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Найдено 228 документов по запросу «Mars Aerocapture». [Перейти к поиску]


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...-9 a.m. Welcome and Opening 9-9:30 a.m. NASA’s Mars Exploration Program 9:30-10 a.m. Planetary... Titan on a Budget (and Without Aerocapture!) 8:30-9 a.m. Concept Overview for TITAN... for Planetary and Aerocapture Missions 12:10-12:40 p.m. Aerocapture Mission Concepts... p.m. Perspectives on the Evolution of Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems...-Constrained Ballute Aerocapture for High-Mass Mars Payloads 9:30-10 a.m. Mars Entry Atmospheric... Measurement System Characterization of the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System 5:10... a.m. The Phoenix Mission Lands on Mars • 8:30-9 a.m. Mars Science Laboratory: The Next... Cutting Technologies Room 222 • 2-2:30 p.m. Aerocapture Technology Developments by the In... Probe Missions • 4:10-4:40 p.m. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model to...-9 a.m. Welcome and Opening 9-9:30 a.m. NASA’s Mars Exploration Program Doug McCuistion, NASA... an even deeper understanding of Mars. The Mars Science Laboratory is the... Titan on a Budget (and Without Aerocapture!) John Elliott, Kim Reh, Nathan... of Titan’s atmosphere to allow aerocapture directly into Titan orbit, a technique... while precluding the use of aerocapture. Further direction includes performing Saturn... to take the place of aerocapture. Responding to these constraints, the... and Qualification for Planetary and Aerocapture Missions Bernie Laub, Joe Hartman...-Space Propulsion Program has completed aerocapture mission design studies that have... needed. 12:10-12:40 p.m. Aerocapture Mission Concepts for Titan and... Spilker, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Aerocapture has been studied for decades... of robotic exploration missions using Aerocapture at Titan and Venus, in... same 14 IPPW-6 AGENDA destinations. Aerocapture is of enormous benefit for... return is significantly enhanced when aerocapture is used. Updates to our... Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s experience. The Mars program’s success has depended on... In-Orbit Capture Mechanism for a Mars Sample Return Mission - Terminal Rendezvous... Gibbings, Kingston University Any perceived Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission is... to conceptual studies of EDL, aerocapture and precision and/or pin... systems. Mass Advantage of Titan Aerocapture Nathan Strange, Sarah Bairstow, and... Titan Explorer study employed Titan aerocapture to place a spacecraft in orbit... of the mass advantage of aerocapture vs. chemical propulsion to achieve... both chemical propulsion and Titan aerocapture. Interplanetary trajectories using both chemical.... The mass advantage provided by aerocapture could be used to improve... Center NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander landed on Mars on May 25, 2008... of Temperature-Constrained Ballute Aerocapture for High-Mass Mars Payloads Kristin Medlock...- to high-mass Mars aerocapture systems. Ballutes permit aerocapture at higher altitudes and... to demonstrate critical technologies of a Mars surface mission, including the critical... for sample return missions e.g. from Mars. Therefore, an observation mission was... Measurement System Characterization of the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS... of this unexplored region of Mars. 8:30-9 a.m. Mars Science Laboratory: The Next... Michael Meyer, NASA Headquarters The Mars Science Laboratory rover represents firsts... is a Mars mission demonstrating aerobraking and rendezvous/ capture in Mars orbit and... mission phases, including launch, interplanetary, Mars orbit injection and orbiting, down... Center NASA’s Mars Sample Return project will bring Mars surface and atmosphere... Earth return from extraterrestrial bodies (e.g. Mars, comets or asteroids) involves a hyperbolic..., Chester Ong & Walt Engelund 2-2:30 p.m. Aerocapture Technology Developments by the In... five years of work on aerocapture technology under NASA’s In-Space..., particularly at Titan, demonstration of aerocapture guidance algorithm robustness at multiple... the sustained ISPT support for aerocapture, component technologies are mature enough... on entry missions, and the aerocapture system technology is ready to... the deceleration for entry and aerocapture missions at a fraction of the... excellent performance and packaging benefits aerocapture, de-orbit, entry, descent, and.... 4:10-4:40 p.m. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) to..., Stanley Associates The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) is... the mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM’s conventional (General Circulation Model... model output (Southwest Research Institute’s Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS... of three Mars years of TES nadir data. The Mars Science Laboratory..., University of California-Irvine Future Mars missions requiring increased landing accuracy... Landing System Design for the Mars Gravity Biosatellite Ashley Korzun, Christine... Braun, Georgia Institute of Technology Mars Gravity Biosatellite is a novel program... engineering, and hardware development, the Mars Gravity Biosatellite program offers a unique... wild history of Mars landing attempts. 8:30-9 a.m. Why Mars Sample Return Will... technical and programmatic, that a successful Mars Sample Return mission will have...



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... Release; Distribution is Unlimited. . 1 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... Conclusions............................................................................................... 64 References ..................................................................................................................................... 64 . 2 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... and deep space planetary orbiters. Aerocapture and aerobraking use aerodynamic drag... and cost of interplanetary orbiters. Aerocapture systems use a high temperature ceramic.... Mission studies have shown the Aerocapture is a dramatically enabling technology for... space travel. The Magnetoshell Mars aerobraking mission. aerocapture deploys a magnetic field filled... the risk involved with aerocapture thereby making interplanetary aerocapture possible without detailed... field and intercepting a provides Neptune aerocapture for a 21 km/s partially ionized... Martian aerocapture, a 21 meter Magnetoshell can be developed to provide aerocapture for... aerodynamic drag was found. . 3 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... Mars mission and deep space planetary orbiters require aerobraking and aerocapture which use aerodynamic drag forces to slow the spacecraft. Aerocapture... lowers the risk involved with aerocapture thereby making manned planetary missions... for breaking at Mars for cargo missions. Traditional aerocapture is considered too...-free aerocapture system would allow much more rapid missions to Mars and... shown, the plasma Magnetoshell . 4 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... risk, enabling very aggressive aerocapture maneuvers. Magnetoshell Aerocapture is a low- dipole plasma... Mars missions. This analysis showed that a 200 kg, 9 m Magnetoshell provides Neptune aerocapture... a Plasma Magnetoshell for Aerobraking and Aerocapture. This consisted of a large quantity... conclusion to this program, a . 5 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... atmosphere Average particle velocity 8 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... completely sufficient for aerobraking and aerocapture and that the energy required... this program, focusing on interplanetary aerocapture, a low  dipole will be used... R 0  dr  B0 R 0 2 4 R 0 0 r 302 12 (5) A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... electron temperature [8-10]. . 16 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... thruster baseline simulation . 26 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned...-magnetized interaction case. . 37 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... steady thrust measurements . 39 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... available launch vehicles. In addition, aerocapture can allow for faster orbital.... By utilizing a low-mass Magnetoshell aerocapture, the delta-V requirements for a 1000... architectures. DRA 5.0 does not us aerocapture for crew missions, largely because.... Comparison of mission requirements for Aerocapture. . 41 Neptune Orbiter 26.7 km... required to develop aeroshell-based aerocapture to sufficient technical readiness. Therefore... the use of a Magnetoshell-based aerocapture technique. The Neptune orbiter mission...  5 m fairing  212 W MMRTG . 42 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned.... Neptune Aerocapture altitude. Figure 56. Neptune aerocapture velocity. Figure 57. Neptune aerocapture atmospheric density. . 52 A Plasma Aerocapture and... equivalent ion temperatures. . 53 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned..., a 60 metric ton large-scale Mars aerocapture mission similar to DRA 5.0 was...) for Trans-Mars Injection and aerocapture (for the cargo) for Mars Orbital Insertion... II effort. To provide Aerocapture for a manned Mars class mission requires then... parameters for a Mars 60 MT insertion. . 57 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System... above, a Copernicus simulation of a Martian aerocapture was performed. For this simulation... Mars insertion with mean Martian atmosphere. Figure 69. Mars aerocapture altitude. Figure 70. Mars aerocapture velocity. . 59 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry... 71. Mars aerocapture atmospheric density. Figure 72. Close up of the Mars drag... the Mars dynamic pressure for the initial insertion. . 60 A Plasma Aerocapture and..., propellant, and computing. . 61 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... space planetary orbiters. The Magnetoshell aerocapture deploys a magnetic field filled with... Mars missions. This analysis showed that a 200 kg, 9 m Magnetoshell provides Neptune aerocapture... Martian aerocapture, a 21 meter Magnetoshell can be developed to provide aerocapture for... Vernon W. Keller. "Atmospheric Models for Aerocapture Systems Studies." AIAA Paper 4952... Munk, M. M., "A Comparative Study of Aerocapture Missions with a Mars Destination", 41st AIAA/ASME..., 2007. [21] Munk, M., and Spilker, T. “Aerocapture Mission Concepts for Venus, Titan...



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... M. Munk, Aerocapture Manager, NASA-LaRC, Hampton, VA 23681 Steven A. Moon, Aerocapture Test...’s In-Space Propulsion Program (ISPT) Aerocapture investment area. The organizations that..., particularly at Titan, demonstration of aerocapture guidance algorithm robustness at multiple... this sustained ISPT support for Aerocapture, the technology is ready to... within the ISPT portfolio is Aerocapture, which is the process of... Controlled exit Jettison Aeroshell Fig. 1. Aerocapture Maneuver Aerocapture differs from aerobraking, a flight... atmospheric pass, compared to hundreds. Aerocapture can save hundreds of kilograms... and reach its destination faster. Aerocapture can be used at the... from limited funding. Within the Aerocapture area, systems studies for aerocaptured... of experts in the component Aerocapture disciplines: aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, atmospheric modeling... a significant step forward in maturing Aerocapture for SMD, as almost all... either Mars or Earth. The studies were critical to establishing aerocapture feasibility at the new destinations. The analytical aerocapture guidance... an aerocapture flight validation that uses this guidance scheme will prove aerocapture... for filling those gaps. Within Aerocapture, four such Technology Assessment Group... gaps for rigid, blunt-body aerocapture have become well-known in... over a 1- or 2-year timeframe. The Aerocapture area maintains a list of gaps... (called “Cycle 1”), Titan and Neptune aerocapture were the reference missions to... facility constraints. In 2003, the Aerocapture investment area participated in its... decelerators for Titan and Neptune aerocapture were solicited. Two awards resulted... products from the first two Aerocapture NRAs represent significant advances in... and lightweight structures. Although the Aerocapture maneuver itself is the primary... 1 AEROCAPTURE AWARDS AND LEAD ORGANIZATIONS Task Title Aeroshell Development for Aerocapture Microsensor & Instrumentation Technology for Aerocapture Advanced Ablator Families... Titan and other small-body aerocapture environments NASA-ARC • Integrated aeroshell... aeroshell composite structures, tested for Aerocapture environment High-Temperature Structures for... and advanced materials and manufacturing Aerocapture Martin Space techniques (1 SLA, 1 C-C) Technologies... article, mechanically tested to Titan Aerocapture loads Technology • Trailing ballute system... ballute manufacturing and Aerospace Ballute Aerocapture packaging • Systems design, technology challenges... design, technology challenges of inflatable Aerocapture Concepts Martin Space aeroshell system... in the aerothermal environments of aerocapture vehicles. As a result of that... prediction of peak heating during aerocapture by over 90% since the... thus far, aimed at saving aerocapture system mass, can be classified... soak is very important to aerocapture, since heat loads are typically... be suitable for a Titan or Mars aerocapture maneuver [7]. The second significant advancement... the qualification levels of a Titan aerocapture. Fig. 3. LMA 2-meter carbon-carbon..., suitable for most small-body aerocapture and direct entry missions. The... was baselined in the ST9 Aerocapture proposal to the New Millennium... ST9 proposal review teams. Although Aerocapture was not chosen as the... valuable data during entry. ISPT Aerocapture has also invested at a lower... are inflatable decelerators useful for aerocapture, they can be used to..., but feasibility for Titan and Mars aerocapture has been clearly established [9]. The... bank angle control like a rigid aerocapture vehicle. The team identified a 7.5meter... STATUS Although ISPT has advanced aerocapture technology significantly, it may still... competitors for a chance to validate aerocapture technology through NASA’s New Millennium... be used to design future aerocapture vehicles. The 3-axis controlled vehicle... in late March 2007, the Aerocapture proposal was not selected for.... Fig. 6. Proposed ST9 aerocapture vehicle V. CONCLUSIONS ISPT Aerocapture investments have yielded significant... products that are applicable to aerocapture, direct entry, and sample return.... From systems studies that prove aerocapture feasibility and set requirements, to..., “Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Aerocapture Mission Set,” Journal of Spacecraft...-April 2005. [2] M. K. Lockwood, et al, “Aerocapture Systems Analysis for a Titan Mission..., February 2006. [3] M. K. Lockwood, et al, “Aerocapture Systems Analysis for a Neptune Mission... Aerocapture Mission,” NASA/TM-2006-214291, March 2006. [5] H. S. Wright, et al, “Mars Aerocapture... Report (pending), “Final Summary Report: Aerocapture Aeroshell Technologies (AAT) Program,” January... Advanced Charring Ablators for Planetary Aerocapture and Entry Missions,” 1st NSTC... (pending), “Ultralightweight Ballute Technology for Aerocapture and Aeroassist Missions,” January 2007...] S. Reza, NASA Contractor Report (pending), “Aerocapture Inflatable Decelerator: Lockheed Martin Inflatable...



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... +2 km MOLA elevation for the Mars Science Laboratory project [2-3]. Subsequent robotic... consideration for the 2010 decade, e.g., Mars Sample Return and Astrobiology Field... limits. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. INTRODUCTION MARS EDL CHALLENGES PAST LANDED MISSIONS... with sufficient atmospheric density [1]. 2. MARS EDL CHALLENGES Mars entry, descent and landing... and Mars as a function of ballistic coefficient, β. Atmospheric variability across a Mars year.... Figure 1: Earth and Mars atmospheric comparison. Coupling Mars’ low atmospheric density with... capability envelope. For legged systems, Mars surface variability causes the largest... capability violations. For airbag systems Mars wind variability (and its resultant... scientifically interesting landing areas on Mars; however, the ability to directly... cost associated with reproduction of a Mars-relevant environment for hypersonic and... LANDED MISSIONS The first Mars landing attempt (Mars 2) in late 1971 by... backbone of all Mars EDL architectures since. As the Mars robotic exploration...: Ballistic and lifting (vertical L/D = 0.18) Mars EDL nominal trajectories for β = 63...’s atmosphere were successfully conducted in Mars relevant conditions [15]. These tests... gap band parachutes in Mars relevant conditions. The Mars Science Laboratory has... inflation qualification. The Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover parachutes all... toward performing precision landing at Mars [3]. Utilizing hypersonic aeromaneuvering technology and... inflatable hypersonic entry aeroshells for Mars, this technology appears promising for... preparation for landing astronauts onto Mars. An additional supersonic decelerator possibility... requirements of human Mars exploration include: (1) the need for aerocapture prior to... Mars exploration is presented, highlighting the technology challenges and advances required. Aerocapture Aerocapture... to Mars, it has been shown that the benefits of aerocapture are... [27]. However, for human exploration, aerocapture followed by a subsequent entry and... / s) Figure 19: Aerocapture corridor width as a function of Mars entry velocity for... L/D of 0.3 is sufficient for Mars aerocapture. Figure 18: Mars aerocapture maneuver. from orbit has... of atmospheric uncertainty. In addition, aerocapture is applicable to components of... in Mars orbit for later rendezvous and Earth return. While aerocapture is... approach navigation performance. Recent robotic Mars missions have demonstrated the ability... configuration. From Fig. 19, an aerocapture L/D = 0.3 is sufficient (for an entry... path angle requirement of ±0.5°) for Mars entry velocities under 9.1 km/s, a likely condition for most human Mars exploration architectures. Following aerocapture, the vehicle performs... parking orbit. A parametric study of aerocapture trajectories was performed to explore... suitable for human exploration [26]. Aerocapture trajectories may be constrained by... interest to note that this aerocapture system has a β on the order... than 1° wide entry corridor for aerocapture velocities up to 9.1 km/s, with... the robotic Mars exploration program). Aerothermal design Aerocapture and entry from Mars orbit produce very different aerothermal environments. The aerocapture... be configurable for dual-use (aerocapture and EDL). In this case... aeroshell is used first for aerocapture, and later for entry. Three... be sized for the harsher aerocapture environment, the vehicle performs its... the aerocapture maneuver, if the vehicle does not jettison the aerocapture heat.... Finally, a third challenge to a common aerocapture and entry TPS is the... aerocapture and EDL. This provides the benefit of jettisoning the hot aerocapture TPS immediately following the aerocapture maneuver, and allows..., descent and landing sequence for Mars human exploration architecture, highlighting the..., it is concluded that Mars human exploration aerocapture and EDL systems will... required for a human mission to Mars. Promising technologies for human exploration... EDL architectural areas: (a) assessment of aerocapture/entry TPS configuration options, and... EDL technology challenges emanate from (a) a Mars atmosphere, with significant variability, that... sufficiently low terminal descent velocity, (b) a Mars surface environment of complex rocks..., England, September, 2005. [2] Adam Steltzner, “Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and... Rivellini, “Challenges of Landing on Mars” National Academy of Engineering, Frontiers...] Allen Witkowski, and Glen Brown, “Mars Deployable Decelerators Capability Roadmap Summary... size-frequency distributions on Mars and implications for Mars Exploration Rover landing...; Pieter H. Kallemeyn; and Sam W. Thurman, “Mars Pathfinder Entry, Descent and Landing.... [21] A. Witkowski, W. Machalick, and Y.Taeger, "Mars Subsonic Parachute Technology Task System..., R.D.; “A Survey of Ballute Technology for Aerocapture,” Accepted for publication in the..., “Cost–Benefit Analysis of the Aerocapture Mission Set,” AIAA Journal of...



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.../Deimos for Earth-bound Mars Return Spacecraft and Mars EDL of Surface... Moon-Earth Returns and Moon-Mars Missions ................................................................................................16 C. Architecture III: In... Orbit Low Lunar Orbit Low Mars Orbit Mars Exploration Rover Multi Mission... Martian Moons Aerobraking and Aerocapture at Mars NASA Mars DRA 5.0 Aerocapture Benefits Phobos & Deimos... Delta V Budgets Mars Science Lab 4.5 m Diameter Heat Shield Mars Opposition and Conjunction... 4 Table 5 Description Aerocapture vs. Propulsive Capture NASA DRA 5.0 Mars EDL Characteristics Samples... mass on Mars would require 20 t in LEO. NASA Mars mission studies... for an Earth return or a Mars mission. A third architecture envisions building... Mars Return Spacecraft and Mars EDL of Surface Exploration Craft The NASA Mars... for a Mars atmospheric entry. Table 1 displays a comparative argument between aerocapture and propulsive.... 6 Table 1: Aerocapture vs. Propulsive Capture [6] Figure 1: Orbits of the Mars Moons [7] The advantages of using a heat shield for aerobraking or aerocapture at Mars when using chemical propulsion are substantial. Aerocapture and aerobraking orbits at Mars... & Aerocapture at Mars [6] By using a heat shield as the spacecraft approaches Mars to aerocapture into a staging orbit, the delta-v (∆v) for Mars capture... reduced substantially. For example the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft was... vehicle during the Earth-to-Mars ballistic launch opportunities of November... Mars,. [8]. Figure 3 shows aerocapture mass benefits from NASA Mars DRA 5.0. Figure 3. NASA Mars DRA 5.0 Aerocapture... can be reduced by using aerocapture as shown above. However the... this aerocapture 8 sequence, is large and heavy. Table 2 shows that in Mars... Earth. A 57 t lander described in Mars DRA 5.0 (Table 2) would normally require... DRA 5.0 Mars EDL masses and parameters. Table 2: NASA DRA 5.0 Mars EDL Characteristics [6] This NASA Mars DRA 5.0 study assumed... of 462 W/cm2 during the aerocapture phase. Other options such as... for heat shields used for Mars aerocapture. For the cost of the... can be achieved for a typical Mars mission, with corresponding cost savings... scenario involves the manufacturing of a Mars aerocapture heat shield on a Martian moon... the incoming spacecraft prior to Mars aerocapture where it is needed, or...: one for Mars aerocapture, and one for Mars EDL. The Mars aerocapture heat shield will... to the Mars spacecraft, then it is ready for aerocapture. Further work... the journey (from Low Mars Orbit to the Mars surface), a new EDL heat shield will be used, and the Mars aerocapture... subtracted from this since the Mars aerocapture cannot be performed without the... a routine, affordable fashion. The recent Mars Science Lander (MSL) mission has... be required for humanclass Mars missions [5]. Figure 8: Mars Science Lab 4.5 m Diameter Heat... shield is designed as an aerocapture shield to insert the craft... 9 shows orbits and data for Mars opposition- and conjunction- class missions... transports; the crew aboard the Mars Orbiter can conduct routine experiments.... Both the 15 Mars-Earth and the cis-Mars transportation architectures are... of heat shield fabrication. Figure 9: Mars Opposition and Conjunction Class Missions... the mission is a Low Mars orbit to Mars surface EDL. This results... the crewed Mars transportation mission architecture in the initial Mars outbound journey... aerocapture shield upon arrival at Mars. The servicing of spacecraft returning from Mars... to an outbound Mars Spacecraft for aerobraking or aerocapture at Mars. In the... an outbound Mars spacecraft for aerobraking or aerocapture at Mars. Using NASA Mars DRA... the regolith heat shield for Mars aerocapture. Comparing this to the IMLEO... and transporting it directly to Mars without a lunar fabrication intermediate step... cargo craft may conceivably use aerocapture heat shields to slow themselves... to manufacture and install the aerocapture shield for each cargo craft...,558 kg + Asteroid to LEO aerocapture 8,487 kg + Heat Shield 1,247... to Mars may require a 5m-diameter EDL shield and a larger aerocapture shield... a captured asteroid in orbit around Mars. Additional challenges arise, as the... asteroid than in the cis-Mars system where orbiters, telecommunication assets... Bound JSC-1 Mars RTV Bound JSC-1 Mars RTV Bound JSC-1 Mars RTV Bound...: RTV/JSC-1 Mars, RTV/JSC-1A Lunar, RTV/JSC-1 Mars. On the... Lunar RTV JSC-1 Mars RTV JSC-1 Mars RTV JSC-1 Mars RTV 32 Table... 2 K TC 1 W JSC-1 Mars/RTV - 90 2 K TC 1 OH JSC-1 Mars/RTV - 150 2 K TC.... [6] Drake, Bret G. "Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0." NASA..., California, USA. [8] Lyons, D., et al. "Mars global surveyor: aerobraking mission overview...] Rapp, Donald. Human Missions to Mars. Praxis Publishing Limited, Chichester, UK...



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... Heliocentric Orbiter Applications for Crewed Mars Missions David Penuela and Mathew... Heliocentric Orbiter Applications for Crewed Mars Missions Eammon Bemis*, Steven Hough... a sustainable and reusable exploration infrastructure. A Mars-scaled version of the Exploration... future Mars exploration planning efforts. This architecture, referred to as Mars Design... the development of a Mars transportation architecture. The focus of Mars DRM * NTP... – Thermal Protection System TMI – Trans-Mars Injection – ratio of circumferential velocity... regular transfers between Earth and Mars. However, they require relatively large... application of cyclers as a novel Mars transportation architecture. Advantages and disadvantages... were made to previously explored Mars architectures. Study Requirements Requirements for... of 2005.1 An independently proposed Mars transportation architecture that reuses many... missions, also suggests extensions to Mars exploration missions. Technology decisions for... the Mars exploration architecture. The same is true for extending Mars architectures... development of advanced propulsion systems, Mars surface production of propellant and.... This combination transfers to Mars and aerocaptures in Mars orbit. The crew... will transfer to Earth and aerocapture into orbit. The CM will... the Earth-Mars synodic period) between the Earth and Mars. Many of... for 2nd crewed mission* ESAS Mars Mars DRM v3.0 Cycler 15 6 1 (7%) 6 7 4 13.... The revolutionary technologies include ballute aerocapture, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), Variable... (VASIMR), and LOX/CH4. Ballute aerocapture is an atmospheric assisted V maneuver... Direct Direct Ballute aerocapture Ballute aerocapture Direct Ballute aerocapture Ballute aerocapture Additional analysis of... Technology 5 4.5 M Crewed Earth to Mars Crewed Mars to Earth 2.834 4.493 4.291... 3 2.5 3.819 Delta V (km/s) 4 3.5 0.5 S 0 DRM/ESAS Mars Optimized Semi-direct Cycler Figure... surface stay times to Mars DRM and ESAS Mars Radiation Analysis Providing... for only hull shielding, Mars DRM, ESAS Mars, and alternative 17 place... mass. Figure 12 shows a representative aerocapture maneuver; the intent is to... than it would be without aerocapture. 9 Project 1004 NIA/Georgia Institute... a target orbit is selected, the aerocapture corridor can be found. Trajectories...,38 Mars return and 7.84 km/s for a Cycler return. During the aerocapture... masses correspond to the ballute aerocapture option. Alternative 14 results a low... largest benefit of the ballute aerocapture is the minimization of the... plus Ballute, kg Figure 12: Aerocapture Maneuver Sequence For the present... assumed in Mars DRM v3.0. A power budget identical to Mars DRM v3... Institute of Technology and the aerocapture method. The technologies that drove... system and the ballute aerocapture. Since ballute aerocapture has not been implemented... to the surface of Mars on the first Mars surface payload of... which is referenced from Mars DRM2. Aerocapture at Mars is assumed for the... system mass comparisons normalized to Mars DRM v.3.0 masses Costing Analysis The... 5 Crewed Mission - Sortie 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 DRM ESAS Mars Alt. 7 Alt. 13 Alt. 14... the starting of Mars research funding. Both ESAS Mars and the cycler... ESAS operations. Scheduling of ESAS Mars (already overpriced from heritage issue... implemented. As a permanent infrastructure for Mars missions, cyclers capitalize on reusability... research into deceleration technologies for aerocapture can drive down the masses... 16. “Hyperbolic Rendezvous for Earth-Mars Cycler Missions.” Paul A. Penzo, Kerry... for Aerobraking at Earth and Mars” August 1991, S. D. Williams, M. M. Gietzel, W. C. Rochelle... 1. NASA. 24. “Physiologically Constrained Aerocapture for Manned Mars Missions” August 1992, James.... 26. “A Comparative Study of Aerocapture Missions with a Mars Destination” July 2005. Diane... Michelle Munk. AIAA2005-4110. 27. “Mars Aerocapture Studies for the Design Reference... Aerocapture at Titan” Bernard Laub, NASA Ames. AIAA-2003-4954. 29. “Aerocapture... Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study... Periodic Orbits Connecting Earth and Mars.” C.S. Rall and W.M.Hollister. AIAA 7192..., CA, Oct 1985. “Pathways to Mars: New Trajectory Opportunities.” J. Niehoff. AAS86.... “Analysis of Broad Class Earth-Mars Cycler Trajectories.” T. Troy McConaghy, James.... “Notable Two-Synodic-Period Earth-Mars Cycler.” T. Troy McConaghy, Damon F. Landau..., Kerry T. Knock. AIAA 2002-4424. “A Mars Cycler Architecture utilizing LowThrust Propulsion... Predictor-Corrector Aerocapture and Precision Landing Guidance Algorithms for the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Missions” Richard Powell. AIAA 984574. 31. “Aerocapture... Masciarelli. AIAA 2004-4955. 32. “Aerocapture Systems Analysis for a Titan Mission...-NASA Studies of the Mars Sample Return Orbiter Aerocapture Phase” Oct. 2000...-00-A.6.05. 34. “Trailing Ballute Aerocapture: Concept and Feasibility Assessment” Kevin.... “Assessing the Relative Risk of Aerocapture Using Probabilistic Risk Assessment” Thomas...



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... a planet’s atmosphere). ABSTRACT AEROFAST is a Mars aerocapture feasibility demonstration performed by twelve... the pre-aerocapture phase (Earth to Mars transfer), aerocapture phase and post-aerocapture phase... justified, layout & budgets presented. Figure-1: Aerocapture principle At the end of...-aerocapture and aerocapture phases, TPS plasma tests on new cork based materials). 1. Aerocapture... the mission specific requirements. INTRODUCTION Aerocapture is a new technology for Solar..., Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of aerocapture technology in Europe is assessed... is mandatory to envisage the aerocapture technology for operational missions while... aerocapture technology up to TRL4 through a complete mission study of a Martian aerocapture... planetary relative navigation and the aerocapture algorithm up to 5. • OBJ3: Build... in real time the pre-aerocapture and aerocapture GNC algorithms, • OBJ4: Demonstrate... • OBJ5: Define on-board instrumentation aerocapture phase recovery. 2. ACCRONYMS A/C AGL AST... of aerocapture for AeroCapture Above Ground Level ASTRIUM Back Composite Cruise & Aerocapture Composite... with regards to Cruise & Pre-aerocapture phase: Challenge is to master... the accuracy of targeting the aerocapture corridor. • Aerocapture phase: Used to brake... the appropriate elliptical orbit. • Post aerocapture phase: to target a quasi circular... drives the cruise and pre aerocapture phase. MISSION AND GNC The... avoid energy dissipation issue during aerocapture (aerocapture design constraints) RQ-3 The angle... 20 days before Mars arrival To have aerocapture phase placed on the... with operational transmitters during aerocapture phase (pre-aerocapture communication constraints) RQ-5 The... than 40° during the whole aerocapture RQ-6 The angle between the... Mars moon in the last 20 days before reentry (pre-aerocapture navigation constraints) RQ-7 Pre-aerocapture navigation performance and... aerocapture corridor (aerocapture guidance constraints) Table-1: Constraints from mission analysis 4.2 Cruise & Pre-aerocapture phase The analysis of the Earth to Mars opportunities has... corridor for Aerocapture at Mars arrival As depicted Fig-6, the aerocapture phase allows... exiting the atmospheric phase, but aerocapture doesn’t allow meeting all in...-4). At the end of the aerocapture at 120km altitude, spacecraft exit... must be performed just after aerocapture to reach the nominal pericenter...-2: AEROFAST selected trajectory 4.3 6377.6 m/s Post Aerocapture phase The orbit for sciences... and constant lighting conditions: Aerocapture phase The aerocapture feasibility is mainly driven... at the EIP (Tab-3). The aerocapture corridor is bounded by extreme... (shape, mass) reported §7. 5.1 Cruise & Pre Aerocapture phase During the cruise phase... a safe mode. Spacecraft navigation during aerocapture relies on the IMU (maximum... total delta-V < 170m/s (Fig-8) for aerocapture phase and science orbit acquisition...-V < 30m/s for pre-A/C phase. 5.2 Aerocapture phase Aerocapture phase must be safe (no... possible in the aerocapture corridor (semi permeable domain) Figure-8: Aerocapture robustness (MtC...-of-plane required motions During aerocapture, the spacecraft is submitted to... three different modules, a Mars Orbiter, a Cruise and Aerocapture Composite composed of a Front Composite and a Back Composite (option): Post Aerocapture phase Just after aerocapture, TPS heat shield has... of the Mars Orbiter. During pre-aerocapture and aerocapture phase, the Mars Orbiter module is implemented within the Cruise and Aerocapture Composite (Fig-12) CAC Once Mars Orbiter placed...: Pre-A/C & A/C configuration • After aerocapture, prior to post-aerocapture manoeuvres, the Front & Back...-aerocapture manoeuvres for sciences orbit acquisition & operations are performed by the Mars Orbiter (Fig-14) MO SPACECRAFT DESIGN Missions with aerocapture phase... after Aerocapture. Figure-14: Post-A/C configuration 6.1 Aero-shape trade-off Aerocapture requires... severe aerothermal environment during the aerocapture, and shall be safely jettison... along the two worst case aerocapture trajectories identified by Monte Carlo... solely needed during cruise and aerocapture phases are installed within the... external Cruise Stages jettisoned before aerocapture and 1 configuration with an integrated... • IMU (NG LS-200S) for aerocapture and orbit acquisition within MO..., approach, aerocapture, post aerocapture phases. - 6 aerojets MR120 (90N) on CAC for aerocapture + 4 CHT... characterisation and TPS analysis during aerocapture phase. 4 Low Gain Antennas (LGA... (NRT & RT) Figure-27: Pre Aerocapture NRT simulation (FES) Table-5: AEROFAST... fully achieved. 9. REFERENCE [R1]: AEROFAST – Aerocapture GNC design and performance – P. Vernis... – Arcachon – May 2-4, 2011 [R3]: AEROFAST – Aerocapture for future space transportation – H. Requisiton...



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...: J.M. Salotti, "Simplified scenario for manned Mars missions", Acta Astronautica, vol. 69... Association Planète Mars, the French chapter of the Mars Society. 2 PART I Simplified Scenario for Manned Mars Missions List... Earth Orbit MAV: Mars Ascent Vehicle MO: Mars Orbit NTR: Nuclear Thermal...: Trans-Earth Injection TMI: Trans-Mars Injection TPS: Thermal Protection System... billion dollars. Keywords: Manned missions, Mars Direct, Mars semi-direct 1. Introduction A critical... left unoccupied. Moreover, compared to Mars Direct, the production of propellant... transit between the Earth and Mars (or Mars and the Earth) or... manned missions to Mars, which is a tradeoff between Mars Direct and Von... from Earth. After aerocapture, it is left in Mars orbit. After surface... capsule are left in Mars orbit after aerocapture maneuvers. At the end... spacecrafts on the way to Mars Aerocapture, both vehicles in MO Check... TEI propulsion stage Mars descent and landing vehicle 1 Mars descent and landing vehicle 2 Number of days on Mars surface Mars surface, propellant production Takeoff for both vehicles, Mars Orbit... the transit between Earth and Mars or Mars and the Earth, there... identified as a major issue for Mars manned missions. However, the uncertainty... on the surface of Mars and eventually in Mars orbit that has... 3 Propellant V=5.625 km/s for Mars V=4 km/s ascent Mars ascent propulsion stage dry... (1)+(2) 24.3 3.4 Additional payload mass for Mars exploration In the previous section... the landing on Mars Mass at launch from Mars (Table 3.a) Additional consumables... on Mars Number of propulsion stages on Mars Total mass sent to Mars... integrated in a robust strategy for Mars exploration. 5. Conclusion The main idea..., 283-291. [3] R.D. Braun and R.M. Manning: Mars Exploration Entry, Descent and Landing... Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study... 3.0) [9] B.G. Drake ed., Mars Architecture Steering Group, Human Exploration of Mars, Design Reference... Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study... is thus possible for aerocapture and landing on Mars. It is suggested... options, a reduced number of astronauts, aerocapture for all vehicles, the choice... surface of Mars while two ERV are sent to Mars orbit. For... habitat vehicles landed on Mars are the two Mars ascent vehicles. The... Mars semi-direct scenarios, a light Mars ascent vehicle can be sent to Mars... between the Earth and Mars is addressed. Aerocapture is then discussed in... to optimize the scenario, an aerocapture is assumed. The vehicle has... enter the Martian atmosphere before Mars orbit insertion and Orion specifications... the surface of Mars, the habitable module waiting in Mars orbit can... bottom protects the vehicle during Mars aerocapture. The heat shield of the...) Propellant (kg) Heat shield for aerocapture (kg) Subtotal service module Subtotal... into account for the post-aerocapture maneuver. For the structure, it... to enable aerocapture. The mass of the heat shield for aerocapture has... be sent to Mars orbit. The mass of the Mars ascent vehicle... EDL systems Mars ascent vehicle, structure and LSS (kg) Mars ascent vehicle..., the shape is optimized for aerocapture and then entry descent and... is first inserted into Mars orbit using an aerocapture maneuver, which eliminates...) Subtotal for Mars surface (kg) Margin 20% Total for Mars surface (kg... Earth. Option Mars surface LEO Launch Payload for Mars surface EDL systems... landers during the transit phase. 6. Aerocapture Aerocapture is an interesting option to... the mass savings if aerocapture is used. Without aerocapture, a propulsion system to... are therefore considerable if an aerocapture maneuver is performed. In the... key point here is that aerocapture is one of the better... shapes, which are adapted to aerocapture maneuvers. 7. Surface exploration 7.1. Preparing for... Mars. Second, when the astronauts arrive on the surface of Mars, the Mars... landing vehicles allow accurate landings. Mars Science Laboratory, for instance, is... to reach Mars, to perform an aerocapture maneuver, to wait in Mars orbit..., as already explained in Section 6, aerocapture is very important to reduce... complex and there is no aerocapture. The loss is between 50... to manufacture on Mars all the propellant of the Mars ascent vehicle..., 283-291. [3] R.D. Braun and R.M. Manning, Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Challenges... Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study...] B.G. Drake ed., Mars Architecture Steering Group, Human Exploration of Mars, Design Reference... Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study.... (DRM 1.0) [15] S.J. Hoffman, ed., The Mars Surface Reference Mission: A Description of...] J.M. Salotti, Simplified scenario for manned Mars missions, Acta Astronautica, vol. 69..., 2-4-2 Concept for Manned Missions to Mars, Proceedings of the 62nd International..., B. Acikmese, K. Gromov, Performance trades for Mars pinpoint landing, IEEE Aerospace Conference...



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... Approaches for Mars Exploration (2012) 4173.pdf AEROCAPTURE DEMONSTRATION AND MARS MISSION APPLICATIONS...@nasa.gov) Challenge Area Summary: Aerocapture is an aeroassist technology that... payloads to be placed into Mars orbit, facilitate access to Phobos and Deimos, and support human Mars exploration. This abstract addresses Challenge...-of-the-art (SOA) in aerocapture technology, outlines an established Earth... offers specific uses for aerocapture at Mars. Introduction: Aerocapture, shown in Fig. 1, is... a planet. In contrast to aerobraking, aerocapture occurs in a single atmospheric pass... orbit insertion delta-V with drag, aerocapture saves significant propellant mass, allowing... final orbit. Aerocapture saves multiple Earth launches for human Mars DRA51, when coupled with high-thrust propulsive transfers. Aerocapture’s mass benefits for historical Mars missions have not... at Mars to support humans or explore Phobos and Deimos, Aerocapture can play a significant, beneficial role. Aerocapture SOA: Aerocapture occurs in... in loss of mission; during aerocapture, they mean a little more propellant... navigation, atmospheric, and aerodynamic uncertainties. Aerocapture utilizes the same analysis, hardware... of what is needed for Aerocapture already exists and has been... in space. In fact, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry GN... has the same foundation as aerocapture guidance, so some argue that... entry, Aerocapture is essentially proven. Specific technology maturation for Aerocapture has received..., Aerocapture has been matured to a TRL of 5+ for use at Mars, Earth, Titan, and Venus. SMD is so confident in the Aerocapture... Opportunity, the use of Aerocapture or Aerocapture hardware components matured by ISPT...-loop testbed development. Mars Aerocapture can utilize either existing Mars entry system hardware... of the payload. Figure 1. The Aerocapture maneuver is accomplished in a single... pass to eliminate propellant. The Aerocapture maneuver has never been proven... for decades. Aerocapture was once part of the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Orbiter design and the Mars Sample Return architecture for 2003-2005; 1 Concepts and Approaches for Mars Exploration (2012) 4173.pdf Extensibility... EDL Systems Analysis (EDLSA) effort3, Aerocapture is effective using both high... deployable systems (such as ADEPT). Aerocapture can deliver payloads from 1 to... Mission: Despite the evidence that Mars aerocapture is low risk and can... before a Mars aerocapture mission, and will open the door earlier, for aerocapture use...-06, an Earth validation of Aerocapture was one of the 5 Space... was cancelled shortly thereafter), the Aerocapture proposal received high marks from... the cost of an Earth Aerocapture demonstration have focused on only... rocket that can accommodate the aerocapture vehicle plus a propulsive stage to... aerocapture demonstration at Earth for about $75M including launch, within 3 years. Mars Missions: The use of Aerocapture at Mars provides an endless... missions. In a 2006 ISPT-funded Mars systems analysis study5, an opposition... design was used to return a Mars sample one year sooner than... in Mars orbit. The shortened mission profile reduced cost and risk; Aerocapture enabled the 7-mt Earth Return Vehicle to achieve Mars orbit... for global and diurnal coverage. Aerocapture was also an integral technology... in 2010. FTD-4 outlined both Mars and Earth demonstrations using either... HIAD entry vehicles to demonstrate Aerocapture and EDL. Although not low... of ~2 mt placed on Mars after Aerocapture could include ascent vehicles, ISRU... that aerocapture with a HIAD, followed by EDL, could put 2.5-3.5 mt on Mars within today’s launch capabilities. Concluding Remarks: Aerocapture technology is...’s toolbox. Demonstrating Aerocapture at Earth, or using it on a Mars mission in... needed for human exploration of Mars, and open the door for... System. Mars mission planners are strongly encouraged to utilize Aerocapture at Mars in...-2009-566; Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0. [2] Anderson, D. J. et... of a Proposed Flight Validation of Aerocapture System Technology for Planetary Missions... (2006). NASA/TM-2006-214522; Mars Aerocapture Systems Study. [6] Cianciolo, A. M. et al...



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AIAA-2002-4822 AEROCAPTURE GUIDANCE ALGORITHM COMPARISON CAMPAIGN Sté... aerocapture is a promising technique for the future human interplanetary missions. The Mars Sample Return was initially based on an insertion by aerocapture. A CNES orbiter Mars Premier was developed to... due to budget constraints, the aerocapture was cancelled for the French... guaranty the success of the aerocapture. The TPC appears to be... Space Center Mars GRAM Mars Global Reference Atmosphere Model MSRO Mars Sample Return... aerocapture was retained as a competitive candidate for the future Martian mission Mars... be preceded by a French demonstrator MARS PREMIER, launched in 2007. Mainly... budget reason, MARS PREMIER will no more use the aerocapture, but a classical... aerocapture, and the associated uncertainties are. In order to demonstrate the aerocapture... Energy Controller (EC) Aerocapture main parameters The aerocapture is a very stringent technique... several parameters. To study the aerocapture, it is necessary to consider...). In order to consolidate the aerocapture concept, a common NASA-CNES working... aerocapture and the capability of all the algorithms to achieve the aerocapture... Martian missions. Mission description The aerocapture consists in an atmospheric pass... is more adapted to the aerocapture than the others. This paper... to the vehicle during the aerocapture. The loads control was defined... has a major impact on the aerocapture. Therefore it is important to... the targeted apoapsis altitude considering MARS PREMIER 2007 open window arrival... Whatever the mission is, the aerocapture is driven by the entry... 500 km km The theoretical aerocapture corridor is the entry FPA... each algorithm. Expected uncertainties The aerocapture success depends on the knowledge... also a major contributor to the aerocapture performance. The nominal uncertainties taken... % Normal Force Coeff Increment The aerocapture phase is achieved in a fully... rate Stress cases During the aerocapture the vehicle is fully autonomous... aerodynamic characteristics directly affect the aerocapture performance. The nominal uncertainties taken... CNES/NASA comparison SIMULATION TOOLS Aerocapture Simulator The following results have... been developed at CNES for Mars aerocapture phase studies as well as... APC corridor analysis Figure 2 : 3-DOF Aerocapture simulation Theoretical corridor (deg) Captured... the Mars 2001 aerocapture and entry studies, as well as Mars Pathfinder and Mars Polar Lander. (Note the Mars 2001 Orbiter... to use aerobraking and not aerocapture.) The CNES simulation software was... environment modeling (gravitational field, atmosphere, mars characteristics), aerodynamic characteristics (use of... an essential element of the aerocapture characterization. It includes two aspects... to the vehicle during the aerocapture. Three major parameters have been... first parameters correspond to the aerocapture objectives. − Nacc =0 ∆V2 - g-load - heat... as a viable candidate for a first aerocapture mission. 20,0 18,0 16,0 14..., E. Perot : “an analytic aerocapture guidance algorithm for the Mars Sample Return Orbiter..., H. Fraysse, C. Hourtolle : “ The aerocapture phase of the Mars Sample Return Orbiter”, MS00..., Nevada, January 1985. 9. Ro T.U., Queen E.M., "Mars aerocapture terminal point guidance and control... Control for precision landing and aerocapture", paper No 98-4572, AIAA... complex of Mars satellite insertion by use the aerocapture maneuver: Numerical PredictorCorrector... Predictor-Corrector Aerocapture and Precision Landing Guidance Algorithms for the Mars Surveyor... : "study of the Mars Sample Return orbiter aerocapture phase", AAAF 14-68... guidance algorithm for the Mars Sample Return aerocapture"", AAAF 14-66 26... Point Controller for the Mars Sample Return aerocapture",", AAAF 14-67 26.... "an Energy Controller aerocapture guidance algorithm for the Mars Sample Return orbiter...