Техника. Mars Exploration Rover. [Редактировать]

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
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22003 Mars Exploration RoversНайтиНайти

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость программы (начальная), млн. долл.2000-01-01657
2Стоимость программы (запрошенная), млн. долл.2007-01-01820
3Стоимость програмы (утвержденная), млн. долл.2001-01-01767
4Стоимость работы с аппаратами (месяц), млн. долл.2.8
5Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2001-08-01697
6Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2002-01-01729
7Прогнозируемая стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.2003-01-01806.3
8Прогнозируемая стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.2003-04-01767

Каталог

#Наименование Дата пуска ×Ракета-носитель ×Космодром ×Страна операторСтрана производительТип
1Opportunity2003-07-08Дельта 2 7925Мыс КанавералСШАСШАКлассы РКТ
2Spirit2003-06-10Дельта 2 7925Мыс КанавералСШАСШАКлассы РКТ

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... ................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 MARS EXPLORATION - PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE ............................................. 3 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.5 2.6 3 MOTIVATION .............................................................................................................................................. 1 MISSION ....................................................................................................................................................... 1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................................................... 1 MARS EXPLORATION OBJECTIVES ......................................................................................................... 3 MARS EXPLORATION POLICIES ............................................................................................................... 3 Past Mars Exploration Policies ................................................................................................................. 4 Current Mars Exploration Policies ........................................................................................................... 4 Interagency Mars Plans ............................................................................................................................. 4 REVIEW OF MARS EXPLORATION ........................................................................................................... 6 Past Mars Missions .................................................................................................................................. 6 Current Mars Missions ............................................................................................................................. 7 Future Mars..., the Principal Investigator of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project when he said... an exploration rover flown to Mars before the 1990s was the Soviet Mars Mini Rover... as the Sojourner rover. The Mars Exploration Laboratory, the most advanced Mars rover built by... success and extension of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, from 90 days....91. BIESIADECKI, J. J. AND MAIMONE, M. W. The Mars Exploration Rover surface mobility flight software: Driving... rocker-bogie suspension for the mars exploration rover. In: 37th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium... August 2011]. NASA, 2011d. Missions - Mars Exploration Rover - Opportunity [online]. NASA Science website... August 2011]. NASA JPL, 2004. Mars Exploration Rover [online]. NASA Facts, Jet Propulsion... been successfully used in NASA‘s Mars Exploration Rover mission involving two rovers, Spirit...



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... spaceflight.......................................................................................................28 Space studies and exploration .....................................................................................35 Technology – implementation and advances... ......................................................................................................256 XVI. Education...................................................................................................................259 XVII. Exploration ................................................................................................................260 Contributors and coordinators………………………………………… .............................................264... importance of commercial spaceflight, Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) successfully completed the... and performance on future space exploration missions. >> Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne received... in astronauts. >> V. SPACE STUDIES AND EXPLORATION V.1. Astronomy and Astrophysics V.1.1 Astronomy and... space exploration topics. Some topics covered navigation, communication and moon exploration. - 56... develop solutions for future space exploration missions including a universal docking interface... to be incorporated on future exploration missions. >> Armadillo Aerospace Armadillo Aerospace... Panel on Exploration (PEX) published a report titled “Toward a Global Space Exploration Programme... - sensing and Earth observation. >> Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) and the National... Space Exploration as the next step towards creating a future European exploration strategy... the programme. These include Mars and Phobos exploration, using the Russian spacecraft... of Human Exploration of Mars to Steve Squyres and the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) team. Squyres is the Principal Investigator for the two Mars Exploration... the Japanese lunar exploration programme. Chang’e 3, a soft lander and rover, and Chang.... II.3 Mars Exploration Recent missions MGS (Mars Global Surveyor), NASA’s mission in Mars orbit... own, Mars Express has also co-operated successfully with NASA’s Mars Exploration rovers, in terms of coordinated scientific observations and to test Mars... discoveries. MER (Mars Exploration rovers), consisting of two identical lander rover missions were... instruments. The findings from the Mars Exploration rovers have largely been reported... heavy as the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, the Mars Science Laboratory... in 2011. For the MEJI (Mars Exploration Joint Initiative), ESA and NASA... to a framework for joint exploration of Mars following the MSL mission, including... system exploration mission involving a Europa - 184 - orbiter and a Jupiter system exploration ending.... In May 2010, the NASA Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity surpassed... colonization of the Moon and exploration of Mars by the year 2020... 80% of all Mars Exploration Rover data has been relayed through Mars Odyssey, as... elliptical orbit. The two NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions (planetary protection Category... space exploration. Many national space agencies are currently defining roadmaps and exploration... create a long-term sustainable space exploration programme involving international cooperation. Apart... a sustainable global space exploration programme. The COSPAR Panel on Exploration (PEX) was... 2010 entitled: ‘Toward a Global Space Exploration Programme: A Stepping Stone Approach’, which... planetary exploration, an International Space Station (ISS) exploitation programme enabling exploration science, an international Cubesat programmes in support of exploration, as... in space exploration and its position within the international space exploration community. Japan’s space policy and the exploration roadmap of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA... in human and scientific exploration of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. During... has been initiated through the Mars Exploration Joint Initiative. This programme provides..., technological and programmatic goals for Mars exploration. Launch opportunities during the 2016...-element Mars sample return mission within the next decade. Europe’s space exploration... future robotic and human exploration of the EarthMoon Mars space. Securing the... coordination enterprise entitled – ‘Towards Human Exploration of Space: a European Strategy’ (THESEUS... Resource Office European Science Foundation Exploration Systems Mission Directorate European Space... Antartctic Research Expedition Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Jacchia-Bowman Thermospheric Density... Mars Radio Science experiment An ESA Mars exploration mission also known as MEX Mars... Spectrometer Mars Climate Sounder Marangoni Experiment in Space Mars Exploration Joint Initiative Mars Exploration Rover MEcury... Background Anisotropies) Planetary Science and Exploration program (India) Proceedings from the...



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...:14+00:00Z Chapter 13 Mars Exploration Rover Pancam Multispectral Imaging of Rocks... Camera (Pancam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity has... and geologic history of the rover landing sites and traverse locations... measurements were performed by the rover instruments, thus supporting and enabling... between Pancam and other rover-based and Mars-orbital instruments that were... of all five successful Mars surface lander/rover missions conducted to date... Camera (Pancam) investigations on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) Spirit at Gussev... Meridiani Planum. Pancam on each rover is a multispectral, panoramic, stereoscopic pair... Basin, leading finally to the exploration of a layered, roughly circular, 80... by Mini-TES or the rover's in situ instruments. Pancam multispectral... the airfall dust on the rover's Magnetic Properties Experiment surfaces and... when the action of the rover's wheels excavated subsurface materials (Figure.... This observation suggests that the rover wheels "scour" and mix the... (e.g., Sullivan et al., 2005). The rover wheels sometimes dislodged materials and... (May 5, 2006), the second MER rover had traversed roughly 7575 meters... layered sedimentary outcrop deposits. The exploration of Endurance proved that the... the crater. From Endurance, the rover began what would ultimately be... more diagnostic measurements from other rover and orbital VNIR instruments. 13... and exciting findings from Opportunity's exploration of Meridiani Planum was the... surface, almost everywhere that the rover traversed, was covered by small... several were investigated with the rover's in situ arm instruments, including... not analyzed geochemically with the rover arm instruments, show a great diversity... and orbital remote sensing of Mars Mars Exploration Rover observations and results in Gusev.... for details). One example from rover observations comes from work by... Meridiani Planum by the Opportunity rover. Of particular interest to this... surface imaging on future Mars lander and rover spacecraft. It is exciting... work was supported by NASA Mars Exploration Rover program grants and contracts to.... (2006a). Overview of the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover mission to Gusev crater: Landing... on analyses of orbital and Mars Exploration Rover data sets. J. Geophys. Res., 111... sky as observed by the Mars Exploration Rover Pancam instruments. J. Geophys. Res., 111... calibration and performance of the Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera (Pancam) Instruments. J. Geophys..., S. W., Herkenhoff, K. E., et al. (2003). The Mars Exploration Rover Athena Panoramic Camera (Pancam) Investigation... imaging results from the Opportunity rover at Meridiani Planum. Science, 306...: a potential tool for planetary surface exploration. Planet. Space. Sci., 50, 11..., J., Dreibus, G., Gellert, R., et al. (2007). Mars Exploration Rovers – Chemical Composition by the...-TES Experiment on the Opportunity Rover. Science, 306, 1733- 1739. Christensen...: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 3, 219-228. Crumpler, L. S., Squyres, S. W., Arvidson, R. E., et al. (2005). Mars Exploration Rover Geologic traverse by the Spirit rover in the Plains of Gusev Crater, Mars. Geology, 33... displaced rocks, Meridiani Planum, Mars by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity: Spectral properties and... rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. JGR Planets Special..., H. H. (2006). Physical properties of the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites as inferred from..., J. F., et al. (2005). Assessment of Mars Exploration Rover landing site predictions. Nature, 436... cratered plains from the Spirit rover traverse. J. Geophys. Res., 111, E02S07... and processes observed by the Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit. J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi... devils in Gusev Crater, Mars: observations from the Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit. J. Geophys. Res... insight from the Mars Express orbiter and the Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit. J. Geophys. Res... detected by the Spirit Rover at Guzev Crater, Mars. Science, 305, 810... of dust deposition on the Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera (Pancam) calibration targets...). Atmospheric Imaging Results from the Mars Exploration Rovers: Spirit and Opportunity. Science..., J. F., Herkenhoff, K. E., et al. (2003). The Mars Exploration Rover Engineering Cameras. J. Geophys. Res., (E12... Meridiani Planum at the Opportunity Rover Landing Site. Science, 306, 1723..., E. T., et al. (2003). The Athena Mars Rover Science Investigation. J. Geophys. Res., 108...). The Spirit Rover’s Athena Science Investigation at Gusev Crater, Mars. Science, 305.... (2006b). Overview of the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover Mission to Meridiani Planum: Eagle.... (2005). Aeolian processes at the Mars Exploration Rover Meridiani Planum landing site. Nature... on dust aerosols from the Mars Exploration Rovers using MGS overflights and... and color contrast between the rover's tracks (albedo around 0.20) and..., showing a natural color view of rover tracks during the traverse from...



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... methods for future in situ exploration of icy bodies, of particular... Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a current robotic exploration rover being deployed to assess Mars habitability. The Rover Sequencing and... for the propagation of the rover across arbitrary terrain specifications. A secondary... of a surface vehicle in robotic exploration missions. Simulation and Design of... 2009 by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). This sensor measures... and Melissa Tanner The Axel rover is a lightweight two-wheeled vehicle... a sampling device for the Axel rover that can efficiently sample loose... exploration orbiters are currently sending back large volumes of images from Mars... scientific interest and allow planetary exploration orbiters to target regions of... Melissa Tanner A key problem in rover exploration missions is that many of... rover is capable of taking and analyzing samples of soil on Mars... these regions. Axel is a minimalistic rover designed for extreme terrains, and... mother system form a four-wheeled rover to efficiently traverse flat ground... requires instrumentation inside the Axel rover. We aim to develop a simple... The objective of future NASA exploration missions is manned in situ... to imagery from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). We... Mars environment allowing the MSL Science Team a means to visualize the rover... of graphene and allows the exploration of a new regime of plasmonics... and Data Analysis for the Exploration of E Protein Binding Patterns and.... This should allow for further exploration of hydrogels and thin films... the NHC. Rover Mobility: Understanding and Refining Simulations of Rover Wheel Interactions... unchanged for decades. As the Mars Exploratory Rover Spirit’s eventual failure due... indicates, the challenge of maintaining rover mobility across these surfaces is... granular materials to simulations of rover interactions with soft-soil surfaces... to be useful for manipulation, exploration and response applications, several important... and call market formats. An Exploration Into Products of Photolysed Diiodomethane... future mechanical devices for space exploration. A measure is needed of how... From the Mars Exploration Rovers Keith Arora-Williams Mentor: J. Nick Benardini Mars-bound rovers such as the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) endure strict...-on-limb rover developed to support the exploration of the Moon, Mars, and... composition identification with the ATHLETE rover. To perform this study, ATHLETE...: Randall Foehner The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity landed on the... August 5th, 2012. Onboard the rover is a Sample Acquisition – Sample Processing... Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a rover which has the ability to...’s top priorities in Solar System exploration. Because all life on Earth... a fundamental role in any space exploration project that needs circuitry to... alloy body of the Axel rover. Early experiments revealed detrimental effects... in a parametric characterization of the rover communication bandwidth and range in... the electronics deemed for space exploration must be able to handle... some cases, such as a rover on Mars, impossible. The Application Specific Integrated... launched Mars rover, designed for the purpose of exploring and studying Mars’ climate... of the state of the rover through information gathered via Engineering... projects requiring magnetic cleanliness requirements. Rover Resizing Project Christopher Matthes Mentor... Unigraphics to physically model the rover mobility with a completely new geometry... obstacle-climbing performance of the rover is dependent on several factors... optimize the geometry. A four-wheeled rover was considered for software development... comprehensive optimization in sizing the rover’s wheel base and wheel radius..., anomaly investigations, and V&V tools. Curiosity Rover: Surface Operations, System Verification, and... Houten The Curiosity Rover, otherwise known as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL... Reliable navigation of an extraterrestrial rover is imperative. Wheel slip and... a rover travels during a commanded movement and its change in orientation. The Mars... visual odometry to determine the rover’s change in position and orientation... animate a virtual model of the rover, which drives over a surface constructed... and sampled Mars, Mars continues to be a focus of space exploration. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group established four goals for Mars exploration: determining... interior, and preparing for human exploration. To work towards these goals... the complexities of the Lunar rover simulation. 181     Using the DARTS... as a standard for the Human Exploration Technology (HET) Project is the... telemetry from ATHELTE, a lunar/asteroid rover currently in development, providing a use... in the future of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program? Recently, there has been... that is ideal for robotic exploration. These microspines are placed in...



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... earlier Mars missions -- Mars Odyssey, the twin Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor... resembles Mars Polar Lander’s more than Viking’s. Mars Polar Lander reached Mars in... from the practice of the Mars Exploration Rover missions, which designated landing sols... relay capabilities of NASA’s Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and with... an international treaty stipulating that exploration must be conducted in a manner... contamination in the process of exploration. NASA has a planetary protection office... be relayed by Mars orbiters. NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter..., which had just arrived at Mars. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter saw that Region... NASA’s Mars Exploration Rovers. The hematite suggested a possible water history. The rover Opportunity.... This “ground truthing” by the rover improves interpretation of current orbiters... caps. This first wave of Mars exploration culminated in the Viking mission...’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity established that rocks in at least one part of Mars... planet. The newest robot at Mars, NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, has returned... it here on Earth, scientific exploration of the red planet can... on Mars -- something that we cannot answer just yet -- scientific exploration of... missions of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. The Phoenix Mars Lander mission, now in... Discovery Program for solar system exploration, for example, has selected 10... vertical structure of clouds. Space exploration requires many types of expertise... on a mission other than a NASA Mars Exploration Program mission. Alian Wang of... principal investigators, reporting to the Mars Exploration Program managed for NASA by...’s Mars Exploration Program is working to establish a sustained observational presence at Mars. This... Space Exploration, these missions of discovery foresee human exploration of the moon, Mars... future Mars missions of exploration by NASA and its international partners: q Mars Pathfinder.... This lander released its Sojourner rover on the Martian surface and... on the lander and the rover. The information included more than... and seven days for the rover. q Mars Global Surveyor (November 1996 - November... the landing area for NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity; laseraltimeter mapping of many... the Mars Exploration Rover missions. It also served as a communications relay for the Mars Exploration Rovers during and after their landings. 42 q Mars Odyssey... potential landing sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers and for Phoenix. Relays... planned for use by Phoenix. q Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (June 2003 - present): Spirit.... Together, they make up NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover project. Spirit is exploring inside... strewn with loose rocks. The rover found that the rocks on... sulfate salts. q Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity (July 2003 - present): This rover was sent to... the next few weeks, the rover’s examination of that outcrop settled... favorable to microbial life, the rover will analyze dozens of samples... to be carried inside the rover. Instruments have been selected that... human landing systems. q Additional Mars Scouts: Mars Scouts are competitively proposed, moderate...-class” strategic missions of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. Phoenix is the first... planning this mission to put a rover on the surface and a data... could be part of the rover’s scientific payload. ExoMars is being... of the Vision for Space Exploration, NASA has also begun development... enable future human exploration missions to 44 the moon, Mars and beyond... will include the Orion crew exploration vehicle and the Ares 1 crew... in supporting NASA’s long-term exploration goals -- including preparing humans and... for someday venturing to Mars. Meanwhile, the Mars scientific robotic program will.../62, Mars flyby, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 1: USSR, 11/1/62, Mars flyby.../71, Mars lander, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 2: USSR, 5/19/71, Mars orbiter... photos Mars 4: USSR, 7/21/73, failed Mars orbiter, flew past Mars 2/10/74 Mars 5: USSR, 7/25/73, Mars orbiter, arrived 2/12/74, lasted a few days Mars... Phobos Mars Observer: U.S., 9/25/92, lost just before Mars arrival 8/21/93 Mars Global Surveyor: U.S., 11/7/96, Mars orbiter..., launch vehicle failed Mars Pathfinder: U.S., 12/4/96, Mars lander and rover, landed 7/4/97, last transmission 9/27/97 Nozomi: Japan, 7/4/98, Mars... relay for Mars Exploration Rovers Mars Express/Beagle 2: European Space Agency, 6/2/03, Mars orbiter... arrival 12/25/03 Mars Exploration Rover Spirit: U.S., 6/10/03, Mars rover, landed 1/4/04 for..., currently conducting extended mission Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity: U.S., 7/7/03, Mars rover, landed 1/25/04 for... is Mars program director, Michael Meyer is lead scientist for the Mars Exploration Program, Karen McBride is program executive for Mars Scouts...



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... earlier Mars missions -- Mars Odyssey, the twin Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor... resembles Mars Polar Lander’s more than Viking’s. Mars Polar Lander reached Mars in... from the practice of the Mars Exploration Rover missions, which designated landing sols... relay capabilities of NASA’s Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and with... an international treaty stipulating that exploration must be conducted in a manner... contamination in the process of exploration. NASA has a planetary protection office... be relayed by Mars orbiters. NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter..., which had just arrived at Mars. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter saw that Region... NASA’s Mars Exploration Rovers. The hematite suggested a possible water history. The rover Opportunity.... This “ground truthing” by the rover improves interpretation of current orbiters... caps. This first wave of Mars exploration culminated in the Viking mission...’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity established that rocks in at least one part of Mars... planet. The newest robot at Mars, NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, has returned... it here on Earth, scientific exploration of the red planet can... on Mars -- something that we cannot answer just yet -- scientific exploration of... missions of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. The Phoenix Mars Lander mission, now in... Discovery Program for solar system exploration, for example, has selected 10... vertical structure of clouds. Space exploration requires many types of expertise... on a mission other than a NASA Mars Exploration Program mission. Alian Wang of... principal investigators, reporting to the Mars Exploration Program managed for NASA by...’s Mars Exploration Program is working to establish a sustained observational presence at Mars. This... Space Exploration, these missions of discovery foresee human exploration of the moon, Mars... future Mars missions of exploration by NASA and its international partners: q Mars Pathfinder.... This lander released its Sojourner rover on the Martian surface and... on the lander and the rover. The information included more than... and seven days for the rover. q Mars Global Surveyor (November 1996 - November... the landing area for NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity; laseraltimeter mapping of many... the Mars Exploration Rover missions. It also served as a communications relay for the Mars Exploration Rovers during and after their landings. 42 q Mars Odyssey... potential landing sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers and for Phoenix. Relays... planned for use by Phoenix. q Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (June 2003 - present): Spirit.... Together, they make up NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover project. Spirit is exploring inside... strewn with loose rocks. The rover found that the rocks on... sulfate salts. q Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity (July 2003 - present): This rover was sent to... the next few weeks, the rover’s examination of that outcrop settled... favorable to microbial life, the rover will analyze dozens of samples... to be carried inside the rover. Instruments have been selected that... human landing systems. q Additional Mars Scouts: Mars Scouts are competitively proposed, moderate...-class” strategic missions of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. Phoenix is the first... planning this mission to put a rover on the surface and a data... could be part of the rover’s scientific payload. ExoMars is being... of the Vision for Space Exploration, NASA has also begun development... enable future human exploration missions to 44 the moon, Mars and beyond... will include the Orion crew exploration vehicle and the Ares 1 crew... in supporting NASA’s long-term exploration goals -- including preparing humans and... for someday venturing to Mars. Meanwhile, the Mars scientific robotic program will.../62, Mars flyby, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 1: USSR, 11/1/62, Mars flyby.../71, Mars lander, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 2: USSR, 5/19/71, Mars orbiter... photos Mars 4: USSR, 7/21/73, failed Mars orbiter, flew past Mars 2/10/74 Mars 5: USSR, 7/25/73, Mars orbiter, arrived 2/12/74, lasted a few days Mars... Phobos Mars Observer: U.S., 9/25/92, lost just before Mars arrival 8/21/93 Mars Global Surveyor: U.S., 11/7/96, Mars orbiter..., launch vehicle failed Mars Pathfinder: U.S., 12/4/96, Mars lander and rover, landed 7/4/97, last transmission 9/27/97 Nozomi: Japan, 7/4/98, Mars... relay for Mars Exploration Rovers Mars Express/Beagle 2: European Space Agency, 6/2/03, Mars orbiter... arrival 12/25/03 Mars Exploration Rover Spirit: U.S., 6/10/03, Mars rover, landed 1/4/04 for..., currently conducting extended mission Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity: U.S., 7/7/03, Mars rover, landed 1/25/04 for... is Mars program director, Michael Meyer is lead scientist for the Mars Exploration Program, Karen McBride is program executive for Mars Scouts...



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... and is extensible to Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD... Mission Directorate (SMD) for robotic exploration. Fission Power Systems (FPS) have... development in support of Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD... hold the possibility of furthering exploration goals for several mission directorates... robotic scientific missions for planetary exploration has been a “given” for over... Defense Initiative (SDI) and Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) [10–12]. 5 Power... and the age of space exploration had their origins in World... and is extensible to Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD... Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD... being high priorities for planetary exploration by the decadal survey. The... and the associated science or exploration returns, the MST developed DRMs... missions to potential human exploration missions to Mars. The MST also analyzed... science mission classes. For Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD... Enabling and Extending Future Space Exploration” (RPS-RPT-0121, JPL D-81712... Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate to... mission to land on Mars, the Curiosity Mars rover, uses eight GPHS modules... thruster fuel during planetary space exploration missions and some Earth-orbiting... tremendous strides in our country’s exploration and use of space since..., Saturnian, and outer solar system exploration missions. One mission (SNAPSHOT in... many of the solar system exploration missions using RHUs [126–132... Apr 69 APOLLO 11 Lunar exploration Jul 69 SNAP-19B3 (2/40... 12 Lunar exploration Nov 69 APOLLO 13 Lunar exploration Apr 70 SNAP... 14 Lunar exploration Jan 71 APOLLO 15 Lunar exploration Jul 71 PIONEER 10 Solar system Mar 72 exploration APOLLO 16 Lunar exploration Mar 72 TRIAD... Lunar exploration Dec 72 PIONEER 11 Solar system Apr 73 exploration VIKING 1 Mars exploration Aug 75 VIKING 2 Mars exploration Sep 75 LES... 77 exploration VOYAGER 1 Solar system Sep 77 exploration GALILEO Jovian Oct 89 exploration... terminated 2009 Successfully placed on Mars; rover ceased ops in 1997 Successfully... Mars; still operational NIMBUS B-1 Meteorological Solar polar exploration MARS Mars rover PATHFINDER exploration CASSINI Saturnian exploration MER-A Mars rover (Spirit) exploration MER-B Mars rover (Opportunity) exploration NEW Pluto/Kuiper Belt HORIZONS Exploration MSL Mars rover (Curiosity) exploration... (hot-air “balloon”)-approaches to exploration, for which mass is at... upon the exact Mars human system architectures and exploration strategy selected, the... reactor concept for a Mars lander/rover, the Heatpipe-Operated Mars Exploration Reactor (HOMER) using... kg [196]. The notional rover: Mars Atomic Rover for Geographic Exploration (MARGE) had a total... Administration CHRISTOPHER MOORE, NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate CHERYL... Laboratory JOHN W. WARREN, NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate Study... Geostationary Transfer Orbit HEOMD Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate HEU... Antenna HOMER Heat pipe-Operated Mars Exploration Reactor HQ Headquarters HSD Heliophysics... Area MARGE Mars Atomic Rover for Geographic Exploration MAV Mars Ascent Vehicle MAX-C Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher MC&A Material Control and Accountability MER Mars Exploration Rover MLI... Defense Power Systems SEI Space Exploration Initiative SEP Solar Electric Propulsion... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration, The National Academies Press, Washington..., Dynamic power for defense and exploration: a look at the Department of... Administration (NASA) Mars Architecture Steering Group, Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture... Administration (NASA) Mars Architecture Steering Group, Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture... Administration (NASA) Mars Architecture Steering Group, Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture... Enabling and Extending Future Space Exploration, RPS–RPT–0121 (JPL D–81712... Stirling Radioisotope Generator for Space Exploration, NASA/TM—2007-214806, NASA...-power fission reactor for space exploration power systems, in: Proceedings of... system for science and human exploration, in: Proceedings of the 12... Propulsion Safety for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), NASA TM–105705...: a key enabling technology for planetary exploration, in: Proceedings of the Institution... Concept for a Nuclear Reactor-­‐Powered Mars Rover, AIP Conference Proceedings 654 (2003...



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... Mars Mars Quarterly Quarterly www.MarsSociety.org 1 IN THIS ISSUE Together to Mars... Killian............ 7 NASA’s Vision for Next Mars Rover is “2020” Jason Rhian......... 9 Chapter... understanding of the importance of Mars exploration and the need for a long... about the Mars Society and the latest news about Mars exploration and planning for humans-to-Mars by joining... The Mars Quarterly 2 Volume 5, Issue 2 Together to Mars Robert Zubrin Mars Society President... word” about the importance of Mars exploration, his ‘Mars Direct’ plan for human.... But a joint Russian-American human Mars exploration program would allow Russia to... audiences and the press on Mars exploration. It was very clear to... 2013 EuroMars Conference a Great Success Mars exploration was front and center in..., NASA’s future plans for robotic Mars exploration? Dr. Green: We’ve worked... ESA will launch the ExoMars rover. We’re providing part of.... We’re also planning a new rover mission in 2020 that’s modeled.... TMQ: What about human exploration of Mars? How likely is it that.... That’s the first major human exploration testing system. These are our..., I truly believe that, for human exploration to be feasible, we need.... TMQ: Regarding the Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), can... expanding the realm of human exploration and science. Our next big... next steps for science and exploration. The institute is about bringing... APM Association Planète Mars (APM), the Mars Society’s French chapter, announced... their own missions (Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter). Two... The Mars Quarterly. The Mars Quarterly 8 Volume 5, Issue 2 NASA’s Vision for Next Mars Rover is “2020” NASA Jason Rhian By all measures, NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, has been.... The rover, which for now is simply called the 2020 Mars Rover, has... decision to build yet another rover similar to Curiosity. The way... with it. As the Mars 2020 rover will be following in the... will be part of the rover’s backpack, NASA is still working... proposals for what instruments the Mars 2020 rover will bring with it... defining the objectives of the Mars 2020 rover mission They were, in... ones who would develop the rover’s core mission, keeping in mind.... NASA has stated that the Mars 2020 rover’s primary mission will be... the rover will also demonstrate technologies which could enable future human exploration missions to Mars. How this will be accomplished is unclear. “The Mars... by the rover’s instruments also would expand our knowledge of Mars and... the 2020 Mars Rover is assigned, one thing is clear: the Mars 2020... experience in conducting Mars rover operations. When the 2020 Mars Rover sets down on... with the 1993 Mars Pathfinder mission, the first rover to be sent... Planet. Then came the “twin” Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, which... Mars was not always as we see it today. The 2020 Mars Rover... Mars’ atmosphere has been shaped throughout the planet’s life. The 2020 Mars Rover... a regular contributor to The Mars Quarterly. The Mars Quarterly 10 Volume 5, Issue... of the Mars Society LA chapter is three-fold – Mars Outreach, Mars Forum and LA Space Activities. Mars Outreach is... Mars exploration and inspire the next generation of engineers, scientists and explorers. Mars... history of Mars and the limitless possibilities of future Mars exploration. The Rotary... development of NASA’s MSL rover. This was Mars Society LA’s first membership... for MSL Curiosity and Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity at The Mars Quarterly www.MarsSociety...: mars-la@ marssociety.org. Mars Society Appoints New Volunteer Coordinator The Mars Society... a long-time proponent of Mars and space exploration with a strong professional background... Mars exploration and planning for a humans-to-Mars mission,” said Michael Stoltz, the Mars... groups, including the Mars Society, formed the Space Exploration Alliance (SEA) to... support for NASA and space exploration. The 2014 SEA Legislative Blitz... demonstrate what a powerful force space exploration can be in inspiring young... (two each) by the Mars Society, Inspiration Mars and NASA. The presentations... international collaboration for the peaceful exploration of space. The World Space... Mars analogue research demonstrations, including an analog expedition at the Mars Society’s Mars... about the future of space exploration, excite children about learning and... the benefits of Mars exploration to society and foster international exploration in space...’t miss Mission to Mars: My Vision for Space Exploration, which David co... furthering the goal of the exploration and settlement of the Red... of pioneering Mars, support of ever more aggressive government funded Mars exploration programs around the world, and conducting Mars exploration on a private basis. THE MARS...) __ On to Mars 1 __ On to Mars 2 __ Mars Songs CD __ How to Live on Mars Membership...



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... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration Radioisotope Power Systems Committee, National... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration Radioisotope Power Systems Committee Space... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog...) A Constrained Space Exploration Technology Program: A Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program... (SSB, 2008) Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program: An Interim...) An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars (SSB with the Board..., 2007) Grading NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (SSB, 2007... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... and maintaining U.S. leadership in the exploration of the solar system. Continued... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... 1 1 THE PROBLEM 5 2 BACKGROUND Why Space Exploration?, 7 Why Radioisotope Power Systems?, 7 Why... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... Contribution to Space Science and Exploration Missions, 10 3-1 3-2 NASA’s Demand for... E-1 Radioisotope Power Systems for Space Exploration, 58 FIGURES S-1 Potential 238Pu demand... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... to the U.S. space science and exploration program. Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... to learn from continued space exploration. Spacecraft require electrical energy. This... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... 2 provides background information on space exploration, the case for using RPSs... Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12653.html 2 Background WHY SPACE EXPLORATION? From its very beginning, the exploration of space has... the space exploration efforts of the United States. Why is Mars bone... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog..., meteorology, communications, and exploration of the Moon, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and... rover. Over the longer term, RPSs are expected to support continued exploration of extreme environments of the Moon, Mars, and Venus... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for long-duration, deep-space exploration missions (see Appendix D). Plutonium-238... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... enable or significantly enhance space exploration. This policy reaffirms DOE’s role... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration http://www.nap.edu/catalog... schedule requirements. Space science and exploration missions and spacecraft design vary... not RPSs (e.g., the Mars Pathfinder mission and the Mars Exploration Rover A and B missions).12... to the U.S. space science and exploration program. FINDING. Plutonium-238 Supply... sustain the U.S. space science and exploration program. FINDING. Roles and Responsibilities... ambitious national goals in space exploration; • Strategies for re-establishment of... New Opportunities in Solar System Exploration (2007-2008). DOUGLAS M. ALLEN, the... the Development Division of NASA’s Exploration Systems Directorate. He retired again... (LES) 8 & 9, Voyager 1 & 2, Galileo, Ulysses, Mars Pathfinder, Cassini, Mars Exploration Rover (MER) A & B, and Pluto-New... E-1 Radioisotope Power Systems for Space Exploration Heat (W) Maximum Fuel Used (kg...



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... Abstract Mars has been the focus of robotic space exploration since the... (Viking), drills (Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity), and grinders (Mars Exploration Rovers). Through... surface represented the birth of Mars surface exploration, and since then over... is implicit in the surface exploration of Mars, not only to answer...) instrument on board the two Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) Spirit and Opportunity... Martian surface is vital for exploration and will continue to form... the four decades of space exploration. Some of the earliest cameras... “hazcams” on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) and MSL rover, as these have... expose the instruments, plus a tethered rover; “Prop-M” [Perminov, 1999]. In addition... after a long hiatus in surface exploration until the NASA Pathfinder... a static lander with a small mobile rover (“Sojourner”). The static lander not..., multispectral camera systems in the exploration of Mars. The Surface Stereo Imager... Pancam Calibration Target (PCT) and Rover Inspection Mirror (RIM) WACs 200...). (b) Artist concept of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover, cropped to show Pancam positioned... 40 m [Euler et al., 2001]. 2.4. Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera Following the successful... benefits of a mobile rover to Mars exploration, larger rovers were developed with... [Crisp et al., 2003]. The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity were... Opportunity rover. (d) MSL Curiosity’s first powdered drill sample within the rover’s scoop...) showing the newly deployed Sojourner rover (PIA01551; courtesy of NASA/JPL... 4f). 2.6. Mars Science Laboratory Mastcam The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity is the most technically advanced Mars rover... Curiosity rover is a departure from the configuration used for previous Mars... employed by previous missions, particularly exploration rovers. Specifically, InSight is... rover currently under development by ESA in collaboration with Roscosmos. The rover... al., 2015]. 3.3. Mars2020 The Mars2020 rover will carry the Mastcam-Z camera... design for the 2018 ExoMars rover (courtesy of M. Gunn, Aberystwyth University... robotic field geology on Mars since surface exploration began four decades ago... human “eyes on the ground” exploration, it provides an unprecedented window..., and C. L. Stanley (2006), Processing of Mars Exploration Rover imagery for science and operations... with UV excitation (HyperCLUPI) for Mars exploration, European Planetary Science Congress 2014.... Bell, J. F. III, et al. (2003), Mars Exploration Rover Athena panoramic camera (Pancam) investigation... imaging results from the Opportunity Rover at Meridiani Planum, Science, 306... sky as observed by the Mars Exploration Rover Pancam instruments, J. Geophys. Res., 111... calibration and performance of the Mars Exploration Rover panoramic camera (Pancam) instruments, J. Geophys... multispectral imaging on the Mars Science Laboratory rover: Wavelength coverage and imaging... multispectral investigation on the NASA Mars-2020 Rover, International Workshop on Instrumentation... Thermal Emission Spectrometer for the Mars Exploration Rovers, J. Geophys. Res., 108(E12...), Mars Exploration Rover mission, J. Geophys. Res., 108(E12), 8061, doi:10.1029/2002JE002038. MARS... rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, J. Geophys. Res., 112... Cape York, Endeavour crater, Mars by the Opportunity rover’s Pancam, Icarus, 225... science cameras aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Opt. Eng., 48(10... detected by the Spirit rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, Science, 305, 810... and processes observed by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E02S09...), Context for the ESA ExoMars rover: The panoramic camera (Pancam) instrument... (2003), Lunar and Planetary Robotic Exploration missions in the 20th century... observed by Pancam on the Mars Exploration Rovers: 1. Spirit, J. Geophys. Res., 111... observed by Pancam on the Mars Exploration Rovers: 2. Opportunity, J. Geophys. Res., 111... of Soviet Lunar and Planetary Exploration—Volume 47 Science and Technology... (2007), Dust deposition on the Mars Exploration Rover panoramic camera (Pancam) calibration targets...), Atmospheric imaging results from the Mars exploration rovers: Spirit and Opportunity, Science... optical depth record over 5 Mars years of the Mars Exploration Rover mission, Icarus, 251...-9882-4. Maki, J. N., et al. (2003), Mars Exploration Rover engineering cameras, J. Geophys. Res., 108... instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover: Science objectives and... difficult road to Mars: A brief history of Mars Exploration in the Soviet... particle X-ray spectrometer for the Mars Exploration Rovers, J. Geophys. Res., 108(E12... al. (2008), Meteorites on Mars observed with the Mars Exploration Rovers, J. Geophys. Res...), Optical designs for the Mars ’03 rover cameras, in Current Developments in... al. (2009), Exploration of Victoria Crater by the Mars Rover Opportunity, Science, 324... testbed: For planetary surface geophysical exploration, In Aerospace Conference, 2013 IEEE...