Спутник ФКИ. Mars Express. [Редактировать]

Автоматическая межпланетная станция Европейского космического агентства, предназначенная для изучения Марса. Космический аппарат состоял из орбитальной станции — искусственного спутника Марса и спускаемого аппарата с автоматической марсианской станцией «Бигль-2». 

Измерения при помощи созданных российскими учёными совместно с западноевропейскими коллегами приборов позволили получить ряд важных научных результатов, многие из которых только готовятся к научным публикациям. В том числе восстановление структуры атмосферы с высокой точностью от поверхности до высот 100—150 км и её температурного профиля до 50—55 км. Впервые одновременно измерено содержание и построены карты распределения водяного пара и озона в атмосфере. Обнаружено ночное свечение моноксида азота, известного на Венере, но не наблюдавшегося ранее на Марсе. Открыты мельчайшие аэрозольные частицы, заполняющие атмосферу планеты до высот 70—100 км. Впервые обнаружен водяной лёд в южной полярной шапке в конце марсианского лета. Карты, построенные по данным прибора OMEGA с разрешением 1—3 км, показывают, что участки водяного льда находятся на краях более обширных областей замёрзшей углекислоты. Толщина её слоя не превышает нескольких метров, а под ним — захороненный слой водяного льда, возможно по мощности эквивалентный северной полярной шапке, полностью состоящей из водяного льда с небольшой (менее 1 %) примесью пыли. Прибором OMEGA проведено также минералогическое картирование значительной части планеты, и, при существенном разнообразии минерального состава, карбонаты (соли угольной кислоты) обнаружены не были. Они широко распространены на Земле и именно в их залежах, а не в живом веществе, каменном угле и нефти, сосредоточено основное количество углерода на нашей планете. Таким образом, данные «Mars Express» не подтверждают наличия запасов СО2 на Марсе, достаточных для существенных изменений массы его атмосферы, и соответственно, преобразования климата планеты. «Марс-экспресс» обнаружил в атмосфере Марса метан, что может свидетельствовать о наличии жизни на планете (метан не может долго находится в марсианской атмосфере, следовательно его запасы пополняются либо в результате жизнедеятельности микроорганизмов, либо вследствие геологической активности). Было определено и его содержание — 10±5 частей на миллиард. Конечно, это немного, но так как метан непрерывно разрушается в атмосфере за счёт фотодиссоциации, то для поддержания такого его количества в атмосфере на Марсе должен быть источник производительностью порядка 300 тонн метана в год. Таким источником могла бы быть тектоническая деятельность, Марс, считается тектонически неактивным в настоящее время, однако поступление метана в атмосферу может быть связано с «точечной» тектоникой: остаточным вулканизмом, либо геотермальной активностью. Благодаря снимкам косморобота учёные смогли сконструировать и представить трёхмерные модели марсианских ландшафтов. Станция обнаружила плотные облака из сухого льда, которые отбрасывают тень на поверхность планеты и даже влияют на её климат.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1Mars Express OrbiterНайтиНайти
2Beagle 2НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - Европа
3Страна производитель - Европа

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12003-06 - 2003-07. Отказ привел к уменьшению энергии аппарата на 30 процентовТэги: Mars Express
22011-10 - 2011-11. Проблемы с системой хранения информации; научное использование завершеноТэги: Mars Express
32014-12-17. Российские ученые из Института космических исследований ИКИ РАН и МФТИ совместно с французскими и американскими коллегами составили «карту» распределения водяного пара в атмосфере Марса и проследили за сезонными колебаниями его концентрации с помощью данных, собранных за десять лет российско-французским спектрометром SPICAM на борту зонда «Марс-Экспресс». Это самый длительный период наблюдений и самый большой объем данных об атмосферной воде на Марсе. Первоначально прибор SPICAM (Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars) создавался для российского марсианского зонда «Марс-96». Новая существенно переработанная версия инструмента была создана при участии ИКИ в рамках соглашения между Роскосмосом и французским космическим агентством CNES по проекту марсианского зонда «Марс-Экспресс». Этот аппарат 2 июня 2003 года был запущен с космодрома Байконур с помощью российской ракеты-носителя «Союз» с разгонным блоком «Фрегат». В конце декабря 2003 года «Марс-Экспресс» вышел на околомарсианскую орбиту и с тех пор успешно работает, собирая данные о планете и ее окрестностях.Тэги: Mars ExpressИКИ РАНМФТИ
42014-12-18. Миссия Mars Express продлена до конца 2018 годаТэги: Mars Express
52015-01-16. Посадочный модуль Beagle-2, который был потерян во время миссии Mars Express Европейского Космического агентства в 2003 году, был найден на снимках, полученных аппаратом NASA. Beagle-2 отстыковался от основного аппарата 19 декабря 2003 года, спустя 6 дней он должен был совершить посадку на Красной планете.Тэги: Mars Express

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг1123
2Масса (сухая), кг666
3Мощность, Вт460

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС, месяц11

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2003-022A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.310
2Оператор Европейское космическое агентство

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром Байконур
2Дата пуска2003-06-02 at 17:45:00 UTC
3Полезная нагрузка 1xMars Express
4Ракета-носитель 1xСоюз-ФГ

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Mars Express». [Перейти к поиску]


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... —SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION ALBANIA — POSTAL M ATTERS Express mail agreement, with detailed regulations... MATTERS ALGERIA — POSTAL M ATTERS International express mail agreement, with detailed regulations... regarding certain maritime matters. International express mail agreement, with detailed regulations... MATTERS BELARUS — POSTAL MATTERS^ International express mail agreement, with detailed regulations... MATTERS BOLIVIA — POSTAL MATTERS^ International express mail agreement, with detailed regulations... MATTERS BOTSWAN A — POSTAL MATTERS^ International express mail agreement, with detailed regulations... 11763. BULGARIA — POSTAL MATTERS^ International express mail agreement, with detailed regulations... BURKIN A FASO — P OSTAL M ATTERS^ International express mail agreement, with detailed regulations... MATTERS CAMBODIA — POSTAL MATTERS^ International express mail agreement, with detailed regulations... 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... footprint of ASTER). A recent study (Mars and Rowan, 2010), which compares... et al., 2006; Rowan and Mars, 2003; Gomez et al., 2005... al., 2008; Mars and Rowan, 2006, 2010), carbonatites (Mars and Rowan, 2011... that are circling the planet Mars that are noteworthy to mention... Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Murchie... ESA’s Mars Express mission, is dedicated to surface compositional mapping of Mars at...). Spectrum matching techniques aim to express the spectral similarity of reference... et al., 2004; Rowan and Mars, 2003; Bedini, 2009), and volcanogenic... surface mineralogy of the planet Mars. Several researchers have suggested that hydrothermal systems exist on Mars, but, that these are formed... (Loizeau et al., 2007) on Mars supporting High sulphidation epithermal Low... idea of hydrothermal processes on Mars although sulfates could also be..., 2010; Richter et al., 2008; Mars and Crowley, 2003). Most studies... light on the geology of Mars. Occurrences of phyllosilicates indicate that... been positively identified on Mars using VNIR imaging spectroscopy (Bibring... on TIR mineral mapping on Mars using the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Mars Global Surveyor mission (Christensen et... minerals and organic compounds on Mars. Geology 34, 357–360. Aydal..., J.L., 2002. Global mineral distributions on Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research—Planets..., O., 2005. Mars surface diversity as revealed by the OMEGA/Mars Express observations. Science... of waterdriven processes on early Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets... of hydrated silicate minerals on Mars using MRO-CRISM: geologic context.... Farmer, J.D., 1996. Hydrothermal systems on Mars: an assessment of present evidence... martian layered terrains: the OMEGA/Mars Express view. Science 307, 1587–1591... of spectral imaging systems. Optics Express 12, 2463–2477. Kozak, P.K., Duke... the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research—Planets... West Candor Chasma, Mars. Icarus 194, 519–543. Mars, J.C., Crowley, J.K., 2003. Mapping... of Environment 84, 422–436. Mars, J.C., Rowan, L.C., 2006. Regional mapping of... operator algorithms. Geosphere 2, 161–186. Mars, J.C., Rowan, L.C., 2010. Spectral assessment of... of Environment 114, 2011–2025. Mars, J.C., Rowan, L.C., 2011. ASTER spectral analysis... reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Journal..., diversity in the crust of Mars. Science 307, 1594–1597. Mustard... silicate minerals on mars observed by the Mars reconnaissance orbiter CRISM instrument... products: parameterizing mineral diversity on Mars from reflectance. Journal of..., B., Gomez, C., Omega, T., 2005. Phyllosilicates on Mars and implications for early martian... areas. Geosphere 4, 218–246. Rowan, L.C., Mars, J.C., 2003. Lithologic mapping in the...–366. Rowan, L.C., Crowley, J.K., Schmidt, R.G., Ager, C.M., Mars, J.C., 2000. Mapping hydrothermally altered rocks..., J.J., Jolliff, B.L., Chou, I.M., 2006. Sulfates on Mars: a systematic Raman spectroscopic study of...



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... phase in planetary exploration missions (Mars and other planets). T (+39) 06... Mercury, the Exomars mission to Mars and the Small-GEO programme... The Small Mars Satellite (SMS) Is a proposed mission to Mars. The project...fic, and consist in delivering to Mars a small lander carrying a particle dust... (SOC) and the Mars Terrain Simulator (MTS). The Mars Terrain Simulators facility... providing an easily reconfigurable Mars-like environment. The Rover Operations... (on planets such as Mercury, Mars and Jupiter). The heritage of... Spectrometer (VIRTIS) flying on Venus Express and Rosetta; VIRTIS-like product... be flown in 2020 on Mars Lunar driller for icy soil... in 2020, Biocontainment System for MARS Sample Return 87 High Power..., Cassini- Huygens, Rosetta, Integral, Mars Express and Venus Express) • Science and Exploration (Hipaorcos, Beppo Sax, Cassini- Huygens, Rosetta, Integral, Mars Express and Venus Express) • Remote sensing (ERS 1 and... is making the “journey” to Mars, with arrival in October, will...



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... phase in planetary exploration missions (Mars and other planets). T (+39) 06... Mercury, the Exomars mission to Mars and the Small-GEO programme... The Small Mars Satellite (SMS) Is a proposed mission to Mars. The project..., and consist in delivering to Mars a small lander carrying a particle dust... (SOC) and the Mars Terrain Simulator (MTS). The Mars Terrain Simulators facility... operations providing an easily reconfigurable Mars-like environment. The Rover Operations... (on planets such as Mercury, Mars and Jupiter). The heritage of... Spectrometer (VIRTIS) flying on Venus Express and Rosetta; VIRTIS-like product... be flown in 2020 on Mars Lunar driller for icy soil... in 2020, Biocontainment System for MARS Sample Return 87 High Power..., Cassini- Huygens, Rosetta, Integral, Mars Express and Venus Express) • Science and Exploration (Hipaorcos, Beppo Sax, Cassini- Huygens, Rosetta, Integral, Mars Express and Venus Express) • Remote sensing (ERS 1 and... is making the “journey” to Mars, with arrival in October, will...



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... the return of samples from Mars. __________________ 1 2 2 Official Records of the... agencies. Return of samples from Mars 7. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mars exploration programme includes several missions... Mars Odyssey (2001), Mars Exploration Rovers (2003), Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2005) and Mars Sample... on a Mars exploration programme including significant participation in the ESA Mars Express project... programme (return of samples from Mars and installation of a network for... in the context of its Mars Surveyor programme, with the development and operationalization of the Mars Sample Return mission’s Mars orbiter vehicle, the...; (b) Deployment on the surface of Mars of a network of four geophysical... as a major partner in the Mars exploration programme, in the context of the Mars Sample Return mission. (b) Recent developments... as Cluster II, Rosetta or Mars Express and its Beagle 2 lander); (c) As... land on Mars in 2003 as part of the Mars Express mission. 32... the Mars Express project, Poland is contributing to the study of the Mars...



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... the Earth ð ð by investigation of Mars, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, asteroids... Substantial contributions to science instrumentation (e.g. Mars Express, Bepi Colombo, ROSETTA) Major Part... Highlights: -  Mars Express: high-resolution measurement of the Martian surface -  Venus Express: research... Future: -  ‘Mission to Mars’ – ExoMars -  Geoscience station on Mars - InSight -  Asteroid Exploration... www.DLR.de • Chart 10 Mars Express, Venus Express, Rosetta -  MEX, VEX and... in 2014 with lander Philae -  Mars Express with Beagle II launched in... HRSC, Philae lander plus p/l -  Venus Express launched in 2005. Major p/l component... InSight -  First geoscience station on Mars with a seismometer, heat flow probe...



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Automated Spacecraft Conjunction Assessment at Mars and the Moon David S. Berry1... have satellites in orbit at Mars and the Moon, and additional... to perform conjunction assessment at Mars and the Moon. In brief... have satellites in orbit at Mars and the Moon, and additional... Spacecraft Collisions A. Conjunction Assessment at Mars The first non-Earth environment... assessment and collision avoidance is Mars, where the United States National... the Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions at Mars, with the Mars... operates the Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. Since mid-2002, when the Mars Odyssey spacecraft joined the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) in orbit at Mars... an occasional basis for the Mars environment. The frequency of collision... in conjunction assessment studies at Mars. During the aerobraking process, it... other operational spacecraft then at Mars or the two Martian moons... recently announced interest in launching Mars missions (e.g., the Indian Space Research.... The tracking data sources for Mars are presently the Deep Space... use for tracking spacecraft at Mars. B. Conjunction Assessment at the Moon... presently the DSN. As at Mars, radar is not in use.... III. "MADCAP" A process named "MADCAP" (MArs Deepspace Collision Avoidance Process) was... multiple spacecraft in orbit about Mars. MADCAP originated in the scripts... occasionally calculating close approaches at Mars, first between two NASA spacecraft... it is planned that the Mars-orbiting spacecraft remain in operations... Although its roots are at Mars, as noted above MADCAP is... in orbital environments other than Mars are (a) the general purpose nature... weekly in the case of Mars, and daily in the case... to add them to the Mars environment parameters in the near... for analysis. For example, at Mars, close approaches of spacecraft to... the missions operating in the Mars and Lunar orbital environments. Those... Process Current spacecraft in the Mars and Moon environments normally maintain... collisions in the sparsely populated Mars and Moon orbital environments is... orbits, etc.). Also, particularly at Mars since 2004, surface spacecraft such as the Mars Exploration Rovers or the Mars Science Laboratory use... several orbiters such as MRO, Mars Odyssey, and MEX. Analytic approaches... matrix; MADCAP has parameters that express constant covariance sigmas (in km... for automated conjunction assessment at Mars and the Moon using MADCAP... prospect of additional spacecraft at Mars, the Moon, Earth-Sun-L1... Orbiter MArs Deepspace Collision Avoidance Process Mars Express Mars Global Surveyor Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Science... SC01 SC02 SC02 Figure 3. Sample Mars Collision Metrics Plot. 11 SC02... ongoing navigation operations of the Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and GRAIL.... References 1 Long, Stacia, et al., "Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Aerobraking Daily Operations...



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... or martian surfaces. These include: Mars analogue sedimentary, hydrothermal, igneous and... rights reserved. Keywords: Analogue materials Mars Surface Moon Surface Impacts Field...–172 Table 1 General description Locality Mars sedimentary CLA005 Clay Pembina Valley... thenardite min Fine-grained kaolinite Mars hydrothermal ASB003 ASB230 ASB601 ASB902... quartz, chlorite, gypsum and amphibole Mars low-temperature HAL001 Halloysite VER104..., trace relict olivine, quartz, albite Mars igneous HAW006 Basalt Kohala, HI... inferred to be present on Mars (e.g., phyllosilicate-rich deposits, silica-rich... crater, currently explored by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover... for sedimentary and altered rocks. 1.1.1. Mars sedimentary rock suite Orbital imagery... recorded gradual change in Mars environmental conditions). 1.1.2. Mars hydrothermally altered rock suite..., 2009; Schwenzer et al., 2012). 1.1.3. Mars low-temperature altered rock suite... aqueous and hydrothermal alteration. On Mars, lowtemperature alteration may or may... involve fluids. The previously described Mars hydrothermal alteration suite spans materials...., 2009). 1.1.4. Mars igneous rock suite Spectral observations from martian orbit (e.g. Mars Express Orbiter...). In a few restricted locations on Mars, analyses of orbital spectra indicate... more evolved igneous rocks on Mars remains highly uncertain, especially given...) and regolith simulants (e.g., NASA JSC-Mars-1) generally required no further homogenisation... 35 o1 Mars low-temperature HAL001 VER106 HAW049 JSC-Mars-1A HEM105.... Fig. 1. Geochemical discrimination diagrams for Mars igneous rocks and JSC-Mars1..., HAY020), reworked and weathered (JSC-Mars-1) and a plutonic material (OLV003) are.... 5. (A) Example reflectance spectra of Mars analogue phyllosilicates, hydrous silica, and... Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO...), and the NASA JSC-Mars-1 palagonitic soil Mars regolith simulant. 4.6. Example 1: Comparison...flectance spectra of hydroxyl-bearing Mars analogue materials The identification..., in some cases such as Mars sediments, no extraterrestrial (meteorite) examples... of samples (Mars sedimentary, Mars analogue hydrothermal, Mars analogue lowtemperature, Mars analogue igneous, Lunar...-induced hydrothermal activity on early Mars. J. Geophys. Res. 110. Allen, C.C., Gooding..., S., Madsen, M.B., Goetz, W., McLennan, S.M., 2008. Spirit Mars Rover Mission to the Columbia...fication of quartzofeldspathic materials on Mars. J. Geophys. Res. 109. Bandfield..., M.D., Dyar, M.D., Schiffman, P., 2008. Sulfates on Mars: comparison with spectral properties of..., M.S., 2013. Curiosity at Gale Crater, Mars: characterization and analysis of the..., G., Vago, J.L., 2013. Missions to Mars: characterisation of Mars analogue rocks for the... magmatic evolution and diversity on Mars from infrared observations. Nature 436... compositional equivalent in Columbia Hills, Mars. J. Geophys. Res. 112. Cloutis, E.A., McCormack... sulfates on Mars through acidic weathering: the Rio Tinto Mars analog model... martian layered terrains: the OMEGA/Mars express view. Science 307, 1587–1591... metastable aqueous perchlorate solutions on Mars. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 312... at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars. Science. Hamilton, V.E., Christensen, P.R., 2005. Evidence... at the curiosity landing site, Mars. Icarus, under review. Jolliff, B.L., Gillis... sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars. J. Geophys. Res. 113. Koeppen, W.C., Hamilton... the central Mawrth Vallis region, Mars, their potential formational processes, and... at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars. Science. McLennan, S.M., Bell, J.F., Calvin, W.M., Christensen...-bearing Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240... variation of plagioclase compositions on Mars. J. Geophys. Res. 115. Ming, D.W., Archer... in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars. Science. Ming, D.W., Mittlefehldt, D.W., Morris, R.V., Golden... Columbia Hills of Gusev crater, Mars. J. Geophys. Res. 111. Morris, R.V., Klingelhofer... Mossbauer instrument on the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover. J. Geophys. Res. 113... silicate minerals on mars observed by the Mars reconnaissance orbiter CRISM instrument..., J., 2009. Meridiani Planum sediments on Mars formed through weathering in massive... hydrated minerals at Gusev crater, Mars: Vis-NIR spectral characterization and... implications for perchlorate occurrences on Mars. J. Geophys. Res. 116, E07006. Rogers... in Meridiani Planum determined from Mars Exploration Rover data and comparison..., H.E., Treiman, A.H., Vaniman, D.T., Wiens, R.C., 2012. 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... discovered the legendary “channels” on Mars from his observatory in Milan... studies for the project. After Mars Express, ExoMars is the first major... commands on its journey to Mars until such a time as the... module is sent into the Mars orbit.” For AntwerpSpace, participation in... five “ExoMartians” Research carousel and Mars Express at the German Aerospace Centre... scientific team of the US Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity. Accordingly... level of complexity in exploring Mars, and we can be proud... a fascination with the topic of “Mars exploration”? What is ExoMars? An... the mission has landed on Mars in 2020, the hour will... conveys the samples drilled from Mars soil into the analytical ‘ALD... the atmosphere and surface of Mars. Earlier missions measured methane deposits... and numerous scientific experiments to Mars. The trace gas orbiter acts... that microorganisms migrated underground as Mars became increasingly hostile to life... enthusiasm is not limited to Mars. It’s about space travel in...’s more, I often give talks on Mars missions at schools and universities...- Lutz Richter Alessandro Gugino pean Mars landing. And if traces of... terms of future colonisation of Mars. So it goes without saying... was once liquid water on Mars. So the big question is.... It would mean that manned Mars missions would progress pretty quickly... for the first person on Mars and writing history in the... belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Asteroids are leftovers... gone before – perhaps even to Mars – and return them safely to... TGO will not enter the Mars orbit until next year after... braking manoeuvres. 7 The number of Mars mis­ sions currently active in... dust vortexes occasionally forming on Mars, according to discoveries by NASA... man on the surface of Mars: the “Curiosity” rover in August... average distance in kilometres between Mars and the Earth. It is... million km either. In fact, Mars will be relatively close by... 22 seconds is how long Mars rotates fully on its own..., at 687 days, a year on Mars is almost twice as long...



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... scientific exploitation of data from Mars missions, i) Technology ‘demonstrator projects’ for... (e.g. Solar Orbiter, Sentinel-5P, Venus/Mars-Express) in order to reduce both... Solar Orbiter, Sentinel-5P, Venus/Mars-Express and E3000/EP platforms. E3000... on the one implemented on Mars-Express, which allowed a further reduction to... the one used for the Mars-Express mission. 30 HIPPARCHOS | Volume 2, Issue... future planned manned missions to Mars and asteroids. After completion of...