... F. M., Greenwood J. P., and Treiman A. H. (2014) The lunar apatite paradox. Science, 344, 400... C. N. (2014) Lunar feldspathic meteorites: Constraints on the geology of the lunar highlands, and the origin of the lunar crust. Earth... I., McGovern P. J., Taylor G. J., and Zuber M. T. (2014) Lunar interior properties from the GRAIL... I., McGovern P. J., Taylor G. J., and Zuber M. T. (2014) Lunar interior properties from the GRAIL... I., McGovern P. J., Taylor G. J., and Zuber M. T. (2014) Lunar interior properties from the GRAIL...-rich lithologies in the lunar highland crust: Linking lunar samples with crystallization... Stolper E. M. (2014) Phosphatehalogen metasomatism of lunar granulite 79215: Impact-induced fractionation... J. J. (submitted) Volatiles (H, C, N, F, S, Cl) in the lunar crust and regolith: Distribution, processes... planetary lithospheres undergoing global contraction. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV, Abstract... planetary lithospheres undergoing global contraction. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV, Abstract... melt sheets to lunar impact basin gravity anomalies. Lunar and Planetary Science...: Implications for planetary exploration planning. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV, Abstract... melt sheets to lunar impact basin gravity anomalies. Lunar and Planetary Science... vertical density structure of the lunar crust. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV... in the lunar crust as seen in GRAIL data. Lunar and Planetary... A. J. (2014) New lunar sample density and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Lunar and Planetary...) A glimpse of lunar core shape and deep gravity field. Lunar and Planetary... P. J., Smith D. E., and Zuber M. T. (2014) revealing lunar crustal density stratification with GRAIL... P. J., Kramer G. Y., Corley L., Kalynn J., Powell K. (2013) Lunar nearside olivine exposures as targets... by lunar magnetic anomalies and their impact at the swirls. Lunar and... mechanisms of transport to the lunar surface. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV... ideal target for a lunar sample return mission. European Lunar Symposium, 59. Harnett... simulations and observations at lunar magnetic anomalies. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV... a function of slope of lunar terrain. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV, Abstract... vertical density structure of the lunar crust. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV... mechanisms of transport to the lunar surface. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV... melt sheets to lunar impact basin gravity anomalies. Lunar and Planetary Science... melt sheets to lunar impact basin gravity anomalies. Lunar and Planetary Science..., mineralogy, composition, and thermal properties. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV, Abstract... from target outcrops at fresh lunar craters. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV... rim crest variations in lunar impact craters. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV... titanium picrite clast in lunar regolith breccia 15295. Lunar and Planetary Science... simulations in support of lunar surface operations. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV... geological map of the Lunar Orientale Basin. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV... the deposits of the Lunar Orientale Basin. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV... and a solution to the lunar apatite paradox. Lunar and Planetary Science XLV... picrite) clast in lunar highland regolith breccia 15295. Lunar and Planetary Science..." and "The ACT Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Quickmap: Lunar Research for All..." and "The ACT Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Quickmap: Lunar Research for All... Golden Spike Human Lunar Expeditions: Opportunities for Intensive Lunar Scientific Exploration, October...: Understanding very large crater formation.” Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas...-Rich Lithologies in the Lunar Highland Crust: Linking Lunar Samples Crystallization Experiments...-Seated Reverse Faults in Lunar Mascon Basins Lunar Data Analysis Program (LDAP....  Member of Lunar Science Advisory Board for Golden Spike.  Lunar Science Advisor.../SSERVI Lunar Bombardment Focus Group.  ESA Science Definition Team for lunar sample... Special Sessions:  Organizing Committee for Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, January... member, founding–Present. Mission Participation:  Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mini-RF (Deputy..., NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility, Lunar and Planetary Institute.  Scientific Coordinator... System Exploration Preservice Teacher Institute, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas... of Lunar Sinuous Rilles” (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/rilles/index... Properties of the Lunar Regolith Revealed by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Planetary... Treiman Lunar and Planetary Institute July 25, 2014 Ross Potter Lunar and Planetary Institute August 8, 2014 Paul Byrne Lunar and...; Attendance: 54; Conveners: Virgil L. Sharpton (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Universities Space... Golden Spike Human Lunar Expeditions: Opportunities for Intensive Lunar Scientific Exploration, October... (Southwest Research Institute), Stephen Mackwell (Lunar and Planetary Institute), William McKinnon..., the scientific relevance of lunar exploration, and lunar craters. In FY2014, in...



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... propellant-specifically "lunar-derived" liquid oxygen or LUNOX. The lunar transportation system... injection (TLI) stage and a combination lunar lander / Earth return vehicle (LERV.... Preceding a human lunar return, robotic orbiter missions like Lunar Prospector2 will first... the chemical composition of the lunar surface to help identify sites... performance. Key technologies are discussed, lunar mission scenarios described, and LTS... robotic orbiter, small Mars cargo, lunar "commuter", and human Mars exploration.... Prospects for an early human lunar return mission in 2001 for...-2002 timeframe and that the Lunar Prospector Discovery mission is estimated... technologies to do the "Real Lunar Program," as well as, initiating...'s planned missions (e.g., cargo and piloted, lunar and Mars, as well as... TLI stage and a cryogenic, integrated lunar lander/ Earth return vehicle (LERV... produced earlier using facilities and lunar surface vehicles operated telerobotically from... Service Module (CSM) and the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM) weighing ~32... s) and the LEM (Isp-305 s). A "lunar orbit rendezvous" (LOR) mission profile... LOX/LH2 chemical engines and a "lunar direct" mission profile which provides... of mass delivered to the lunar surtace, the utilization of LUNOX... elements for the initial human lunar return mission, the technologies and... architecture to one where reusable lunar landing and transfer vehicles (LLVs... both on the lunar surface and in low lunar orbit (LLO). Once... in support of NASA's Human Lunar Return Study and the Space... a description of a reference lunar mission scenario. The lunar transportation system elements are... LUNAR LANDER AND NTR PROPULSION TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION LUNOX Production and Utilization Lunar... to be developed on the lunar surface. A local source of LOX..., the TLI • • Apollo Program - Saturn V .._ - Lunar Orbit Rendezvous //"_,t_ = Command Service... t) Early Human Lunar Return - Shuttle and Titan iV B - Lunar Direct l 7.6 m .4--- g.1 m---P- 5- 4.0 m Lunar Excursion Module... IMLEO - 40 t IMLEO - 140 t Fig. 1 Lunar Transportation Systems Relative Size and... it is abundant in the lunar regolith (~45% significant amounts of..., would be attractive feedstocks tor lunar oxygen production. In addition to... its support vehicles. Because the lunar mission architecture examined here assumes... necessary mining infrastructure on the lunar surface. It is envisioned9 that... it allows operation during the lunar night and is less massive..." and its mission functions under lunar vacuum and thermal conditions at... heating lamp arrangement to simulate lunar day / night thermal conditions, the... functions would be conducted during lunar morning, noon and nighttime thermal... and power requirements for a teleoperated lunar production facility providing ~10.5 t of...-18) _*_2025 - {- 2¢Z5) "Early Human Lunar Return" (2O04) Fig. 6 NTR Development...-based transfer stages, "low cost" lunar transportation will become commonplace along... systems is illustrated in Figure 6. LUNAR MISSION / TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM GROUND RULES... for the reference and alternative lunar mission scenarios examined in this... Lunar Samples 185 km 110-300 km Circular (Earth departure) Circular (lunar arrival/departure) • Parking Orbits: • • • • • • • • • Trans-lunar injection AV: 3145 rn/s + g-losses Lunar orbit capture / trans-Earth injection_V: 1050 m/s Lunar descent / lunar ascent 2_V:2000 m/s / 1900 m/s Direct lunar descent / direct... stage disposal AV: 30 rn/s (lunar swingby and gravity assist) Mission... for MLI At < 2 inches 9 Composite LUNAR MISSION SCENARIO DESCRIPTION hold"thermalprotectionrequirementsfor... the Moon). At The reference lunar scenario examined in this study... cost. The piloted mission employs a "lunar direct" flight profileg,22 and... on the lunar surface will supply propellant depots in low lunar orbit..., and D. S. McKay, "Experimental Reduction of Lunar Mare Soil and Volcanic Glass.... S.K. Borowski, Thermal 1993). S.K. Borowski, "Human Lunar Mission Capabilities Using SSTO, ISRU... Inc., 9. B.K. Joosten and L. A. Guerra, "Early Lunar Resource Utilization: A Key to Human..., et al., "Conceptual Design of a Lunar Oxygen Pilot Plant," Eagle Engineering... 5," Aviation 4. S.K. Borowski et al., "A Revolutionary Lunar Space Transportation System Architecture Using.... for the Space Exploration Initiative Lunar Missions," AIAA-91-2176. American... ). 22. R.M. Zubrin, "The Desigh of Lunar and Mars Transportation Systems Utilizing... Systems Assessment for NASA's First Lunar Outpost Scenario," AIAA-92-3812... 23. P. Bialla, "Early Low Cost Lunar Missions," AIAA-93-4219, American... propellant--specifically "lunar-derived" liquid oxygen or LUNOX. The lunar transportation system... injection (TL1) stage and a combination lunar lander/Earth return vehicle (LERV... performance. Key technologies are discussed, lunar mission scenarios described, and LTS... robotic orbiter, small Mars cargo, lunar "commuter", and human Mars exploration...; Human lunar return; Cryogenic lander/Earth return vehicle; LERV; Lunar direct 17...



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0/5
....elsevier.com/locate/pss The lunar dust environment ¨ a,b,n, Mihaly Horanyi a, Zoltan... returns to the lunar surface and blankets the lunar crust with a highly... all lunar-sized Galilean satellites at Jupiter. The highly sensitive Lunar Dust... the lunar surface, which were interpreted as dust phenomena. The Lunar Ejecta... levitation and transport of charged lunar dust particles. Currently no theoretical... transport 1. Introduction Renewed interest in lunar exploration demands an assessment of... of the lunar soil. Section 2 describes the role the lunar microcrater record... outstanding problems in understanding the lunar dust environment and the near... rather low flux levels. 1.2. Lunar soil The lunar surface is covered by... regolith, which overlays the primordial lunar bedrock. Regolith consists of unconsolidated... of the lunar highlands. The bulk composition of the lunar soil varies... (Greenberg et al., 2007). 2. The lunar micro crater record Fig. 1. Development...., 1985). The early derived from lunar microcrater analyses (thick line, Grun... various attempts to determine the lunar microcrater distribution (e.g. Fechtig et al.... Craters on fragile materials like lunar rocks display a central pit, which... The microcrater production rate on a lunar rock is conventionally derived as... investigators to the conclusion that lunar rock exposure ages – and microcratering... micrometeoroids Fig. 3. Crater density on lunar sample 12054. The different symbols... the lunar case, Zook et al. (1984) suggested that ‘‘the lunar impact... flux for small particles. 2.4. The lunar and interplanetary fluxes Fig. 4. Interplanetary... ejecta from primary craters on lunar samples. They concluded that secondary...ficant difference between interplanetary and lunar flux curves with respect to..., 1989), whereas light scattered off lunar particles would display a strong UV... Gardner, 1998; Drolshagen, 2008). The lunar and near-Earth dust measurements.... The Lunar Dust EXperiment (LDEX) dust detector onboard the Lunar Dust and... situation (Horanyi et al., 2009). 3. Lunar dust transport There are several... evidence that a fraction of the lunar fines is electrostatically charged and... a Kuiper Belt Object. Hence the lunar surface offers an excellent laboratory... showed a faint glow along the lunar surface (Fig. 6), stunningly similar to... is pursued by NASA’s recent Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission and, especially... (NASA photo). 1677 3.2. LEAM The Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) Experiment... in order to characterize the lunar dust environment. It started measurements... about 20 months on the lunar surface (O. Berg, personal communication, 2006... registering slow-moving, highly charged lunar dust particles. There were two... of slow moving, highly charged lunar dust particles. Assuming a daytime surface... possible physical process responsible for lunar dust transport. The levitation of... situations must exist near the lunar terminators, consistent with these laboratory... provide a direct assessment of the lunar dust environment. Its instrument payload... Mass Spectrometer (NMS), and the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX). The combination... and plasma measurements on the lunar surface. A possibly autonomously deployed Dusty...-effects on lunar microterrain: implications for the micrometeoroid flux. Proc. Lunar Planet...-23557). Berg, O.E., Richardson, F.F., Burton, H., 1973. Lunar Ejecta an Meteorites Experiment, in...–1055. Berg, O.E., Wolf, H., Rhee, J.W., 1975. Lunar soil movement registered by the... particles, in: Proceedings of the Lunar Science Conference, 6th 3, 3557–3576...´nyi, M., Robertson, S., Sture, S., 2007. The lunar surface: dust dynamics and regolith..., G., Schneider, E., Storzer, D., 1975. Microcraters on lunar samples, in: Proceedings of the... and tertiary microcrater populations on lunar rocks: effects of hypervelocity impact... population, in: Proceedings of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 9th... of secondary lunar microcraters from micron scale hypervelocity impacts on lunar rock..., D., 2009. The Lunar Dust EXperiment (LDEX) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission, Lunar and Planetary..., A., Neukum, G., Schneider, E., Vedder, J.F., Gault, D.E., 1975. Lunar microcraters: implications for the micrometeoroid... distribution of lunar dust. in: Proceedings of the Fifth Lunar Conference, vol..., D.T., French, B.M. (Eds.), The Lunar Regolith, in the Lunar Sourcebook. Cambridge Univ. Press... A˚ dimensions. in: Proceedings of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, l0th..., J.J., Criswell, D.R., 1974. Surveyor observations of lunar horizon glow. The Moon 10.... Schneider, E., 1975. Impact ejecta exceeding lunar escape velocity. Moon 13, 173..., 301–308. Stern, S.A., 1999. The lunar atmosphere: history, status, current problems..., S., Wang, X., 2008. Variability of the lunar photoelectron sheath and dust mobility... ages of some lunar samples. in: Proceedings of the Lunar Science Conference..., pp. 245–266. ¨ E., Fechtig, H., 1984. Lunar primary and secondary Zook, H.A., Lange.... Large scale lunar horizon glow and a high altitude lunar dust exosphere. GRL...



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... fight Center International Collaboration in Lunar Exploration K. Bruce Morris Manager, Integration... well, including SMART-1, SELENE, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Opportunities for... moon also lie in developing lunar exploration technologies. The European Space... 2), is a Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) lunar orbiter mission. The primary objective..., topography, geology, gravity, and the lunar and solar-terrestrial plasma environments... critical technologies for future lunar exploration, such as lunar polar orbit injection... (VRAD) satellite, and a relay satellite. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), the first... include characterizingthe radiation environment of lunar orbit, studying geodetic global topography... in developing exploration technologies. The U.S. lunar exploration strategy, to be released... strategy are conducting lunar science; detecting, extracting, and using lunar resources; and... FLight Center lnternational Collaboration in Lunar Exploration John M. Horack, Ph.D. Manager... Chandrayaan-1, in addition to NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) which carries... lunar and solarterrestrial plasma environments and develop critical technologies for kture lunar exploration, such as lunar polar orbit injection... characterizing the radiation environment of lunar orbit, studying global topography, performing... other areas essential for successfbl lunar exploration. Opportunities for international cooperation... also lie in developing lunar exploration technologies. The U.S. Lunar Architecture, released in... strategy are conducting lunar science; detecting, extracting, and using lunar resources; and... Systems Mission Directorate has established a Lunar Precursor Robotic Program (LPRP) to... are essential to characterize the lunar environment and better evaluate potential... include SMART-1, SELENE, and Chandrayan-1. Lunar exploration activities are complex, difficult... include building a lunar outpost, harnessing solar power for lunar operations, and extracting...'s Lunar Architecture Study and the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Overview of the Lunar... programs to help develop a comprehensive Lunar Architecture study.' Based on those... of lunar missions constituting NASA's Lunar campaign, to fulfill the Lunar Exploration elements... for future Architecture updates Develop a Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) Charter Develop... technologies and hardware. Accompanying the Lunar Architecture Study was NASA's Global....] The Ares V baseline configuration for lunar missions, depicted in Figure 2, consists... initiate a trans-lunar injection (TLI) burn to reach lunar orbit. Figure 2. Ares... Shelton.] Figure 3. Earth Departure Stage, Lunar Surface Access Module, and Crew... trans-lunar injection burn. Lunar Precursor Robotic Program NASA created the Lunar Precursor... LPRPYsfirst mission, LRO, with its Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite... with the crewed exploration vehicles. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) LRO's mission... staying for extended periods. Figure 4. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter emerges from behind... safety, including: Characterizing the global lunar radiation environment, especially the linear... (particularly above 10 MeV). Measuring lunar surface temperatures at spatial scales... of Moon. Providing a precise global lunar topographic model and selenodetic grid... Lunar Architecture. The final landing site will be determined through the lunar... the lunar surface to confirm orbital data obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance... biological radiation response. Characterizing the lunar dust and charging environment. II..., topography, geology, gravity, and the lunar and solar-terrestrial plasma environments... develop critical technologies for future lunar exploration.'' The primary objective of... a lunar transfer trajectory injection bum. SELENE will be injected into lunar 100... camera providing 10 m spatial resolution. Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) - Provides high... at a pulse rate of 1 Hz. Lunar Magnetometer (LMAG) - Magnetic field measurement...'s magnetosphere and aurora from the lunar orbit. Charged Particle Spectrometer (CPS... Science (RS) -Detects the tenuous lunar ionosphere using S- and X-band carriers... into the Lunar Architecture NASA's current baseline mission for future lunar exploration... crater near a lunar pole. Shackleton Crater near the Lunar South Pole is... of a notional lunar outpost. The open nature of NASA's lunar architecture offers... development of lunar exploration capabilities. This open architecture opens the lunar infiastructure... landing sites to characterizing the lunar environment to developing the technologies... Conference.4 December 2006. Lavoie, Tony. "Lunar Architecture Review." NSSTC Distinguished Lecture.../LECTURE 0021. "Executive Summary." The Lunar Crater Reconnaissance Orbiter and Sensing.../centers/ames/rese/r sumhtml. "The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite....cfm?fobiectid=39835. 10 "Chandrayaan-1 Lunar Orbiter." NSSDC Master Catalog Display... Budget Statement.html. Lavoie, Tony. ''Lunar Architecture Review." NSSTC Distinmished Lecture...



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... Implementation of an Affordable Lunar Return Paul D. Spudis Lunar and Planetary Institute..., demonstrate and produce water from lunar resources before human arrival. This... is a fully functional, human-tended lunar outpost capable of producing 150... cislunar space. This cost-effective lunar architecture advances technology and builds... Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite Low Earth Orbit Low Lunar Orbit Lunar Module Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Miniature Synthetic... being technically capable of eventual lunar return, had the disadvantage of... VSE (Vision) in general and lunar return in particular was “unaffordable... to discuss and describe possible lunar surface activities. The planning activities... that a clear mission objective for lunar return became impossible to state... for human residence on the lunar surface, and propellant, initially for... cislunar space. The availability of lunar consumables allows us to routinely... thermal loading from the hot lunar surface; 3) the permanently dark areas... control robotic machines on the lunar surface from Earth to accomplish... to set up a functioning, productive lunar surface installation before the first... illumination for 80% of the lunar day, a conservative estimate that is..., including EELV to launch early lunar surface robotic assets. A Delta IV..., distribution, conditions and quantities of lunar volatiles must be gathered from... human lunar mission; this is an important capability in the lunar return... least partly supply ourselves from lunar materials, the need for a very... the robotic emplacement of the lunar outpost elements: habitats, power systems... the lunar soil by microwave. In effect, we emplace the lunar outpost... a broader, more integrated participation in lunar return than was possible under... Lavoie Page 10 CISLUNAR AND LUNAR ORBITAL ELEMENTS Communication/navigation system..., the workhorse spacecraft of early lunar return. Phase 2 is a larger propellant... designed to support cislunar and lunar orbital mission elements. This element... nature and conditions of the lunar polar prospect but rapidly transition... emplacement and operation of the lunar outpost. Data on specific hardware... designed to store and deliver lunar surfaceproduced water from the Moon... merely a mechanism for transport. This lunar taxi becomes a permanent part of... with lunar produced propellant and can be stored on the lunar surface...-reusable, at least initially. Once lunar propellant production is up and... presume full success with extracting lunar resources except for refueling for... sustainability of this approach solidifies, lunar refueling can expand significantly (as... incorporation of the cargo landers. LUNAR SURFACE ASSETS The orbital and... that creates and constitutes the lunar outpost. It includes both initial... evaluation, resulting in an initial lunar oxygen/hydrogen yield of just... spare parts, or even more lunar processing equipment, as needed. MISSION... described above collectively comprise our lunar outpost. An advantage of keeping... possible. Mission 1: Communications satellites with lunar GPS (Total mass: 1000 kg... (WEF) to receive the harvested lunar water, then electrolyze, liquefy, and... 004 brings 2 packages to the lunar surface, the second Water Electrolysis... capability is built up, more lunar propellant producing capacity can be... allocations at this point), and a lunar surface resource production of roughly... 3. We estimate that a fully functioning lunar outpost – capable of producing ~150... the water production attributes of a lunar outpost because the highest leveraging... structural elements needed for lunar activities using lunar resources. These activities will... NOAA (weather satellites) may need lunar propellant for the maintenance of... satellites and space platforms. Finally, lunar propellant would be offered to... and seamlessly integrated into our lunar return scenario. Because the outpost... politically attractive by simply providing lunar fuel for a return trip for... system. Recent data show the lunar surface richer in resource potential... and suggestions. This paper is Lunar and Planetary Institute Contribution Number... P.D. (2005) Constant illumination at the lunar north pole. Nature 434, 842... K.A. (1985) Lunar industrialization and settlement – Birth of polyglobal civilization. In Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, W.W. Mendell, editor, Lunar.... RLEP-2 Study team (2006) Robotic Lunar Exploration Program Mission 2 Study, NASA... High-Angle Ejecta Plume. NLSI Lunar Forum 2010, http://lunarscience2010.arc... Shadowed Region in Cabeus NLSI Lunar Forum 2010, http://lunarscience2010.arc... F., B. F. Kutter, J. Barr (2009) A Commercially Based Lunar Architecture. AIAA 20096567. Spudis and... 1. Elements and assets of the lunar resource outpost architecture Spudis and.../egress from Human Lander to Lunar Surface Cryogenic fluid logistics (helium... activities and capabilities of the lunar resources architecture. Spudis and Lavoie... Rawlings/NASA); c) Fuel depot in lunar orbit rendezvous with reusable lander...



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... also announced a plan to launch a Lunar Lander mission which will explore... 2009, preliminary data from NASA's Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... uncovered water in a permanently shadowed lunar crater. Scientists suggested that comets... Xichang launch centre. China's second lunar mission, Chang'e 2, will perform several... after leaving Earth, China´s second lunar mission slipped into a preliminary orbit... 2009, preliminary data from NASA's Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... lunar crater. >> Scientists then said that the discovery of volatiles in lunar..., several million years ago. >> NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, completed... produced a comprehensive map of the lunar surface in unprecedented detail; searched... to the moon; and measured lunar temperatures and radiation levels. >> NASA... Moon for a breakthrough mission in lunar orbit. >> >> V. 4 Space Operations On 1 May... Ames Research Center for the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE... seven instruments on board NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. >> PDS serves as... the lunar poles along with detailed spectroscopic measurements of the lunar surface... Europe, a Moscow newspaper reported. >> NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is allowing researchers... in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science... accepted for the conference covering lunar and other space exploration topics... a partnership with Armadillo Aerospace, 2009 Lunar Lander Challenge award recipient (with...'s Ames Research Center for the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE... helping researchers understand how the lunar environment will affect future explorers... would see Orbital launch the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer...-planning the first commercial manned lunar mission. The company is working... (ICEUM), organised by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG). GLUC... challenges of the next decade: lunar exploration. This event was extremely... since the Israel Network for Lunar Science and Exploration offers important... that allows for collaboration in lunar and asteroid science research. >> India... basic advanced components. China’s first lunar probe programme has been delayed... of components of China’s first lunar probe, the Chang’e-1 satellite, were... moon caused a legal stir over lunar ownership. >> EUMETSAT resolved a lengthy dispute... Google Lunar X Prize. This support would come under the Innovative Lunar Demonstrations... other developments, NASA awarded Innovative Lunar Demonstrations Data contracts to six... demonstrate end-to-end robotic lunar landing missions. >> NASA Administrator Charles... to culminate the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander X PRIZE - 158 - Challenge. Masten... OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM II.1 Lunar Exploration Recently Completed Missions SMART... and data relay), and for lunar environment studies (magnetometer/plasma imager... 2009. Chandrayaan-1, the first ISRO lunar mission was launched aboard a PSLV... the lunar surface. Current missions LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter), NASA’s latest lunar mission... undertake survey measurements of the lunar surface as a preparation for future... orbit, it is examining the lunar surface environment, producing high resolution... and geodetic data and surveying lunar resources. Its instruments include a laser... and cosmic ray sensor. LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite...’s second lunar probe, was launched 1 October 2010 and entered lunar orbit on... the framework of the Japanese lunar exploration programme. Chang’e 3, a soft lander..., for launch after Chandrayaan-2. LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer... LRO/LCROSS impact experiment and lunar spectral data from three spacecraft... work investigating the lunar environment, in general, and lunar dust charging, levitation... of lunar dust. The importance of furthering knowledge of the lunar environment... techniques). The NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) reached lunar orbit on 23... a successful impact in the southern lunar crater Cabeus, thereby demonstrating the... destabilize orbits, resulting in eventual lunar impact. These missions are: • JAXA... to develop technology for future lunar exploration. Kaguya consists of the... on the lunar surface and investigated characteristics of the lunar regolith. • ISRO... Chandrayaan orbiter and struck the lunar south pole near Shackleton Crater... to contain water ice. • NASA’s Lunar Reconaissance Orbiter (LRO) was launched... using paired orbiting spacecraft. NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer... as Russia’s Luna Resource-1 (Russian lunar lander with Indian orbiter) and...) Lunar orbiter (China) Lunar rover (China) Lunar soft lander and rover (China) Lunar sample... kilowatt Lagrange Point 1 Lagrange Point 2 Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer... Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph experiment Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite... Mission to test LISA technology Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter Limb Profile... of the Atmosphere Laser Ranging Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Living With a Star...