Спутник ФКИ. Mars Express. [Редактировать]

Автоматическая межпланетная станция Европейского космического агентства, предназначенная для изучения Марса. Космический аппарат состоял из орбитальной станции — искусственного спутника Марса и спускаемого аппарата с автоматической марсианской станцией «Бигль-2». 

Измерения при помощи созданных российскими учёными совместно с западноевропейскими коллегами приборов позволили получить ряд важных научных результатов, многие из которых только готовятся к научным публикациям. В том числе восстановление структуры атмосферы с высокой точностью от поверхности до высот 100—150 км и её температурного профиля до 50—55 км. Впервые одновременно измерено содержание и построены карты распределения водяного пара и озона в атмосфере. Обнаружено ночное свечение моноксида азота, известного на Венере, но не наблюдавшегося ранее на Марсе. Открыты мельчайшие аэрозольные частицы, заполняющие атмосферу планеты до высот 70—100 км. Впервые обнаружен водяной лёд в южной полярной шапке в конце марсианского лета. Карты, построенные по данным прибора OMEGA с разрешением 1—3 км, показывают, что участки водяного льда находятся на краях более обширных областей замёрзшей углекислоты. Толщина её слоя не превышает нескольких метров, а под ним — захороненный слой водяного льда, возможно по мощности эквивалентный северной полярной шапке, полностью состоящей из водяного льда с небольшой (менее 1 %) примесью пыли. Прибором OMEGA проведено также минералогическое картирование значительной части планеты, и, при существенном разнообразии минерального состава, карбонаты (соли угольной кислоты) обнаружены не были. Они широко распространены на Земле и именно в их залежах, а не в живом веществе, каменном угле и нефти, сосредоточено основное количество углерода на нашей планете. Таким образом, данные «Mars Express» не подтверждают наличия запасов СО2 на Марсе, достаточных для существенных изменений массы его атмосферы, и соответственно, преобразования климата планеты. «Марс-экспресс» обнаружил в атмосфере Марса метан, что может свидетельствовать о наличии жизни на планете (метан не может долго находится в марсианской атмосфере, следовательно его запасы пополняются либо в результате жизнедеятельности микроорганизмов, либо вследствие геологической активности). Было определено и его содержание — 10±5 частей на миллиард. Конечно, это немного, но так как метан непрерывно разрушается в атмосфере за счёт фотодиссоциации, то для поддержания такого его количества в атмосфере на Марсе должен быть источник производительностью порядка 300 тонн метана в год. Таким источником могла бы быть тектоническая деятельность, Марс, считается тектонически неактивным в настоящее время, однако поступление метана в атмосферу может быть связано с «точечной» тектоникой: остаточным вулканизмом, либо геотермальной активностью. Благодаря снимкам косморобота учёные смогли сконструировать и представить трёхмерные модели марсианских ландшафтов. Станция обнаружила плотные облака из сухого льда, которые отбрасывают тень на поверхность планеты и даже влияют на её климат.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1Mars Express OrbiterНайтиНайти
2Beagle 2НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - Европа
3Страна производитель - Европа

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12003-06 - 2003-07. Отказ привел к уменьшению энергии аппарата на 30 процентовТэги: Mars Express
22011-10 - 2011-11. Проблемы с системой хранения информации; научное использование завершеноТэги: Mars Express
32014-12-17. Российские ученые из Института космических исследований ИКИ РАН и МФТИ совместно с французскими и американскими коллегами составили «карту» распределения водяного пара в атмосфере Марса и проследили за сезонными колебаниями его концентрации с помощью данных, собранных за десять лет российско-французским спектрометром SPICAM на борту зонда «Марс-Экспресс». Это самый длительный период наблюдений и самый большой объем данных об атмосферной воде на Марсе. Первоначально прибор SPICAM (Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars) создавался для российского марсианского зонда «Марс-96». Новая существенно переработанная версия инструмента была создана при участии ИКИ в рамках соглашения между Роскосмосом и французским космическим агентством CNES по проекту марсианского зонда «Марс-Экспресс». Этот аппарат 2 июня 2003 года был запущен с космодрома Байконур с помощью российской ракеты-носителя «Союз» с разгонным блоком «Фрегат». В конце декабря 2003 года «Марс-Экспресс» вышел на околомарсианскую орбиту и с тех пор успешно работает, собирая данные о планете и ее окрестностях.Тэги: Mars ExpressИКИ РАНМФТИ
42014-12-18. Миссия Mars Express продлена до конца 2018 годаТэги: Mars Express
52015-01-16. Посадочный модуль Beagle-2, который был потерян во время миссии Mars Express Европейского Космического агентства в 2003 году, был найден на снимках, полученных аппаратом NASA. Beagle-2 отстыковался от основного аппарата 19 декабря 2003 года, спустя 6 дней он должен был совершить посадку на Красной планете.Тэги: Mars Express
62017-08-04. Serco получила $46 млн контракт от ЕКА на предоставление научных и инженерных услуг.
Британский аутсорсинговый гигант Serco выиграл 39.1 млн евро контракт ($46 млн) на предоставление научных и инжиниринговых услуг в интересах Европейского Космического Агенства. Как заявил поставщик услуг, контракт покрывает работы в 16 направлениях и включает инженерию, оптику, космические науки, робототехнику, навигацию, системы анализа больших данных и т.п. Над контрактом будет работать около 120 человек и работы будут охватывать такие ключевые сферы как навигационную систему Галилео, орбитальный аппарат Mars Express, BepiColombo и т.п. Тэги: SercoЕвропейское космическое агентствоНавигационная система ЕвропыMars Express

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг1123
2Масса (сухая), кг666
3Мощность, Вт460

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС, месяц11

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2003-022A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.310
2Оператор Европейское космическое агентство

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром Байконур
2Дата пуска2003-06-02 at 17:45:00 UTC
3Полезная нагрузка 1xMars Express
4Ракета-носитель 1xСоюз-ФГ

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Mars Express». [Перейти к поиску]


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... installed aboard the Mars Express and Venus Express ESA spacecrafts. The Mars Express SC is operational in the orbit around Mars since 2004. The Mars Express... [Markiewicz et al., 2007]. Venus Express observations include the monitoring of... InfraRed) suite on board Venus Express consists of three independent spectral...; 2009]. Many results of the Mars Express experiments are summarized in a special... of studies following the Venus Express investigations, the current Report by... Mars-Express orbiter allows better understanding of these interactions. 2.1 Study of the Mars..., SPICAM, OMEGA) onboard of the Mars Express orbiter, which measure water vapour... the first half of 2004 Mars Express experiments operated simultaneously with TES... the analysis of the SPICAM/Mars Express data, significant differences in the... on a local scale with OMEGA/Mars Express data The behaviour of the... of water vapour from SPICAM/Mars Express solar occultations The knowledge of... of the aerosol from SPICAM/Mars Express solar occultations Studies of the... al., 2009]. Interpretation of OMEGA/Mars Express limb scan measurements Work on... their presence. Ozone on Mars from SPICAM/Mars Express data The study of... in the atmosphere of Mars from OMEGA/Mars Express data 2D maps of... the Martian atmosphere from PFS / Mars Express data Carbon monoxide is another... SPICAM limb profiles observed from Mars Express at Ls = 166° during the... of Venus atmosphere before Venus Express mission). The raised concentration of... in Venus atmosphere by Venus Express orbiter suggests a modification in present... a typical spectrum of VIRTIS/Venus Express (lower plots). Limb Venus spectrum... the night airglow (0– Ɉ 2 (a – X) from Venus Express orbiter allowed to reach high... quenching. VIRTIS observations from Venus Express allow systematic study of such... preliminary analysis of VIRTIS / Venus Express thermal sounding data Data of... atmosphere of Venus Different Venus Express observations have been considered in... Planetary Fourier Spectrometer on Venus Express was a monitoring of the temperature... preliminary analysis of VIRTIS / Venus Express thermal sounding data Data of... atmosphere of Venus Different Venus Express observations have been considered in... Planetary Fourier Spectrometer on Venus Express was a monitoring of the temperature... planetary missions, in partcular Venus Express and Mars Express. The work of these.... It is estimated that the Mars Express propellant will be sufficient for... to the payload of Mars Express and Venus Express projects and operation support... B., Stern A., Gérard J.C. SPICAV on Venus Express: Three spectrometers to study the... in the atmosphere of Mars with PFS onboard Mars Express // Planetary and Space...–223. 15.Chicarro A., Witasse O.G., Rossi A.P. Mars Express: Summary of Scientific Results // ESA... using OMEGA and PFS aboard Mars Express // Astron. Astrophys. 2008. V.484. P.547... with the OMEGA spectrometer onboard Mars Express // Solar System Research. 2009. V.43... by the SPICAM experiment on MarsExpress: Simultaneous observations of H2O, CO2... SOIR spectrometer on board Venus Express // J. Geophys. Res. 2008. V.113. P.E00B22... M., Maturilli A., Encrenaz T. Martian water vapour: Mars Express PFS/LW observations // Icarus. 2007... as observed by VIRTIS–Venus Express // J. Geophys. Res. 2010. V. 115. P. E09007... cloud tops from the Venus Express observations // J. Geophys. Res. 2009. V.114.... 53.Korablev O. Atmospheric water from Mars Express experiments //37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly... Seen by SPICAM/MarsExpress // Seventh International Conference on Mars, held July 9–13... from SOIR on board Venus Express: Retrieval technique // J. Geophys. Res. 2010... Acousto optical tunable filter // Optics Express. 2009. V.17. No. 3. P.2005–2014... the OMEGA mapping spectrometer onboard Mars Express // Icarus. 2011. in press. 75... K.D. Venus Monitoring Camera for Venus Express // Planet. Space Sci. 2007. V. 55... vapour 293 mapping on Mars using OMEGA/Mars Express // Planet. Space Sci. 2007... regions of Mars, based on IR mapping spectrometer OMEGA onboard Mars Express // Cosmic... VIRTIS–M experiment of the Venus Express mission // Cosmic Research 2010, V.48.... Svedhem H., Titov D., Taylor F., Witasse O. Venus Express mission // J. Geophys. Res. 2009. V.114... J., Fabrega J., Schirmann T., Clochet A., Coradini M. Venus Express — The first European mission to... Science experiment VeRa on Venus Express // J. Geophys. Res. 2009. V.114. P. E00B36... A., Sweeney M., Trillard D., Janvier M., Clochet A. Venus Express science planning // Planet. Space Sci... J., Fabrega J., Schirmann T., Clochet A., Coradini M. Venus Express: Scientific goals, instrumentation, and scenario... A., Sanchez-Lavega A., Helbert J., Hoofs R. Venus express: Highlights of the nominal mission... water vapour on Mars with PFS/SW of Mars Express // Icarus. 2008. V.195... at Infrared on board Venus Express // J. Geophys. Res. 2008. V.113. P. E00B23... the Limb Measurements of the Mars Express OMEGA Spectrometer // Solar Syst. Res...



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... 15 & 16, Galileo, Magellan, Venus Express, MESSENGER Erde Galileo, SIR-C/X-SAR... 1 & 2, Mars Phobos, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rover 1 & 2, Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance... zum Mars durch die aktuellen Aufnahmen der europäischen Sonde Mars Express, an... abgeschlossenen (z.B. Galileo, Mars Pathfinder, Deep Space 1), aktuellen (Mars Express, Venus Express, Cassini, Rosetta... 2003 gestartete europäische Mission Mars Express besteht aus einem Orbiter und... auf der Basis der bereits für Mars Express und Rosetta eingesetzten Kameras am... mit dem Start von Venus Express am 9. November 2005 die Erkundung... des Mars Express-Orbiters. Zudem wurden einige Ersatzmodelle von Instrumenten der Missionen Mars Express... 11. April 2006 trat Venus Express in den Orbit um den... 8.6.9.1. Mars Exploration Rover Spirit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 8.6.9.2. Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 8.6.10. Mars Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 8.6.11. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 8.6.12. Phoenix Mars Lander... Bildmaterial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263 14.3.1. Pluto-Kuiper-Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263 Bestandsverzeichnis 2009 x 14.4. 15... z.B. Europa mit der sehr erfolgreichen Mars Express-Mission, die seit Ende 2003...flug 2015). Die Sonde Venus Express befindet sich nun bereits... Missionen Mars Surveyor 2001 und 2003 Künstlerische Darstellung: mögliche Landesonde von Mars Express (© ESA) Künstlerische Darstellung: mögliche Landesonde von Mars Express (© ESA) Mars Express im Orbit um Mars... Mars Express am Mars über den Valles Marineris, künstlerische Darstellung Mars Express im Orbit um Mars und Lander Beagle II auf der Oberfläche, künstlerische Darstellung Mars Express am Mars, künstlerische Darstellung Sonde 2001 Mars Odyssey (ehemals Mars Surveyor 2001) am Mars...-Kuiper-Express bei Pluto und Charon, künstlerische Darstellung Pluto-Kuiper-Express bei..., künstlerische Darstellung Sonde Pluto Kuiper Express im Pluto-CharonSystem Sonde NEAR...-System, künstlerische Darstellung Sonde Mars Express im Orbit um Mars, künstlerische Darstellung MEX... Darstellung Mars Express auf der Fregat-Oberstufe, künstlerische Darstellung Beagle 2 und Sonde Mars Express kurz nach Trennung des Landers, künstlerische Darstellung Mars Express vor dem Planeten Mars Mars Express beim Test der Sonnenkollektoren Integration der Sonde Mars Express... dem Weg zum Jupiter Venus Express 9. Nov. 2005 Eintritt in den....gov/planetary/mgnlosapdr.html Venus Express http://sci.esa.int/science... Space 3. Jan. 1999 2 2001 Mars Odyssey Mars Express Spirit (Mars Exploration Rover A) 7. April 2001... Sonde 2001 Mars Odyssey im Mars-Orbit, Anaglyph, MOC Sonde Mars Express im Mars-Orbit... Vergleich mit HRSC-Aufnahme von Mars Express Deimos und Phobos am Nachthimmel... Verde und Fahrspuren, NavCam 8.6.10. Mars Express Bildnummer Beschreibung PIA03235 Radargramm des... Struktur Sonde Mars Express über dem Mars, künstlerische Darstellung Sonde Mars Express über dem Mars in 3D, künstlerische Darstellung, Anaglyph Radarantennen der Sonde Mars Express... Sonde Mars Express bei Aufnahme des PhobosSchattens, künstlerische Darstellung Konstellation von Mars, Marsmonden... Camera (HRSC), wie sie auf Mars Express eingesetzt wird Stand der globalen..., Viking Orbiter DLR Mars Express http://www.dlr.de/mars Phobos, Mosaik Phobos... über Olympus Mons, Viking Orbiter Mars Express HRSC image viewer http://hrscview... Mars Express http://www.esa.int/export/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/index.html Exploring Mars....html/ NASA's Mars Exploration Program http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/ Mars Express – Institut für Planetenforschung http://solarsystem.dlr.de/Missions/express/ Mars Global Surveyor Project Home Page http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/mgs/ Mars....3.1. Pluto-Kuiper-Express Bildnummer Beschreibung PL02 Pluto-Kuiper-Express bei Pluto und... 264 PL03 PL04 Pluto-Kuiper-Express bei Pluto und Charon, künstlerische...) (VHS PAL, BETACAM NTSC) 75. Mars Express, VNR, ESA, 1999, 20 min... Marineris, DLR (VHS PAL) 85. Mars Express Animation, ESA, März 2001, 05..., BETACAM PAL) 86. 87. 88. Mars Express Update, ESA, 10/08/2001.... 2002. (VHS PAL) 93. Movies Mars Express, DLR, Jan. 2004, 1:30 min...



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... Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter; a competitively selected 2007 Mars Scout mission; an accelerated 2009 Mars... with delivery of 2 stowage and 2 EXPRESS payload racks; UHF antenna provides... resupply stowage platforms, and two EXPRESS payload racks. This flight will... FY 2001. . There are two EXPRESS payload racks scheduled to be... Isolation System (ARIS) EXPRESS rack. Both of the EXPRESS racks completed their... Research Facility Rack 1 and 2, six Express Racks, the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox... Space Station (EXPRESS) racks for the pressurized laboratories, and EXPRESS pallets for... in the other facilities and EXPRESS Racks. Research Facility Descriptions These... of the Station on an EXPRESS Pallet. The SAGE III instrument... NASA program, will provide the EXPRESS Pallet and the Technology Experiment... to a variety of users. An EXPRESS Rack will enable a simple, streamlined... hardware and software interfaces. The EXPRESS pallet project provides small-attached... is responsible for developing the EXPRESS pallets for NASA. Laboratory Support...--to support local operation of EXPRESS Racks and facilityclass payloads. These... Human Research Facilities (HRF), six EXPRESS racks, Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG... Human Research Facilities (HRF) and EXPRESS racks aboard the ISS early... the life sciences discipline. The EXPRESS rack program will provide valuable...: 4 Qtr FY 2000 Utilization Support EXPRESS Racks 1 & 2 Final Testing and Reviews... FY 2001 The first two EXPRESS Racks are at KSC undergoing... checkout during early FY 2000. EXPRESS Pallet PDR th Plan: 4 Qtr... Revised: 1 Qtr FY 2001 The EXPRESS Pallet PDR is planned to... preparation for launch on 5A.1. EXPRESS Racks 1 and 2 continued final testing... preparation for launch on 6A. EXPRESS Racks 4 and 5 are in final... Research Facility prototype rack and EXPRESS Rack 1, with all subrack payloads..., integration and testing with the EXPRESS Rack at KSC and are... Research Facility (HRF) Rack 1 and EXPRESS Racks scheduled for delivery to... first two EXPRESS Racks will be launched on flight 6A. EXPRESS Rack... Gas Supply Module. HSF 1-38 EXPRESS Rack 2 will be the first... rack bays. An experiment in EXPRESS Rack 2 will characterize the performance... will include flight processing of EXPRESS Racks 3, 4, and 5 and their sub..., and the Microgravity Science Glovebox. EXPRESS Racks 4 and 5 will be delivered... preparation for launch on 7A.1. EXPRESS Rack 3 is in final integration... on-orbit operations in the EXPRESS Racks. They will continue and... development for WORF continues. The EXPRESS Pallet PDR is planned for... funding issues for their planned EXPRESS pallet contributions. Development activities on... Research Facility and first four EXPRESS Racks will continue on-orbit... rack level checkout and test. EXPRESS Rack 3, WORF and the Human... on-orbit operations in the EXPRESS Racks. The subracks include the... the Human Research Facility and EXPRESS Racks 1 and 2 containing several microgravity... payload racks (HRF-1, EXPRESS 1, 2, 4, and 5) will continue in FY2002. EXPRESS rack 3 will... were successfully launched (SWAS, Deepspace, Mars Orbiter, Mars Lander, Stardust, Landsat 7, FUSE... development and operation of the EXPRESS Rack payload carrier, the Payload... of Mars. It will fly aboard the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft... (Thousands of Dollars) 2001 Mars Odyssey* ......................................................... 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) * .............................. Future... of Mars. The ‘98 Mars Orbiter and Lander consisted of the Mars Climate... ESA (if ESA approves the Mars Express mission), and select the contractors... of the Mars Surveyor ‘05 mission. Engineering models for Mars Express were shipped... Europa Orbiter or Pluto-Kuiper Express mission (whichever is planned for... other engineering margins. Pluto-Kuiper Express: Preliminary Design Review (PDR) was... the Microgravity Science Glovebox and EXPRESS Rack. An increasing number of... a demonstration conducted for the new “express- tool” technology. This can reduce... the Mars Missions (Mars Odyssey Orbiter, Mars Twin Orbiters and Rovers, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Mobile Science Lab, Mars Scout, Mars Science Orbiter, Mars Sample... Development Explorer Program Discovery Program Mars Surveyor/Mars Exploration Program Mission Operations.... MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR (MGS) 1998 MARS ORBITER/LANDER 2001 MARS ODYSSEY 2003 MARS EXPLORATION... missions to Mars and infrastructure supporting Mars missions, including: 2003 Mars Express (instruments for an ESA mission); 2005 Mars... on the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft in 2003), and two... ESA (if ESA approves the Mars Express mission), and select the contractors... the Europa Orbiter or PlutoKuiper Express mission (whichever is planned for... Human Research Facility (HRS-1), five EXPRESS racks with small payload research...



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... and underground ice - Mars Express uncovers depths of Mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.7 Mars Kicks Up the Dust... Makes Closest Approach to Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.8 ’Mars-shine’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.9 Jupiter’s Massive Winds Likely... 3.4 Radiation Resistant Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3.5 Venus Express en route to probe the... published in the online Science Express on 20 October. of objects... 20, 2005 issue of Science Express). son and the NAO for... 20, 2005 issue of Science Express). future trend. With natural variability...,” the researchers wrote in Science Express. Led by Professor Mark Harrison... and underground ice - Mars Express uncovers depths of Mars at the peaks and... craters and underground ice Mars Express uncovers depths of Mars Source: ESA Press...’s Mars Express has provided direct information about the deep subsurface of Mars. Figure... observations last summer, MARSIS - the Mars for human bases. Advanced Radar... and underground ice - Mars Express uncovers depths of Mars show what may be... structure in the subsurface of Mars, interpreted to be a buried impact..., based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data, shows the MARS Express groundtracks and... region in the midlatitudes on Mars. The scientists have interpreted it... 8 Vendelinus Astronomy Newsletter November 2005 1.7 Mars Kicks Up the Dust as... of the northern layered deposits. 1.7 Mars Kicks Up the Dust as... Telescope snapped this picture of Mars on October 28, within a day... captured a regional dust storm on Mars that has been growing and.... Figure 6: This image of 2005 Mars closest approach was taken with... close proximity to the NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity’s landing site... NASA and ESA spacecraft studying Mars from orbit. Bluish water-ice...’s throw across the solar system. Mars goes through a 26-month cycle... smallest between the two planets, Mars appears brighter in the sky... through telescopes for Earth viewers. 1.8 ’Mars-shine’ Source: JPL/NASA Press Release, November 15th, 2005 [8] NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Spirit continues to... of ”Marsshine” – sunlight reflected through Mars’ atmosphere and into the shadowed... to figure out if this ”Mars-shine” made Phobos colorful while..., Spirit observed a ”lunar” eclipse on Mars. Pho- they will use the... sol (Oct. 20, 2005) on Mars. This image is a timelapse composite... images and a new understanding of Mars as a potential habitat. During Spirit... Propulsion Laboratory. Figure 28: NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Spirit casts a shadow... sulfur content ever found on Mars: sulfate salts, deposited by water... Astronomy Newsletter November 2005 volatile Mars was in the past,” Arvidson... surface of the moon or Mars, explorers could use fast computers... Astronomy Newsletter November 2005 3.5 Venus Express en route to probe the... giving the correct result.” 3.5 Venus Express en route to probe the... [33] The European spacecraft Venus Express has been successfully placed into... more efficiently, we’re developing Mars Express spacecraft which has been orbiting...- Planet since December 2003, Venus Express is the second tinues Some... CPUs might be involved.” Venus Express will eventually manoeuvre itself into... Astronomy Newsletter November 2005 3.5 Venus Express en route to probe the... speed ahead for Venus Venus Express is currently distancing itself from... Express will face far tougher conditions than those encountered by Mars Express on... mass is 7.6 times that of Mars, with gravitational attraction to match... FG-Fregat vehicle carrying Venus Express, ESA’s first probe to Venus... interplanetary trajectory. Contact with Venus Express was established by ESA’s European... Earth ”The launch of Venus Express is a further illustration of Europe... 2003 with the launch of Mars Express to the Red Planet and... amply exceeded our expectations. Venus Express marks a further step forward, with... launched in 2013.” ”With Venus Express, we fully intend to demonstrate... 3.6 Vendelinus Astronomy Newsletter November 2005 Mars Express, two are from comet-chaser... atmosphere in general terms. With Mars Express, we are studying the Martian... Titan. ”And now with Venus Express, we are going to add... into a hostile environment.” The Venus Express mission is planned to last... of Mars Express Venus Express largely re-uses the architecture developed for Mars Express. This... approved in late 2002, Venus Express was thereby developed fast, indeed... different to those encountered around Mars. Solar flux is four times... redesigning the thermal insulation. Whereas Mars Express sought to retain heat to... electronics to function properly, Venus Express will in contrast be aiming.... The solar arrays on Venus Express have been completely redesigned. They... carried out since 1962, Venus Express will endeavour to answer many... survive at the surface of Mars. Follow-up experiments on ground....esa.int/SPECIALS/Results from Mars Express and Huygens/SEM7ZTULWFE 0.html [7] http...



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... (Venera 15-16, Magellan, Venus Express), descent probes (Venera, Pioneer), balloons... of Mars began with early flybys (Mariner, Mars), then orbiters (Mariner, Mars), followed by landers (Mars, Viking, Phoenix), and rovers (Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity; Mars Science... successfully completed mission ESA Venus Express and formulates the challenges facing...» выжила благодаря европейскому проекту MARS EXPRESS. Приборы Mars Observer были по очереди запущены... работают в настоящий момент. Это спутники Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) и два... окружения MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN) и индийский спутник Mars Orbital Mission... лазерный альтиметр MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) на Mars Observer и картирующий спектрометр...) Mars Express. Идеи сетевой миссии на поверхности были отброшены. 1.5.  Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder... выполнения программы Mars Surveyor, направленной на выполнение научных задач Mars Observer рядом... с приборами миссии Mars Observer, Mars Climate Orbiter, в рамках программы Mars Surveyor состоялся в 1998...: от Mars Odyssey до MAVEN Mars Odyssey, третий элемент программы НАСА Mars Surveyor, доставил к Марсу ещё два прибора Mars Observer: гамма... в 2003 г. и работающий до настоящего времени Mars Express решает многие задачи, планировавшиеся в российском... of the Atmosphere of Mars), длинноволновый радар MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for... с существенным российским участием. В состав программы Mars Express входил малый посадочный аппарат Beagle... запущен американский КА Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. С точки зрения программы Mars Surveyor это... эти исследования дополняют аналогичные на Mars Express, но прослеживается и тенденция «догнать и перегнать... м, в основном, с помощью камеры HRSC проекта Mars Express. На основании этих данных получены... крытия MOC/MGS 1,5 1 3 – 1 0 <<1 HRSC-SRC Mars Express 2,3 1 2,3 – <<1 0 0 12…50 4 50…250 50... до нескольких километров. На КА Mars Express и MRO были проведены два радарных... SPICAM Mars CRISM Reconnaissance Orbiter MCS 2005– 0,35…1; 1…2,5; 2,5…5,1 OMEGA Mars Express 2003– 6,6 нм...» 1988 г. Много новых данных получил Mars Express. В 2014 г. начал работу специальный спутник... et al., 2013], результаты PFS/Mars Express постоянно меняются и не совпадают с другими... аппаратами. Сроки работы спутников Mars Odyssey и Mars Express превышают 10 лет. Достигнуты впечатляющие... благодаря европейским коллегам. Успехи скромного Mars Express демонстрируют, насколько грандиозным планировался российский... Mineralogical and Aqueous Mars History Derived from OMEGA/Mars Express Data. Science // 2006... Composition of the Surface of Mars: Mars Odyssey THEMIS Results // Science. 2003... atmosphere by SPICAM onboard of Mars-Express // Icarus. 2012. V. 219. P. 596–608...: New insight from the Mars Express Orbiter and the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit... limb observations on Mars by SPICAM IR on Mars-Express and connection to... Mars static and seasonal gravity, Mars orientation, Phobos and Deimos masses, and Mars... exploration of Mars: scientific objectives and implementation of the Mars-96 Small...  M. Y., Petrov G. I. Investigations of Mars from the Soviet Automatic Stations Mars 2 and 3 // Icarus... Results of Astrophysical Observations of Mars from Mars-3 // Icarus. 1972. V. 17. P. 408...] Neukum G. et al Mars Express After 6 Years in Orbit: Mars Geology from Three..., Kremnev, 1998] Surkov  Y. A., Kremnev R. S. Mars 96 mission: Mars exploration with the use... the northern hemisphere of Mars from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA... missions to Mars. Keywords: Mars, space research, Mars atmosphere, Mars surface, Mars climate, Mars climate change... Distribution of neutrons from Mars: Results from Mars Odyssey // Science. 2002. V. 297... silicate minerals on Mars observed by the Mars Reconnaissance orbiter CRISM instrument... surface of the early Mars. Keywords: planetary studies, Mars, water, origin of... поле Марса, полученные миссиями Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) и Mars Odyssey [Konopliv et... mass redistribution of Mars from radio tracking of Mars Pathfinder // Science. 1997... Mars static and seasonal gravity, Mars orientation, Phobos and Deimos masses, and Mars...  S. E., Yoder C. F., Zuber M. T. Mars high resolution gravity fields from MRO, Mars seasonal gravity... the gravity field of Mars (GMM-2b) from Mars Global Surveyor // J. Geophys... moment of inertia of Mars and isostacy of Mars // J. Geophys. Res. 1977... B. Possible ancient oceans on Mars: Evidence from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data..., Edgett, 2001] Malin  M. C., Edgett K. S. Mars Global Surveyor. Mars orbiter Camera: Interplanetary cruise... изображений высокого разрешения, полученных Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera в течение семи... космических аппаратов (КА) «Фобос-2», Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express. Однако прямых доказательств существования... спутников Марса работают европейский Mars Express, американские Mars Odyssey и MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter). В 2014...



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... incomparably greater distance. Venus and Mars were the first, followed in...‘s two neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. Mainly designed to prepare crewed... entered into an orbit around Mars, became the first artificial satellite... the Pathfinder/Sojourner mission to Mars that was designed to demonstrate...: intensified long-term exploration of Mars and the exploration of the... missions. The landing of two Mars exploration rovers, Spirit and Opportunity... contribution is its highly successful Mars Express mission, which has been transmitting... arrival of Mars Rover Curiosity as part of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission on 5 August 2012 lifted Mars exploration to a new quality level... search for potential habitats on Mars, traces of hydrocarbons and other... orbiter and then a lander to Mars. The European technology demonstrator SMART... System, Europe’s space probe Venus Express has been orbiting our neighbor.... Image: Self-portrait of NASA’s Mars rover Curiosity inside Gale crater...: Jupiter – father of the gods; Mars – god of war; Mercury – messenger... slope. Measurements of ESA’s Venus Express mission demonstrate that the rock... volcanic lowlands. Data from Venus Express also suggest that volcanos were... a topographical map. Mars Mars The fourth planet from the Sun, Mars resembles Earth... of the position of Mars made by Mars Mass the Danish astronomer... distance between Earth and Mars Density whenever Mars was in opposition. In... and rille formations from Mars center on Mars which he mistook for... crater on 6 August 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory mission carrying the... and Niger Valles, taken by Mars Express. (© ESA/DLR/FU Berlin, G. Neukum... to Mars, such as Mariner 9, Viking 1 and 2, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars... volcanic activity on Mars. However, the surface of Mars was shaped not... a thousand kilometers in Image above: Mars Express mosaic of the central section.../JPL/Malin Space Science Systems) Mars 39 Mars length. Both tensile and... of Venus, the atmosphere of Mars preponderantly (95 percent) consists of... proportions. Spectrometers on board the Mars Express space probe have discovered traces... Mars in summer, taken by Mars Global Surveyor. (© NASA/JPL/MSSS) 40 Mars The moons of Mars... gravity of Mars. When the pictures taken by the Mars Express probe were... crater Psyche which, measuring 5.3 kilmoon; Mars: two moons; Jupiter: four moons.... NASA especially regards the planet Mars as a potential long-term objective... stability of the atmosphere. On Mars, for example, this protective magnetic... MESSENGER 03 Aug 2004 Venus Express 09 Nov 2005 Akatsuki (Planet... to Mars Marsnik 1 10 Oct 1960 (Mars 1960A) Marsnik 2 14 Oct 1960 (Mars 1960B) Sputnik 22 24 Oct 1962 (Mars 1962A) Mars 1 01 Nov 1962 Sputnik 24 04 Nov 1962 (Mars 1962B... Feb 1969 27 Mar 1969 Mars 1969A Mars 1969B 27 Mar 1969... Mars 2 19 May 1971 Mars 3 28 May 1971 Mariner 9 30 May 1971 Mars 4 21 Jul 1973 Mars 5 25 Jul 1973 Mars 6 05 Aug 1973 Mars... transmission Reached Mars on 9 Mar 1974, could not reach Mars orbit, landing... 1988 Mars Observer 25 Sep 1992 Mars Global Surveyor 07 Nov 1996 Mars-96 16 Nov 1996 Mars... 1998 (Planet B) Mars Climate 11 Dec 1998 Orbiter Mars Polar Lander 03... a camera system Replacement for Mars Observer, Mars orbit insertion started on 12... Jan 1999 2001 Mars Odyssey 07 Apr 2001 Mars Express 02 Jun 2003 Spirit 10 Jun 2003 (Mars Exploration Rover A) Opportunity 08 Jul 2003 (Mars Exploration Rover B) Mars Recon... Mars, there are up-to-date images taken by the European Mars Express..., Mars Pathfinder, Deep Space 1), are going on at present (Mars Express, Venus Express, Cassini...-based catalogues perGalileo, Magellan, Venus Express, MESSENGER mit selecting data on... Mars Mariner 9, Viking Orbiter 1 & 2, Viking Lander 1 & 2, Mars Phobos, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rover 1 & 2, Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Phoenix, Mars... the nominal mission. Under the Mars Pathfinder mission, the Institute was... data subjected to a multispectral analysis. Mars in high resolution, color, and... Cassini mission, including in particular Mars Express and Rosetta, the camera Planetary... to the Universe The European Mars Express mission that oid for more... (in German) instruments developed for Mars 96 of NASA‘s MESSENGER mission..., the seccy (ESA) launched Venus Express on 9 http://www.jpl.nasa... of completely mapping of the Mars Express orbiter. In addition, 99 How... spare instruments originally designed for Mars Express and Rosetta were adapted to... on 11 April 2006, Venus express will go on circling around...



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... Mineralogy Mapper Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Mars Scout (2013) Mars Research and... [Formulation], Sci-141 Mars Exploration, Sci-145 2009 Mars Space Lab [Development... 2013, redirects the Mars Program to focus on Mars Sample Return mission... -- Discovery, New Frontiers, Research, Technology, Mars Exploration, and the Outer Planets... instrument operating on an ESA Mars Express mission, one mission in its... instrument operating on an ESA Mars Express mission, one mission in development.... Red Performance Achievement Highlights: - Using Mars Reconnaissance Observer (MRO) observations, researchers... aboard the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft that has been in... as it orbits Mars on an extended mission of Mars Express. The M3... European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft in orbit around Mars, with a goal to... President's Budget Request 2009 Mars Science Lab Mars Scout (2013) JPL Building... President's Budget Request 2009 Mars Science Lab Mars Scout (2013) JPL Building...: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Program Overview Mars is the most Earth..., dynamic, and geological characteristics. The Mars Phoenix lander successfully launched in... site selection for the Mars Science Laboratory. The Mars Rovers, Spirit and... surface of Mars within the last seven years. The Mars Global Surveyor... the surface of Mars. For more information, see http://mars.jpl.nasa...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Project Descriptions and Explanation... availability of Extended Mission funding. Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit and Opportunity... of Extended Mission funding. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO... annual Mars mission review and availability of Extended Mission funding. Mars Express Mars Express is... the Medusae Fossae Formation. Mars Mission Operations Mars missions require special software...: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Mars 2007 Scout (Phoenix) The Phoenix... en route to Mars, is the first Mars Scout mission and is... land on Mars on May 25, 2008. Mars Science Laboratory The Mars Science... missions to Mars. Both Scout missions are orbiters performing Mars aeronomy measurements.... Mars Next Decade The Mars Exploration Program plans future missions to Mars that... include a Mars mission in 2016 and Mars Sample Return. Mars Technology The Mars Technology... Mars Exploration Mars Research & Analysis NASA invests in research and analysis of Mars... operational presence on Mars Mars Exploration None At least one Mars mission will... 26 months) Mars Exploration No planned NASA launch to Mars in 2011...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Implementation Schedule Project Prior... Mars Odyssey Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Scout (Phoenix) Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Express Apr...: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Acquisition Strategy The Mars Exploration Program (MEP... Development: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab FY 2009... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Purpose The Mars Science... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Commitments The Mars Science... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Schedule Commitments The Mars Science... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Management 2009 Mars Science... Development: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Risk... period), and development of the ExPRESS Logistics Carriers (ELC) to transport... Section (ELMES), and the NASA EXPRESS Logistics Carriers (ELC) as baselined... for the delivery of the ExPRESS Logistics Carriers 1 and 2 (ELC). ISS... for the delivery of the ExPRESS Logistics Carriers 1 and 2 (ELC). MUSS... and Progress MMOD shielding enhancements. ExPRESS Logistics Carrier Given the results...), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-P), Mars Science Lab (MSL), and Aquarius... S C I E N C E M I S S I O N D I R E C T O R AT E P L AN E T AR Y S C I E N C E T H E M E D E T AI L Discovery Mars Exploration New Frontiers Planetary Research... (ELM-ES), and the NASA EXPRESS Logistics Carriers (ELC) as baselined... models for other planets. Using Mars Reconnaissance Observer (MRO) observations, researchers... European Space Agency’s Venus Express mission. Venus Express, launched in November 2005... will land on Mars in May 2008. The Mars Science Laboratory is... will land on Mars in May 2008. The Mars Science Laboratory is... (Thermal Emission Imaging System instrument) EXPRESS Expedite the Processing of Experiments... Faculty Awards for Research ELC ExPRESS Logistics Carrier FAST Fast Auroral... & Technology NAC NASA Advisory Committee Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment NACC NASA... Program Mars Exploration Program NAMMA NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses Mars Exploration... Science and Mathematics Coalitions MEX Mars Express NCAR National Center for Atmospheric...



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... signs of biological compounds on Mars. European Space Agency (ESA) selected the Urey Mars Organic and Oxidant Detector (Urey..., collected from 2 meters (6.6 feet) beneath Mars’s surface. Urey would then trap... exploration of the Moon and Mars. 17 4 February Expedition 14 Commander... were part of the Orbital Express Experiment and four would measure.... The primary goal of Orbital Express, a joint effort of NASA, the... Manager for Orbital Express, explained that the Orbital Express mission’s goal was..., DARPA had designed the Orbital Express satellites to accept guidance from... to launch a joint mission to Mars in 2009, marking a milestone in... would launch a Chinese satellite to Mars, along with Russia’s Phobos Explorer... Express mission successfully executed a maneuver to demonstrate a satelliteservicing technique. Orbital Express consisted...-technology 62 Stephen Clark, “Orbital Express Duo Split Apart, Rejoin Autonomously... issues.” 68 19 May Orbital Express successfully captured the ASTRO servicing... the remaining set of Orbital Express demonstration activities, scheduled for the... Advanced Research Projects Agency, “Orbital Express Spacecraft Successfully Rendezvous, Remate,” news... of the arm of the Mars rover Spirit had measured a concentration... York, Principal Investigator for the Mars rovers’ scientific instruments, underscored the... after nearly 1,200 days on Mars makes it even more remarkable.” J. Douglas McCuistion, Director of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, added that the...,” 22 May 2007. 71 NASA, “Mars Rover Spirit Unearths Surprise Evidence... Rover Finds Surprising Evidence for Mars’ Watery Past,” 21 May 2007... enable research on the Moon, Mars, and other destinations in Earth... DARPA decommissioned its experimental Orbital Express satellites, officially ending the demonstration.... The two craft comprising Orbital Express—ASTRO and NextSat—had launched... long-range rendezvous maneuver. Orbital Express had met all of DARPA... focus to the Moon and Mars programs, warning, “We can’t repeat... AUGUST 2007 4 August NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander launched aboard a Delta-2 rocket... data revealing the composition of Mars’s surface minerals and of its... Jr., “Phoenix Spacecraft Launches to Mars,” Los Angeles Times, 6 August 2007..., to transport human explorers to Mars. Gilbrech had joined NASA in... exploration missions to the Moon, Mars, and other destinations in Earth...’s JPL announced that the Phoenix Mars Lander flight-operations team had... August. During its flight to Mars, Phoenix had communicated with Earth... UHF radio after landing on Mars. Because the X-band radio unit... communications once the craft reached Mars. 129 5 September South Korean Vice... before 129 NASA JPL, “Phoenix Mars Lander Status Report: Radar and... announced that its solar-powered Mars rover duo, Spirit and Opportunity..., FL), 7 September 2007. 132 NASA, “Mars Rovers Survive Severe Dust Storms... a special issue about water on Mars. The issue included five reports... the detailed images that NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) had captured...’s primary mission was to study Mars’s hydrologic history, using six scientific... the resolution of any previous Mars imager. The papers published in... discern. NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), which had visited Mars in 1999... flows of liquid water on Mars. However, MRO’s observations suggested otherwise... images suggested that objects impacting Mars had triggered trickles of water... indicated that the cap on Mars’s south pole held the largest... nearly four Earth years of Mars exploration. Steven W. Squyres of Cornell..., “NASA Orbiter Provides Insights About Mars Water and Climate,” news release...=&hits=10&RESULT FORMAT=&fulltext=Mars+Reconnaissance+Orbiter&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype... asteroids located in orbit between Mars and Jupiter—Vesta in 2011...) instrument would travel to Mars aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), a robotic... would conduct similar investigations on Mars— measuring hydrogen to analyze the... extend the missions of the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity... twin rovers had landed on Mars in January 2004, embarking on... last 90 days. John L. Callas, Mars Rover Project Manager at NASA... Operations for Its Long-Lived Mars Rovers,” news release 07-208... of the ESA craft Venus Express. The spacecraft, carrying out Europe... 2006. Using hand-me-down Mars Express designs, ESA had quickly organized... Mission ended in 1994. Venus Express had gathered data that presented... in sulphuric-acid clouds. Venus Express data also confirmed the presence... Mission Reports from Venus: Venus Express, the First European Mission to... P. Ingersoll, “News and Views: Venus Express Dispatches,” Nature 450, no. 7170... Macro-Fiber Composite Mars Global Surveyor Memorandum of Understanding Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Marshall Space Flight Center Mars Science Laboratory...?maxtoshow=&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=Mars+ Reconnaissance+Orbiter&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype..., Andrew P. “News and Views: Venus Express Dispatches.” Nature 450, no. 7170...



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... OCTOBER 2002 LAUNCHED JUNE 2003 MARS EXPRESS LAUNCHED SEPTEMBER 2003 SMART-1 TC... ROSETTA LAUNCHED NOVEMBER 2005 VENUS EXPRESS LAUNCH JULY 2008 HERSCHEL/PLANCK... OCTOBER 2002 LAUNCHED JUNE 2003 MARS EXPRESS LAUNCHED SEPTEMBER 2003 SMART-1 TC... ROSETTA LAUNCHED NOVEMBER 2005 VENUS EXPRESS LAUNCH JULY 2008 HERSCHEL/PLANCK... 1740.7-2942. Mars Express The spacecraft successfully passed through the Mars solar conjunction... 1740.7-2942. Mars Express The spacecraft successfully passed through the Mars solar conjunction... to deliver excellent science data. A Mars Express science team meeting was held.... A very successful dedicated session on Mars Express took place at the American... 11 December 2006. The Second Mars Express Science Conference will take place... Mars’ and dedicated sessions on future Mars Exploration in Europe. A few major Mars Express.... Rosetta Rosetta is cruising towards Mars, which it will pass at... configurations and operations timeline around Mars closest approach have been defined... sequences for the Mars flyby, which will include a Mars observation campaign and... when Rosetta is close to Mars. After the periodic checkout of... improve the targeting of the Mars swingby. The payload was inactive... www.esa.int of the Mars approach began. From midJanuary 2007... in February if necessary. Venus Express The mission is now well... to deliver excellent science data. A Mars Express science team meeting was held.... A very successful dedicated session on Mars Express took place at the American... 11 December 2006. The Second Mars Express Science Conference will take place... Mars’ and dedicated sessions on future Mars Exploration in Europe. A few major Mars Express.... Rosetta Rosetta is cruising towards Mars, which it will pass at... configurations and operations timeline around Mars closest approach have been defined... sequences for the Mars flyby, which will include a Mars observation campaign and... when Rosetta is close to Mars. After the periodic checkout of... improve the targeting of the Mars swingby. The payload was inactive... www.esa.int of the Mars approach began. From midJanuary 2007... in February if necessary. Venus Express The mission is now well... Modular Cultivation System in the Express Thomas Reiter works with the... Modular Cultivation System in the Express Thomas Reiter works with the... Control Centre hardware, software and Mars Simulation Terrain. The approved activities... to assess the broader The Mars Sample Return Phase-A2 1-year...



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....1 32.4 32.7 35.3 36.8 Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab MAVEN Other... Mars Exploration, PLANET-47 2009 Mars Science Lab (MSL) [Development], PLANET-54 Mars... regarding collaboration on future robotic Mars missions. Concept studies for partnership...: R&A, Lunar Quest, Discovery, New Frontiers, Mars Exploration, Outer Planets, and Technology... instrument operating on an ESA Mars Express mission (ASPERA-3), a mission in its... on its extended mission of Mars Express. Though the M3 instrument will... 2011. The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN), Mars Scout mission, will... (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometers for Mars) instrument on the MRO offers.... All completed Discovery missions (NEAR, Mars Pathfinder, Lunar Prospector, Deep Impact... on its extended mission of Mars Express. The DIXI mission will approach... European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft in orbit around Mars, with a goal to...'s Budget Request 2009 Mars Science Lab MAVEN 2009 Mars Science Lab MAVEN..., incremental, discovery-driven exploration of Mars to determine the planet's physical.... MER, MRO, Odyssey, and ESA's Mars Express will continue to operate, return...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Project Descriptions and Explanation... takes a major step forward in Mars exploration, both technically and scientifically... development section of this document. Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN... provide a comprehensive picture of the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, solar energetic... designs from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and 2001 Mars Odyssey missions. Additional...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Other Missions & Data Analysis... the geological processes that shaped Mars, particularly those involving water. Currently... operation phase, the objective of Mars Express, a European Space Agency and Italian... of the next decade at Mars. Mars Mission Operations (MMO) provides management..., Mars Express, and MER. NASA invests in research and analysis of Mars mission... 2011. The Mars Exploration Program plans future missions to Mars that build...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Program Commitments Commitment/Output... operational presence on Mars Mars Exploration same At least one Mars mission will... every opportunity (every 26 months) Mars Exploration same Implementation Schedule Project... Res Mars Odyssey Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Express The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Mars R&A Tech...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Program Management The Jet... for implementation of the Mars Exploration Program. Mars Program science resides at... des Rayonnements (CESR) Mars Odyssey JPL JPL, MSFC None Mars Express (MEX) JPL...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Independent Reviews Review Type... Development: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab FY 2011... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Purpose The Mars Science... NASA's Spirit and Opportunity Mars rovers. The Mars Science Laboratory is engineered... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Commitments The Mars Science... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Schedule Commitments The Mars Science... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Management 2009 Mars Science... Development: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Risk... In Formulation: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Mars Atmosphere & Volatile EvolutioN FY... provide a comprehensive picture of the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, solar energetic... address key scientific questions about Mars' evolution. Specific MAVEN science objectives... In Formulation: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Mars Atmosphere & Volatile EvolutioN Estimated... In Formulation: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Mars Atmosphere & Volatile EvolutioN Project... In Formulation: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Mars Atmosphere & Volatile EvolutioN Project...-sampled planetary environments, such as Mars. Spacecraft and aeronautics engineers will... prior demonstrations such as Orbital Express, could test technologies and processes... NASA missions and research objectives (e.g. Mars Exploration; global climate change; aeronautics... materials for the Mars entry missions such as Mars Science Laboratory. NASA... Generation Air Transportation System MAVEN Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN NGIMS...) NMP New Millennium Program MEX Mars Express National Oceanic and Atmospheric National... Space Weather Program Council MSL Mars Science Laboratory NuSTAR Nuclear Spectroscopic...