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Найдено 336 документов по запросу «Mars Aerocapture». [Перейти к поиску]


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...-9 a.m. Welcome and Opening 9-9:30 a.m. NASA’s Mars Exploration Program 9:30-10 a.m. Planetary... Titan on a Budget (and Without Aerocapture!) 8:30-9 a.m. Concept Overview for TITAN... for Planetary and Aerocapture Missions 12:10-12:40 p.m. Aerocapture Mission Concepts... p.m. Perspectives on the Evolution of Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems...-Constrained Ballute Aerocapture for High-Mass Mars Payloads 9:30-10 a.m. Mars Entry Atmospheric... Measurement System Characterization of the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System 5:10... a.m. The Phoenix Mission Lands on Mars • 8:30-9 a.m. Mars Science Laboratory: The Next... Cutting Technologies Room 222 • 2-2:30 p.m. Aerocapture Technology Developments by the In... Probe Missions • 4:10-4:40 p.m. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model to...-9 a.m. Welcome and Opening 9-9:30 a.m. NASA’s Mars Exploration Program Doug McCuistion, NASA... an even deeper understanding of Mars. The Mars Science Laboratory is the... Titan on a Budget (and Without Aerocapture!) John Elliott, Kim Reh, Nathan... of Titan’s atmosphere to allow aerocapture directly into Titan orbit, a technique... while precluding the use of aerocapture. Further direction includes performing Saturn... to take the place of aerocapture. Responding to these constraints, the... and Qualification for Planetary and Aerocapture Missions Bernie Laub, Joe Hartman...-Space Propulsion Program has completed aerocapture mission design studies that have... needed. 12:10-12:40 p.m. Aerocapture Mission Concepts for Titan and... Spilker, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Aerocapture has been studied for decades... of robotic exploration missions using Aerocapture at Titan and Venus, in... same 14 IPPW-6 AGENDA destinations. Aerocapture is of enormous benefit for... return is significantly enhanced when aerocapture is used. Updates to our... Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s experience. The Mars program’s success has depended on... In-Orbit Capture Mechanism for a Mars Sample Return Mission - Terminal Rendezvous... Gibbings, Kingston University Any perceived Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission is... to conceptual studies of EDL, aerocapture and precision and/or pin... systems. Mass Advantage of Titan Aerocapture Nathan Strange, Sarah Bairstow, and... Titan Explorer study employed Titan aerocapture to place a spacecraft in orbit... of the mass advantage of aerocapture vs. chemical propulsion to achieve... both chemical propulsion and Titan aerocapture. Interplanetary trajectories using both chemical.... The mass advantage provided by aerocapture could be used to improve... Center NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander landed on Mars on May 25, 2008... of Temperature-Constrained Ballute Aerocapture for High-Mass Mars Payloads Kristin Medlock...- to high-mass Mars aerocapture systems. Ballutes permit aerocapture at higher altitudes and... to demonstrate critical technologies of a Mars surface mission, including the critical... for sample return missions e.g. from Mars. Therefore, an observation mission was... Measurement System Characterization of the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS... of this unexplored region of Mars. 8:30-9 a.m. Mars Science Laboratory: The Next... Michael Meyer, NASA Headquarters The Mars Science Laboratory rover represents firsts... is a Mars mission demonstrating aerobraking and rendezvous/ capture in Mars orbit and... mission phases, including launch, interplanetary, Mars orbit injection and orbiting, down... Center NASA’s Mars Sample Return project will bring Mars surface and atmosphere... Earth return from extraterrestrial bodies (e.g. Mars, comets or asteroids) involves a hyperbolic..., Chester Ong & Walt Engelund 2-2:30 p.m. Aerocapture Technology Developments by the In... five years of work on aerocapture technology under NASA’s In-Space..., particularly at Titan, demonstration of aerocapture guidance algorithm robustness at multiple... the sustained ISPT support for aerocapture, component technologies are mature enough... on entry missions, and the aerocapture system technology is ready to... the deceleration for entry and aerocapture missions at a fraction of the... excellent performance and packaging benefits aerocapture, de-orbit, entry, descent, and.... 4:10-4:40 p.m. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) to..., Stanley Associates The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) is... the mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM’s conventional (General Circulation Model... model output (Southwest Research Institute’s Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS... of three Mars years of TES nadir data. The Mars Science Laboratory..., University of California-Irvine Future Mars missions requiring increased landing accuracy... Landing System Design for the Mars Gravity Biosatellite Ashley Korzun, Christine... Braun, Georgia Institute of Technology Mars Gravity Biosatellite is a novel program... engineering, and hardware development, the Mars Gravity Biosatellite program offers a unique... wild history of Mars landing attempts. 8:30-9 a.m. Why Mars Sample Return Will... technical and programmatic, that a successful Mars Sample Return mission will have...



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... Release; Distribution is Unlimited. . 1 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... Conclusions............................................................................................... 64 References ..................................................................................................................................... 64 . 2 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... and deep space planetary orbiters. Aerocapture and aerobraking use aerodynamic drag... and cost of interplanetary orbiters. Aerocapture systems use a high temperature ceramic.... Mission studies have shown the Aerocapture is a dramatically enabling technology for... space travel. The Magnetoshell Mars aerobraking mission. aerocapture deploys a magnetic field filled... the risk involved with aerocapture thereby making interplanetary aerocapture possible without detailed... field and intercepting a provides Neptune aerocapture for a 21 km/s partially ionized... Martian aerocapture, a 21 meter Magnetoshell can be developed to provide aerocapture for... aerodynamic drag was found. . 3 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... Mars mission and deep space planetary orbiters require aerobraking and aerocapture which use aerodynamic drag forces to slow the spacecraft. Aerocapture... lowers the risk involved with aerocapture thereby making manned planetary missions... for breaking at Mars for cargo missions. Traditional aerocapture is considered too...-free aerocapture system would allow much more rapid missions to Mars and... shown, the plasma Magnetoshell . 4 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... risk, enabling very aggressive aerocapture maneuvers. Magnetoshell Aerocapture is a low- dipole plasma... Mars missions. This analysis showed that a 200 kg, 9 m Magnetoshell provides Neptune aerocapture... a Plasma Magnetoshell for Aerobraking and Aerocapture. This consisted of a large quantity... conclusion to this program, a . 5 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... atmosphere Average particle velocity 8 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... completely sufficient for aerobraking and aerocapture and that the energy required... this program, focusing on interplanetary aerocapture, a low  dipole will be used... R 0  dr  B0 R 0 2 4 R 0 0 r 302 12 (5) A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... electron temperature [8-10]. . 16 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... thruster baseline simulation . 26 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned...-magnetized interaction case. . 37 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... steady thrust measurements . 39 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... available launch vehicles. In addition, aerocapture can allow for faster orbital.... By utilizing a low-mass Magnetoshell aerocapture, the delta-V requirements for a 1000... architectures. DRA 5.0 does not us aerocapture for crew missions, largely because.... Comparison of mission requirements for Aerocapture. . 41 Neptune Orbiter 26.7 km... required to develop aeroshell-based aerocapture to sufficient technical readiness. Therefore... the use of a Magnetoshell-based aerocapture technique. The Neptune orbiter mission...  5 m fairing  212 W MMRTG . 42 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned.... Neptune Aerocapture altitude. Figure 56. Neptune aerocapture velocity. Figure 57. Neptune aerocapture atmospheric density. . 52 A Plasma Aerocapture and... equivalent ion temperatures. . 53 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned..., a 60 metric ton large-scale Mars aerocapture mission similar to DRA 5.0 was...) for Trans-Mars Injection and aerocapture (for the cargo) for Mars Orbital Insertion... II effort. To provide Aerocapture for a manned Mars class mission requires then... parameters for a Mars 60 MT insertion. . 57 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System... above, a Copernicus simulation of a Martian aerocapture was performed. For this simulation... Mars insertion with mean Martian atmosphere. Figure 69. Mars aerocapture altitude. Figure 70. Mars aerocapture velocity. . 59 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry... 71. Mars aerocapture atmospheric density. Figure 72. Close up of the Mars drag... the Mars dynamic pressure for the initial insertion. . 60 A Plasma Aerocapture and..., propellant, and computing. . 61 A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned... space planetary orbiters. The Magnetoshell aerocapture deploys a magnetic field filled with... Mars missions. This analysis showed that a 200 kg, 9 m Magnetoshell provides Neptune aerocapture... Martian aerocapture, a 21 meter Magnetoshell can be developed to provide aerocapture for... Vernon W. Keller. "Atmospheric Models for Aerocapture Systems Studies." AIAA Paper 4952... Munk, M. M., "A Comparative Study of Aerocapture Missions with a Mars Destination", 41st AIAA/ASME..., 2007. [21] Munk, M., and Spilker, T. “Aerocapture Mission Concepts for Venus, Titan...



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..., Cicago, Illinois Nonstop Mars Sample Return System Using Aerocapture Technologies Kazuhisa Fujita... flight and successful orbit insertion, aerocapture technologies are introduced into the... Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Mars Exploration with Landers and Orbiters... H-II series rockets, the next Mars exploration of JAXA is expected... aeronomical and meteorological researches2–4 and Mars landers for geoscientific researches.5 In... orbiters are transported altogether to Mars and initially inserted into an... mission, a nonstop Mars sample return system using the aerocapture technologies is proposed... rights reserved. II. Nonstop Mars Sample Return Mars sample return missions in... geological and aeronomical information of Mars may be obtained at reasonable... Mars sample return mission is conducted more realistically by introducing the aerocapture... currently designed to arrive at Mars with an approach velocity of... be possible for the nonstop Mars sample return system incorporated into... case 1 and 3 do not use aerocapture but aeroassist orbit transfer. However... of nonstop Mars dust and atmosphere sample return mission using aerocapture technologies... the following reasons. In general, aerocapture requires highly accurate orbit determination... addition, in the case 2, because aerocapture of the sample return system... is strictly limited by the Mars arrival date. As discussed above... studied below. III. Characteristics of Mars Aerocapture In order to accurately insert..., the nonstop Mars sample return essentially relies on aerocapture technologies which enable..., the fundamental characteristics of Mars orbit insertion by aerocapture are first clari... return system are determined. III.A. Mars atmosphere models In general, the... target orbit, or shortly the aerocapture corridor. The density profile... the thin atmosphere of Mars. In this study, Mars atmosphere models are... profiles of the representative Mars atmosphere models are plotted for....B. Aerocapture corridors In order to clarify the fundamental characteristics of Mars aerocapture, trajectory... ascent direction relative to the Mars surface. In Fig.3, the optimum...fficient are more appropriate for aerocapture than those having a smaller ballistic....3, it is expected that a broad aerocapture corridor can be realized by... model) for L/D = 0.3 forms the possible aerocapture corridor when the L/D is modulated... altitude. In Fig.4a, the aerocapture corridors so determined are graphically... narrower than those for the aerocapture from the interplanetary orbit (the... corridor for orbit insertion by aerocapture and aeroassist orbit transfer, the... calculation is shown for the aerocapture from the interplanetary orbit (the.../m b) 2 Figure 5. Accessible lowest altitude during a) aerocapture from an interplanetary orbit with... shown in Fig.6 for the aerocapture from the interplanetary orbit (the... the peak heating point during a) aerocapture from an interplanetary orbit with... addition, the target orbit for aerocapture and aeroassist orbit transfer should... immediately after escape from the Mars atmosphere. To fulfill these... method. In this calculation, the Mars atmosphere model was defined... configuration of the nonstop Mars sample return system is determined... 3. Mission specifications of nonstop Mars sample return system using the... from orb3 OME for deorbit & Mars departure Fuel Oxidizer Specific impulse... the primary elliptic orbit and Mars departure. Based on the above..., mass distribution of the nonstop Mars sample return system are estimated.... Table 4. Mass distribution of nonstop Mars sample return system using the... for the aeroshell. V. Conclusions A nonstop Mars sample return system is proposed... show that wide corridors for aerocapture and aeroassist orbit transfer can... collector. Using the aerocapture technologies, the nonstop Mars sample return using the..., H., Terada, N., Seki, K., and Fujita, K., “Japan’s Mars Exploration with a Lander and Orbiters... and Orbit Design for Next Mars Exploration,” Paper 2009-k-23, 27th... Ogawa, N., “Synergetical Atmospheric Science by 2 Mars Orbiters,” Paper 2009-k-31, 27th..., J., “Constellation of Two Orbiters around Mars,” Paper 2009-d-58, 27th International... and Scientific Investigation for Next Mars Exploration,” Paper 2009-k-21, 27th... Orbital Maneuver Technologies for Next Mars Exploration,” Paper 2009-k-25, 27th... Mars (SCIM): Study of an Early Mars Sample Return Mission Through the Mars... 2001, pp.A113. 8 “Models of Mars Atmosphere (1974),” NASA SPACE VEHICLE..., L., “Use of Atmospheric Braking During Mars Missions,” Journal of Spacecraft and... a High Ballistic Coefficient for Mars Aero-Flyby, Paper 1B13, 41st... for Precision and Landing and Aerocapture,” AIAA Paper 98-4572, AIAA..., S., Perot, E., Graves, C., Masciarelli, J.M., and Queen, E., “Aerocapture Guidance Algorithm Comparison Campaign,” AIAA...-Corrector Guidance Applied to Planetary Aerocapture,” Master Thesis, Graduate School of... Aeroassist System Applied to Nonstop Mars Sample Return Mission,” Paper 1G14... the Martian-Dust Capture for Mars Sample Return Mission,” Paper 1G16...



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... Thermal Protection Materials for Future Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems... the technologies required for Human Mars Exploration. The Exploration Technology Development...) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. An assessment of... for the human exploration of Mars via aerocapture followed by entry. Two... Landing Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Aerocapture/Entry, Descent and Landing Entry... calls for human exploration of Mars beginning in the decade of... payloads on the surface of Mars do not exist today. The only proven EDL architecture for Mars entry is based on Viking heritage, with extensions for Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). However, this... Analysis (EDL SA) team for Mars Missions details potential EDL Systems... payloads to the surface of Mars in support of Exploration Class... new materials required to survive aerocapture to orbit, long stay on... next generation of Mars Entry vehicles. The requirements for Aerocapture, Entry Descent and Landing (A/EDL) are under development by the Mars... heating pulses; the first during aerocapture, and the second during entry... or inflatable aeroshell for hypersonic aerocapture, identified as a key technology investment... payload to the surface of Mars using technologies that have never... studies as part of the Mars Design R Reference Architecture 5.0.2 This architecture... 30-m length aeroshell used for aerocapture and hypersonic deceleration, followed by... inflatable aeroshell used for both aerocapture and hypersonic deceleration, also followed... payloads on the surface of Mars. The EDL TDP is divided... for the human exploration of Mars via aerocapture followed by entry. The... W/cm2 peak heating experienced during aerocapture and subsequent entry. The goal... delivering high mass payloads to Mars and establish SRP expertise within... for the human exploration of Mars. MAT will enable modeling capabilities... required for dual heat pulse aerocapture and entry for the rigid... of performing in the critical Aerocapture phase. To date, most of... were then used to formulate Mars aerocapture and entry trajectories from which... for Heavy Mass Missions to Mars (not to scale). 5 American Institute... heating pulses, the first during aerocapture into Mars orbit, and the second... to maximize payload mass. The aerocapture and entry phases could be...-generation ablative TPS concepts. 500 Aerocapture Entry Total Heating, W/cm2 450... 3- Maximum heat pulse prediction for aerocapture and entry utilizing the mid... Heat Rate (Aerocapture) Peak Aerocapture Heat Rate (Convection) Peak Aerocapture Heat Rate (Radiation... Load (Aerocapture + Entry) Heat Load (Aerocapture) Heat Load (Entry) Peak Pressure (Aerocapture) Peak Pressure (Entry) Peak Shear Force (Aerocapture) Peak Shear... the forebody heatshield for the Mars Science Laboratory, could be 6 American..., but less developed, method for Mars EDL is application of a deployable... mechanical means) prior to the aerocapture maneuver, as shown in Figure... a 23 m diameter HIAD for both aerocapture and entry (margined). The corresponding... materials. Total Heating, W/cm2 120 Aerocapture Entry 100 80 60 40... 4- Maximum heat pulse prediction for aerocapture and entry utilizing the 23... Heat Rate (Aerocapture) Peak Aerocapture Heat Rate (Convection) Peak Aerocapture Heat Rate (Radiation... Load (Aerocapture + Entry) Heat Load (Aerocapture) Heat Load (Entry) Peak Pressure (Aerocapture) Peak Pressure (Entry) Peak Shear Force (Aerocapture) Peak Shear... for utilization on future human Mars Exploration Missions. Evaluation Criteria Description... and application to future human Mars mission architectures have been identified... dual-pulse entry environment at Mars. Preliminary mechanical tests are also... the aftbody of the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rover (MER) entry..., it must result in a reduced Mars arrival mass for a given payload... performance of the system at Mars mission relevant conditions deemed most... ablators for use on a potential Aerocapture Flagship mission in 2016 In... rapid maturation of technologies for Mars exploration, an accelerated technology development... system for application to a potential Aerocapture ocapture Flagship mission. The progression... term stowage on a mission to Mars. The packaging tests will also... next generation EDL systems for Mars will require significant development to... capability is maintained for the Mars Exploration vision. The Roadmaps developed... High Mass Exploration and Science Mars Mission Systems”, Year 1 Report, December... 2. B.G. Drake (ed.), “Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 ” NASA /SP... Protection System Sizing Studies for Mars Exploration” IPPW7 Abstract, submitted. 4. S.J. Hughes...



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..., AND LANDING CHALLENGES OF HUMAN MARS EXPLORATION Wells, G., Lafleur, J., Verges, A., Manyapu..., AND LANDING CHALLENGES OF HUMAN MARS EXPLORATION Wells, G.*, Lafleur, J.†, Verges, A.‡, Manyapu... for landing human crews on Mars. Human Mars exploration studies imply the... of human Mars exploration include: (1) the potential need for aerocapture prior to... payloads on the surface of Mars. * Graduate Research Assistant. Mr. Wells... systems on the surface of Mars. These systems all had a landed... plans for human exploration of Mars call for the landing of... approach investigated begins with an aerocapture maneuver into Martian orbit. After... of Mars are shown for spacecraft which use a single heatshield for aerocapture... which use separate heatshields for aerocapture and entryfrom-orbit (termed single... Atmosphere The atmospheric density on Mars varies significantly with time-of... approximately one-thousand runs of Mars-GRAM 2005 in which month... for over 1000 runs of Mars-GRAM 2005. The shaded region... the entire span of the Mars-GRAM runs. Aeroshell Shape and... in LEO, or limiting the Mars exploration architecture to much smaller... (with possible surface assembly). 3 RESULTS Aerocapture Direct entry from a heliocentric arrival... with propulsion, aerobraking, or by aerocapture. Propulsive orbital insertion is the... in Figure 2. Arrival velocity at Mars has large impact on propellant... around Mars unlikely for human missions. To reduce initial mass requirements, aerocapture is likely to be required for human Mars exploration and is assumed in this investigation. Since aerocapture has not been flight proven, aerocapture technology is deemed... for propulsive orbital insertion at Mars. Aerocapture slows a spacecraft from hyperbolic to... of aerocapture is depicted in Figure 3 for an orbiter mission. During aerocapture... hyperbolic trajectory Figure 3 Aerocapture into orbit around Mars. Aerocapture trajectories are generally constrained... de-conditioned astronauts. A study of aerocapture trajectories was performed to determine... a 1° aerocapture entry corridor width into a 400 km circular orbit around Mars. This..., an L/D of 0.3 is sufficient for Mars aerocapture. 5 Flight Path Angle (º) 0 Lift Down... (km / s) 11 12 Figure 4 An aerocapture corridor showing each boundary and...) for L/D = 0.3. Entry from Orbit After aerocapture, a vehicle delivering humans or cargo... occurs due jettisoning the outer aerocapture heatshield before entry from orbit... due to the low-density Mars atmosphere. The heavy dependence on... assumed to occur over a flat Mars. The free body diagram shown... benefits for human missions to Mars. Gravity Turn Thrust Requirement Dual... human Mars exploration studies provide estimates of vehicle mass at aerocapture ranging....8 Therefore, the backshell used for Mars entry is not discarded in... material required for protection during Mars aerocapture and entry, while the second... same heatshield is used for Mars aerocapture and entry, the total required... consistent with most previous human Mars exploration studies8,11,12 as... System Mass / Total Mass at Mars Entry EDL System Mass / Total Mass at Mars Entry 100% 15 m, M = 3 gravity turn... at Mars Entry 100% EDL System Mass / Total Mass at Mars Entry 40 Mass at Mars Entry (t) Mass at Mars Entry... Mass at Mars Entry (t) 40 60 80 Mass at Mars Entry (t) Figure... representative of cases where the Mars aerocapture velocity is 6 km/s. 12 100... with an initial velocity at Mars aerocapture of 6 km/s (note that similar... the expected scope of human Mars missions, this payload mass allocation... System Mass / Total Mass at Mars Entry 85% No parachute, M = 3 gravity... does not exceed 2% - 4% of the Mars entry mass and is deployed..., descent and landing sequence for Mars human exploration architecture derived from... aerocapture corridor width analysis suggests that a L/D of 0.3 is sufficient for Mars aerocapture across... in the northern hemisphere of Mars. This suggests that large mass..., it is concluded that Mars human exploration aerocapture and EDL systems will... mission to Mars. Technology advances that require further analysis include aerocapture, ISRU... Return from the Moon and Mars," AIAA 2005-5915, AIAA Atmospheric..., E.F. Crawley, "Affordable Human Moon and Mars Exploration through Hardware Commonality," AIAA.... 3. K.T. Edquist, "Afterbody Heating Predictions for a Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle," AIAA..., "Systems for Pinpoint Landing at Mars", Advances in the Astronautical Sciences..., M. Meyer, J. Baker, C. Whetsel, G. Udomkesmalee, A. Green, "Mars Science Laboratory - Mission Concept Review..., B.A Archinal, G.A. Neumann, "Mars Geodesy/Cartography Working Group Recommendations on Mars Cartographic Constants... Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study... Systems for Human Mission to Mars,” AIAA Paper 2004-3834, 40th... 2004. 12. R.M. Zubrin, D.A. Baker, O. Gwynne, “Mars Direct: A Simple, Robust, and Cost...



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...SURVEY OF BALLUTE TECHNOLOGY FOR AEROCAPTURE Reuben R. Rohrschneider and Robert D. Braun... ballute aerocapture. The concept of the thin-film ballute for aerocapture shows... literature with application to ballute aerocapture. Special attention is paid to..., aerocapture, aerobraking and aero-gravity assist. This paper’s focus is aerocapture. In an aerocapture manuever, aerodynamic forces are... Possible apoapsis raise burn Figure 1. Aerocapture mission profile. The Goodyear Aerospace... savings afforded by aerocapture over the best non-aerocapture option for each mission that benefits from aerocapture. Rigid aeroshells are used for aerocapture at all... 4.4 km/s Uranus2 4.5 km/s Venus1 4.6 km/s Aerocapture Enhanced Towed sphere design Clamped.../s Saturn1 8.0 Jupiter1 17.0 km/s km/s Aerocapture Enabled Figure 3. Percent mass and... planetary missions using rigid aeroshell aerocapture. [7]. 2.1 Early Ballute Development Figure 2. Examples..., including aerocapture for planetary entry and orbit insertion [ 4 ]. Missions to Mars, Saturn (via Titan aerocapture), Uranus, and Venus were... [20] proposed ballute concepts for aerocapture. Ref. [ 21 ] first proposed the... the same size. 2.2 Ballute Aerocapture Traditionally, aerocapture has been analyzed using a rigid... most difficult implementation aspects of aerocapture mission design is packaging an... configurations for Mars entry [34]. The low β of ballute aerocapture results in... design ballutes for entry and aerocapture at Mars and Pluto, and discovered... heat rate for a Mars mission using a ballute for aerocapture. The lower curves...] are obtained for rigid aeroshell aerocapture. The reduced heat rate eliminates... mass/entry mass) for Neptune aerocapture [41]. Figure 7. Lenticular (left) and... gas mass [36, 41]. 2.3 Ballute Aerocapture Technical Challenges Despite the promising... spherical thin film ballute aerocapture and entry at Mars [36]. In 2000... to be resolved for planetary aerocapture. A summary follows: 1) Determination of optimal... orbit insertion and rigid aeroshell aerocapture, but more detailed analysis is... and aerodynamic uncertainties associated with aerocapture? Better atmospheric uncertainties are needed... technology applicable to the ballute aerocapture problem. The majority of studies... the Saturnian system. For comparison, Mars aerocapture trajectories were also investigated, with... the trajectory for both Mars and Titan aerocapture. Titan trajectory work was... ballutes. Table 1. Comparison of Mars and Titan aerocapture trajectories [44]. Ballute β (kg... trailing toroidal ballute for Neptune aerocapture into a highly eccentric orbit with... ballute at Neptune [47]. Ballute aerocapture trajectories have been explored thoroughly... to perform ballute drag-modulated aerocapture at other planets. 4. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS... enthalpy similarity criteria for aerocapture of the Mars Micro Satellite and the... altitude on Earth). In contrast, aerocapture applications encounter only hypersonic flow... 0˚ angle of attack [67]. An aerocapture trajectory was calculated using planar... ability to find solutions for aerocapture trajectories where flight conditions are... successfully been flight tested in aerocapture relevant conditions. Successful ballute tests... conditions as an aerocapture mission. 7.1 MARS-96 Penetrators The MARS-96 mission carried... supporting development of ballutes for aerocapture and entry. A majority of the... of thin-film ballute aerocapture to rigid aeroshell aerocapture at Titan and... early 1980’s, the first ballute aerocapture analyses were completed, identifying a number... still exist for the Titan aerocapture mission, specifically aeroelastic analysis, deployment... Paper 821378. 5 Hall, J. L., and Le, A. K., “Aerocapture Trajectories for Spacecraft with Large... Bailey, R. W., “CostBenefit Analysis of the Aerocapture Mission Set,” Journal of Spacecraft..., Oct. 1-4, 1990. 25 Cruz, M. I., “The Aerocapture Vehicle Mission Design Concept,” Conference... Protection System Mass for the Mars 2001 Aerocapture Mission,” AIAA Paper 970472... French, J. R., and Cruz, M. I., “Aerobraking and Aerocapture for Planetary Missions,” Astronautics and... Guidance and Control Analysis of Mars Aerocapture,” Journal of Guidance, Control and.... 32 Jits, R. Y., and Walberg, G. D., “High L/D Mars Aerocapture for 2001, 2003, and 2005..., D. P., “Parametric Entry Corridors for Lunar/Mars Aerocapture Missions,” NASA-TM-102178, April... Miller, K. L., et al, “Trailing Ballute Aerocapture: Concept and Feasibility Assessment,” AIAA... Westhelle, C. H., and Masciarelli, J. P., “Assessment of Aerocapture Flight at Titan Using a Drag... Johnson, W. R., and Lyons, D. T., “Titan Ballute Aerocapture Using a Perturbed TitanGRAM Model,” AIAA.... 47 Lyons, D. T., and Johnson, W. R., “Ballute Aerocapture Trajectories at Neptune,” AIAA Paper.... 86 James, B., Munk, M., and Moon, S., “Aerocapture Technology Project Overview,” AIAA Paper...



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..., and Landing System for Human Mars Exploration John A. Christian*, Grant Wells...-0150 The human exploration of Mars presents many challenges, not least... on vehicle size and mass. Aerocapture and entry-from-orbit analyses... t of landed payload to the Mars surface for initial masses less... not be sufficient for human Mars exploration. Nomenclature aD aT g g0... desire to send humans to Mars. In the years since Mariner... first successful mission to reach Mars in 1965, much progress has been made by a robust robotic Mars exploration program in both the... landing human-class payloads on Mars. Restrictions placed on the vehicle... in context of proposed human Mars architectures and the Vision for... the first human mission to Mars more than 25 years in... testing, and improve current human Mars mission concepts. II. Overview of... Model The atmospheric density on Mars varies significantly with season, dust... varied for 1000 cases using Mars-GRAM 2005 in order to create atmosphere profiles. Mars-GRAM is a widely used Mars 48 atmospheric model which uses the MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) reference altitude... from data collected on the Mars Global Surveyor 32 spacecraft. 24... spacecraft into orbit around Mars using aerocapture. After aerocapture, propulsive maneuvers insert the... down on the surface of Mars. The EDL systems explored within... at or below 0 km MOLA. A. Aerocapture Aerocapture slows a spacecraft from hyperbolic to... the atmosphere of a planet. An aerocapture schematic is provided in Figure... an eccentricity of 0.34. The aerocapture trajectory was simulated using the...-down trajectory was chosen for aerocapture because these trajectories give the... transit. B. Orbital Maneuvering After the aerocapture maneuver, a ∆V is performed at apoapsis... being quite expensive. The post-aerocapture semi-major axis and the...-aerocapture orbit is constrained to a 3,440 km apoapsis radius due to aerocapture... eccentricity 3780 km periapsis Post-Aerocapture Orbit 0.34 eccentricity 3440 km... trajectory a) Aerocapture and parking orbit insertion. b) Deorbit maneuver. Figure 2. Aerocapture and orbital... such as parachutes. ** For reference, Mars Odyssey planned for a circular final... with a 400 km altitude,6 and Mars Global Surveyor planned for a final... is used to vary post-aerocapture and parking orbit periapsis in... since results indicate that post-aerocapture periapsis should be as high... required for any human-class Mars landing mission. In order to... assumed to occur over a flat Mars. The free Figure 3. Gravity Turn... when used for human-class Mars missions. Major configuration issues were... will be required for the aerocapture and entry maneuvers. Due to... to protect the vehicle during Mars aerocapture and entry, while the second... over the temperatures experienced during Mars aerocapture or entry for any of... descent sequence for human-scale Mars missions. With this in mind... very important. As with previous Mars missions, a DGB parachute was selected for its proven performance at Mars. Material strength and stability concerns... Given the nature of human Mars missions, it was not clear....) as well as human Mars architecture studies (Mars DRM 3.010) suggest that... the majority of previous human Mars exploration studies.10,12 This propellant combination is advantageous for Mars missions because of the relative... + 2 H2O). The methane produced at Mars through this process may be... during transit to Mars, during the time between aerocapture and entry, and... transit from Earth to Mars. Once in the Mars vicinity, the vehicle... service module to prepare for aerocapture. From this point forward, the... module to allow time for aerocapture, on-orbit checkout, and landing... 25 t of payload to the Mars surface for initial masses less... transit time from Earth to Mars. Based on these criteria, the... the transit to and from Mars if the 10 m diameter vehicle... for a dedicated habitat for a human Mars mission. Unfortunately, a rigid habitat of... for the human exploration of Mars. The results suggest that vehicles... been assumed in many human Mars mission conceptual studies. Indeed, none... a detailed EDL design into existing Mars design reference missions to assess... floor space (once landed on Mars). Due its sloped sidewalls, payload... Administration, February 2004. Braun, R.D., Manning, R.M., “Mars Exploration Entry, Descent and Landing..., W.D., Crawley, E.F., "Affordable Human Moon and Mars Exploration through Hardware Commonality," AIAA... and Propulsive Descent for Human Mars Exploration.” AIAA Student Conference Paper... and Landing Challenges of Human Mars Exploration.” AAS 06-072. Breckenridge... 2006. 9 Braun, R. D., Mitcheltree, R. A., and Cheatwood, F. M., “Mars Microprobe Entry-to-Impact Analysis... Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study... Systems for Human Mission to Mars,” AIAA-2004-3834, 40th AIAA...: A Case Study for Moon and Mars Landing Systesm,” INCOSE, 2005. 17...



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... MOTIVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Aerocapture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Early Ballute Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3 Ballute Aerocapture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.4 Ballute Aerocapture Technical Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.5 Ballute Aerocapture Technology... OF TABLES 1-1 Comparison of Mars and Titan aerocapture trajectories [86]. . . . . . 12 1-2 Results of Monte Carlo simulation of Titan aerocapture... the transitional regime. . . . . . . 103 5-1 Titan aerocapture trajectory data points used for.... . . . . . 118 viii LIST OF FIGURES 1-1 Aerocapture mission profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1-2 Examples of clamped... Mars entry [62]. . . . . . . . . . . 8 1-6 Peak heat rate for thin-film ballute aerocapture at Mars [81]. . . . . . 8 1-7 Neptune aerocapture ballute mass fraction... ballute configurations considered for Titan aerocapture. . . 80 4-2 Grid metrics of Configuration... ballute aerocapture. The concept of the thin-film ballute for aerocapture shows... on a Titan aerocapture trajectory. xvii CHAPTER I BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION 1.1 Aerocapture The concept... of this thesis is aerocapture. In an aerocapture manuever, aerodynamic forces are... the 1 Figure 1-1: Aerocapture mission profile. hypersonic ballute concept for aerocapture applications. The..., including aerocapture for planetary entry and orbit insertion [121]. Missions to Mars, Saturn (via Titan aerocapture), Uranus, and Venus... a non-aerocapture option for planetary missions using rigid aeroshell aerocapture and heavy... savings afforded by aerocapture over the best non-aerocapture option for each enhancing mission that benefits from aerocapture. In this analysis, rigid aeroshells are used for aerocapture, and a fixed entry mass fraction that ranges between 25% for Mars.... [57, 59, 58]. 1.3 Ballute Aerocapture Traditionally, aerocapture has been analyzed using a rigid... design ballutes for entry and aerocapture at Mars and Pluto, and discovered... heat rate for a Mars mission using a ballute for aerocapture. The lower curves... spherical thin-film ballute aerocapture and entry at Mars with entry velocity of 5.5 km/s [81]. 8 Figure 1-7: Neptune aerocapture ballute... to the spherical ballute. 1.4 Ballute Aerocapture Technical Challenges Despite the promising... the Saturnian system. For comparison, Mars aerocapture trajectories were also investigated, with... trajectory characteristics of both Mars and Titan aerocapture. Titan trajectory work was... 11 Table 1-1: Comparison of Mars and Titan aerocapture trajectories [86]. Characteristic Ballute... enthalpy similarity criteria for aerocapture of the Mars Micro Satellite and the... 1.5.6. A complete simulation package for ballute aerocapture would also include coupling to... successfully been flight tested in aerocapture relevant conditions. However, successful ballute... conditions to an aerocapture mission. 1.5.5.1 MARS-96 Penetrators The MARS-96 mission carried... of thin-film ballute aerocapture to rigid aeroshell aerocapture at Titan and... a clamped ballute along a typical Titan aerocapture trajectory using the lowfidelity aerodynamics... varying flight conditions along a Titan aerocapture trajectory [87]. Coefficients were found... dynamic analysis, for a representative ballute aerocapture trajectory. Grid convergence will be... ballute configurations considered for Titan aerocapture. Figure 4-2: Grid metrics of Configuration....8 515.3 504.0 495.3 Table 5-1: Titan aerocapture trajectory Relative Dyn. Velocity Density... pressure point on the Titan aerocapture trajectory (presented in Section 5.1). 5.3.1 Engineering... aerocapture vehicle mission design concept - aerodynamically controlled capture of payload into Mars...] French, J. and Cruz, M., “Aerobraking and aerocapture for planetary missions,” Astronautics & Aeronautics.... [52] James, B., Munk, M., and Moon, S., “Aerocapture technology project overview,” AIAA Paper.... [53] Jits, R. and Walberg, G., “High l/d Mars aerocapture for 2001, 2003, and 2005...] Johnson, W. and Lyons, D., “Titan ballute aerocapture using a perturbed TitanGRAM model,” AIAA..., D., “Parametric entry corridors for Lunar/Mars aerocapture missions,” Tech. Rep. NASA-TM... Perot, E., “An analytic aerocapture guidance algorithm for the Mars Sample Return orbiter..., J., Lyons, D., and Wilmoth, R., “Trailing ballute aerocapture - concept and feasibility assessment,” AIAA... Rohrschneider, R., “Ultralightweight ballute technology for aerocapture and aeroassist missions,” Tech. Rep... guidance and control analysis of Mars aerocapture,” Journal of Guidance, Control and... protection system mass for the MARS 2001 aerocapture mission,” AIAA Paper 97...] Westhelle, C. and Masciarelli, J., “Assessment of aerocapture flight at Titan using a drag...



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... advanced chemical thrusters, electric propulsion, aerocapture, and systems analysis tools. The... a low-cost electric propulsion option. Aerocapture investments developed a family of thermal... technologies in the areas of aerocapture, electric propulsion, advanced chemical thrusters... led to the priorities of aerocapture and electric propulsion. These technologies... all or most roadmap missions). “Aerocapture technologies could enable two proposed... areas. These include Advanced Chemical, Aerocapture, Electric Propulsion, and Systems/Mission... technologies are Electric Propulsion and Aerocapture. Therefore, the ISPT priorities are... risk and broad mission applicability. Aerocapture investments resulted in better models... in understanding and applying inflatable aerocapture concepts. Aerocapture technology was a contender for... ensure transition to flight. 2) Complete aerocapture technology ground validation required for... all future planetary spacecraft. The Aerocapture efforts will be merged with... inner planets. When coupled with aerocapture (rapid aerodynamic braking within a planetary... fully integrated with missions planning aerocapture.”1 Electric propulsion is both an... times. V. Aerocapture Technologies Aerocapture represents a major advance over aerobraking techniques. Aerocapture is the... propulsion requirements of orbit capture. Aerocapture is the next step beyond... was used at Mars on multiple orbiter missions. Aerocapture, illustrated in Fig... a single pass. Keys to successful aerocapture are accurate arrival state knowledge... maneuver. The execution of the aerocapture maneuver itself is what enables... significantly reduced. ISPT efforts in aerocapture subsystem technologies are focused on..., navigation and control (GN&C) system. Aerocapture enables rapid access to orbital... Figure 10. Illustration of the aerocapture missions in this Roadmap—Titan... vehicles. The SSE Roadmap recommends "Aerocapture technologies and flight validation are... OPAG meeting minutes recommends that "Aerocapture is a key enabling technology for... use of aerocapture. For a potential Neptune–Triton Explorer (NTE) mission, aerocapture enables... is a more challenging target for aerocapture than Titan. A. Development Status and... The majority of investment in aerocapture technology occurred in advancing the... that are representative of expected aerocapture loading environments, the system response... entry thermal environments for aerocapture at Titan, Mars, Venus, and Neptune. In... atmospheric models for all primary aerocapture destinations except Earth. Inflatable decelerator... B. Mission Benefits The use of aerocapture was studied extensively, most notably.... The largest mass benefit from aerocapture was observed for Neptune, low... using aerocapture. Aerocapture enhances conjunction-class sample-return missions and large Mars orbiters. No new technology gaps were identified that would delay aerocapture implementation on such a mission. Figure 12. Aerocapture benefits for... analyses evaluated the potential for aerocapture for a Venus Discovery 10 American... Aeronautics and Astronautics class mission. Aerocapture delivered more than 80 percent... 600 percent over a chemical insertion. Aerocapture reduces Deep Space Network (DSN... technology gaps were identified for aerocapture at Venus, but investments in... for aerocapture. The recent Outer Planets Flagship (OPF) study considered aerocapture within the baseline mission concept since aerocapture has the... payload of the chemical alternative. Aerocapture may also play a key role... for a less-than-Flagship budget. Aerocapture was proven repeatedly to be... to develop aerocapture technologies in preparation for a flight demonstration. Rapid aerocapture analysis... to Titan, Mars, Venus, and Earth. Moreover, once Aerocapture is proven a reliable... quantify mission benefits of an aerocapture system including mass properties and... for infusion opportunities for the aerocapture technology area that is nearing...-propellant Rocket (AMBR) engine, and Aerocapture. In order to benefit from... the mission requires electric propulsion, aerocapture, or a conventional chemical system, ISPT... science capability and mission performance. Aerocapture and electric propulsion are frequently... electric propulsion systems. In the aerocapture area, the development plan for... Advanced Charring Ablators for Planetary Aerocapture and Entry Missions,” 1st NSTC... Report (pending), “Final Summary Report: Aerocapture Aeroshell Technologies (AAT) Program,” January...), “Ultralight-weight Ballute Technology for Aerocapture and Aeroassist Missions,” January 2007... Reza, S., NASA Contractor Report (pending), “Aerocapture Inflatable Decelerator: Lockheed Martin Inflatable... al., “Systems Analysis for a Venus Aerocapture Mission,” NASA TM 2006-214291... 2006. 22 Lockwood, M. K., et al., “Aerocapture Systems Analysis for a Neptune Mission...., “Mars Aerocapture Systems Study,” NASA TM 2006-214522, August 2006. 24 Dankanich, J. W., “Mars...



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... consideration for the 2010 decade, e.g., Mars __________________________________ * 1 Associate Professor, Guggenheim School... Associate Fellow. † Chief Engineer, NASA Mars Exploration Program, AIAA Member. Sample... this grand challenge. II. Mars EDL Challenges Mars entry, descent and landing... and Mars as a function of ballistic coefficient, β. 3 Atmospheric variability across a Mars year... proposed for the Mars Science Laboratory is denoted. Coupling Mars’ low atmospheric... used on every US Mars landed mission. B. Mars Surface Hazards Landing systems... tolerant to many potential Mars surface hazards. Mars has several classes of... Landed Missions The first Mars landing attempt (Mars 2) in late 1971 by... 1: Past Successful and Currently Proposed U.S. Mars EDL Summary. Landing Year: Mission... backbone of all Mars EDL architectures since. As the Mars robotic exploration... inflation qualification. The Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover parachutes all... band parachutes in Mars relevant conditions.18 The Mars Science Laboratory has... deceleration in the thin Mars atmosphere. Using the Mars Pathfinder and MER... toward performing precision landing at Mars.3 Utilizing hypersonic aeromaneuvering technology and... deployable hypersonic entry aeroshells for Mars, this technology appears promising for... Next Steps in Mars Robotic EDL Robotic Mars missions in the 2010... requirements of human Mars exploration include: (1) the need for aerocapture prior to... Mars exploration is presented, highlighting the technology challenges and advances required. A. Aerocapture Aerocapture... to Mars, it has been shown that the benefits of aerocapture are....28 However, for human exploration, aerocapture followed by a subsequent entry and... of atmospheric uncertainty. In addition, aerocapture is applicable to components of... in Mars orbit for later rendezvous and Earth return. While aerocapture is... trajectory Fig. 18 Mars aerocapture maneuver. A parametric study of aerocapture trajectories was performed... suitable for human exploration.27 Aerocapture trajectories may be constrained by... interest to note that this aerocapture system has a β on the order... Fig. 19 Aerocapture corridor width as a function of Mars entry velocity for..., an L/D of 0.3 is sufficient for Mars aerocapture. The region of feasible trajectories... approach navigation performance. Recent robotic Mars missions have demonstrated the ability... configuration. From Fig. 19, an aerocapture L/D = 0.3 is sufficient (for an entry... condition for most human Mars exploration architectures. Following aerocapture, the vehicle performs... than 1° wide entry corridor for aerocapture velocities up to 9.1 km/s, with... Aerocapture and entry from Mars orbit produce very different aerothermal environments. The aerocapture... be configurable for dual-use (aerocapture and EDL). In this case... aeroshell is used first for aerocapture, and later for entry. Three... be sized for the harsher aerocapture environment, the vehicle performs its... the aerocapture maneuver, if the vehicle does not jettison the aerocapture heat.... Finally, a third challenge to a common aerocapture and entry TPS is the... aerocapture and EDL. This provides the benefit of jettisoning the hot aerocapture TPS immediately following the aerocapture maneuver, and allows... EDL technology challenges emanate from (a) a Mars atmosphere, with significant variability, that... sufficiently low terminal descent velocity, (b) a Mars surface environment of complex rocks..., descent and landing sequence for Mars human exploration architecture, highlighting the..., it is concluded that Mars human exploration aerocapture and EDL systems will... EDL architectural areas: (a) assessment of aerocapture/entry TPS configuration options, and... Beach, California, September, 2005. 2 Steltzner, A., “Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and...- frequency distributions on Mars and implications for Mars Exploration Rover landing safety..., D., Blanchard, R., Braun, R., Kallemeyn, P., and Thurman, S., “Mars Pathfinder Entry, Descent and Landing..., A., Lee, W., Bruno, R., and Desai, P., “The Mars Exploration Rovers Entry Descent and.... 12 Shotwell, R.,, “Phoenix – The First Mars Scout Mission” 55th International Astronautical... Edquist, K., "Afterbody Heating Predictions for a Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle," 38th..., 1973. 17 Witkowski, A., and Brown, G., “Mars Deployable Decelerators Capability Roadmap Summary... Witkowski, A., Kandis, K., Bruno, R., and Cruz, J., “Mars Exploration Rover Parachute System Performance.... 22 Witkowski, A., Machalick, A., and Taeger, Y., "Mars Subsonic Parachute Technology Task System..., R., Cheatwood, F., Spencer, D., and Mase, R., "The Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander: A First Step..., M., and Acikmese, B., “Performance Trades for Mars Pinpoint Landing,” 2006 IEEE Aerospace..., R., “A Survey of Ballute Technology for Aerocapture,” Accepted for publication in the..., W., Crawley, E., "Affordable Human Moon and Mars Exploration through Hardware Commonality," AIAA..., R., “Cost–Benefit Analysis of the Aerocapture Mission Set,” AIAA Journal of...