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... Analysis PS- 35 MARS EXPLORATION ………………………………………… PS- 39 2013 Mars Atmosphere and Volatile... Performer Last Review Purpose/Outcome Next Review Quality Planetary Science Subcommittee... subsequent evolutionary processes. STARDUST Stardust-NExT (Stardust-New Exploration of Tempel... FY 2012 Estimate -- -- -38.5% The Mars Exploration program is a sciencedriven program... on Mars, characterize the climate of Mars, characterize the geology of Mars, and prepare for human exploration. The Mars..., incremental, discovery-driven exploration of Mars to determine the planet’s physical... Mars Exploration program include the current operating missions 2001 Mars Odyssey, 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Mars Express with the European Space Agency, 2005 Mars PS-39 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE MARS EXPLORATION Reconnaissance Orbiter.... The Mars Exploration program also includes Mars Program Management, Mars Technology, Mars Operating and Extended Missions, and Mars Research... program management responsibility for the Mars Exploration program, providing overall mission... the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA). A future Mars mission planned within the Mars Next Decade project is being defined. Mars Exploration...-41 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN... provide a comprehensive picture of the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, solar energetic...-42 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-43 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-44 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-45 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-46 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-47 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN... a rigorous, incremental, discoverydriven exploration of Mars to determine the planet’s physical... missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, 2003 Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and the 2011 Mars...: Mars Research and Analysis, Mars Technology, Mars Mission Operations, Mars Extended Operations, Mars Next Decade, and Mars Program Management. PS-49 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION... Operations Non-Operating Missions MARS RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS Mars Research and Analysis... and temperature patterns, Mars will become host to Mars Science Laboratory (MSL... about whether life existed on Mars. • • Mars Fundamental Research program, which funds... about Mars; Mars Data Analysis, which analyzes archived data collected on Mars missions... science community peer review. MARS TECHNOLOGY Mars Technology focuses on technology investments...-orbit communications improvements (e.g. Electra). MARS MISSION OPERATIONS Mars Mission Operations provides management... development and execution of Mars multi-mission operations. Mars Mission Operations supports... ANALYSIS Formulation Development Operations MARS EXTENDED OPERATIONS Mars Extended Operations provides funding... based on scientific merit. MARS NEXT DECADE Mars Next Decade provides funds for the planning of future missions to Mars... in an integrated strategy. MARS PROGRAM MANAGEMENT Mars Program Management provides for... implementation and management of the Mars Exploration program’s selected flight missions... also supports independent panel reviews, Mars education and public outreach, planetary... integration. Operating Missions 2001 MARS ODYSSEY 2001 Mars Odyssey, currently in its...’s UHF system. 2003 MARS EXPLORATION ROVER 2003 Mars Exploration Rover, the rover... the geological processes that shaped Mars, particularly those involving water. Opportunity..., and low light levels. MARS EXPRESS Mars Express, currently in its second... Formulation Development Operations 2005 MARS RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO... MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY (MSL) 2011 Mars Science Laboratory, currently on cruise to Mars, takes a major step forward in Mars exploration, both... zones on Mars. Recent Achievements 2011 MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY 2011 Mars Science Laboratory... surface operations. 2003 MARS EXPLORATION ROVER 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity’s study... hospitable for life. 2001 MARS ODYSSEY 2001 Mars Odyssey has become the... Change From FY 2012 Estimate -- -- -8.3% NEXT (NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster) could.... The NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) completed a long duration test, demonstrating... (EM) Thruster and NEXT. The goal of NEXT is to achieve 750...



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... to NASA for the Mars Science Laboratory. The next scientific instruments to be provided include the MATMOS (Mars Atmospheric... and ranging) Launched Mars Science Laboratory NASA Mars Rover CSA APXS (Alpha... development by CALT. Mars Exploration The Yinghuo-1 Mars probe had been intended... the development of a Mars orbiter, a descent module and a Mars rover, initially in... this mission: an Earth/Mars transfer stage, a Mars orbiter, a descent module, an... a technology development program, the MREP (Mars Robotic Exploration Preparatory program), under... system (Astrium France) Mars orbiter to 2003 Launched Mars Express & Beagle-2 lander... and international missions (Cassini – Huygens, Mars Express, Venus Express, BepiColombo...)  Gas... Status Launched Launched Name CassiniHuygens Mars Express Management Organization involved* Description... Launch Failure Mars Science Laboratory Phobos-Grunt NASA Roscosmos Mars rover carrying... Observation on Mars), a ground penetrating UHF radar ESA / Roscosmos Mars orbiter and... Martian samples) NASA Mars lander to study Mars inner composition IPGP VBB.... The next steps are the Moon, Mars and beyond Mars. The Mars 500 experiment... Münich MDC (Mars Dust Counter) University of Cologne MaRS (Mars Express orbiter Radio... Mars Lander to study Mars inner composition DLR Institute of Space Systems Mars...) Contributions to Exomars, BepiColombo, Rosetta, Mars & Venus Express, NASA's Dawn asteroid...) MIP (Moon Impact Probe) Mars orbiter ISRO Mars orbiter carrying a payload of... Launched Launched Approved In development Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Venus Express Dawn... meteorological on-ground conditions MA_MISS (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies... Ultraviolet Spectrometer) Kobe University MIC (Mars Imaging Camera) - 88 - COFSEP – Final... Exploration missions 1999 Launched Mars Polar Lander NASA Mars lander IKI LIDAR... Ranging) 2001 Launched 2001 Mars Odyssey NASA Mars orbiter IKI HEND (High... missions 1997 2003 Launched Mars Express Cassini Huygens Mars Express NASA (Cassini... Impact) 2007 Opportunity mission n.a. STARDUST-Next (extension of Stardust) 2007 Opportunity... BepiColombo) 2013 Opportunity mission n.a. The next Discovery mission (Discovery-12) has... surface of Mars. The Curiosity rover should launch an Mars in August.... The next mission, scheduled for launch in 2013, is MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere... is currently referred to as “Mars Next Generation” is to contribute to... Mission cost Mars Climate Orbiter Orbiter 1998 $655 million Mars Polar Lander... Laboratory 1998 Failed during Mars orbit insertion Mars Climate Orbiter NASA Orbiter... Imager) 1998 Failed during Mars orbit insertion Mars Polar Lander NASA Robotic... report 2001 Launched 2001 Mars Odyssey NASA Mars orbiter to gather data... Launched Launched Launched CONTOUR (Discovery 6) Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity... development Environmental testing 2005 Launched Mars Reconnaissanc e Orbiter NASA Euroconsult for... (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars), a visible and near infrared spectrometer... Jet Propulsion Laboratory Launched Mars Science Laboratory NASA Mars Rover Project management... on Mars MAHLI (MArs HandLens Imager) Malin Space Science Systems MARDI (MARs Descent... and Opportunity rovers Mars mission, and more recently the Mars Science Lab... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, THEMIS on Mars Odyssey 2001, thermal emission spectrometer on several Mars missions. Northrop Grumman (Aerospace Systems... most Martian missions (Mars Climate Observer, Mars Polar Lander, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MSL... exploration missions (Pioneer, Voyager, …), including Mars rovers, MSL Deep Impact comet... propulsion motors drilling systems in Mars missions developing a commercial Lunar lander... Juno 1,000 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Huygens New Horizons Mars Climate Orbiter 500... and LADEE notably). Mars programs Six missions to Mars are currently planned..., Mars or Near-Earth objects could be launched over the next fifteen... to Chang’e-5 Mars Orbiter Mars Lander MAVEN, 2013: explore Mars upper atmosphere and... the interior of Mars Exomars, 2016: European Demonstration Lander Mars Rover Exomars... exobiology and geology research Mars Sample return Mars Sample Return, >2020: Mission... Japan European individual countries Mars Orbiter, 2013: Study Mars atmosphere and especially.... The next steps in space exploration (L2 or Moon station, Mars trip...-operated) the Moon and Mars in the next decades. 2. Impact of industrial... international exploration initiatives in the next decade. However, the Brazilian government... objectives synergies 3 2 Similar objectives Moon / Mars Cooperation Benefits Rating Economical Political... objectives synergies 3 2 Similar objectives Moon / Mars Cooperation Benefits Economical Political benefits... Europe only 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 Similar objectives Moon / Mars Strong synergies between partners Coop... additional future cooperation, notably for Mars Exploration.  Threats: Potential changes of...: Intercontinental Ballistic Missile iMARS: International Mars Architecture for the Return of...



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Japan’s Mars Exploration Plan: MELOS NOTE ADDED BY JPL WEBMASTER: This document was prepared by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The content has not been approved or adopted by, NASA, JPL, or the California Institute of Technology. This document is being made available for information purposes only, and any views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of NASA, JPL, or the California Institute of Technology. MELOS Working Group represented by Sho Sasaki (NAOJ) An Outstanding Question Did Mars really have a warm and wet environment in its early days?? To answer the above question: Need to fully understand the evolution of Martian atmosphere, the water, and its climate. The atmosphere to solid-body interactions are significant also. The MELOS mission challenges the following 3 science objectives. Science Objectives (1/3) Escaping Atmosphere: to understand how Mars atmosphere has evolved − − − − − Will study in detail controlling processes on removal of ions/neutrals from the upper atmosphere with special focus on the solar-wind interactions. Escape from upper atmosphere Degassing From interior Will complements the study by 2013 Scout mission, MAVEN Observation in orbit during the solar maximum of the 25th solar cycle (around 2022) Capture to interior Solar wind and radiation monitored on the companion orbiter The study will be enhanced by the noble-gas isotopic measurements on the lander Heritage from NOZOMI (launched in 1998) and ERG Circulation/exchanges due to meteorology Meteorology: Science Objectives (2/3) to understand what is going on now − − − − − Part of “comparative meteorology of 3 terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus and Mars)” with particular interests on water cycles (transportation and re-distribution) Escape from upper atmosphere Degassing From interior Global mapping of atmospheric motions with imaging cameras from an elongated orbit with its apocenter near the ecliptic A sub-mm sounder will provide vertical information up to 150 km altitude, connecting meteorology to escaping atmosphere Capture to interior Form a network of ground stations with other mission(s), such as Mars NEXT Will complements Mars Science Orbiter (2018?) Heritage from Venus Climate Orbiter (to be launched in 2010) Circulation/exchanges due to meteorology Science Objectives (3/3) Interior Structure & Surface Environment: to understand how solid body affects the atmosphere − − − − − Seismic study will improve knowledge on interior structure, contributing to understand evolution of Mars as a “solid” planet and its roles on climate history. Escape from upper atmosphere Degassing From interior Particular interest on determination of the core dimension, which may have dictated thermal activity of the solid planet Will establish the crater chronology on Mars by measuring ratios of radio-active elements Capture to interior Plan to measure the atmospheric electricity Will greatly benefit from network science with ESA's Mars NEXT (2018) Technology developed for SELENE-2 and earth science studies Circulation/exchanges due to meteorology Mars Exploration with a Lander and Orbiters Orbiters − Comparative meteorology (on a 3-axis-stabilized orbiter) and atmospheric escape studies (on a spin-stabilized orbiter) Imaging cameras and a plasma science package In-situ measurements of escaping atmosphere Observe “global” meteorology from near apocenter A Lander − Seismic measurements (+ heat flux) for interior structure studies Configuration of the lander & possible science packages are being discussed by researchers in the wider field Seismic measurements, nearsurface turbulence and gas composition Orbital Insertion Plan V_inf=3.8km/s Lander Deorbit ∆V=20m/s Mars Main Orbiter with OME (Atmospheric Escape Study) Sub Orbiter with ACS (Meteorology Study) Lander(s) (Interior Structure Study) MOI ∆V=1590m/s Change Inclination ∆V=252m/s Mars Lower Altitude ∆V=680m/s Target launch windows in 2016 or 2018 (2020 also good): Solar max in 25th cycle Mass Budget (Very Preliminary) Mission Schedule (Preliminary) “MELOS” Working Group JAXA and Research Institutes − − − National Institute of Information and Communications Technology National Astronomical Observatory of Japan Contact: National Institute of Environmental Studies Universities − − − − − − − − − − − − − University of Tokyo Aizu University Kobe University Osaka University Nagoya University Tsukuba University Kyoto University Tokyo Institute of Technology Tohoku University Tokyo Gakugei University Rikkyo University Toyama University Kyushu University Foreign Countries − Takehiko Satoh (JAXA) Satoh.takehiko@jaxa.jp Takashi Kubota (JAXA) Kubota.takashi@jaxa.jp “Lander Science” discussion meeting at ISAS/JAXA (5 Aug 2008) IRF (Sweden); MPI (Germany); Caltech (USA); Cornell U (USA)



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... and the ASPERA-3 team 199 MaRS: Mars Express Radio Science Experiment M. Pätzold... Abbreviations 279 iii FOREWORD Mars Express: foreword Mars Express arrived at its... with an ambitious rover, and Mars-NEXT will establish a network of three... soil at each landing site. Mars-NEXT will be an important technological... preparation for the international Mars Sample Return mission. Mars Express has positioned... of numerous US missions to Mars, Mars Express has provided exciting new...’s Mars Global Surveyor and the Mars Exploration Rovers, and the Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter missions. Mars... for the international Mars Sample Return mission. The Mars Express spacecraft has... processes are currently active on Mars. The Mars Express spacecraft has now... the objectives of the Mars Radio Science (MaRS) experiment is to study... imaging of the Mars interior was impossible before Mars Express. Altimetry and... particular with NASA’s Mars rovers Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and with..., geophysical and climatological investigations, and Mars-NEXT, which includes a network of three... task in which the Mars Odyssey and Mars Global Observer teams have... Mars Exploration Rovers The concurrent operation of Mars Express and the NASA Mars... determined. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), NASA’s next rover mission to Mars (Meyer... Mars: Observations from High Resolution Stereo Camera/Mars Express (HRSC/MEX) and Mars Orbiter Camera/Mars Global Surveyor...–2335. Malin, M.C. & K.S. Edgett (2001). Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera: Interplanetary Cruise.... Neukum, G. &H. Hoffmann (2000). Imaging Mars, in Towards Mars (Eds. R. Pellinen & P. Raudsepp), Oy... Resolution Stereo Camera of Mars Express, in Mars Express: The Scientific Payload... the Geological Evolution of Mars through the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo... remnant crustal magnetism on Mars Global Surveyor, early Mars appears to have... Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission... Mineralogical and Aqueous Mars History Derived from OMEGA/Mars Express Data, Science... of Surface Pressure on Mars with the Mars Express/OMEGA Spectrometer: 1. Retrieval... Polar Region of Mars Detected by the OMEGA/Mars Express Observations, Science... Plasma Observations at Mars: Initial Results of the Mars Global Surveyor Mission... were used integrated with Mars Global Surveyor’s Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA...). Dynamics of the atmosphere of Mars. In Mars (Eds. H.H. Kieffer, B.M. Jakowsky, C.W. Snyder... Observation Modes 3.3.1 Pointing capabilities of Mars Express Mars Express, a reduced version of... Mars Upper Atmosphere: In-situ Accelerometer Measurements from Mars Odyssey 2001 and Mars... For the Studies of Mars Atmosphere for Mars Express Mission. Adv. Space... and tail of Mars suggest many similarities between Mars and comets, i.e. the... aurora, would occur above Mars. With Mars Express we have now confirmed... from the hemisphere away from Mars, excluding a Mars-related source (right). Galli... and Energetic Atoms for Mars Express, In Mars Express: The Scientific Payload... Res. 34, 61–65. 215 MaRS: Mars Express Radio Science Experiment M. Pätzold1... 95305, USA The Mars Express Radio Science Experiment (MaRS) started regular operations..., G. & Dehant, V. (2004). MaRS: Mars Express Orbiter Radio Science. In Mars Express: The Scientific.... Since the arrival of Mars Express at Mars in December 2003, the...-term evolution of the Mars Express orbit. Mars Express has a high degree... mission), Rosetta, Mars Express and SMART-1 are ESA’s next planetary missions. All...”, “MARS EXPRESS”, “BEAGLE 2”, “SMART 1”, “2001 MARS ODYSSEY”, “24-COLOR SURVEY”, “AMES MARS GENERAL... = “MISSION TO MARS” VOLUME_SET_NAME = “MARS EXPRESS ASPERA3” VOLUME_SET_ID = “USA_ESA_PSA_MEX_ASPERA3” VOLUME_NAME = “MARS EXPRESS ASPERA... polar areas, and sinusoidal elsewhere. 5.4 MaRS (Mars Express Radio Science) Experiment The... and Energetic Ions for Mars Express. In Mars Express: The Scientific Payload... Planetary Fourier Spectrometer for Mars Express. In Mars Express: The Scientific Payload... Resolution Stereo Camera of Mars Express. In Mars Express: The Scientific Payload... al. (2004). MaRS: Mars Express Orbiter Radio Science Experiment. In Mars Express: The... 2: The Exobiological Lander of Mars Express. In Mars Express: The Scientific Payload... Electron Reflectometer MARCI Mars Color Imager MaRS Mars Radio Science MARSIS Mars Advanced Radar... MEP Mars Exploration Program (NASA) MER Mars Exploration Rover (NASA) MEX Mars Express MSG Meteosat Second Generation MGS Mars... MNP Mars nearest point MO Mars Odyssey MOC Mission Operations Centre; Mars Observer Camera MOLA Mars Orbiter... Mars Pathfinder (NASA) Mission Planning System Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter model reference spectrum Mars Solar Orbital Mass Stiffness Model Mars...



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..., L. 18:15 OMEGA/Mars Express Limb Observations of Mars : The Dust Vertical... 1 ...................................................................................................123 Posters on the Mars Interior, Mars Geology & Mineralogy on display all... the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on ............................91 Mars Express Tellmann, S.; Pätzold, M.; Häusler... 11 The History of Mars Exploration Masson, Ph.L. Mars has always held...), Mars Pathfinder (1996), Mars Global Surveyor (1996), Mars Odyssey (2001), Mars Express (2003), and Mars... by the recent Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) and Mars Express missions to... data from Viking, Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions under an... fusing data from Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey and Mars Express instruments. 55... Insight from the Mars Express Orbiter and the Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit... SPICAM). 68 OMEGA/Mars Express Limb Observations of Mars : The Dust Vertical... of the closest Earth-Mars encounter as Mars passed within 0.372 AU... the Mars Express Orbiter payload, the Mars Express Orbiter Radio Science experiment (MaRS... by the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on Mars Express Tellmann, S.; Pätzold, M.; Häusler..., J.D. The radio science experiment MaRS on Mars Express sounded the Martian atmosphere... the upper atmosphere from Mars orbiters. 96 Mars Express/SPICAM UV: First... aerobraking and Mars Express measurements. Mars Global Surveyer (1997-1999) and Mars Odyssey... the Upper Atmosphere of Mars by SPICAM Aboard Mars Express, DPS Meeting... Search for Life on Mars Everett K. Gibson, Mars Express Interdiscipline Scientist, Mail... ongoing missions (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express and Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity... the plans for missions to Mars next decade. This will lead into... define the future of Mars Exploration. 120 NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO... Geology and Mineralogy Coordinated Mars Express OMEGA and Mars Exploration Rover Observations... Analysis of the Mars Topography..............................................................................................141 Dorninger, P.; Attwenger, M. Mars Express HRSC Context... Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express Hauber, E. Is Mars Hiding some Ice in..., J.; Marty, J-C.; Balmino, G.; Barriot, J-P. The Mars Radio-Science (MaRS) experiment provides Doppler shifts... of Mars, Venus, and Earth. 131 Coordinated Mars Express OMEGA and Mars Exploration... of data from Mars Global Surveyor’s Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), Mars Orbiter Laser... Depth of Ice on Mars Helbert, J.; Benkhoff, J. While Mars has been considered..., J-L.; Perrier, S. A New Mars Climate Database in Support of Mars Express Science ............................................................196... Mars Gibson, E.K.; McKay, D.S.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Clemett, S.; Wentworth, S.; Socki, R. The Mars Express Mission, Mars Exploration Rovers and surface samples from Mars (i.e. the... activity on Mars. While we anticipate sample return within the next 15...) during the present mission to Mars - "Mars Express". Several dusty spectra from..., D.; Ignatiev, N. Spectra of Mars recorded with the OMEGA/Mars Express experiment have... instruments on-board the Mars Express. 205 Mars Ozone Profiles Retrieved from... of the radio science experiment MaRS on Mars Express is the sounding... the .........................................224 Radio Science Experiment Mars on Mars Express Andert, T.P.; Pätzold, M. High... by the HRSC on Mars Express ...........................................................225 Giese, B. Mars Express and Phobos... Spatial Data for ..............................................233 Mars Cartography from MARS EXPRESS HRSC Imagery Dorrer..., D.; Zender, J.; Arviset, C. Exploring Mars by a European Small Mars Mission.......................................................................................238 Hoffmann, H.; Bischof... Mars Science Opportunities using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), ................249 Mars Express (MEX) and the Mars... Radio Science Experiment Mars on Mars Express Andert, T.P.; Pätzold, M. Mars Express will perform... more than 175,000 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbital Camera (MOC... Nirgal Vallis, by comparing Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey images. Geophys... of Spatial Data for Mars Cartography from MARS EXPRESS HRSC Imagery Dorrer... to operate it on Mars. 237 Distribution of Mars Express Science Data...-board of Mars Express. 238 Exploring Mars by a European Small Mars Mission Hoffmann... Joint Mars Science Opportunities using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), Mars Express (MEX) and the Mars... three operating orbiting spacecrafts (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express) and two... Stereo Camera (HRSC) aboard Mars Express imaged Mars and Phobos in 127... introduced several Mars datasets like MOLA (Mars Obiter Laser Altimeter), MDIM2.1 (Mars Digital Image Mosaic), MOC (Mars Orbiter...



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... business by doing this practically ....Next page 9 ...Entrepreneur in Action Winners... 14 A giant interplanetary leap to Mars Rintu Nath India created history... Research Organisation (ISRO) successfully placed Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) spacecraft, also... Mangalyaan, in the orbit of Mars. MOM is an orbiter craft... the Mangalyaan Mars in an elliptical orbit. For the orbiting Mars next six... (Source Wikipedia) remain a satellite of Mars, click pictures and sniff out... the first country to reach Mars’s orbit on a maiden venture, and... Asian country to launch a successful Mars mission, all with much less expenditure than any other Mars mission before it. MOM is... in the world to reach Mars, after the Russian Federal Space... ISRO’s Mars Orbiter captured this global view of Mars with its Mars Colour...,500 kilometres [Source: ISRO] The Mars Orbiter will be able to... near apoapsis. As a result, the Mars Orbiter will be able to... a series of global views of Mars at different phases and of... right in the first attempt (‘Mars Express’ in 2003). However, India... Asian countries that had attempted Mars missions, but failed. Accomplished at... space mission till date, the Mars Orbiter Mission is an ambitious... of the orbiter into Mars orbit. ISRO’s Mars Orbiter took this photo of the hazy limb of Mars on 24 September 2014, just... 8,449 kilometres. [Source: ISRO] Mars's limb from Mars Orbiter spacecraft Apoapsis and... orbiter around Mars When the spacecraft is closer to Mars, it will.... ....Next page 15 A giant interplanetary leap to Mars... As it goes around Mars... features 80,000 km, the Mars Orbiter will employ five instruments... of Martian atmosphere. exploration of Mars’ surface features, Interestingly, only three...’s Mangalyaan arrived at phere.The Mars Orbiter carries five sciMars, on... payloads to observe Martian MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and surface, atmosphere and... km for a detailed cessfully entered Mars’ orbit. Both understanding of the... is being maneuvered from ISRO's Mars misplement each other in solving... mystery of Mars’ missing water. payloads consist of a camera (Mars While on... itational sphere of influence of Mars, ISRO has already entire planet... out of five instruments have Mars Orbiter Mission is India's first... been activated. Mars Colour Camera (MCM) has capplanet Mars with an orbiter craft designed to orbit Mars. The tured and sent back breathtaking views of Mars. The images mission is designed... from the Mars Orbiter are truly captivating. Journey to Mars It was... first Moon mission Chandrayaan-1. The Mars mission was conceptualised during this... the trans-Mars injection requirements needed to place the Mars Orbiter into the correct heliocentric Mars transfer orbit..., the orbital insertion parameters at Mars, resource availability in the spacecraft... of Earth and Mars at the time of the Mars Orbiter’s arrival... gravitational sphere of influence of Mars and many other factors. Launch... ....Next page 16 A giant interplanetary leap to Mars... Construction on the Mars Orbiter... Dhawan Space Centre. Over the next 42 minutes, the PSLVshipped to... The successful launch of the Mars Orbiter Mission marked 2013. India... burn. At this point, the Mars cial. If it could be... from reaching the influence of Mars. If launch is deplanned 1,00...-km till 2016 when the next Mars apogee orbit. The resulting underlaunch... longer be launched directly into a Mars transfer The fifth orbit raising...-shot it into the correct Mars transfer orbit. With the needed... towards the red planet. Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) opIslands in the... on cember 2013. Cruise to Mars After leaving Earth orbit, a total... performed to ensure that the Mars Orbiter is aligned into the proper trajectory for arrival at Mars. On 22 September 2014 at... later. Mars Orbital Insertion (MOI) As the Mars Orbiter approached Mars for orbital... influence of Mars’s gravity, passed into the shadow of Mars. This entry... before the start of the Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) burn. As the MOI burn began, Mars Orbiter’s main liquid engine and... per second. ....Next page 17 A giant interplanetary leap to Mars... As this burn began, the spacecraft moved behind Mars as... MOI burn successfully accomplished, the Mars Orbiter entered a highly elliptical orbit... carries five sophisticated equipment. The Mars Colour Camera (MCC) is the... features and composition of the Mars. MCC has already captured and... view and detailed views of Mars. The global scientific community is... dedicated methane gas sensor to Mars. The presence of methane gas... life forms. Findings of ISRO’s Mars Orbiter will be vital in... MAVEN and other spacecraft orbiting Mars and surface rovers like Curiosity...



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... Technology Radio Laboratory (p. 162) © NASA. Mars’s surface view taken by Spirit... the launch pad, were located next to the combat periscopes. Evgeny... public response displayed on the next day after the TASS announcement... Design Achievement award for the Mars Pathfinder mission. Asteroid 7225 has... compatriots only. As a result, the next day’s, October 5 Pravda newspaper was... to beyond Pluto, orbited Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, and landed... significantly extended and for the next years there was literally no... of the unmanned flights to Mars and Venus. The principal technical..., first flights to Venus and Mars, the first artificial satellites of... of Ariane5. The so-successful Mars Express mission and its Venusian... a major scandal. I waited till his next accusation that Russians are not... and Italian observation stations. The next step in developing optical observations... as easily as with their next door neighbors. Technologically, the Space... friendly relations with Pietrov. The next stage of the INTERCOSMOS program.... Man made rovers searched through Mars. Long distance probes took pictures... very skeptical about a Mars mission in the next five decades. The challenges... for Finland to take the next step, joining the international COSPAR... to Mars. Today we are much better prepared to take the next... could start working towards a manned Mars flight almost immediately. However, it... should anticipate with excitement mankind’s next explorative step and feel willing... event. The media’s appetite for Mars information should be stimulated continously... fourth year of operation of Mars, are studying the Martian surface... contained in a microchip. In the next decades we will see hundreds... was appropriate (even when flying next to the Halley’s comet) — being.... The next years were shadowed by a loss of the Mars-96 automatic... discovery, and scientists involved in Mars interplanetary space probe experiment met... this cooperation neither long-term Mars expeditions, nor settling the Moon... for space experiments within the next few years. My real opportunity... years); Mariner-4 succeeded and reached Mars in July 1965 (no radiation..., such as human travel to Mars, comprehensive exploration of Europa, Titan... efficient study of the planet Mars than either a series of unmanned... Expedition to the Moons of Mars // Space Technology and Applications International... get activated, I brought a radioactive source next to them and listened if... cold during these operations. The next day I had a strong throat ache...-4 (1967) project. Artificial satellites of Mars and Venus, delivery of the... the tragic wreck of the Mars-96 interplanetary space station, confronted... this mission. The star coordinator’s next modification BOKZ-MF is included..., including Prognoz and Interball satellites, Mars-2, -3, -5 and Venera-9, -10, Vega-1, -2. Born..., as measured on satellite. My next ‘contact’ with space happened in... name replaced to Ivanov). Our next space adventure was with Elektron... program.  SPACE IN-SITU   around Mars. Keldysh listened to an audacious... onboard of Mars-2 and Mars-3. These experiments within the framework of Mars-71... was an ambitious project of a Mars satellite with many scientific instruments.... 242  Very soon, a new project, Mars-71, with a new scientific program... in the Moon, Venus, and Mars exploration. Babakin ‘skyrocketed the space... its surface bearing capacity. The next milestone of the Moon studies... really hard to overestimate. Our next experiments on Venera spacecraft with... data from the Martian satellites Mars-3  SPACE IN-SITU   and Mariner... for the whole ‘fleet’ of Mars-2-7 spacecraft were incommensurable with rather... after the successful landing of Mars-3 lander on the Martian surface... the parameters of atmosphere of Mars measured during the spacecraft descent... spacecraft to the Moon, Venus, Mars which were carrying, without exaggeration... Soviet achievement. 256  For the next few days, the Barcelona Congress... to the planets, beginning with Mars. Next Fifty Years I believe that the... ‘citizen space traveller’ in the next half century. Before the current... station missions to Venus and Mars. Moreover, this regulation established Interdepartmental... structure of the Moon, Venus, Mars, fine texture of Saturnian rings... planetary missions: Viking Mission to Mars (1969–1978) with responsibility for... orbital stations. In terms of Mars manned flight, Russia is technologically... cooperate and integrate? You mentioned Mars manned space flight: would it... certainly stay in space flights. Mars exploration is a long term process... countries meet individual challenges in Mars exploration. Every country will take... technologies for manned flight to Mars, which will open an opportunity... than, say, manned flight to Mars. But, fortunately, the humanity never.... In particular, manned spaceflight to Mars will require participation of various... electronic components available in the next shop. Hence, whereas on one... and analysing cosmic rays were next door, but somehow space research... seemed huge before. And what next? Other planets and worlds… Curious...



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...-9 a.m. Welcome and Opening 9-9:30 a.m. NASA’s Mars Exploration Program 9:30-10 a.m. Planetary... to the Moon, Venus, and Mars in 1960s 3-3:30 p.m. Instrument Accommodation... p.m. Perspectives on the Evolution of Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems... Aerocapture for High-Mass Mars Payloads 9:30-10 a.m. Mars Entry Atmospheric Data... Measurement System Characterization of the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System 5:10... Mission Lands on Mars • 8:30-9 a.m. Mars Science Laboratory: The Next Rover • 9-9:30 a.m. ExoMars... Probe Missions • 4:10-4:40 p.m. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model to... Landing System Design for the Mars Gravity Biosatellite Evening Open Planning... Minutes of Questions) 8:30-9 a.m. Why Mars Sample Return Will Never Happen...-9 a.m. Welcome and Opening 9-9:30 a.m. NASA’s Mars Exploration Program Doug McCuistion, NASA... The current decade for NASA’s Mars Exploration Program has been a remarkable success with the Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter orbiters, twin rovers... an even deeper understanding of Mars. The Mars Science Laboratory is the... surface in the next decade? How likely is a Mars Sample Return mission... result in a Mars Exploration Program that will engage the next generation, build... Mars mission is being studied by ESA, under the name Mars-Next, that... Saturn’s satellite in the future. Mars offers a major challenge for ballooning..., predict regionally, and act locally. Next, both government and commercial space... challenging and costly next generation of planetary missions. Mars Sample Return and... p.m. Perspectives on the Evolution of Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems... Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s experience. The Mars program’s success has depended on... In-Orbit Capture Mechanism for a Mars Sample Return Mission - Terminal Rendezvous... Gibbings, Kingston University Any perceived Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission is... II handheld sun photometer Atromos: Mars Companion Mission, Mid-Size Polar... component architecture level for probes. A Mars Sample return test case is... Center NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander landed on Mars on May 25, 2008... Ballute Aerocapture for High-Mass Mars Payloads Kristin Medlock, Alina Alexeenko...-assisted, low- to high-mass Mars aerocapture systems. Ballutes permit aerocapture...-Stokes equations apply. 9:30-10 a.m. Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) Requirements and Design for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Michelle Munk... performance and design margins. The Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and... measurement system, known as the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS... components under development like SpaceFibre, Next Generation Multipurpose Processor, Spacecraft Controller... to demonstrate critical technologies of a Mars surface mission, including the critical... for sample return missions e.g. from Mars. Therefore, an observation mission was... Measurement System Characterization of the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS... flight science requirement of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry descent... Mars. 8:30-9 a.m. Mars Science Laboratory: The Next Rover Michael Meyer, NASA Headquarters The Mars... of an Atmospheric Parameters Package. Mars’ atmosphere is highly variable in... clearly identified the exploration of Mars as a main objective to contribute... intermediate mission—the so-called NEXT (Next Exploration Science and Technology) mission... for NEXT is a Mars mission demonstrating aerobraking and rendezvous/ capture in Mars orbit... ExoMars is ESA’s next mission to planet Mars. The project is currently... mission phases, including launch, interplanetary, Mars orbit injection and orbiting, down... always flown,” with the heritage Mars heatshield material, SLA-561V. Screening... Center NASA’s Mars Sample Return project will bring Mars surface and atmosphere... Earth return from extraterrestrial bodies (e.g. Mars, comets or asteroids) involves a hyperbolic... Design for the Exploration of Mars Lisero Perez Lebbink, Technical University.... 4:10-4:40 p.m. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) to..., Stanley Associates The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) is... the mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM’s conventional (General Circulation Model... model output (Southwest Research Institute’s Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University’s Mars mesoscale model (MMM5) model) and... of three Mars years of TES nadir data. The Mars Science Laboratory..., University of California-Irvine Future Mars missions requiring increased landing accuracy... Landing System Design for the Mars Gravity Biosatellite Ashley Korzun, Christine... Braun, Georgia Institute of Technology Mars Gravity Biosatellite is a novel program... engineering, and hardware development, the Mars Gravity Biosatellite program offers a unique... the educational impact of the Mars Gravity Biosatellite program. Evening Open... wild history of Mars landing attempts. 8:30-9 a.m. Why Mars Sample Return Will... technical and programmatic, that a successful Mars Sample Return mission will have...



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... Future - Aleksandra Voinea 77 NASA's Next Generation "Z-1" Space Suit; Four winners... a planet-wide catastrophe.” About The Mars Foundation - http://marsfoundation.org/ - http... persons in the design of Mars outposts and settlements, maximizing use... establishing a permanent human presence on Mars. About Open Luna Foundation - http... manned spaceflight to the Moon, Mars and possibly beyond. (And those... at the International Space Station next year, in August 2014, where... association with impact basins on Mars and Mercury. Launched as GRAIL... science gear on the Moon, Mars, or on asteroids. Operational readiness... 2013 MARS - UNMANNED MISSIONS New found Comet most unlikely to impact Mars next year http://www.space.com/20512-mars-comet-crash... given a slim chance of impacting Mars in 2014 will almost certainly...)” a 1-in-8,000 chance of striking Mars on October 14, 2014. Revised... originally expected. ## A Space Telescope Orbiting Mars? http://www.space.com/21064...-spy-telescope-mars.html http://www.space.com/21034-mars-space-telescope... links above] MOST, or the “Mars-Orbiting Space Telescope,” is a concept... telescope to the vicinity of Mars. The instrument would point down... the HiRISE instrument aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter now in orbit... planetary targets as well as Mars' surface, upper atmosphere and aurora... images of Mars surface from the HRI instrument. And Mars scientists can... fluid environments. ## Rounded Stones on Mars Evidence of Flowing Water http... original rocks on Earth and Mars. Densely packed deposits were formed... when the streams were active. Mars must have had a denser atmosphere... the case. ## The Floodwaters of Mars http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities... Resolution Stereo Camera on ESA’s Mars Express. The mosaic spans 987... a stunning new mosaic from ESA’s Mars Express. Dramatic flood events carved this impressive channel system on Mars covering 1.55 million square km... largest outflow channel systems on Mars. From “source to sink,” it.... ## 23 Videos from “Humans to Mars” Summit, May 6-8, 2013, George Washington... Billion Pixel 360° Mars Panorama taken by Curiosity http://mars.nasa.gov... MARS - HUMAN MISSIONS Mars One Colony News Astronaut Selection & China’s charge that Mars... http://www.space.com/20680-mars-one-colony-astronaut-selection.html...://www.space.com/20758-private-mars-one-colony-astronauts.html http://www.space.com/20757-private-mars-mission-night-vision.html (includes...://www.space.com/21270-private-mars-colony-scam-china.html [Editor... colony. The Netherlands-based nonprofit Mars One is planning to fly... one winner per country and Mars One experts will select additional... China had applied to become Mars One astronauts since the organization... its selection process last month. (Mars One charges a non-refundable application... curiosity about potential life on Mars anytime soon, it should work... in communications between Earth and Mars is unworkable for “teleoperation” and... radiation measurements taken during the Mars rover Curiosity's trip to the... radiation during its trip to Mars raise questions. Radiation that RAD... the human diaspora to include Mars, such a risk is quite acceptable... windshield.} Reducing flight times to Mars and Back: Work is underway... 501 day swing out to Mars and back. Polyethylene “stuffing” could... #4 page 25 JULY 2013 Toxic Mars: Astronauts Must Deal with Perchlorate... http://www.space.com/21554-mars-toxic-perchlorate-chemicals.html By... of perchlorate chemicals found on Mars may boost the chances that... in May 2008. NASA's Viking Mars landers in 1976 measured signatures... of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Other US Mars robots - Sojourner, Spirit, and Opportunity..., orbital measurements taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft show that chlorine... reinterpret seasonal flow features on Mars as caused by high concentrations... Partner with ISRO on India's Mars “Mangalyaan” Orbiter Mission http://timesofindia...-to-partner-Isro-in-Indias-Mars-mission/ articleshow/20769793.cms By...-content/uploads/2013/05/mangalyaan-mars-mission2.jpg [Editor’s summary. For... missions to the Moon and Mars," the joint statement said. According... make the longer trip to Mars, and providing opportunities for space... gaining experience in deep space, Mars is a much more fascinating target..." planets Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. However, a number of the exoplanets...." ## Spitzer Telescope to look for Mars-size Planets around Brown Dwarfs... Earth-like conditions, “aiming for Mars-size . Solar systems cross a threshold... has been breathed into NASA’s next flagship-class space telescope, the... on the "Star Trek: The Next Generation" television series, said during... Space Industries, Dynetics, Virgin Galactic, Mars One etc... each one is..., Dynetics can provide communication systems, Mars One which is planning to... surface of the Moon or Mars and, with some modifications, rendezvous... the opposite retrograde direction. The next step, with the highest priority... wait between launch windows between Mars and Earth in either direction... accompany us to the Moon, Mars, & Beyond Outposts & Settlements should Maximize...



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... Near-Earth Objects on Mars on Mars on Mars on Mars and Europa with... 2: Deep Space 3: On to Mars 4: Down to Mars Destination Moon, Sun-Earth... flight Vehicle Cargo Transport Vehicle Mars orbit Mars descent/ascent system and... ……………………..……………………………………………… Step 3: On to Mars ……………………….……………………………………………………….. Step 4: Down to Mars ……….……………………………………………………………………. Integrated Technology Planning and... Participation ……………………………………………………………. Cooperation Approaches ………….…..…………………………………………………………. Lessons Learned …………………….…………………………………………………………….. Next Steps ………..…………………………………………………………………………………. Resources …………………………………………………………………………………… 29 29 35... consciousness, Mars is the ultimate destination for humans in the next 50... place on the road to Mars. Next, crew and cargo transportation functions... new worlds. Mars Pathfinder demonstrated to a new generation that Mars is a place... to a planet, Mars Express, which is now orbiting Mars and in which... Mars. Mars will be a major focus for solar system exploration in the next... be conducted on Mars to determine the feasibility Mars. This is a microscopic... the next 50 years. The geological and climatological histories of Mars are... geological and climatological histories of Mars. Mars is the planet in the... (mass extinctions and climate change). Mars, like Earth, has hemispherical asymmetry... and form on Mars. The key to exploring Mars is to “follow... same may be true of Mars. Mars may have developed an independent... life on Mars in situ. And the exploration of Mars by humans... Mars as the ultimate objective for human exploration in the next 50... following destination and ultimately to Mars, and establishes an important component... Near-Earth Objects on Mars on Mars on Mars on Mars and Europa with...’s neighborhood and Mars. 51 Final Report July 9, 2004 Mars Mars is the most... much was there? Interest in Mars exploration is universal. International cooperation... informal manner through the International Mars Exploration Group. Hopefully through these... approach to exploring Mars robotically, including emplacement of common Mars communication and... solar system and ultimately to Mars, with significant scientific discoveries possible... 2: Deep Space 3: On to Mars 4: Down to Mars Destination Sun-Earth L2... provide substantial benefits to eventual Mars exploration. The Moon is a destination... same opportunities for advancement toward Mars and are scientifically and culturally... from those required for eventual Mars exploration. Architectural trade studies should... spaceborne elements of the ultimate Mars mission, including a robust cargo transportation... simultaneously taking on the challenging Mars descent, surface activities, and ascent... flight times to Mars are 6–8 months. The moons of Mars are in... systems for robotic emplacement at Mars Mars surface experiments for tele-operation... transportation from Earth’s neighborhood to Mars orbit Crew transportation from Earth... outpost on Mars. Consideration should be given to returning Mars surface samples... human presence on Mars, a mission to one of Mars’ moons may be... exploration of Mars will help to fulfill the overall Mars exploration strategy... presence on Mars a reality. Reaching Mars The trajectory strategy for reaching Mars will... the Sun-Mars collinear libration point upon arrival at Mars, a mission concept... progress in the robotic Mars exploration program. Mars mission schematic. The ITV... left in Mars orbit as an asset for the next crew, or... be required specifically for the Mars surface mission are: • • • • • Orbital Waystations... SEL2, lunar orbit, and Mars orbit. At Mars, a waystation could serve as... to its expansion. Mars descent and ascent vehicle Mars surface habitat In... propellant factories Mobility systems for Mars surface Scientific experiments, possibly including... ascent back to Mars orbit will be produced on Mars using Martian... its robotic Mars Exploration Program with the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor... Mars exploration community with Mars Express; in 2004 the missions operating at Mars include Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and the... video-rate communications relay satellites (Mars-Mars and Mars-Earth) about the planet... ongoing international program of robotic Mars exploration has made tremendous progress... cargo missions to asteroids and Mars. Mars. Many investigators have speculated on... missions to NEO’s and Mars. Also needed for Mars ascent/descent. Electric... Earth or utilized in space. Mars • • • • • • • • • • Compare robotic and human capabilities... strong interest in NASA’s robotic Mars exploration program. Canadian scientists—supported... launched the Mars Express spacecraft that is now orbiting Mars. In 2003... technology demonstration mission. A Mars exobiology mission called Exo-Mars. A Mars Sample Return mission... (e.g. Nozomi), and the United States (e.g. Mars Exploration Rovers). • Bilateral—one lead... opportunities for cooperation on specific next steps. As countries consider opportunities...