Техника. Mars Exploration Rover. [Редактировать]

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1MERsНайтиНайти
22003 Mars Exploration RoversНайтиНайти

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость программы (начальная), млн. долл.2000-01-01657
2Стоимость программы (запрошенная), млн. долл.2007-01-01820
3Стоимость програмы (утвержденная), млн. долл.2001-01-01767
4Стоимость работы с аппаратами (месяц), млн. долл.2.8
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2001-08-01697
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2002-01-01729
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2003-01-01806.3
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2003-04-01767

Каталог

#Наименование Дата пуска ×Ракета-носитель ×Космодром ×Страна операторСтрана производительТип
1Opportunity2003-07-08Дельта 2 7925Мыс КанавералСШАСШАКлассы РКТ
2Spirit2003-06-10Дельта 2 7925Мыс КанавералСШАСШАКлассы РКТ

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Mars Exploration Rover». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Abstract Mars has been the focus of robotic space exploration since the... (Viking), drills (Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity), and grinders (Mars Exploration Rovers). Through... surface represented the birth of Mars surface exploration, and since then over... is implicit in the surface exploration of Mars, not only to answer...) instrument on board the two Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) Spirit and Opportunity... Martian surface is vital for exploration and will continue to form... the four decades of space exploration. Some of the earliest cameras... “hazcams” on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) and MSL rover, as these have... expose the instruments, plus a tethered rover; “Prop-M” [Perminov, 1999]. In addition... after a long hiatus in surface exploration until the NASA Pathfinder... a static lander with a small mobile rover (“Sojourner”). The static lander not..., multispectral camera systems in the exploration of Mars. The Surface Stereo Imager... Pancam Calibration Target (PCT) and Rover Inspection Mirror (RIM) WACs 200...). (b) Artist concept of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover, cropped to show Pancam positioned... 40 m [Euler et al., 2001]. 2.4. Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera Following the successful... benefits of a mobile rover to Mars exploration, larger rovers were developed with... [Crisp et al., 2003]. The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity were... Opportunity rover. (d) MSL Curiosity’s first powdered drill sample within the rover’s scoop...) showing the newly deployed Sojourner rover (PIA01551; courtesy of NASA/JPL... 4f). 2.6. Mars Science Laboratory Mastcam The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity is the most technically advanced Mars rover... Curiosity rover is a departure from the configuration used for previous Mars... employed by previous missions, particularly exploration rovers. Specifically, InSight is... rover currently under development by ESA in collaboration with Roscosmos. The rover... al., 2015]. 3.3. Mars2020 The Mars2020 rover will carry the Mastcam-Z camera... design for the 2018 ExoMars rover (courtesy of M. Gunn, Aberystwyth University... robotic field geology on Mars since surface exploration began four decades ago... human “eyes on the ground” exploration, it provides an unprecedented window..., and C. L. Stanley (2006), Processing of Mars Exploration Rover imagery for science and operations... with UV excitation (HyperCLUPI) for Mars exploration, European Planetary Science Congress 2014.... Bell, J. F. III, et al. (2003), Mars Exploration Rover Athena panoramic camera (Pancam) investigation... imaging results from the Opportunity Rover at Meridiani Planum, Science, 306... sky as observed by the Mars Exploration Rover Pancam instruments, J. Geophys. Res., 111... calibration and performance of the Mars Exploration Rover panoramic camera (Pancam) instruments, J. Geophys... multispectral imaging on the Mars Science Laboratory rover: Wavelength coverage and imaging... multispectral investigation on the NASA Mars-2020 Rover, International Workshop on Instrumentation... Thermal Emission Spectrometer for the Mars Exploration Rovers, J. Geophys. Res., 108(E12...), Mars Exploration Rover mission, J. Geophys. Res., 108(E12), 8061, doi:10.1029/2002JE002038. MARS... rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, J. Geophys. Res., 112... Cape York, Endeavour crater, Mars by the Opportunity rover’s Pancam, Icarus, 225... science cameras aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Opt. Eng., 48(10... detected by the Spirit rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, Science, 305, 810... and processes observed by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E02S09...), Context for the ESA ExoMars rover: The panoramic camera (Pancam) instrument... (2003), Lunar and Planetary Robotic Exploration missions in the 20th century... observed by Pancam on the Mars Exploration Rovers: 1. Spirit, J. Geophys. Res., 111... observed by Pancam on the Mars Exploration Rovers: 2. Opportunity, J. Geophys. Res., 111... of Soviet Lunar and Planetary Exploration—Volume 47 Science and Technology... (2007), Dust deposition on the Mars Exploration Rover panoramic camera (Pancam) calibration targets...), Atmospheric imaging results from the Mars exploration rovers: Spirit and Opportunity, Science... optical depth record over 5 Mars years of the Mars Exploration Rover mission, Icarus, 251...-9882-4. Maki, J. N., et al. (2003), Mars Exploration Rover engineering cameras, J. Geophys. Res., 108... instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover: Science objectives and... difficult road to Mars: A brief history of Mars Exploration in the Soviet... particle X-ray spectrometer for the Mars Exploration Rovers, J. Geophys. Res., 108(E12... al. (2008), Meteorites on Mars observed with the Mars Exploration Rovers, J. Geophys. Res...), Optical designs for the Mars ’03 rover cameras, in Current Developments in... al. (2009), Exploration of Victoria Crater by the Mars Rover Opportunity, Science, 324... testbed: For planetary surface geophysical exploration, In Aerospace Conference, 2013 IEEE...



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... and human exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. Destination: Mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.1. Results from recent Mars missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15... 5.1.2. Ancient Mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.3. Geologically Young Mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.1.4. Modern Mars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.2. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) Roadmap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.3. Mars... – Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.6. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.7. IMEWG – International Mars Exploration Working Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.8. ISECG – The International Space Exploration Coordination Group... Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) and the Mars Exploration... robotic exploration program. Mars was recognized as the main exploration target and a Mars Sample... the logical next step in Mars exploration. Therefore the highest priority Flagship... directly applicable to lunar and Mars exploration, and providing a valuable and visible... as Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), Mars Express (MEx), Mars... leave low Earth orbit. 5.2. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) Roadmap... the overarching objectives of the Mars Exploration Program (Arvidson et al., 2006... present and future exploration of Mars: Follow the water. Understand Mars as a system.... Commit to timetable for human Mars exploration. http://images.spaceref.com/news... for Human Exploration of Mars (Goal IV – Prepare for Human Exploration)9: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Atmospheric... recognition of the potential of Mars exploration to contribute to the understanding... ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group IMEWG International Mars Exploration Working Group ILRP... Mars Desert Research Station MEPAG Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group MER Mars Exploration Rover MEx Mars Express... International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) and the International Mars Exploration Working Group...://www.lunarscience.nasa.gov/. B.5. MEPAG – Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group MEPAG is... by NASA’s Lead Scientist for Mars Exploration at NASA HQ, and reports... all interested members of the Mars exploration community, MEPAG conducts analyses of... to it. MEPAG regularly evaluates Mars exploration goals, objectives, investigations and priorities..., NASA’s Lead Scientist for Mars Exploration, two Mars Chief Scientists, the chair of... of planetary exploration. Website: http://astrobiology.nasa.gov/. B.7. IMEWG – International Mars Exploration Working Group The International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG... and major institutions participating in Mars Exploration. The IMEWG was conceived at... for the exploration of Mars. Provide a forum for the coordination of Mars exploration missions... a broad long-range strategy for Mars exploration. The strategy must be su... 3, 2005 Version of the Draft Mars Exploration Program Plan, MEPAG document, , 2006..., Mars: Results from the Mo¨ssbauer instrument on the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover. J. Geophys... for the Next Decade of Mars Exploration, White paper submitted to the... al. Overview of the opportunity mars exploration rover mission to meridiani planum: Eagle..., R.E., et al. Exploration of victoria crater by the Mars rover opportunity. Science 324, 1058–1061, 2009. Stetson, D., Bell, J., Friedman, L. Mars Exploration...., posted July, 2008 by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG). . ISECG... by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG). . MEPAG, 2010. Mars Scientific Goals...



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... Analysis PS- 35 MARS EXPLORATION ………………………………………… PS- 39 2013 Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN... fundamental science that guides planetary exploration, the Planetary Science Research program... exploration. The missions in the program will tackle specific solar system exploration.... PS-38 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE MARS EXPLORATION FY 2013 BUDGET Actual Budget... Mars Exploration program is a sciencedriven program that seeks to understand whether Mars was... Mars can be found in the four broad, overarching goals for Mars Exploration: determine whether life ever arose on Mars, characterize the climate of Mars, characterize the geology of Mars, and prepare for human exploration. The Mars Exploration program has been developed to conduct a rigorous, incremental, discovery-driven exploration of Mars to determine the planet’s physical... Mars Exploration program include the current operating missions 2001 Mars Odyssey, 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Mars Express with the European Space Agency, 2005 Mars PS-39 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE MARS EXPLORATION Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory... development. The Mars Exploration program also includes Mars Program Management, Mars Technology, Mars Operating and... Mars Research and Analysis. JPL has program management responsibility for the Mars Exploration... 2013 After 2013 MAVEN, the Mars Exploration program is working towards defining.../ESA Mars 2018 mission concept. NASA remains committed to an ongoing Mars Exploration program of robotic exploration missions in support.... PS-40 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE MARS EXPLORATION BUDGET EXPLANATION The FY 2013... Mars mission planned within the Mars Next Decade project is being defined. Mars Exploration... a Mars program architecture that includes missions to synergize science and human exploration.... PS-41 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN... planetary exploration. PROJECT PURPOSE 2013 MAVEN was selected under the Mars Scout.... PS-42 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN... isotopic fractionation. As with all Mars Exploration program orbiters, 2013 MAVEN will.... PS-43 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN... PS-44 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN... PS-45 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN... of the Mars Exploration program managed for NASA by the Mars Program Office...: N/A PS-46 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN.... PS-47 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN... PS-48 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION OTHER MISSIONS AND DATA ANALYSIS... Odyssey 10.1 12.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2003 M ars Exploration Rover 13.6 15.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 M ars Express 2005...’s Mars Exploration program has been developed to conduct a rigorous, incremental, discoverydriven exploration of Mars... Mars Odyssey, 2003 Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and the 2011 Mars..., Mars Next Decade, and Mars Program Management. PS-49 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION... having Mars projects produce systems individually. PS-50 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION OTHER MISSIONS AND DATA ANALYSIS Formulation Development Operations MARS EXTENDED OPERATIONS Mars... mission successes and failures. The Mars Exploration program is working with the... science and exploration requirements in an integrated strategy. MARS PROGRAM MANAGEMENT Mars Program Management provides for the implementation and management of the Mars Exploration... low-Mars orbit, an essential piece of information for eventual human exploration... lowPS-51 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION OTHER MISSIONS AND DATA ANALYSIS... provided vital support to ongoing exploration of Mars by relaying nearly 100... spacecraft’s UHF system. 2003 MARS EXPLORATION ROVER 2003 Mars Exploration Rover, the rover named Opportunity, currently in...: MARS EXPLORATION OTHER MISSIONS AND DATA ANALYSIS Formulation Development Operations 2005 MARS RECONNAISSANCE... on cruise to Mars, takes a major step forward in Mars exploration, both technically... PS-53 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION OTHER MISSIONS AND DATA ANALYSIS... rover will test the many science instruments on board as exploration begins... PS-54 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION OTHER MISSIONS AND DATA ANALYSIS.../landing and surface operations. 2003 MARS EXPLORATION ROVER 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity’s study of sulfate...



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... system from the Mars Pathfinder mission to the larger Mars Exploration Rover mission required... resembles Mars Polar Lander’s more than Viking’s. Mars Polar Lander reached Mars in... from the practice of the Mars Exploration Rover missions, which designated landing sols... relay capabilities of NASA’s Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and with... an international treaty stipulating that exploration must be conducted in a manner... contamination in the process of exploration. NASA has a planetary protection officer... be relayed by Mars orbiters. NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter..., which had just arrived at Mars. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter saw that Region... NASA’s Mars Exploration Rovers. The hematite suggested a possible water history. The rover Opportunity.... This “ground truthing” by the rover improves interpretation of current orbiters... caps. This first wave of Mars exploration culminated in the Viking mission...’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity established that rocks in at least one part of Mars... planet. The newest robot at Mars, NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, has returned... it here on Earth, scientific exploration of the red planet can... on Mars -- something that we cannot answer just yet -- scientific exploration of... NASA’s Mars missions together constitute the agency’s Mars Exploration Program. The Phoenix Mars Lander... Discovery Program for solar system exploration, for example, has selected 11... vertical structure of clouds. Space exploration requires many types of expertise... on a mission other than a NASA Mars Exploration Program mission. Alian Wang of... principal investigators, reporting to the Mars Exploration Program managed for NASA by...’s Mars Exploration Program is working to establish a sustained observational presence at Mars. This... future Mars missions of exploration by NASA and its international partners: q Mars Pathfinder.... This lander released its Sojourner rover on the Martian surface and... on the lander and the rover. The information included more than... and seven days for the rover. q Mars Global Surveyor (November 1996 - November... the landing area for NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity; laseraltimeter mapping of many... the Mars Exploration Rover missions. It also served as a communications relay for the Mars Exploration Rovers during and after their landings. q Mars Odyssey (April... potential landing sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers and for Phoenix. Relays... planned for use by Phoenix. q Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (June 2003 - present): Spirit.... Together, they make up NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover project. Spirit is exploring inside... strewn with loose rocks. The rover found that the rocks on... of silica. q Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity (July 2003 - present): This rover was sent to... the next few weeks, the rover’s examination of that outcrop settled... exploration of Victoria Crater continues in the spring of 2008. q Mars Express... favorable to microbial life, the rover will analyze dozens of samples... to be carried inside the rover. Instruments have been selected that... human landing systems. q Additional Mars Scouts: Mars Scouts are competitively proposed, moderate...-class” strategic missions of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. Phoenix is the first... planning this mission to put a rover on the surface and a data... could be part of the rover’s scientific payload. ExoMars is being... life. q In support of U.S. space exploration policy, NASA has also begun... enable future human exploration missions to the moon, Mars and beyond. As... will include the Orion crew exploration vehicle and the Ares 1 crew... in supporting NASA’s long-term exploration goals -- including preparing humans and... for someday venturing to Mars. Meanwhile, the Mars scientific robotic program will.../62, Mars flyby, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 1: USSR, 11/1/62, Mars flyby..., Mars flyby 8/5/69, returned 126 photos Mars 1969A, USSR, 3/27/69, Mars orbiter, did not reach Earth orbit Mars 1969B, USSR, 4/2/69, Mars orbiter, failed during launch Mariner 8: U.S., 5/8/71, Mars.../71, Mars orbiter, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 2: USSR, 5/19/71, Mars orbiter... photos Mars 4: USSR, 7/21/73, failed Mars orbiter, flew past Mars 2/10/74 Mars 5: USSR, 7/25/73, Mars orbiter... just before Mars arrival 8/21/93 Mars Global Surveyor: U.S., 11/7/96, Mars orbiter..., launch vehicle failed Mars Pathfinder: U.S., 12/4/96, Mars lander and rover, landed 7/4/97, last transmission 9/27/97 Nozomi: Japan, 7/4/98, Mars... mission and providing relay for Mars Exploration Rovers; has returned about 350... arrival 12/25/03 Mars Exploration Rover Spirit: U.S., 6/10/03, Mars rover, landed 1/4/04 for..., currently conducting extended mission Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity: U.S., 7/7/03, Mars rover, landed 1/25/04 for... is Mars program director, Michael Meyer is lead scientist for the Mars Exploration Program, Karen McBride is program executive for Mars Scouts...



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...The The Mars Mars Quarterly Quarterly www.MarsSociety.org 1 ...’s Mars Ambitions Ben Evans.............................................. 5 Mars Society Seeks Student Help to Design Inspiration Mars Fly-By...................................... 7 Highlights from the 2013 Mars Society Convention.......................................................... 8 Mars Society... know, the Mars Society recently launched phase 1 of its Mars Arctic 365... Chief Archivist..............Frank Crossman The Mars Quarterly Editor................................ Michael Stoltz Deputy... necessarily those of The Mars Quarterly or The Mars Society. Authors may.... Reproduction The Mars Quarterly is published quarterly by The Mars Society, Lakewood, Colorado, USA. Volume 5, Issue 1, © 2013, The Mars Society... Stoltz, Editor The Mars Quarterly 2 Volume 5, Issue 1 Mars Arctic 365 Phase 1 Mission... Association Planète Mars, the French chapter of the Mars Society. As... to simulate a one-year Mars human surface exploration mission at FMARS. operational... a plan to simulate a oneyear Mars human surface exploration mission at FMARS. The... will conduct a program of field exploration in one of the most... critical human factor issues facing Mars exploration. Nothing like this has ever... provisions called for joint exploration of the Mars system and included specific... China to begin its planetary exploration program” and “if the program... for an exciting mission of exploration. It includes a CCD camera, surfacepenetrating... control, interest in deepspace exploration and footprints on Mars among China’s 1.35... ...interest in deep-space exploration and footprints on Mars among China’s 1.35... nation’s fixation with Mars intensified somewhat with the ongoing “Mars One” initiative... Mars Quarterly 6 Volume 5, Issue 1 Mars Society Seeks Student Help to Design Inspiration Mars... demonstrate what a powerful force space exploration can be in inspiring young... (two each) by the Mars Society, Inspiration Mars and NASA. The presentations... gave an update on NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover mission (Spirit and Opportunity). In... Mars Pioneer Award, honoring him for his tremendous contribution to the exploration... Mars flag Debate on future of Mars exploration Volunteers at display table The Mars Quarterly 8 Volume 5, Issue 1 Mars Society... the organization's youth rover project, had a model rover on display and gave a presentation that launched the Youth Rover Challenge (YRC) for the 2013... high school students to build a Mars Rover using the Lego Mindstorm technology... essential predecessor to the Mars Society’s University Rover Challenge. Participating students will... and videos on the Youth Rover web site (www.youthrover.org... Mars Society Convention. Chris Nie from Colorado University’s Students for the Exploration... MacKenzie of the Mars Foundation gave a detailed presentation about Mars settlement and... advance the space and planetary exploration capabilities of all mankind. The... aim, MSI has undertaken a Student Mars Rover Project, with the motivation of... the technologies at play in a rover. This project, with a dedicated team... the 2014 University Rover Challenge held annually by the Mars Society in... prototypes from the Student Mars Rover Project at MARS (Mars Analogue Research Station) in... 2013, when India’s first Mars initiative, the Mars Orbiter, will take flight... these missions headed to Mars and beyond. The Mars Quarterly 10 Volume... and photographically “from Mars” to the stars.   The Mars Quarterly www.MarsSociety... a judge at this year’s University Rover Challenge (URC) was for me.... The night continued with an exploration of the Hab, various planning... resolved after some troubleshooting, but rover batteries had suffered during the... the site and pace their rover through four locations approximately a quarter... site to the objectives. The rover would arrive to the astronaut... the electric rover came to life. After weighing the rover to ensure... two add-ons to each rover: a dexterous arm with fingers and... was completed. Even then, the rover would have to have enough...-authored Mission to Mars: My Vision for Space Exploration (National Geographic, 2013... Location of 2014 Mars Society Convention Announced Learn about Mars via Red Planet Radio Podcast The Mars Society is... news about Mars exploration, planning for a humans-to-Mars mission and Mars Society activities and events. Chuck McMurray, the Mars....org. The Mars Quarterly www.MarsSociety.org 15 THE MARS SOCIETY is... furthering the goal of the exploration and settlement of the Red... of pioneering Mars, support of ever more aggressive government funded Mars exploration programs around the world, and conducting Mars exploration on a private basis. THE MARS... The Case for Mars __ Entering Space __ Mars on Earth __...) __ On to Mars 1 __ On to Mars 2 __ Mars Songs CD __ How to Live on Mars Membership...



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... Crater, Mars: Results from the Mo¨ssbauer instrument on the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover... and 43 soils during its exploration of the Gusev plains and... Basin, and Home Plate) on Mars. The plains are predominantly float..., Mars: Results from the Mo¨ssbauer instrument on the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover, J. Geophys.../08/2008JE003201$09.00 [2] The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit traversed the plains... of the Columbia Hills. The rover proceeded to the NW corner... Crater explored by the Spirit rover. The boxes (modeled after Arvidson...:35.244 UT. Hill and exploration of Low Ridge and Eastern... $2 mCi ($150 mCi at sol 0). Rover mobility is also impaired because... primary scientific objective of Spirit’s exploration of Gusev Crater is to..., a MB instrument is a key mineralogical exploration 2 of 43 E12S42 MORRIS ET... on rock surface made with rover wheel); z, 0 by default; z = 1, 2, 3. . . for multiple... in a Fe-rich environment like Mars because important rock-forming minerals... issue on Results From the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Mission (J. Geophys. Res., 111... by the churning action of rover wheels [e.g., Yen et al., 2008... dust from the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) and the MER... Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). Bright dust spectra [e.g., Bell... feature near 3 mm in all Mars spectra analyzed to date is... ALTERATION E12S42 been made on Mars by MB. This conclusion is... transmission MB spectra (295 K) for a Mars composition glass (described by Morris...). The MB parameters for the Mars composition glasses and those for... is an inferred composition for Mars global average soil at the time of Mars Pathfinder. Note that for oxygen... detection of basaltic glass on Mars. Data for GC rock and... transported from Tyrone in the rover wheel wells [Arvidson et al... the Traverse of the Spirit Rover [48] The traverse of Spirit... exposed by the action of rover wheels in soft soil, and... highest SO3 content measured on Mars ($35 wt %) [Ming et al... four times by the Spirit rover [Arvidson et al., 2008] for... in the cowling of the rover wheels. The observed Fe from... marker for aqueous alteration on Mars because it has hydroxide as... wheel cowling of the Spirit rover. High-SiO2 materials are the...¨ssbauer spectrometer on the Spirit rover provided spectra for determination of... D.W.M. acknowledge support of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover Project and the NASA Johnson.... (2006), Overview of the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover Mission to Gusev Crater: Landing.... Arvidson, R. E., et al. (2008), Spirit Mars Exploration Rover mission to Gusev Crater, Columbia... soil and dust: Results from Mars Pathfinder, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 1721... imaging results form the Spirit rover at Gusev Crater, Science, 305... mineralogical and aqueous Mars history derived from OMEGA/Mars Express data, Science... presence of natural glasses on Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 18,719... equivalent in the Columbia Hills, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 112, E06S01, doi... classes observed by the Spirit Rover’s Pancam on the Gusev Crater...), Indication of drier periods on Mars from the chemistry and mineralogy... Martian surface as seen by Mars Express OMEGA: 1. Analysis of the... analyses of orbital and Spirit rover data to characterize surface materials... cratered plains of Gusev Crater, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 112, E12S90, doi... Hill, Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E06S03, doi...-rich basalts at Gusev Crater, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E02S10, doi... the Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E09S91, doi... volcanic rocks in Gusev Crater, Mars: Reconciling Mo¨ssbauer, Alpha Particle... Martian surface as seen by Mars Express OMEGA: 2. H2O content of... Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E02S12, doi... and soils in Gusev Crater, Mars: Results of the Alpha-Particle...), Evidence for pigmentary hematite on Mars based on optical magnetic and...), Mineralogy, composition, and alteration of Mars Pathfinder rocks and soils: Evidence... 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... to human life. These include exploration, national pride, and international prestige... of exploration. A new policy should direct the balance between the Moon, Mars... Exploration Program,” AIAA-2005-2554 (paper presented at the 1st Space Exploration.... NASA, The Vision for Space Exploration (Washington, D.C.: NASA, 2004), http://www... equation for human versus remote exploration require rebalancing? Nations have sent... justifying government expenditures on space exploration. While secondary objectives may or... to human life. Primary Objectives: Exploration Human spaceflight is risky. Seventeen... has been, and should be, exploration. Exploration is a keyword in the Bush... is exploration, and why explore? First, it is worth considering what exploration is not. Some argue that “exploration is in... explore geographically. In addition, space exploration is radically different from the... collectively explore.”25 Moreover, if exploration were simply a matter of finding... space exploration in general, it fails as a justification for human space exploration. What, then, is exploration? Exploration is a human activity..., “Visions of Exploration,” Space Policy 25 (forthcoming). T H E F U T U R E O F H U M A N S PA C E F L I G H T 13 Exploration in the... NASA’s New Vision for Space Exploration (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office, 2004... technological infrastructure for interplanetary · Create exploration and research; stable international partnerships...) Human spaceflight to Mars (2036–2040)61 Space exploration continues to attract... also consistently stress economic benefits, exploration, and the benefits of international... human space exploration will become “essential · The for planetary exploration”; need to... mutual interest,” including “space science, exploration, human spaceflight and other activities... its Aurora Exploration Program, initiated in 2001, which encompasses exploration of the... robotic and human exploration of the solar system, with Mars, the Moon... be guided by “The Global Exploration Strategy,” a framework for international cooperation.... ESA, “ESA—Human Spaceflight and Exploration—ISS Elements,” n.d., http://www .esa... based on some combination of exploration, national pride, and international prestige... objective of U.S. human spaceflight is exploration, however defined, these costs and... technology development that benefits both exploration and unmanned space missions.190... (ISS) (NASA, June 2006), http://exploration .nasa.gov/documents/reports/NASA_Research_and_Utilization_Plan_for_the_ISS... medical countermeasures for NASA’s new exploration efforts.192 Despite this emphasis... exploration needs. The NRC described NASA efforts to align research with exploration... solve exploration problems and reduce crew and mission risks prior to a Mars....194 The ultimate balance of exploration- and nonexploration-related research within... A 2008 NRC study of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program concluded that... lunar missions and to human exploration of Mars is at risk in..., A Constrained Space Exploration Technology Program: A Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program... reduces the uncertainty of future exploration missions, directly supporting primary objectives... balance between immediate goals of exploration systems, basic science, · and nonexploration... to support exploration for both Moon missions and long-duration Mars flights... the exploration program depends on its long-term goals.207 Third, a Mars... Briefing: Altair Overview” (presentation at Exploration Systems Mission Directorate forum, Washington..., “The Mars-Back Approach: Affordable and Sustainable Exploration of the Moon, Mars, and... 17–21, 2005). 208. NASA, “Mars Exploration Rover Mission: The Mission,” n.d., http://marsrovers... F. Crawley, “Affordable Human Moon and Mars Exploration through Hardware Commonality,” AIAA 2005... and Mars and because of the need for developing largely custom Mars exploration... between the Moon, Mars, · · and other destinations in exploration programs. To satisfy... with long-range exploration missions (in particular, human Mars missions). Even if... experience as the core of exploration and exploration as a primary objective of... Mars, make “a direct link between teleoperation of Mars and Moon robots and exploration.”212 Space exploration has always... spacewalkers.213 More recently, the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity have... articulated a vision for extensive remote exploration using rovers as a precursor. What.... Telerobotics, remote presence, and participatory exploration will bring the lunar surface...–127; Zara Mirmalek, “Solar Discrepancies, Mars Exploration and the Curious Problem of... Steven Squyres, Roving Mars: Spirit, Opportunity, and the Exploration of the Red... a reactive mode. Primary objectives of exploration, national pride, and international prestige... in its new exploration initiatives to build a truly global exploration effort. Collaboration...



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.... Chapter 23: Aqueous Alteration on Mars Douglas W. Ming, Richard V. Morris NASA... indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination... alteration have been suggested on Mars. Acid-sulfate weathering (e.g., formation of... aqueous weathering and alteration on Mars and their implications for specific... timing for possible life on Mars. 2. Definitions and Terminology 2.1 Aqueous Alteration... based upon measurements made at Mars. The Mineralogical Alteration Index (MAI..., Mariner, Viking, Phobos, Pathfinder, and Mars Global Surveyor), martian meteorites, and... and lander missions (MER, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express). 4 Ming, Morris, and... Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (Christensen et al... X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner microrover also found... Mars (the MER rovers Spirit and Opportunity, and the Mars Odyssey and Mars... the martian surface. 5.1 Mineralogical Markers 5.1.1 Mars Odyssey: Water Ice, Hydrated Minerals... Athena science payload onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Spirit and Opportunity... l’Activité (OMEGA) instrument onboard the Mars Express orbiter has returned visible.... 6.1. Isochemical vs. Open-System Alteration Mars is a basaltic planet and the... phases on the surface of Mars including (1) Oxidative weathering of ultramafic... by the action of the rover wheels). Another confounding problem with... mineral surfaces in the dry Mars environment. Laboratory simulated acid weathering... synthetic basaltic analogs derived from Mars Pathfinder soil and rock compositions... other poorly crystalline phases on Mars in general. Another potential aqueous... or a limited number of pathways. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data will enhance... next landed mission on Mars is the 2007 Mars Phoenix Scout Mission... indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination... proposed for the surface of Mars. Mars is a basaltic planet, so most... on Mars. Acknowledgements DWM and RVM acknowledge support of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover Project, NASA Mars Fundamental Research Program, and.... (2006) Overview of the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover Mission to Gusev Crater: Landing..., D. (1993) Groundbased imaging spectroscopy of Mars in the near-infrared – preliminary.... (2005) Mars Surface Diversity as Revealed by the OMEGA/Mars Express Observations... mineralogy and aqueous Mars history derived from OMEGA/Mars Express data. Science..., J. L., and E. Murad (1996) Schwertmannite on Mars? Spectroscopic analyses of schwertmannite, its.... 5, 337-58. Blaney, D.L. (2006). The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission. In...: Mineralogical evidence for evaporates on Mars. Meteoritics & Planet. Sci., 34, 407... (1990) Iron-sulfur mineralogy of Mars: Magmatic evolution and chemical weathering... of the 3-µm absorption feature on Mars: Observations over eastern Valles Marineris..., S., Greene, E., Silverman, S., and Greenfield, M. (2001a) Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer...-TES experiment on the Opportunity rover. Science, 306, 1733-1739. Christensen... Gusev crater from the Spirit Rover, Science, 305, 837-842. Clark... compositional equivalent in Columbia Hills, Mars. J. Geophys. Res., 112, doi:10...,067. Clark, R.N, and McCord, T.B. (1982) Mars residual north polar cap: Earth... distribution of neutrons from Mars: Results from Mars Odyssey, Science, 297, 75.... Foley, N., T. Ecomonou, et al., (2007). Mars Pathfinder. This book. Fries, M., Rost...) Physical and chemical weathering. In Mars. H.H. Kielffer, B.M. Jakosky, C.W. Snyder, and M.S. Matthews... soils from the Spirit rover site, Gusev crater, Mars, Nature, 436, 66.... Hunt, G. E., Logan, L. M., and Salisbury, J. W. (1973) Mars: Component of infrared spectra and... Mössbauer Spectrometer on the Opportunity Rover, Science, 306, 1740-1745. 24... North Polar region of Mars detected by OMEGA/Mars Express, Science, 307... rocks analyzed by the Spirit Rover in Gusev crater, Science, 305... the Viking landing sites on Mars, U.S.G.S. Prof. Paper 1389. Moore, H. J., Liebes... and sampling under rocks on Mars, U.S.G.S. Prof. Paper 1081. Morris, R. V., G. Klingelh...) Hematite, pyroxene, and phyllosilicates on Mars: Implications from oxidized impact melt...) Mineralogy, composition, and alteration of Mars Pathfinder rocks and soils: Evidence..., and dust at Meridiani Planum, Mars: Opportunity’s journey across sulfate-rich...) The Opportclassy Rover's Athena Science Investigation at Meridiani Planum, Mars, Science, 306... Planum: Results from the Opportunity rover. Science, 313, 1403-1407. Toon... modeling of evaporation processes on Mars: Insight from the sedimentary record... Spur, Columbia Hills, by Spirit Rover. J. Geophys. Res., 111, E02S16, doi... Valleys and indigenous weathering in Mars meteorites: Implications for water and...; MPF = Mars Pathfinder; MER = Mars Exploration Rovers; MGS = Mars Global Surveyor; MEx = Mars Express; GC... measurements on the surface of Mars $ = primary or secondary phase & = possible... indices to evaluate alteration on Mars. a) Mineralogical Alteration Index (MAI) established...



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... (worldwide) promotes interest in space exploration, research, development and habitation through... the Internetbased teleoperation of Experimental Mars Rover (EMR)-Mawson, a six-wheeled robotic..., Mars Yard, hands-on learning, STEM, technology, engineering Introduction Experimental Mars Rover (EMR... the rover, spot-turn and crab motion in a Mars-like environment called Mars.... Virtual simulations of planetary exploration rovers, such as Rover Analysis, Modelling and... Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space... robotic Mars sample return (MSR). It took 80 years of geological exploration... a major goal in the exploration of Mars soon after the Viking mission... planetary exploration. These conclusions underlie the rationale for NASA’s proposed 2020 rover... Earth. As defined by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) in... issues to do with human exploration, identifying both hazard and resource... missions with the history of exploration of geological successions analogous in... rovers, Mars ascent vehicles, and Mars return orbiters. The proposed 2020 rover mission... Page 85 exploration in the region [22]. European exploration the inland Pilbara... research in support of mineral exploration led to the recognition that... Mars, if present at all [47]. It took ninety years of exploration... exploration. A comparison between the planned performance of the 2020 sample collection rover... 2: Mars rover performance, actual and predicted. Note the disparity between actual rover performance... an ideal location to test exploration concepts and techniques applicable for... the next stage in robotic exploration. It is, however, a caution against... to be met by crewed exploration. Pilbara experience may also indicate... by the martian regolith, as exploration by scientist-astronauts are far...., posted July, 2013, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) at...., posted December, 2011, by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) at... to Mars. Unpublished white paper, 77 p, posted June, 2005 by the Mars Exploration..., J. 2007. A Practical Architecture for Exploration-Focused Manned Mars Missions Using Chemical Propulsion..., B. 2007. Soviet and Russian Luna Exploration. Springer, Berlin, 317p. Proceedings from... future exploration and sample recovery missions. Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, alteration minerals, Mars... field Raman spectrometers in planetary exploration. Future field spectrometers will be... minerals of interest for Martian exploration, present a much bigger challenge. Some... Raman Spectroscopy for Future Planetary Exploration. The Canadian Mineralogist, 2008. 46... spacecraft. There is much less exploration of how swarm technology Page... Summary: Rovers used for Martian exploration have traditionally employed passive suspension... design of the rover and the proposed rover operations in a Mars analogue environment.... 1: The MAMMOTH (Mars Analogue Multi-MOde Traverse Hybrid) Rover. The rover is shown... sites. These include the Sojourner, Mars Exploration Rover and Mars Science Laboratory platforms [1]. Each... example of this is the Mars Exploration Rover “Spirit” getting embedded in soft... able to perform many different exploration and construction tasks. Both rovers... the rover’s operations will be conducted within Sydney’s Powerhouse Museum Mars Yard, a Mars... use in planetary or lunar exploration studies and their potential to..., D. B. Bickler, B. D. Harrington, G. M. Ortiz, and C. J. Voorhees, “Mars Exploration Rover Mobility Development,” IEEE Robotics & Automation... Rocker-Bogie Suspension for the Mars Exploration Rover,” in 37th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium..., A. Wang, J. R. Wright, and A. S. Yen, “Spirit Mars Rover Mission: Overview and selected results..., P. Pirjanian, and E. T. Baumgartner, “Planetary Rover Developments Supporting Mars Exploration, Sample Return and Future..., and N. G. Orr, “The Canadian Mars Exploration Science Rover Prototype,” in Proc. 2012 International... Localisation System for the Experimental Mars Rover Anthony Tompkins∗ , Steven Potiris∗ and... teleoperation missions in the Mars Yard. Keywords: Experimental Mars Rover, Fiducials, IMU, Vision... both on and off-Earth exploration allows the use of such... and research with the Experimental Mars Rover (EMR) platform. Knowledge of a vehicles... Summary: The Experimental Mars Rover (EMR) at the Mars Yard in the Powerhouse... the Mars Yard. Keywords: sation Vision-based Docking, Autonomous Docking, Mars Rover, Terrain... nominal speed of the NASA Mars Exploration Rovers [17]. The time taken..., P. C. and Biesiadecki J. J, “Overview of the mars exploration rovers autonomous mobility and vision..., C.C.; Perez, R., “Sun sensing on the Mars exploration rovers,” IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings..., L., “Stereo vision and rover navigation software for planetary exploration”, Aerospace Conference Proceedings... and autonomous driving on the mars exploration rovers”, Int. Journal of Robotics... Localisation System for the Experimental Mars Rover Anne Unewisse, Andrew Cool, Andrew... Mars Exploration and Sample Return using Dragon: A New low cost paradigm for Mars...



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... liquid propulsion solutions for the exploration needs of the future hinges... nationally competitive and to advancing exploration goals. Cost-effective propulsion development... budgets to accomplish scientific and exploration goals. Marshall Space Flight Center... for historic advancements in space exploration. Building on the past, Marshall... systems for future science and exploration missions, collaborating with other NASA... seriously impact U.S. defense capabilities, space exploration potential, and economic health. Marshall..., land use, Earth observation, scientific exploration, and many other endeavors. The... national security, scientific research, human exploration, and economic growth and development... healthy for future scientific and exploration missions. • Managed execution of a propulsion... technologies online to serve future exploration needs. For current and near... green propellants. For long-term exploration needs, Marshall provides technical risk... the solar system for human exploration will require maturation of nonchemical..., a secondary payload on SLS’s upcoming Exploration Mission 1 test flight, will use... propellants required for long-term exploration missions. CFM utilizes the development... Earth and low-cost interplanetary exploration in the future. Marshall operates..., telecommunications, remote sensing, and planetary exploration. The Center has been involved... as a secondary payload on SLS Exploration Mission 1, will use a solar sail... by Marshall for the Advanced Exploration Systems program, includes participation by... equipment to space, and for exploration missions, resupply from Earth may...-duration missions and sustaining human exploration of other planets where there... success — particularly for human space exploration missions, which by their nature... Space Launch System and other exploration spacecraft, such as landers, rovers... A concept definition studies for space exploration systems. For today’s competitive environment... assessed a habitat for deep space exploration using the SLS. NASA Marshall... transportation systems and elements of exploration and discovery missions, including landers... habitation and crew systems. On exploration and discovery studies, the ACO... designs for scientific and robotic exploration, human exploration, and technology demonstrations. By... habitats, and enabling human exploration of Mars. Mars Sample Return Mission Leveraging the... evaluate the many scientific and exploration missions enabled by the heavy... crucial for future scientific and exploration missions. Collaboratively in the design... Rack (MSRR) Technology development • Advanced exploration systems and space technology projects... a foundational capability for many future exploration goals. NASA’s Marshall Space Flight...; the International Space Station; advanced exploration systems; the Space Technology Program... removal, spacecraft servicing, and asteroid exploration. Very small spacecraft are taking... landers to achieve scientific and exploration goals. NASA’s Robotic Lander Test... landers for future robotic space exploration. The vehicle is a three-legged... achieving the Agency’s scientific and exploration goals. The lander has been...’s future flagship science and human exploration missions. Marshall’s Systems Integration Lab...’s Secondary Payloads onto EM-1 With Exploration Mission-1, SLS will carry not... gather data valuable to future exploration missions. These secondary payloads, about... of robotic and human space exploration missions. Marshall engineers developed payload... data that will benefit future exploration missions. Artist concept of the... the Ground Space research and exploration are increasingly becoming an international... for mission operations for future exploration programs. Marshall is responsible for... operations capabilities for science and exploration missions. As proven by Marshall... Human Exploration of Space Life support is foundational to human exploration of... and is essential for future exploration, the technologies developed have resulted... advancing the Bosch process for exploration, Marshall is partnering with companies...) WRS 5:1 OGS 2.6:1 Enabling Future Human Exploration Missions A challenge for life support..., higher efficiencies, etc.) for human exploration. Marshall’s module simulators allow testing... has two module simulators, the Exploration Test Chamber (E-Chamber) and the... space, whether for commercial or exploration applications, is a key challenge to... by Marshall for NASA’s Human Exploration Office. • Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) — Marshall...’s heat shield after the successful Exploration Test Flight 1 (EFT-1) in December...’s human exploration program planning, whether focused on the Moon, asteroids, or Mars... planetary science missions, including the Mars Exploration Rovers, the Cassini mission to... analysis for human and robotic exploration missions The Center’s planetary scientists... both on the Apollo and Mars Exploration Rover (MER) operation models, where traverse... for future scientific investigations and exploration missions. The Moon’s lack of...