Техника. Mars Exploration Rover. [Редактировать]

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1MERsНайтиНайти
22003 Mars Exploration RoversНайтиНайти

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость программы (начальная), млн. долл.2000-01-01657
2Стоимость программы (запрошенная), млн. долл.2007-01-01820
3Стоимость програмы (утвержденная), млн. долл.2001-01-01767
4Стоимость работы с аппаратами (месяц), млн. долл.2.8
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2001-08-01697
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2002-01-01729
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2003-01-01806.3
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2003-04-01767

Каталог

#Наименование Дата пуска ×Ракета-носитель ×Космодром ×Страна операторСтрана производительТип
1Opportunity2003-07-08Дельта 2 7925Мыс КанавералСШАСШАКлассы РКТ
2Spirit2003-06-10Дельта 2 7925Мыс КанавералСШАСШАКлассы РКТ

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Mars Exploration Rover». [Перейти к поиску]


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... in Support of the Human Exploration of Mars Feldman, Stuart; Borowski, Stanley... the planned program of Exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. This... tracking of lunar./Mars rovers and astronauts during early exploration missions when... Mars Cargo missions that would support human exploration of the Moon and Mars....handle.net/2060/20100017212 The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity observed an upper layer... longitude [2]. Author Geological Surveys; Mapping; Mars Exploration; Mars Surface; Planetary Mapping; Remote Sensing... of Reflectance Spectra from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Mercer, C. M.; Cohen, B. A.; March 1, 2010... Martian surface remotely using the Mars Exploration Rovers’ Panoramica Camera (PanCam) instrument... meteorites. Author Principal Components Analysis; Mars Exploration; Thermal Emission; Roving Vehicles; Spectrum... Development; and 3) Lunar Electric Rover and Exploration Operations Concepts. CASI Extravehicular Activity... Reflectance Spectra Returned by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Mercer, C. M.; Cohen, Barbara A.; March....handle.net/2060/20100017105 The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has spent over six.... Author Principal Components Analysis; Reflectance; Mars Exploration; Roving Vehicles; Dust Storms; Heat... as NASA exploration programs to the moon and preparations for Mars exploration were...; Space Exploration; Galactic Cosmic Rays; Exposure; Radiation Shielding; Radiation Effects; Mars Exploration; Gamma... in Support of the Human Exploration of Mars – 20 AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS Plume... in Support of the Human Exploration of Mars – 20 ARID LANDS Atmospheric... of Reflectance Spectra from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 113 BEHAVIOR Give Me...[R] and Carbon) – 82 CREW EXPLORATION VEHICLE Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and... of Mars EDL (Entry, Descent, and Landing) – 201 DESIGN ANALYSIS Crew Exploration... Reflectance Spectra Returned by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 197 A-14 DUST Examining... in Support of the Human Exploration of Mars – 20 ENERGY BUDGETS Assimilation... in Support of the Human Exploration of Mars – 20 Optimized O’Neill/Glaser... Reflectance Spectra Returned by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 197 HIGH RESOLUTION Digital... of Reflectance Spectra from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 113 A-22 Error Estimation... Human Exploration of Mars – 19 LAVA Mapping Tyrrhena Patera and Hesperia Planum, Mars..., Mars – 103 Topography of the Martian Impact Crater Tooting – 105 MARS EXPLORATION Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region of Mars – 107... of Reflectance Spectra from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 112 Principal Components Analysis... Returned by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 196 MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR Mars Global Geologic Mapping... MARS MISSIONS Analysis of Shroud Options in Support of the Human Exploration of Mars – 20 Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region of Mars... in Support of the Human Exploration of Mars – 20 Applying Model-Based... Reflectance Spectra Returned by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 196 PLANETARY MAPPING Abstracts... of Reflectance Spectra from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 113 Meromorphic Solutions of... Reflectance Spectra Returned by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 196 PROJECTILES Evaluation of... of Reflectance Spectra from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 113 Principal Components Analysis... Reflectance Spectra Returned by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 196 REFLECTION Fault Tolerance... and Exploration – 196 Principal Components Analysis of Reflectance Spectra from the Mars Exploration Rover... Reflectance Spectra Returned by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 196 Ultra-Wideband Time... in Support of the Human Exploration of Mars – 20 Measurement and Simulation... of Reflectance Spectra from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 113 Principal Components Analysis... Reflectance Spectra Returned by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 196 SPEECH BASEBAND COMPRESSION... of Reflectance Spectra from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 112 TEMPORAL RESOLUTION Error... in Support of the Human Exploration of Mars – 19 Bisher, Christian L. Verification... of Reflectance Spectra from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 112 Chisholm, Bret J. Durable... Reflectance Spectra Returned by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 196 Pulling Marbles from... in Support of the Human Exploration of Mars – 19 Engstrom, Alexander Topological... in Support of the Human Exploration of Mars – 19 Fender, Rob Broadband... in Support of the Human Exploration of Mars – 19 Hu, Qing 186... of Reflectance Spectra from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 112 Principal Components Analysis... Reflectance Spectra Returned by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 196 Mest, S. C. Geologic Mapping... in Support of the Human Exploration of Mars – 19 Montgomery, Jonathan Development... in Support of the Human Exploration of Mars – 19 Munley, J. T. General Searches...



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...: Top Right: The Mars Science laboratory Curiosity Rover successfully landed in Gale... May 25, 2012. Credit: Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX). Lower Middle: The... Optimization -- I ........................................................................................ 24 Session 4: Special Session: Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) -- I ................................................ 27 Session... ..................................................................................... 46 Session 12: Special Session: Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) -- II ............................................ 49... ................................................................................................. 83 Session 24: Special Session: Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) -- III ........................................... 86... 3: Trajectory Optimization -- I Session 4: Special Session: Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) -- I Morning Break... Mechanics of Exploring Asteroids The exploration of asteroids using spacecraft is... system formation and evolution, the exploration of the solar system, and.... Results from simulations including the Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Science Laboratory, and Cassini are...-209 Ryo Nakamura, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency We develop a tool based... / Caltech JPL The Mars Science Laboratory project’s Curiosity rover weighs over 900... / Caltech JPL The Mars Science Laboratory project’s Curiosity rover weighs over 900... high performance system. 8:40 AAS Mars Science Laboratory Interplanetary Navigation Performance... MSL spacecraft, carrying the Curiosity rover, hit the top of the..., the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission successfully delivered the Curiosity rover to... The 2011 Mars Science Laboratory was the first successful Mars mission to attempt a guided entry, delivering the rover to... Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover successfully landed in Gale Crater on Mars. At 2000 lbs, Curiosity is the largest, most sophisticated rover... resources for long-term human exploration of the solar system. Previous..., Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency; Jun'ichiro Kawaguchi, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency The... vehicle successfully entered Mars' atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover on its... 5th 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle entered Mars’ atmosphere, flying a guided entry until parachute deploy. The Curiosity rover... Center The MSL Curiosity rover landed safely on Mars August 5th, 2012... these estimates. Predicted versus actual rover and balance mass locations are... problem for the future space exploration, and spacecraft is suggested to... University; Toshifumi Yanagisawa, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency; Yukihito Kitazawa, IHI Corporation... destination for future human space exploration is a halo orbit in the..., Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency; Jun'ichiro Kawaguchi, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency The... interesting targets for solar system exploration, as its ocean of liquid...-388 Chikako Hirose, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency The Japanese Venus explorer... Ogawa, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency; Kazuhisa Fujita, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency; Jun'ichiro Kawaguchi, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency This... Aerospace Exploration Agency; Sho Taniguchi, Fujitsu Limited; Hiroshi Takeuchi, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency; Yoji Shirasawa, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency; Osamu Mori, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency; Ryu Funase, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency; Takanao Saiki, JAXA / ISAS; Yuichi Tsuda, Japan Aerospace Exploration... is operated by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) lost communication with... Break 15:35 AAS Trajectory Exploration Within Binary Systems Comprised of... Exploration Agency; Yuichi Tsuda, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency; Yuya Mimasu, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency; Makoto Yoshikawa, Japan Aerospace Exploration... PM PDT, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity landed safely within..., The Mars Science Laboratory mission successfully landed the largest interplanetary rover ever built, Curiosity, on the surface of Mars. The... Propulsion System (DSPS) guided the rover Curiosity through the Martian atmosphere... Validation of the MSL/Curiosity Rover Entry Descent and 13-464... On August 5/6, 2012, the Curiosity rover successfully touched down on the... off the most ambitious surface exploration of this planetary body. Preceding... achieving Mars Science Laboratory class accuracy for a Mars Exploration Rover class payload at Mars is... heat load relative to the Mars Exploration Rover entry system. 8:20 AAS Decentralized... Mars Missions 13-449 Damon Landau, NASA / Caltech JPL The human exploration... Nature of Earth-Mars Porkchop Plots Burkhart, et al. Mars Science Laboratory... Deep Space … Chappaz, Howell Trajectory Exploration Within Binary Systems … Parker, et...



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... and Performance Metrics of Planetary Exploration Rovers. In: 13th International Conference... and Performance Metrics of Planetary Exploration Rovers Thaleia Flessa, Euan W. McGookin....uk Abstract— A taxonomy of planetary exploration rovers is presented, followed by... the comparison and selection of rover characteristics, while the baseline design... and future trends. Keywords— space, rover, robotic exploration, locomotion, suspension, mobility, rocker... I. INTRODUCTION The autonomous robotic exploration of Mars, the Moon, asteroids and other... space exploration and the expansion of human presence in space. These exploration... Mars (1975) [3] and the Phoenix Mars Lander (2008) [4], are stationary and their exploration... wheeled rovers for Mars exploration, as evidenced by NASA’s Sojourner rover (1996) [8], Spirit and Opportunity (2003) [9], and Curiosity (2011) [10]. Future Mars missions include ESA’s ExoMars rover (2018) [11] and NASA’s Mars 2020 Rover [12]. In December 2013, China landed the rover Yutu... of an exploration rover is to fulfill its scientific objectives: exploration, terrain mapping... for performing science observations [9]. The rover has to move through a challenging... the current status of planetary exploration rovers are reviewed. The review... can be used for comparing rover characteristics from a set of possible.... II. TAXONOMY OF PLANETARY EXPLORATION ROVERS An exploration rover consists of the following... subsystem must reliably transport the rover across the terrain, execute real.... The suspension must maintain the rover’s stability by reducing the effects... of possible designs, a taxonomy of exploration rovers [15] is presented in... vehicles. The speed of a planetary rover is low, usually less than... suspension often used for a planetary exploration rover is the rocker-bogie six.... 1). TABLE I. Criterion Mobility Type PLANETARY EXPLORATION ROVER TAXONOMY Type Continuous Discrete Hybrids... [18]. Firstly, independent of the rover’s pose, the pressure on the... opposite motion and keeps the rover level by maintaining the average... the steering configuration. For planetary exploration rovers, usually all wheels are... OF PLANETARY EXPLORATION ROVERS A review of the planetary exploration rovers successfully used... ground with high traction). PLANETARY EXPLORATION ROVERS Body Weight (on Earth... 1.35(h)x1.6(w)x1.7(l) (m) 10.6 kg (rover) 5 kg (instruments) 0.3(h)x0.48(w)x0... deg EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION Weight (on Earth) Size SR... instructions for the rover to follow and the rover can also plot... used non rechargeable batteries. NASA’s Mars 2020 rover [12] is based on.... B. Experimental designs. The SR-II rover uses two motors with a drive... scouts for craters. The Nanokhod rover is a small explorer tethered to... an ESA lunar crater robotic exploration challenge. The wheel/leg hybrid... ExoMars rover which combines novel characteristics not previously used in a Mars rover [35...: generate traction to drive the rover through varied terrain and overcome.... The degree by which the rover’s locomotion is successful in these... the configuration parameters and the rover’s performance. The configuration equations include... NOMAD (Table III), to produce a rover with skid steering and a transforming... locomotion subsystem for the ExoMars rover. Six different suspension designs were...]. This systematic comparison resulted in a Mars rover design with augmented capabilities, as... [37]. V. CONCLUSIONS Planetary exploration rovers have increased exploration capabilities and must move.... The locomotion subsystem propels the rover across the terrain, so its... / legged hybrid locomotion, (c) the ExoMars rover utilizes novel characteristics including wheel... and selecting a configuration. The ExoMars rover was designed by utilizing performance... of Quadruped Robots for Space Exploration”, Proc. 21st Mediterranean Conf. on.... R. A. Lindemann, D. B. Bickler, B. D. Harrington, G. M. Ortiz; C. J. Voorhees, “Mars exploration rover mobility development”, IEEE Robot. Automat... Performance Characterization for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover”, J. of Field Robotics, vol.... 2013. N. Silva, R. Lancaster, J. Clemmet, “ExoMars Rover Vehicle Mobility Functional Architecture and..., W. L. Whittaker, “Design of the Scarab Rover for Mobility and Drilling in... – 1564, Oct. 2010. R. A. Lindemann, C. J. Voorhees, “Mars Exploration Rover mobility assembly design, test and... Analysis of a Four Wheeled Planetary Rover”, M. S. thesis. School of Aerospace and... by cooperation with lander and rover”, J. of Earth Syst. Sci., vol..., B. Bluethmann, L. Junkin, "Next Generation Rover for Lunar Exploration," Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conf.... [30] A. Schiele, et al., “Nanokhod Exploration Rover”, IEEE Robot. Automat. Mag., vol...: A limbed vehicle for Solar System Exploration”, Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conf., Big...] N. Patel, R. Slade, J. Clemmet, “The ExoMars rover locomotion subsystem”, J. of Terramechanics, vol...] E. Tunstel, “Operational Performance Metrics for Mars Exploration Rovers”, J. of Field Robotics, vol...



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.... Key Words: Mars, life on Mars, search for life on Mars, astrobiology, extraterrestrial...,” describing the ExoMars rover scheduled to land on Mars in 2013, reveals... reflecting the public’s interest), the rover, 31 years after Viking, will... 1. Mars Mission Launch Sequence Historic Mars Missions: 1960 October 10, A2-e (Vostok) (Mars... May 19, D1-e Mars 2 (USSR): The Mars 2 Orbiter reached Mars orbit of 860x15... surface detail. Mars 2 (NSSDC) - Mars 2 Lander (NSSDC) 1971 May 28, D1-e Mars 3 (USSR): The Orbiter reached Mars... of December 1971 was composed. Mars 3 (NSSDC) - Mars 3 Lander (NSSDC) 1971 May... 21, D1-e Mars 4 (USSR): Intended Mars orbiter; arrived at Mars on February 10.... 1973 July 25, D1-e Mars 5 (USSR): Reached Mars orbit on February 12.... Mars 5 (NSSDC) 1973 August 5, D1-e Mars 6 (USSR): Lander spacecraft; crashed on Mars on March 12, 1974. Mars 6 (NSSDC) 1973 August 9, D1-e Mars 7 (USSR): Intended lander, missed Mars by 1280 km on March 9, 1974. Mars.... Mars Observer spacecraft image [22k gif, caption]; Mars Observer images at SEDS; Mars... Systems; Mars Observer page at HEASARC (GSFC/Nasa); Mars Observer (NSSDC) Mars Observer (JPL) 1996 November 7, Delta II, currently operating in Mars orbit. Mars Global Surveyor (Nasa): Mars orbiter, launched from KSC, Cape Canaveral. Reached Mars and successfully entered Mars... liftoff. Mars 96 homepage; Mars 96 (NSSDC) 1996 December 4, Delta II Mars Pathfinder...: Mars lander with Sojourner rover. Launched from KSC, Cape Canaveral; softlanded on Mars... when it disappeared behind planet Mars for Mars Orbit Insertion on September... operating in Mars orbit. 2001 Mars Odyssey, Mars Surveyor 2001 Orbiter (Nasa). Mars orbiter... for the lost Mars Climate Orbiter (Mars Surveyor 1998 Orbiter), i.e., Mars weather and... operating in Mars orbit. Beagle-2 lander lost on Mars’ surface. Mars Express (ESA), Orbiter and Lander. Mars Express orbiter... data from its orbit around Mars. Mars Express information, images and links... surface of Mars. Spirit, 2003 Mars Exploration Rover 2, MER-2, MER-A, Mars Surveyor 2003 Lander/Rover A (Nasa). First of two sister spacecraft (the other is Mars Exploration Rover B, Opportunity). A large (~130 kg) rover based on the Athena Rover concept... at SEDS, Mars Rovers Home - 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers Homepage (JPL), Spirit, Mars Exploration Rover A (MER-A) info (NSSDC), Twin Rover Press Release (Nasa HQ PR 00-124, August 10, 2000); Mars... surface of Mars. Opportunity, 2003 Mars Exploration Rover 1, MER-1, MER-B, Mars Surveyor 2003 Lander/Rover B (Nasa). Second of two sister spacecraft (the other is Mars Exploration Rover A, Spirit). A large (~130 kg) rover based on the Athena Rover concept... at SEDS, Mars Rovers Home - 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers Homepage (JPL), Opportunity, Mars Exploration Rover B (MER-B) info (NSSDC), Twin Rover Press Release (Nasa HQ PR 00-124, August 10, 2000); Mars..., Atlas V Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Surveyor 2005 Orbiter (Nasa). Arrived at Mars on...: SEDS Mars Link and Exploration page: http://seds.org/~spider/mars/mars-l.html with... not followed in the lifeoriented exploration of Mars. No doubts have been... Future 2009 December Mars Science Laboratory, Mars Smart Lander, Mars 2009 Mobile Scientific...: A small long-range, long-duration rover powered by a small nuclear reactor... Late Beagle 2: Evolution (ESA). Mars Lander. 2011 Mars Scout 2 (Nasa). A mission succeeding... Mars Scout, Phoenix; details to be defined. Mars Beyond 2009 page (JPL); Mars... rover, weighing up to 200 kilogrammes, on the surface of Mars. 2014 Mars.... Mars Beyond 2009 page (JPL); Mars 2003 and 2005 page (NSSDC) 2016 Mars...); Mars 2003 and 2005 page (NSSDC) Credit: SEDS Mars Link and Exploration page, http://seds.org/~spider/mars/mars-l.html with some edits by GVL. While instruments sent to Mars... from Mars might entail. 4. BEYOND MARS When the consensus prevailed that Mars was..., “A Reappraisal of Life on Mars,” The NASA Mars Conf. Science and Technology... and systematics,” Mars Informatics, The International Journal of Mars Science and Exploration, July... taxonomy and systematics,” Mars, Int. J. of Mars Science and Exploration, 1, 1-13, 2005. 44... the Exploration of Mars,” Committee on an Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars...



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... ......................................................................... ,............. 36 3.3.7 Electrostatically Clean Arrays ................................................................................ 36 3.3.8 Mars Solar Arrays ...................................... ,.. ,........................................................ 37 Infrastructure ............................................................... ,......................................... ,............. 38... ....................................... 18 Solar System Exploration Program .....................................................................................39 4.1.1 Outer Planets ......................................................................................................... 42 4.1.2 Mars Exploration Program (MEP... Radiation Environment Solar Arrays .......................................................................... 69 Mars Surface Solar Arrays ..................................................................................................73 5.6.1 Multi... Cells for the Mars Surface ...................................................... 73 5.6.2 Array design ........................................................................................................... 74 5.6.3 Mars Solar Array... Arrays ................................................................................ 85 6.2.3 Solar Arrays on Mars ............................................................................................. 85 6.2.4 High Solar Intensity Arrays... used on short duration planetary rover missions . • Rigid Panel Planar Arrays.... These themes include Exploration of the Solar System (ESS), Mars Exploration Program (MEP..., summarized below by ass theme. Exploration of the Solar System Program... Program has plans for further exploration of the solar system with... Technology Mars Exploration Program. In situ exploration is a central element in the Mars Exploration Program (MEP) Plan. The MEP will also launch Mars orbiting... so, the Mars Smart Lander mission and the Mars Sample Return mission... on Mars Landers is very limited and is critical on a Mars Rover for... for the Mars surface spectrum $0.5 M $1.5 M $1.5 M $1.0 M Physics and effects of Mars dust on... for future NASA solar system exploration missions. There are many proposed... and array technologies Exploration of the Solar System • Mars Exploration Program • Astronomical Search... NASA missions today including the Mars Exploration Rovers (2003 launch). These multi... on planetary rovers. Mars Pathfinder Sojourner Rover and the Mars Exploration Rovers use body... state of the art. 3.3.8 Mars Solar Arrays Mars orbiters use photovoltaic arrays... human exploration; and (3) develop new technologies that will enable the exploration of... themes are: • Solar System Exploration (including Mars Exploration Program) Sun-Earth Connection • Astronomical... in this section. 4.1 Solar System Exploration Program The NASA SSE Division... MER Mars Exploration Rover Mission Phase C/D MRO Mars Recon Orbiter Near Term CNES1 Mars CNES Orbiter Flight 1 Near Term CNES2 Mars CNES Orbiter Flight 2 Near Term MSL Mars Smart Lander Near Term Scout1 Mars Scout 1 Near Term ASI1 & 2 Mars... Near Term MSR Mars Sample Return MidTerm Scout2 Mars Scout 2 Mid Term... Term SEU 40 ESS-Mars ESS Non-Mars Future Missions that Require... are also required for SEP. 4.1.2 Mars Exploration Program (MEP) NASA is planning... surface mobility, improved imaging, subsurface exploration, and life-detection technologies. The... might be used for the exploration investigations. While use of radioisotope... be an up-sized, improved rover. However, no firm decision has... of resources between lander and rover, or on the required mission... array area on a lander or rover to provide sufficient power for... deploying sufficient array area from a rover. Therefore, there is a need for...-shifted spectrum on Mars would be very valuable for Mars surface applications... in a simulated Mars environment. Figure 4-2: Conceptual Layout of Advanced Rover Showing Multiple... explored for Mars solar arrays. Deployment of arrays on Mars is required... arrays hanging from a lander or rover. A high priority should be placed... been fabricated. To date, the exploration of quantum dots for potential... Performance Parameters in the Mars Spectrum Triple-Junction: Mars Triple-Junction Four... JPL s future objectives for Mars surface exploration. The benefits of using the... on Mars Landers is very limited and is critical on a Mars Rover for... arrays on Mars is very limited and critical on a rover. Advanced design... extending over a rover and not be limited to the rover deck or... are encouraging 6.2.3 Solar Arrays on Mars A Mars solar photovoltaic program has been... for the Mars surface spectrum $0.5 M $1.5 M $1.5 M $1.0 M Physics and effects of Mars dust on... MEP MESSENGER MILSTAR MIR MJ Mars Exploration Program MErcury Surface Space ENvironmental... Magnetosphere Multiscale MSL Mars Smart Lander (MSL) mission MSR Mars Sample Return...



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... Comet Encounters………………………………………………. 46 Missions to Mars and Mercury………………………………………………………… 51 Kepler Spacecraft... and scientific benefits of space exploration spurred progress as well. Defense... stars and planet represents the exploration of space: past, present and... contrail symbolize launch support and exploration of space This emblem was... and comet encounters, 4) missions to Mars and Mercury, and 5) the Kepler... was reconfigured to support the MARS EXPLORATION ROVER-B (MER-B) mission in July 2003... the Discovery series included the MARS PATHFINDER, LUNAR PROSPECTOR, STARDUST, GENESIS... results. Nevertheless, the Mars Climate Orbiter and the Mars Polar Lander mission... asteroid 1992 KD, the planet Mars, and the comet West-KohouteckIkemura... new technologies to make space exploration more affordable in the future... payload SEDSAT (Students for the Exploration and Development of Space Satellite... DELTA IIs supported missions to Mars on eight separate occasions between... piqued by each highly publicized Mars mission, and the hard scientific... hour. The spacecraft began its Mars elliptical capture orbit insertion burn... designed to collect data on Mars‟ topography and surface minerals, as... relay data from various NASA Mars landers and spacecraft, and officials... battery failure). The spacecraft studied Mars nearly four times longer than originally planned.83 The MARS PATHFINDER (MPF) was launched from... data collection and a 35-pound rover for excursions away from the... Space Wing Missileer, 9 Aug 96; “Mars explorers arrive,” 45th Space Wing... Aug 1996; “America‟s Return to Mars,” 45th Space Wing Missileer, 1 Nov... Sheet, Goddard Space Flight Center, “Mars Global Surveyor,” undated; Fact Sheet... National Space Science Data Center, “Mars Global Surveyor,” ca 2000. 83... harsh, so the lander and rover had operational life expectancies of... of Mars. Apart form a few communication „glitches,‟ NASA considered the MARS PATHFINDER mission a complete success.88 The MARS CLIMATE ORBITER and MARS... Martian year (i.e., 687 days). The MARS POLAR LANDER‟s operations were expected... focus on weather conditions near Mars‟ South Pole. Since the spacecraft.... After losing contact with the MARS CLIMATE ORBITER in September 1999... software interface documentation. The spacecraft‟s Mars insertion trajectory was approximately 87... Sheet, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, “Mars Pathfinder Overview,” undated; Fact Sheet... Sheet, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, “Mars Pathfinder Overview,” undated. 89 45..., after losing contact with the MARS CLIMATE ORBITER in September 1999... MARS POLAR LANDER after that spacecraft landed on Mars.93 Since the MARS... The mission marked a „return to Mars‟ opportunity for NASA‟s Langley Research... science orbit.99 The MARS ODYSSEY spacecraft 92 Mars Climate Orbiter Mishap... MARS ODYSSEY mission after the loss of the MARS CLIMATE ORBITER and MARS..., the spacecraft gathered data on Mars‟ geology and near-space environment... 3) the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment. Together with its earlier MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR... as a communications relay for the Mars Exploration Rovers that landed on the... in January 2004.101 The MARS EXPLORATION ROVER missions (MER-A and MER-B) proved... to Saturn in 1997.” Each rover weighed approximately 400 pounds and... Each MER payload consisted of a rover, a lander, an 8.7-footspacecraft‟s onboard engine... Return to Mars,” Aviation Week & Space Technology, 2 Apr 2001; “Mars probe launched..., 107, 108, 111; “Red Rover, Red Rover,” Aviation Week & Space Technology, 26 May 2003; “Fast Action for Rover... to carry the lander and rover. Fully fueled, the cruise assembly... respectively. Following separate landings on Mars on 4 January and 25 January... very slow-moving landers107 assessed Mars‟ geological features, searched for evidence...-distance “rover technologies” and scientific operations of benefit to future Mars explorers... employed a „leftover‟ lander from the MARS SURVEYOR project, which officials cancelled... on a Type II trajectory toward Mars. Engineers and technicians raised the... I, p 103. 107 Officials hoped each rover might cover one full kilometer... I, pp 103, 104; “Red Rover, Red Rover”, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 26... rocket for Mars,” 45th Space Wing Missileer, 6 Jun 2003; “Mars rovers‟ plutonium... Today, 6 Jun 2000; NASA Facts, “Mars Exploration Rover,” pp 1, 2, 3, 4, Oct 2004; JPL, “Spirit..., “Mission to Mars, Phoenix Spacecraft,” undated; Fact Sheet, NASA, “Mars Phoenix Lander... Release, NASA, “Phoenix Heads for Mars, Spacecraft Healthy,” undated. 112 45..., “Mission to Mars, Phoenix Spacecraft,” undated; Fact Sheet, NASA, “Mars Phoenix Lander... top left: 1) MARS EXPLORATION ROVER-A launch from Pad 17A; 2) PHOENIX Mars Probe, 2007; 3) Rossi... EXPLORER in White Room, 1997; 5) MARS PATHFINDER payload fairing installation at... 17A MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR 4 December 1996 DELTA II Pad 17B MARS PATHFINDER... Pad 17A MARS EXPLORATION ROVER-A 8 July 2003 DELTA II Pad 17B MARS EXPLORATION ROVER-B 25 August...



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... Moon-Mars Science Linkages Science Steering Group of the Mars Exploration Program Assessment... Space Exploration, 74 Concept 1R: Managing Science in a Program of Human Exploration... (International Lunar Exploration Working Group) International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon (see Appendix D). Finding 3: Exploration of... the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy. ) Recommendation 3: NASA should develop... Human Exploration: National Research Council, Science Management in the Human Exploration of... of human exploration. THE SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT FOR EXPLORATION OF THE MOON Exploration Systems..., Mars, and beyond. This report focuses on the scientific context for exploration... Space Exploration (VSE) as well as the early phases of human exploration... between scientific and exploration goals (see Box 3.1). Polar exploration also will provide... concentrated and readily useful deposits. Exploration to determine the hydrogen distribution... stratigraphic distributions than is resource exploration, but the commonalities of locating... determining concentrations suggest that a common exploration approach will be effective. Also... been the case for the exploration of Mars over the past decade... robotic exploration of regolith. 49 50 THE SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT FOR EXPLORATION OF... a lander/rover and a samplereturn mission as precursors to human exploration. The Indian... exploration. As we embark on this new era of detailed lunar exploration... (International Lunar Exploration Working Group) International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon (see Appendix D). Finding 3: Exploration of... the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy. ) Recommendation 3: NASA should develop... Vision for Space Exploration The Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) and the..., “Astrobiology Science Goals and Lunar Exploration: NASA Astrobiology Institute White Paper... for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE)-Extreme Ultraviolet instrument camera... SPACE EXPLORATION Concept 1R: Managing Science in a Program of Human Exploration Successful implementation of science in a program of human exploration starts... Human Exploration of Space (1993), Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space (1994), and Scientific Management in the Human Exploration... synergy between science and human exploration:    1. Integrated Science Program—The scientific... Human Exploration: National Research Council, Science Management in the Human Exploration of... of human exploration. 76 THE SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT FOR EXPLORATION OF THE MOON... outpost or base, preparation for Mars exploration, the development of in situ... rover precursors: the rovers, possibly similar to the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) on Mars... exploration tools provided to lunar crews. 80 THE SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT FOR EXPLORATION... and Lunar Exploration (1995) Science in NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration (2005) Science Management in the Human Exploration of Space (1997) Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space (1994) Scientific Prerequisites for the Human Exploration of... waypoint for human exploration in the Vision for Space Exploration. While not...-gravity environment oriented toward human Mars exploration requirements are not within scope... the lunar exploration component of the Vision for Space Exploration should be.... Because lunar exploration within the Vision for Space Exploration is envisioned as... lunar exploration LPRP—the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program of the Exploration... below the crust MER—NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover obliquity—the angle between the... 3:00 p.m. Break 3:15 p.m. Talk 4—Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) G. Jeffrey Taylor... (INTERNATIONAL LUNAR EXPLORATION WORKING GROUP) INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EXPLORATION AND UTILIZATION OF... a decade with many planned lunar exploration missions, including orbiters, impactors, penetrators... Aeronautics and Astronautics 2nd Space Exploration Workshop Houston, Texas Panel discussion... weathering of materials, Mars mineralogy, and planetary exploration; she also conducts laboratory... for the Mars Exploration Rovers project, is a participating scientist for the Mars Orbiter... Athena Science team for the Mars Exploration Rovers mission. MICHAEL DUKE is... to support human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. His planetary.../Robotic Exploration and Development of Space (2001), the Committee on Human Exploration (chair, 1996-1997), and the Committee on Human Exploration (chair... ranging from autonomous rover navigation for planetary surface exploration to intelligent terrain assessment algorithms for landing on Mars. Dr... “Astrobiology Science Goals and Lunar Exploration.” S. ALAN STERN, Southwest Research Institute... Exploration, the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life, the Mars...



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... surface science awaiting us at Mars greatly outstrips available mission opportunities... to scientific value, some Mars human exploration Strategic Knowledge Gaps could be... it is qualified to survive Mars atmospheric entry from hyperbolic trajectories..., MARSDROP microlanders could go to Mars on a dedicated carrier whose trajectory... provided by a UHF link through Mars-orbiting assets. Figure 3: Scaled parawing... investigations in sensitive locales on Mars under the most stringent planetary... & HUMAN EXPLORATION This microlander capability enables a new class of Mars science investigations..., enables access to regions of Mars deemed scientifically interesting, but too... deployment is possible sufficiently above Mars’ surface. The ability to steer... several recommendations stemming from the Mars Exploration Program Advisory Group (“Findings and... examine the scientific motivation for a Mars microprobe development, followed by plausible... flight by 2019 (or later Mars opportunities) as a daughter spacecraft carried with a primary Mars mission. The Valles Marineris canyon... the most stimulating questions about Mars; e.g., what are the organic constituents... features have been identified in Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE images taken... more intriguing recent observations on Mars suggest the potential presence of... radar instrument (RIMFAX) on the Mars 2020 rover. By piggybacking on a primary...-based observations at locations the rover would never explore, providing the... provenance of sediments at the rover landing site. Alternatively, the payload... of the ultimate or future rover destinations, enhancing the science team... available or reachable by larger rover payloads, either because of the... >100 km from the Mars surface at a Mars-relative velocity of approximately... two-way communication with a Mars orbiter (e.g., Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and others). With..., process, and transmit data to a Mars orbiter autonomously. The orbiter will... Mars Pathfinder Sojourner rover, • Measure the integrated capsule glideslope at and aboard Mars Exploration... Spectrometer (TLS) aboard the Curiosity Mars rover following, though a great many other... seismic detectors simultaneously operational on Mars, new impact crater locations can... at Gale crater prior to rover driving. 40 Spectral filters on... the possibility of carrying a micro-rover, perhaps along the lines of... and in JAXA’s planetary exploration program. 43 BEYOND MARS Mars, of course, is... developed and employed aboard the Mars Exploration Rover, 47 and it is clear... large, as seems likely given Mars experience, a mathematical description of the... existence-proof-level design for Mars microlanders, which utilize highheritage small spacecraft and Mars mission hardware and software. This... of an approach to augment Mars exploration by enabling precisely-targeted landers... any Mars-bound primary mission. Once demonstrated, each future primary Mars mission... MEPAG recommendations and to NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. 53 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Research described... Microprobes at Exciting Sites on Mars.” International Astronautical Congress IAC-14... Science Return and In Situ Exploration from Mars Missions,” Lunar & Planetary Science... deposits and organic preservation on Mars.” Nature Geoscience 1: 355-358, 2008...., posted July 2012, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) at..., S. Byrne, and M. I. Richardson, “Sublimation of Mars's southern seasonal CO2 ice cap... north polar observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Color Imager,” Icarus... III,, “Chasma Boreale, Mars: Topographic characterization from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data... the 1985-2006 Mars Orbiter Camera science investigation,” Mars 5, pp. 1-60. 2010..., Robert A. Mitcheltree, and F. McNeil Cheatwood. "Mars Microprobe Entry-toImpact Analysis", Journal... for UHF Proximity Links Including Mars Surface-to-Orbit Applications," Proceedings..., M. C., and Edgett, K. S., “Sedimentary Rocks on Mars,” Science 290, no. 5498, pp... Seismometer For Subsurface Probing On Mars,” Conference on the Geophysical Detection... gas sublimation-driven activity in Mars' southern polar regions: I. Erosion of... Milliken, R. E., “A recent ice age on Mars: Evidence for climate oscillations from..., 1068-1072, 2013. 47 c.f., “Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science (AEGIS... has been operating on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity since December 2009; NASA... Targeting for the MER Opportunity Rover,” ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems... Upcoming Technologies,” NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) Seminar... 49 Schofield, J., and Coauthors, “The Mars Pathfinder Atmospheric Structure Investigation/Meteorology... 43 c.f., Takashi Kubota, “JAXA’s Planetary Exploration Programs: Recent Low Cost Missions... sensor suite for the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” Space Science Reviews 170... Martin, P. Daniel Burkhart, Gavin F. Mendeck, “Mars Science Laboratory: Entry, Descent, and... NASA Mars Exploration Program, "The Mars Exploration Program's Science Theme" as http://mars.jpl.nasa...



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The Global Exploration Roadmap September 2011 International Space Exploration Coordination Group “The... Global Exploration Roadmap Human and robotic exploration of the Moon, asteroids, and Mars... Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) are developing the Global Exploration Roadmap. The Global Exploration... Exploration Chapter 3. Mapping the Journey: Long-Range Human Exploration Strategy Chapter 4. Human Exploration... for the Mars Science Laboratory.) Executive Summary The Global Exploration Strategy: the... human exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and Mars. Although Mars is..., (2) long-range human exploration scenarios, and (3) coordination of exploration preparatory activities. By... their exploration preparatory activities. 1 Common Goals and Objectives The Global Exploration Roadmap... capabilities ultimately required for human exploration of Mars. Each pathway is elaborated... multiple destinations. 2. Exploration Value: Generate public benefits and meet exploration objectives. 3. International... Exploration Mars Future Human Mission Sample Return Opportunity Sample Return Opportunity Robotic Exploration... 1 Crewed Flights to Exploration Test Module Step 2 Exploration Test Module Moon Opportunities...-Scale, Human-Enabled Robotic Exploration Robotic Exploration Cis-Lunar Opportunities for Commercial... Exploration Mars Sample Return Opportunity Future Human Mission Sample Return Opportunity Robotic Exploration..., human exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and Mars is preceded... sustainable human space exploration, including human missions to Mars, requires political support.... The Global Exploration Roadmap strategy recognizes that sustainable exploration must actively enable... at future exploration destinations. 8 Human exploration of the surface of Mars is our... of space exploration. 9 Duck Bay at Victoria Crater, Mars. The Global Exploration Roadmap is driven by a set of common space exploration... to the exploration of Mars but not a driver for the exploration of the... health and exploration systems. This is essential for human exploration and will... capabilities ultimately required for human exploration of Mars. Each pathway is elaborated...: Long-Range Human Exploration Strategy Feasible pathways consider exploration benefits and balance... multiple destinations. • Exploration Value: Generate public benefits and meet exploration objectives. • International... surface of Mars. Chapter 3. Mapping the Journey: Long-Range Human Exploration Strategy... to Mars orbit and return them safely to Earth. Successful human exploration... for the safe and affordable exploration of Mars. Some agencies are studying... Exploration Mars Future Human Mission Sample Return Opportunity Sample Return Opportunity Robotic Exploration... of a human-scale rover chassis to advance robotic exploration capability • Five extended... while demonstrating capabilities needed for Mars exploration • “Technology Pull” for technologies such...-Range Human Exploration Strategy Mission Scenario: Moon Next Lunar Exploration ISS Utilization... 1 Crewed Flights to Exploration Test Module Step 2 Exploration Test Module Moon Opportunities...-Scale, Human-Enabled Robotic Exploration Robotic Exploration Cis-Lunar Opportunities for Commercial... Exploration Mars Future Human Mission Sample Return Opportunity Sample Return Opportunity Robotic Exploration... concepts • Surface habitation capabilities • Mars surface exploration scenarios, operations and techniques: long... both human and robotic exploration initiatives. Large multinational exploration missions will require... to enable a successful exploration initiative. Chapter 4. Human Exploration Preparatory Activities Across the... Technology Demonstrations (TBD) Demonstration of Exploration Capabilities Exploration Technology Demonstration (TBD) Advanced... Mars Exploration Rover begins exploring Mars. Robotic Missions: An Invaluable Contribution to Human Exploration Robotic... exploration missions. Starting with Project Apollo, precursor robotic missions such as Rover... of space exploration investment to our global stakeholder community. DLR Mars Crawler... today to simulate exploration missions, helping prepare for exploration beyond low-Earth... for exploration and finding partnerships. Desert RATS (Arizona, USA). Experimental rover testing in CNES Mars-yard. 32 Chapter 5. Conclusion The Global Exploration Roadmap... pathways for human exploration of the solar system, with Mars as the... Space Near-Earth Asteroids Precursor Mars Enabling Exploration Capabilities Multi-purpose Crew... to Mars Surface Deep Space Habitat Advanced In-space Propulsion Space Exploration..., and Mars. Achieving the vision of sustainable human space exploration, including human missions to Mars, requires political support... human space exploration. Additionally, as noted in the Global Exploration Strategy Framework... 37 International Space Exploration Coordination Group The Global Exploration Roadmap is a nonbinding...



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... programs, in coordination with U.S. space exploration policy. NASA had selected the... Moon or sending humans to Mars. Instead, the United States faces... the Martian atmosphere, confirming that Mars is either biologically or 3 NASA... in the northern hemisphere of Mars in 2003 indicated that an... pole. 7 23 January Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched Ibuki, the.... 8 6 NASA, “Discovery of Methane Reveals Mars Is Not a Dead Planet,” news... Vergano, “Methane Plumes Spotted on Mars May Be a Sign of Life... the release of the new Mars mode in Google Earth, the.... The Mars mode provided a rich, immersive three-dimensional view of Mars, to help the public understand Mars science while... the data to make the Mars mode in Google Earth possible..., “NASA and Google Launch Virtual Exploration of Mars,” news release 09-024..., in alignment with its Exoplanet Exploration Program. 26 27 February NASA... bidder, Exploration Systems and Technology, had protested the award. Exploration Systems and... Systems Integration Division in the Exploration Technology Directorate at NASA’s ARC... would feature imagery from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), which NASA... launched in 2005 to examine Mars using several instruments, including a high... more data than all other Mars missions combined. NASA planned to...’s WorldWide Telescope To Focus on Mars,” 25 March 2009. 17 Aeronautics... (LAS) for NASA’s Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The test, conducted... vehicle above the surface of Mars would use a toroidal ballute and... President George W. Bush’s 2004 space exploration plan. Each scenario predicted schedule... NASA’s Current Plans for Space Exploration” (report, Washington, DC, April 2009... Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration. When the House Select Committee... lander and a rover that would collect soil samples on Mars for detailed... interior, including the size of Mars’s core. For the second investigation... Selects Future Projects To Study Mars and Mercury,” contract release C09... Based on data that NASA’s rover Opportunity had collected in the... water had once existed on Mars. Before arriving at Victoria, Opportunity...-meter) depth. They hoped that exploration of Victoria would shed more... down into the crater. The rover had found layers of sulfate... University, Lead Scientist for the Mars Exploration Rover Project, remarked that this evidence... Andrea Thompson, “Entire Region of Mars Likely Shaped by Water,” Space.... space.com/6739-entire-region-mars-shaped-water.html (accessed 22... More Evidence of Water on Mars,” Voice of America, 22 May... execution of the next-generation exploration program with the new Orion..., 10 June 2009. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, “Kaguya (Selene) Slam Crashed... the development schedules of Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences... New Astronauts for Future Space Exploration,” news release 09-149, 29... planning, conserving natural resources, energy exploration, engineering, environmental management, firefighting, geology... in a simulated mission to Mars, the Mars-500 project at the Russian.... Since 31 March 2009, the Mars-500 crew, comprising four Russians...). 98 Michael Schwirtz, “Going to Mars, But Staying Close to Home..., “Crew ‘Back on Earth’ After Mars Mission,” 15 July 2009. 38... a future mission that would land a rover on the Moon’s surface. ISRO... Enters New Era of Space Exploration,” Orlando Sentinel (FL), 11 September... launch systems, human spaceflight, and exploration missions. 138 15 September NASA... on Earth. For the lunar-rover test, two crew members—an... inside NASA’s prototype Lunar Electric Rover and scouting the area for... to a simulated habitat; driven the rover across difficult terrain; performed a rescue...-lift rover, had carried the simulated habitat to which the rover had..., for the Center for Space Exploration Technology Research. 140 17 September...), to become the 143 Space Exploration Technologies, “SpaceX’s DragonEye Navigation Sensor... a nearby asteroid or one of Mars’s moons. Augustine explained that NASA... years, and, second, to explore Mars—plans that had appeared sound... States’ path forward in space exploration. Three of the committee’s eight... path, with no Moon or Mars landings. Augustine pointed out that... program, involving little or no exploration.155 28 October NASA conducted..., the Moon, and beyond. NASA’s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate in Washington..., FL), 1 December 2009. 174 Space Exploration Technologies, “SpaceX Hosts Preliminary Training... Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine crew exploration vehicle Central Intelligence Agency crew... JPL JSC JWST Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Japanese Exposed Facility Jet... of understanding Mini Research Module Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter methicillin-resistant staphylococcus... Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Space Exploration Technologies Spectral and Photometric Imaging... NASA’s Current Plans for Space Exploration.” Report, Washington, DC, April 2009... X Prize, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), and University of...