Спутник ФКИ. MESSENGER. [Редактировать]

Американская автоматическая межпланетная станция для исследования Меркурия. Меркурий является одним из самых малоизученных объектов Солнечной системы. До «Мессенджера» его исследовал только один космический аппарат — «Маринер-10», 3 раза пролетевший около планеты в 1974—1975 годах. Было заснято менее половины поверхности Меркурия, отсутствовали данные о химическом составе, строении планеты и многом другом. Для заполнения этих пробелов НАСА была организована миссия «Мессенджер». После принятия решения о продлении срока службы аппарата на год (изначально он должен был завершить работу 17 марта 2012 года) в задачи полёта также было включено изучение воздействия увеличения солнечной активности на Меркурий в ходе начала нового солнечного цикла.

Конструкция аппарата:

Стартовая масса АМС «Мессенджер» — около 1100 кг, причём почти 600 кг (более половины всей массы) — топливо. Корпус аппарата изготовлен из углепластика и имеет размеры 1,42×1,85×1,27 м. Из-за значительной мощности солнечного излучения у орбиты Меркурия (в 11 раз выше, чем у Земли) предприняты специальные меры для обеспечения приемлемого теплового режима КА. Обращённая к Солнцу сторона аппарата прикрыта солнцезащитным экраном размером 2,5×2 м, сам корпус укутан в многослойную теплоизоляцию, а для отвода тепла от корпуса КА предусмотрены радиаторы и тепловые трубы. Источником энергии для станции служат две односторонние поворотные панели солнечных батарей (СБ) размером 1,5×1,65 м с фотоэлементами на арсениде галлия. Они способны вырабатывать более 2 кВт, но аппарату достаточно всего 385—485 Вт на стадии перелёта и 640 Вт при работе на орбите, поэтому СБ будут ориентировать под разными углами. Более того, 67 % площади панелей — это небольшие зеркала, которые отражают большую часть солнечных лучей и не дают панели перегреться. Сборка аппарата Двигательная установка станции включает в себя двухкомпонентный маршевый двигатель с тягой 68 кгс для больших манёвров и 16 малых однокомпонентных ЖРД. Горючее (гидразин) и окислитель (тетраоксид азота) хранятся в трёх титановых баках диаметром 56 см и длиной 104 см; гелий, находящийся под высоким давлением, обеспечивает их подачу в двигатели. В систему связи аппарата входят две антенны высокого усиления HGA типа «фазированная решётка», а также две веерные антенны среднего усиления MGA и четыре антенны низкого усиления LGA. Все антенны закреплены неподвижно, что повышает их надёжность; при этом сигналы фазированных решёток (впервые используется в «дальнем космосе») могут быть направлены под углом до 45° к оси самой антенны. 11-ваттный передатчик обеспечивает передачу данных с борта на Землю в диапазоне X со скоростью от 9,9 бит/с до 104 кбит/с. Команды с Земли на борт идут со скоростью от 7,8 до 500 бит/с. Ориентация осуществляется с помощью двух звёздных датчиков, а также четырёх гироскопов и четырёх акселерометров, входящих в состав инерциального измерительного блока IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit). «Мозгом» аппарата являются 2 модуля интегрированной электроники IEM (основной и резервный), каждый из них имеет главный процессор RAD6000 (25 МГц) и аналогичный процессор для защиты от сбоев (10 МГц). В состав каждого IEM также входит твердотельное запоминающее устройство с памятью до 1 Гбайт.

Научная аппаратура:

В состав научной аппаратуры АМС входят:

  • Двухрежимная камера MDIS (Mercury Dual Imaging System) предназначена для топографической съёмки и детального исследования ландшафта Меркурия; состоит из широкоугольной и узкоугольной мультиспектральных камер. Широкоугольная камера имеет поле обзора 10,5° и 12 различных фильтров для наблюдения в диапазонах спектра от 400 до 1100 нм. Узкоугольная камера с полем обзора 1,5° будет получать детальные чёрно-белые изображения поверхности планеты.
  • Рентгеновский спектрометр XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) предназначен для определения элементного состава тонкого (1 мм) верхнего слоя поверхности Меркурия с разрешением от 200 до 1000 км. Он регистрирует рентгеновское излучение с энергией в пределах от 1 до 10 кэВ, где находятся спектральные линии магния, алюминия, кремния, серы, кальция, титана и железа, а также солнечное рентгеновское и гамма-излучение.
  • Гамма-спектрометр и нейтронный спектрометр GRNS (Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer) предназначен для регистрации нейтронов и гамма-лучей от элементов на поверхности Меркурия, испускаемых под воздействием космического излучения, а также естественного излучения радиоактивных элементов. Прибор будет применяться для картографирования поверхности планеты с целью определения элементного состава её коры, и в частности — обнаружения полярных льдов.
  • Спектрометр энергичных частиц и плазмы EPPS (Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer) предназначен для изучения состава, распределения и энергии заряженных частиц в магнитосфере Меркурия. Состоит из спектрометра заряженных частиц EPS и высокоскоростного плазменного спектрометра FIPS.
  • Спектрометр для исследования состава атмосферы и поверхности MASCS (Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer) предназначен для определения состава верхней атмосферы и поверхности Меркурия. Он включает в себя два спектрометра: видимого и УФ-диапазона и видимого и ИК-диапазона.
  • Лазерный высотомер MLA (Mercury Laser Altimeter) предназначен для высокоточной топографической съёмки поверхности Меркурия.
  • Трёхкомпонентный магнитометр MAG предназначен для исследования магнитных аномалий на поверхности Меркурия, а также для изучения структуры и динамики его магнитного поля.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and RangingНайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - США
3Страна производитель - США

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12014-02-08. Космический аппарат MESSENGER передал на Землю более 200 000 снимков, сделанных с орбиты вокруг Меркурия. Первоначально ожидалось, что аппарат сделает как минимум 1000 снимков, ученые при этом надеялись, что, возможно, эту цифру удастся увеличить хотя бы до 2 тысяч. Тэги: MESSENGER
22014-12-16. Аппарат обнаружил, что Меркурий может периодически попадать под метеоритный поток, когда он проходит через мусорный след кометы Энке. Данный вывод сделан исходя из оценки уровня содержания кальция в атмосфере.Тэги: MESSENGER
32015-04-30. Космический аппарат Messenger разбился о Меркурий, завершив 11-летнюю миссию.
Космический аппарат Messenger разбился о поверхность Меркурия. У межпланетной станции закончилось топливо, что стало причиной завершения 11-летней миссии. По расчетам НАСА, MESSENGER врезался в Меркурий на скорости 14 080 км/час., создав кратер диаметром около 16 м. Тэги: MESSENGER

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса (сухая), кг485
2Масса (топлива), кг600
3Масса, кг1085
4Площадь поверхности батареи, метра3,0×1,65
5Габариты, метра1,42×1,85×1,27
6Количество (солнечных батарей), шт.2
7Мощность (потребляемая на стадии перелета), Вт450
8Мощность (солнечных батарей), Вт2000
9Мощность (потребляемая на стадии работы), Вт640
10Площадь (теплового экрана), метра2,5×2
11Тип (солнечных батарей)GaAs

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2004-030A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.310
2Оператор NASA, APL
3Производитель APL
4Прогнозная стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2003-01-01235.1
5Прогнозная стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2003-01-01337.7

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2004-08-03 at 06:15:56 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xMESSENGER
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2 7925

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «MESSENGER». [Перейти к поиску]


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... David and his men. 27Then a messenger arrived and told Saul, “Come... the battle. 19Joab told the messenger to tell King David what... the Hittite, also died.’” 22The messenger went in and told David... told him to say. 23The messenger told David, “The men of... Hittite.” 25David said to the messenger, “Give this message to Joab...* with a sword. 2So Jezebel sent a messenger to Elijah and said, “I swear... outside the door. 10Elisha sent a messenger to Naaman who said, “Go... this day!” 32The king sent a messenger to Elisha. Elisha was sitting... sitting with him. Before the messenger arrived, Elisha said to the... off my head. When the messenger arrives, shut the door. Hold... pint Literally, “1/4 cab” (about .3 l). b 6:33 messenger Or possibly, “king.” c 7:1 basket Literally... this messenger to ask if they come in peace.” 18So the messenger rode on a horse to meet Jehu. The messenger said....” The guard told Joram, “The messenger went to the group, but....” 19Then Joram sent out a second messenger on a horse. This man came... guard told Joram, “The second messenger went to the group, but... to Jehu at Jezreel. 8The messenger came to Jehu and told... the oldest brother’s house. 14A messenger came to Job and said... tell you the news!” 16That messenger was still speaking when another... tell you the news!” 17That messenger was still speaking when another... tell you the news!” 18That messenger was still speaking when another... catch up to the wicked messenger, but a runner who can be... his master who sent him, a messenger who can be trusted is... sun.” b 5:6 priest Or “angel” or “messenger.” This might be an angel... with a team of horses. i ” The messenger said, “Babylon has been defeated... Zion* about these things. I sent a messenger to Jerusalem to say, ‘Look... is more deaf than my messenger. No one is more blind... plans. Listen! The voice of a messenger from the land of Dand... the Lord: He sent this messenger to the nations. This is... gates are broken. One messenger follows another. Messenger follows messenger. They announce to... you are speaking as my messenger to the people. 8Now look... from faraway places. You sent a messenger to these men, and they...



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... that in the poem “The Messenger” 2) and the song “The Navigator...” 4) and “Tumen Oil” 5). In “The Messenger” and “The Navigator Single”, we... a cold shower of oil. The messenger of Allah, glory be to...! Here is the poem “The Messenger”: From behind distant hills, I don... of Revelation 4). The eighth main messenger is the God of the... his diaries that the awaited messenger will undergo ordeals in prisons..., talked with us through His messenger in the way that harmonizes...-tinks! 1968. 447 ПОСЛАННИКЪ. THE MESSENGER. Владиміръ Высоцкій. Посланникъ. Посланникъ... г. 450 Vladimir Vysotsky. The Messenger. The Messenger. From behind distant hills, I don... и грустно: 456 Vladimir Vysotsky. The Messenger. I Abandoned My Deal. I abandoned my....» 1973 г. 458 Vladimir Vysotsky. The Messenger. “There are no prophets in...ѣдитель. 464 Vladimir Vysotsky. The Messenger. ABOUT THE PROPHETS. I. A Song about... своего! 466 Vladimir Vysotsky. The Messenger. Without stopping cried Cassandra, mad... not manifest that he was a messenger of Allah, glory be to... not manifest that he was a messenger of Allah, glory be to... wrote in the poem “The Messenger”, “From behind distant hills, I don... not manifest that he was a messenger of Allah, glory be to... film “The Dangerous Tour”. THE MESSENGER. I Abandoned My Deal. — page 457.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 447 ПОСЛАННИКЪ. | THE MESSENGER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 Посланникъ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Messenger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 451 Мореплаватель...



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... the God, he is the Messenger; and the day of recurrence... traditionally established time, Junayd dispatched a messenger and asked the sultan why... appointed by Alvand Beg sent a messenger to Ismail suggesting him either... were resident. Ismail first sent a messenger to the soldiers in the... to Alvand with his special messenger Mahmud Aga advising him to... one way or another. 307 a messenger to the governor of Sivas... into the practice but sent a messenger to Istanbul to confirm whether... back via the centre’s returning messenger.1004 Approximately ten days later... begs of the East sent a messenger to him explaining Zinnūn’s request... the governor of Amasya, sent a messenger to Muhammed, the son of... KPZ recites that when Ahmed’s messenger informed him on Ahmed’s intention... 399 arrival of a messenger from the Porte. The messenger reported that Prince... letters. Hayır Bey dispatched the messenger of the prince and three... way on fire and sent a messenger to the Shah.1637 The... Rum [from Darende], he sent a messenger to Dev Ali to demand... time, Dev Ali sent the messenger of Ahmed with his letter... Beg says that they sent a messenger to Çepni tribe living in... same time, Sinan Pasha sent a messenger (ulak) to Ahmed informing him... sending a baba called Koca as messenger. It had been six months...



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..., 21-49. 17. Ito M. and Messenger S. (2010) Thermal metamorphic history of... of Mineralogical Sciences Ito M. and Messenger S. (2010) 60Fe-60Ni studies of... Planetary Sciences, Abstract #5226. Matrajt G., Messenger S., Bradley J., Aguiar J., Ito M., Stephan T., Liu... Sciences, Abstract #5030. Ito M. and Messenger S. (2010) Rare Earth Element Measurements... XXXIII 75-76. Ito M. and Messenger S. (2010) Rare earth element measurements... 2010, PPS009-17. Messenger S., Keller L.P., Ito M., and Nakamura-Messenger K. (2010) Diverse origins... 2010, PPS006-07. Ito M. and Messenger S. (2010) Fe-Ni systematics in... #1724. Ito M., Messenger S., Keller L.P., Rahman Z.U., Ross D.K., and Nakamura-Messenger K. (2010) FIB-NanoSIMS... Sci XXXXI, Abstract #1095. Nakamura-Messenger K., Messenger S., Ito M., Keller L.P., Clemett S.J., Jones J.H., Palma... #1154. Jogo K., Nakamura T., Ito M., and Messenger S. (2010) Mn-Cr systematics of... Sci. XXXXI, Abstract #1573. Nguyen A.N., Messenger S., Ito M., and Rahman Z. (2010) Mg....Sci. XXXXI, Abstract #2413. Matrajt G., Messenger S., Ito M., Wirick S., Flynn G., Joswiak D.J., and... #1564. 18 Joswiak D.J., Brownlee D.E., Matrajt G., Messenger S, and Ito M. (2010) Stardust Track... American Astronomical Society. Ito M. and Messenger S. (2009) High precision Mg isotopic... do? 2010 Ito 1) Ito M. and Messenger S. (2009) High precision Mg isotopic...



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.... Discovery has two operating spacecraft (MESSENGER and Dawn), one radar instrument... third fly-by of Mercury, MESSENGER will prepare for Mercury orbit... its passes by Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft provided new insights into... the solar system's smallest planet. MESSENGER confirmed that Mercury has a dipolar.... Current Discovery missions include: ASPERA-3, MESSENGER, Dawn, Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3... Plans For FY 2010 The MESSENGER spacecraft will have completed its... to reach and orbit Ceres. MESSENGER, a mission to Mercury, is in... its core and polar materials. MESSENGER is the first deep-space... antenna "points" electronically, which allows MESSENGER to return a large amount of... deploy on the Galileo mission). MESSENGER carries seven scientific instruments and...); and participating scientists for the MESSENGER mission. As stated in the... funded extended operating missions. Dawn, MESSENGER, ASPERA-3, EPOXI and StardustNExT Same... Tech Form Dev Ops Res MESSENGER ASPERA-3 Dawn Moon Mineralogy Mapper... GSFC, JPL Cost-Sharing Partners MESSENGER MSFC None ASPERA-3 MSFC Dawn... Investigator and Lead Scientist for MESSENGER. The University of Maryland employs...



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... I was perhaps a battle-worn boy messenger from a combat unit, a son of... Park Jin Yong. When the messenger told me of the fact... activities of our guerrilla army. A messenger from Wangqing reported that, after... defense of the guerrilla zone, a messenger came to us with a secret..., Zhuanjiaolou, Deyuanli and Sanhanli.” I sent a messenger to Lee Kwang, telling him... guide from Zhuanjiaolou and the messenger from the enemy-held area... the party and mass organizations, a messenger arrived with a summons for us... company headquarters. He was a good messenger for me and for the... the police while acting as a messenger traveling from village to village... safest and most appropriate as a messenger. Eventually, Kum Sun was selected...-zhong in north Manchuria sent a messenger to us, requesting our assistance... time Ko Pobae acted as a messenger between the north and east... him a messenger who had come from east Manchuria. This messenger told us...? I was very displeased. I told the messenger to return without worry, saying...'re really a strange man," the messenger said and left reluctantly. Thoughts... committee was empty except for a messenger. I asked him where everyone else... organization in Luozigou had sent a messenger to me in Yaoyinggou with.... I sent a messenger to company commander Tie to find out. The messenger confirmed... return from north Manchuria, one messenger of our unit made his... Xiongnus in the north as a messenger of the Emperor of Han... at Macun owing to the messenger's carelessness and belated delivery of... over. He swore at the messenger furiously, and then, recovering his... from the jar. One night a messenger with the peculiar name of... must have happened to the messenger on the way. Even if... Kim San Ho to dispatch a messenger immediately to Maylhe, Linjiang, to... Daying again, he sent a secret messenger to us requesting that we... this time Wan Shun sent a messenger to us with greetings and... by letter and by sending a messenger. The old man's visit came... an organization. If we sent a messenger there with a short notice, the... an organization. If we sent a messenger there with a short notice, the... gone out to fight battles. A messenger sent by Kim Ju Hyon... of joy and embraced the messenger, when we heard that the... carried out his assignment promptly. A messenger conveyed Lee's report that Park... the border. Choe Hyon sent a messenger to us with a brief report... support General Kim. I must send a messenger to Mt. Paektu in a few... a messenger. Simultaneously with the arrival of this messenger at Headquarters, another messenger, sent... skillfully performed the part of messenger for Kwon Yong Byok, Lee... in the capacity of a secret messenger from the Nanjing government. He... him. The arrival of the messenger in Manchuria showed that the... fact that he sent his messenger to us on behalf of... armed struggle in Manchuria. The messenger, like Kong Xian-yong, had... struggle in China proper, the messenger explained the desirability of including... in the northeast region. The messenger admitted that our view was... struggle in China proper. The messenger said that when he was.... The Manchukuo army unit sent a messenger to him with a letter promising... town through a mistake of the messenger. He took out his frustration... about cooperation with them. I sent a messenger to deliver the Inaugural Declaration... their opinions seriously. As the messenger from the Comintern, he spoke... Liaoxi, Wei Zheng-min, the messenger from the Comintern, followed us... items to the area with a messenger. This messenger came back with a disturbing... do us great harms. The messenger brought a letter from Lee Dong... guerrillas at the camp. The messenger told us the women guerrillas... incident. Had we not sent a messenger to the camp, Ohm would..., we did not send any messenger to the Comintern, nor the... it difficult to send even a messenger to him, where could it... you comrades talk to the messenger Wang Run-cheng and find.... "I stand special surety for the messenger." The quotation suggests that Wei... him. Kim Chaik told the messenger to sleep in his bed.... Kim Chaik noticed that the messenger's clothes were torn and he... with his own hands. The messenger was from another unit, but... they could not meet the messenger I had sent there. It was... unit had been dispatched and a messenger had been sent to the... they failed to meet the messenger, the two men did not... Chi Ho served as a Headquarters messenger for several years. While carrying... is said that he dispatched a messenger to Mt. Paektu to get... supplies. Later, he even dispatched a messenger to establish a military link-up... Gun, Kim Gu also dispatched a messenger to us. However, the country... in Yanan, I was told. The messenger failed to meet me because...



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... The Fire King and the Messenger God to thy greatness Silver... west-wind stir, Spring’s delightful messenger, Never under branches lain Dally... knows not; least knows the messenger chosen for the summons. Only... of Nature. Now too the messenger hastened driving the car of... them straight on the Trojan: “Messenger, voice of Achaia, wherefore confronting... haze of the west, Skimming, a messenger sail, the sapphire-summer waste... in his dense aeonic groove, A messenger and bearer of an unembodied...! The Fire King and the Messenger THE FIRE KING O soul who... guest of Paradise? THE MESSENGER I am the Messenger of the human race... of the inconceivable Ray? THE MESSENGER It is the fire of... in an incommunicable release? THE MESSENGER I claim for men the peace... The Fire King and the Messenger. Circa 1934 – 35. A single manuscript... The Fire King and the Messenger Flame-Wind Form 219 673...



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... The Fire King and the Messenger God to thy greatness Silver... west-wind stir, Spring’s delightful messenger, Never under branches lain Dally... knows not; least knows the messenger chosen for the summons. Only... of Nature. Now too the messenger hastened driving the car of... them straight on the Trojan: “Messenger, voice of Achaia, wherefore confronting... haze of the west, Skimming, a messenger sail, the sapphire-summer waste... in his dense aeonic groove, A messenger and bearer of an unembodied...! The Fire King and the Messenger THE FIRE KING O soul who... guest of Paradise? THE MESSENGER I am the Messenger of the human race... of the inconceivable Ray? THE MESSENGER It is the fire of... in an incommunicable release? THE MESSENGER I claim for men the peace... The Fire King and the Messenger. Circa 1934 – 35. A single manuscript... The Fire King and the Messenger Flame-Wind Form 219 673...



Дата загрузки: 2017-02-23
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... Mission Overview Key Spacecraft Characteristics MESSENGER is a scientific investigation of the... systems provide critical backup. The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry... safe operating temperatures near Mercury. MESSENGER will investigate key scientific questions... volatiles are important at Mercury? MESSENGER provides:  Multiple flybys for global... terrestrial planet evolution. Discoveries from MESSENGER’s Mercury Flybys: In addition to..., Inc. On the Web MESSENGER mission: http://messenger.jhuapl.edu NASA Discovery... of Contents Media Services Information.............................................................................................................. 7 MESSENGER Quick Facts ................................................................................................................... 8 Mercury Orbit Insertion... Mercury.............................................................................................................................. 58 MESSENGER’s deep-space maneuvers................................................................................................ 60 The MESSENGER Science Team........................................................................................................ 61... at http://messenger.jhuapl.edu and http://www.nasa.gov/messenger. When...://www.nasa.gov/ntv. MESSENGER on the Web MESSENGER information — including an... the Web at http://messenger.jhuapl.edu. MESSENGER multimedia files, background information...://www.nasa.gov/messenger. 7 NASA’s Mission to Mercury MESSENGER Quick Facts Spacecraft..., Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft will execute a 15-minute... lighting condition. Observing the surface MESSENGER’s 12-month orbital phase covers... the northern hemisphere will allow MESSENGER to conduct a detailed investigation of.... To develop this understanding, the MESSENGER mission, spacecraft, and science instruments... many observations of the surface. MESSENGER’s three Mercury flybys provided opportunities... Goddard Space Flight Center.) 20 MESSENGER’s magnetometer will characterize Mercury’s magnetic... by MESSENGER’s magnetometer and by the energetic particle and plasma spectrometer. MESSENGER... MESSENGER under different lighting conditions or in color, allowing new discoveries. MESSENGER... trends, and brightness values help MESSENGER geologists understand the distinct regions... unit. During the brief flybys, MESSENGER’s other instruments sensitive to composition.... The different lighting conditions allowed MESSENGER to discover scarps not previously.... Mercury’s global magnetic field The MESSENGER spacecraft made magnetic field measurements... relatively quiet during and between MESSENGER’s three transits of Mercury’s magnetosphere... produced a very quiet magnetosphere, and MESSENGER measured steady magnetic fields and... magnetospheric measurements from the three MESSENGER flybys indicate that Mercury’s magnetosphere... Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on MESSENGER, however, Mercury’s exosphere has been...’s exosphere were documented during the MESSENGER flybys. The leftmost panel compares... the planet’s hottest regions protect MESSENGER without expensive and impractical cooling... lower-cost space science missions. MESSENGER spacecraft during integration and testing...’s Mission to Mercury Science payload MESSENGER carries seven scientific instruments and... communications system — will precisely measure MESSENGER’s speed and distance from Earth... Thermal Design While orbiting Mercury, MESSENGER will “feel” significantly hotter than... own planet. MESSENGER spacecraft in flight configuration, rear view MESSENGER’s first line... temperature of about 150° C. Propulsion MESSENGER’s dual-mode propulsion system includes... cruise and orbital operations. Communications MESSENGER’s X-band coherent communications system includes... on the MESSENGER mission. Programmed to monitor the condition of MESSENGER’s key... processors and MESSENGER’s instruments and systems. Intricate flight software executes MESSENGER’s Command and Data Handling system. MESSENGER receives operating... reaction wheels and, when necessary, MESSENGER’s small thrusters. The IMU accurately...-1980s. MESSENGER adopted this mission design approach; without these flybys, MESSENGER would... members strung into a “movie” documenting MESSENGER’s departure. On approach, the Mercury... Venus. Shortly before the encounter, MESSENGER entered superior solar conjunction, where... of Venus and MESSENGER operated on battery power. MESSENGER swung by Venus...-and-field environment at Venus. MESSENGER’s Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer... MESSENGER’s deep-space maneuvers In conjunction with the six planetary flybys, MESSENGER..., just over 8 minutes long, changed MESSENGER’s speed by approximately 316 m/s, placing... to Mercury The MESSENGER Science Team The MESSENGER Science Team consists of... is the MESSENGER Program Executive, and Edwin J. Grayzeck is the MESSENGER Program... the MESSENGER Mission Manager. At APL, Peter D. Bedini is the MESSENGER Project...



Дата загрузки: 2017-05-21
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... the Royal Mail and a cycle messenger firm. Interviews were conducted with... cycles – cycle freight companies, a cycle messenger company and the Royal Mail... below. 5 Cycle couriers The UK messenger scene was established in the... to be learned from the messenger scene. Modern cycle freight The... probable survival of the cycle messenger industry in the UK, she... system. Directors Controller Accounts Cycle messenger At any time Company TWO... in contrast to other bicycle messenger firms that will send cyclists... payload (compared to 4kg for a messenger bag). It is recommended that... sample of firms interviewed, cycle messenger firms seem reluctant to take... employment are key The cycle messenger business generally makes use of... of staff than most cycle messenger firms, and the evidence suggests... than is usual among cycle messenger firms Conclusion: A shift in the...