Спутник ФКИ. Mars NEXT. [Редактировать]

Технические характеристики

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Экономические характеристики

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... Analysis PS- 35 MARS EXPLORATION ………………………………………… PS- 39 2013 Mars Atmosphere and Volatile... Performer Last Review Purpose/Outcome Next Review Quality Planetary Science Subcommittee... subsequent evolutionary processes. STARDUST Stardust-NExT (Stardust-New Exploration of Tempel... FY 2012 Estimate -- -- -38.5% The Mars Exploration program is a sciencedriven program... on Mars, characterize the climate of Mars, characterize the geology of Mars, and prepare for human exploration. The Mars..., incremental, discovery-driven exploration of Mars to determine the planet’s physical... Mars Exploration program include the current operating missions 2001 Mars Odyssey, 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Mars Express with the European Space Agency, 2005 Mars PS-39 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE MARS EXPLORATION Reconnaissance Orbiter.... The Mars Exploration program also includes Mars Program Management, Mars Technology, Mars Operating and Extended Missions, and Mars Research... program management responsibility for the Mars Exploration program, providing overall mission... the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA). A future Mars mission planned within the Mars Next Decade project is being defined. Mars Exploration...-41 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN... provide a comprehensive picture of the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, solar energetic...-42 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-43 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-44 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-45 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-46 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-47 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN... a rigorous, incremental, discoverydriven exploration of Mars to determine the planet’s physical... missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, 2003 Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and the 2011 Mars...: Mars Research and Analysis, Mars Technology, Mars Mission Operations, Mars Extended Operations, Mars Next Decade, and Mars Program Management. PS-49 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION... Operations Non-Operating Missions MARS RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS Mars Research and Analysis... and temperature patterns, Mars will become host to Mars Science Laboratory (MSL... about whether life existed on Mars. • • Mars Fundamental Research program, which funds... about Mars; Mars Data Analysis, which analyzes archived data collected on Mars missions... science community peer review. MARS TECHNOLOGY Mars Technology focuses on technology investments...-orbit communications improvements (e.g. Electra). MARS MISSION OPERATIONS Mars Mission Operations provides management... development and execution of Mars multi-mission operations. Mars Mission Operations supports... ANALYSIS Formulation Development Operations MARS EXTENDED OPERATIONS Mars Extended Operations provides funding... based on scientific merit. MARS NEXT DECADE Mars Next Decade provides funds for the planning of future missions to Mars... in an integrated strategy. MARS PROGRAM MANAGEMENT Mars Program Management provides for... implementation and management of the Mars Exploration program’s selected flight missions... also supports independent panel reviews, Mars education and public outreach, planetary... integration. Operating Missions 2001 MARS ODYSSEY 2001 Mars Odyssey, currently in its...’s UHF system. 2003 MARS EXPLORATION ROVER 2003 Mars Exploration Rover, the rover... the geological processes that shaped Mars, particularly those involving water. Opportunity..., and low light levels. MARS EXPRESS Mars Express, currently in its second... Formulation Development Operations 2005 MARS RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO... MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY (MSL) 2011 Mars Science Laboratory, currently on cruise to Mars, takes a major step forward in Mars exploration, both... zones on Mars. Recent Achievements 2011 MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY 2011 Mars Science Laboratory... surface operations. 2003 MARS EXPLORATION ROVER 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity’s study... hospitable for life. 2001 MARS ODYSSEY 2001 Mars Odyssey has become the... Change From FY 2012 Estimate -- -- -8.3% NEXT (NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster) could.... The NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) completed a long duration test, demonstrating... (EM) Thruster and NEXT. The goal of NEXT is to achieve 750...



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0.08/5
... to NASA for the Mars Science Laboratory. The next scientific instruments to be provided include the MATMOS (Mars Atmospheric... and ranging) Launched Mars Science Laboratory NASA Mars Rover CSA APXS (Alpha... development by CALT. Mars Exploration The Yinghuo-1 Mars probe had been intended... the development of a Mars orbiter, a descent module and a Mars rover, initially in... this mission: an Earth/Mars transfer stage, a Mars orbiter, a descent module, an... a technology development program, the MREP (Mars Robotic Exploration Preparatory program), under... system (Astrium France) Mars orbiter to 2003 Launched Mars Express & Beagle-2 lander... and international missions (Cassini – Huygens, Mars Express, Venus Express, BepiColombo...)  Gas... Status Launched Launched Name CassiniHuygens Mars Express Management Organization involved* Description... Launch Failure Mars Science Laboratory Phobos-Grunt NASA Roscosmos Mars rover carrying... Observation on Mars), a ground penetrating UHF radar ESA / Roscosmos Mars orbiter and... Martian samples) NASA Mars lander to study Mars inner composition IPGP VBB.... The next steps are the Moon, Mars and beyond Mars. The Mars 500 experiment... Münich MDC (Mars Dust Counter) University of Cologne MaRS (Mars Express orbiter Radio... Mars Lander to study Mars inner composition DLR Institute of Space Systems Mars...) Contributions to Exomars, BepiColombo, Rosetta, Mars & Venus Express, NASA's Dawn asteroid...) MIP (Moon Impact Probe) Mars orbiter ISRO Mars orbiter carrying a payload of... Launched Launched Approved In development Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Venus Express Dawn... meteorological on-ground conditions MA_MISS (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies... Ultraviolet Spectrometer) Kobe University MIC (Mars Imaging Camera) - 88 - COFSEP – Final... Exploration missions 1999 Launched Mars Polar Lander NASA Mars lander IKI LIDAR... Ranging) 2001 Launched 2001 Mars Odyssey NASA Mars orbiter IKI HEND (High... missions 1997 2003 Launched Mars Express Cassini Huygens Mars Express NASA (Cassini... Impact) 2007 Opportunity mission n.a. STARDUST-Next (extension of Stardust) 2007 Opportunity... BepiColombo) 2013 Opportunity mission n.a. The next Discovery mission (Discovery-12) has... surface of Mars. The Curiosity rover should launch an Mars in August.... The next mission, scheduled for launch in 2013, is MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere... is currently referred to as “Mars Next Generation” is to contribute to... Mission cost Mars Climate Orbiter Orbiter 1998 $655 million Mars Polar Lander... Laboratory 1998 Failed during Mars orbit insertion Mars Climate Orbiter NASA Orbiter... Imager) 1998 Failed during Mars orbit insertion Mars Polar Lander NASA Robotic... report 2001 Launched 2001 Mars Odyssey NASA Mars orbiter to gather data... Launched Launched Launched CONTOUR (Discovery 6) Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity... development Environmental testing 2005 Launched Mars Reconnaissanc e Orbiter NASA Euroconsult for... (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars), a visible and near infrared spectrometer... Jet Propulsion Laboratory Launched Mars Science Laboratory NASA Mars Rover Project management... on Mars MAHLI (MArs HandLens Imager) Malin Space Science Systems MARDI (MARs Descent... and Opportunity rovers Mars mission, and more recently the Mars Science Lab... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, THEMIS on Mars Odyssey 2001, thermal emission spectrometer on several Mars missions. Northrop Grumman (Aerospace Systems... most Martian missions (Mars Climate Observer, Mars Polar Lander, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MSL... exploration missions (Pioneer, Voyager, …), including Mars rovers, MSL Deep Impact comet... propulsion motors drilling systems in Mars missions developing a commercial Lunar lander... Juno 1,000 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Huygens New Horizons Mars Climate Orbiter 500... and LADEE notably). Mars programs Six missions to Mars are currently planned..., Mars or Near-Earth objects could be launched over the next fifteen... to Chang’e-5 Mars Orbiter Mars Lander MAVEN, 2013: explore Mars upper atmosphere and... the interior of Mars Exomars, 2016: European Demonstration Lander Mars Rover Exomars... exobiology and geology research Mars Sample return Mars Sample Return, >2020: Mission... Japan European individual countries Mars Orbiter, 2013: Study Mars atmosphere and especially.... The next steps in space exploration (L2 or Moon station, Mars trip...-operated) the Moon and Mars in the next decades. 2. Impact of industrial... international exploration initiatives in the next decade. However, the Brazilian government... objectives synergies 3 2 Similar objectives Moon / Mars Cooperation Benefits Rating Economical Political... objectives synergies 3 2 Similar objectives Moon / Mars Cooperation Benefits Economical Political benefits... Europe only 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 Similar objectives Moon / Mars Strong synergies between partners Coop... additional future cooperation, notably for Mars Exploration.  Threats: Potential changes of...: Intercontinental Ballistic Missile iMARS: International Mars Architecture for the Return of...



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...#tute  of  Technology   Pasadena,  California   Mars Exploration Program Comet  /2013  A1...  O bserva8ons   & &&&&&&Farnham&et&al,&UMD& Mars Exploration Program Date& PanSTARRS& &&20...,  California   Comet  Modeling  Results   Mars Exploration Program Ø  Mars  will  pass  near  the...  cloud  (with  par#cles  encountering  Mars  and  Mars   orbiters)  or  outside  the  edge  (with  no  meteors  crossing  Mars  vicinity)  depends   cri#cally  upon...  of  greatest  danger  is  when  Mars  comes  closest  (~27,600  km...  comet  nucleus  comes  closest  to  Mars   (~135,000  km).   •  At  low...  par#cles  that  could  reach  Mars  had  to  be  ejected  more...  radius)  are  predicted  to  reach  Mars.   •  Smaller  par#cles  have  been...,  California   Comet  Modeling:    Mars  at  the  Edge   Mars Exploration Program Three groups... during its close approach to Mars. Lining&up&models& Univ.  of...fic  Modeling  Results   Mars Exploration Program Ø  Best  es8mate:       −  Vref  ~0.4  m/s   −  Mars  will  be  just.../Farnocchia):    Vref  ~  0.7  m/s,  par#cles  encounter  Mars  in  a  20   minute  window  centered...  %)  with  Vref  ~  1.5  m/s,   par#cles  encounter  Mars  in  a  30  minute  span  centered...



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0.11/5
... and the ASPERA-3 team 199 MaRS: Mars Express Radio Science Experiment M. Pätzold... Abbreviations 279 iii FOREWORD Mars Express: foreword Mars Express arrived at its... with an ambitious rover, and Mars-NEXT will establish a network of three... soil at each landing site. Mars-NEXT will be an important technological... preparation for the international Mars Sample Return mission. Mars Express has positioned... of numerous US missions to Mars, Mars Express has provided exciting new...’s Mars Global Surveyor and the Mars Exploration Rovers, and the Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter missions. Mars... for the international Mars Sample Return mission. The Mars Express spacecraft has... processes are currently active on Mars. The Mars Express spacecraft has now... the objectives of the Mars Radio Science (MaRS) experiment is to study... imaging of the Mars interior was impossible before Mars Express. Altimetry and... particular with NASA’s Mars rovers Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and with..., geophysical and climatological investigations, and Mars-NEXT, which includes a network of three... task in which the Mars Odyssey and Mars Global Observer teams have... Mars Exploration Rovers The concurrent operation of Mars Express and the NASA Mars... determined. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), NASA’s next rover mission to Mars (Meyer... Mars: Observations from High Resolution Stereo Camera/Mars Express (HRSC/MEX) and Mars Orbiter Camera/Mars Global Surveyor...–2335. Malin, M.C. & K.S. Edgett (2001). Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera: Interplanetary Cruise.... Neukum, G. &H. Hoffmann (2000). Imaging Mars, in Towards Mars (Eds. R. Pellinen & P. Raudsepp), Oy... Resolution Stereo Camera of Mars Express, in Mars Express: The Scientific Payload... the Geological Evolution of Mars through the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo... remnant crustal magnetism on Mars Global Surveyor, early Mars appears to have... Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission... Mineralogical and Aqueous Mars History Derived from OMEGA/Mars Express Data, Science... of Surface Pressure on Mars with the Mars Express/OMEGA Spectrometer: 1. Retrieval... Polar Region of Mars Detected by the OMEGA/Mars Express Observations, Science... Plasma Observations at Mars: Initial Results of the Mars Global Surveyor Mission... were used integrated with Mars Global Surveyor’s Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA...). Dynamics of the atmosphere of Mars. In Mars (Eds. H.H. Kieffer, B.M. Jakowsky, C.W. Snyder... Observation Modes 3.3.1 Pointing capabilities of Mars Express Mars Express, a reduced version of... Mars Upper Atmosphere: In-situ Accelerometer Measurements from Mars Odyssey 2001 and Mars... For the Studies of Mars Atmosphere for Mars Express Mission. Adv. Space... and tail of Mars suggest many similarities between Mars and comets, i.e. the... aurora, would occur above Mars. With Mars Express we have now confirmed... from the hemisphere away from Mars, excluding a Mars-related source (right). Galli... and Energetic Atoms for Mars Express, In Mars Express: The Scientific Payload... Res. 34, 61–65. 215 MaRS: Mars Express Radio Science Experiment M. Pätzold1... 95305, USA The Mars Express Radio Science Experiment (MaRS) started regular operations..., G. & Dehant, V. (2004). MaRS: Mars Express Orbiter Radio Science. In Mars Express: The Scientific.... Since the arrival of Mars Express at Mars in December 2003, the...-term evolution of the Mars Express orbit. Mars Express has a high degree... mission), Rosetta, Mars Express and SMART-1 are ESA’s next planetary missions. All...”, “MARS EXPRESS”, “BEAGLE 2”, “SMART 1”, “2001 MARS ODYSSEY”, “24-COLOR SURVEY”, “AMES MARS GENERAL... = “MISSION TO MARS” VOLUME_SET_NAME = “MARS EXPRESS ASPERA3” VOLUME_SET_ID = “USA_ESA_PSA_MEX_ASPERA3” VOLUME_NAME = “MARS EXPRESS ASPERA... polar areas, and sinusoidal elsewhere. 5.4 MaRS (Mars Express Radio Science) Experiment The... and Energetic Ions for Mars Express. In Mars Express: The Scientific Payload... Planetary Fourier Spectrometer for Mars Express. In Mars Express: The Scientific Payload... Resolution Stereo Camera of Mars Express. In Mars Express: The Scientific Payload... al. (2004). MaRS: Mars Express Orbiter Radio Science Experiment. In Mars Express: The... 2: The Exobiological Lander of Mars Express. In Mars Express: The Scientific Payload... Electron Reflectometer MARCI Mars Color Imager MaRS Mars Radio Science MARSIS Mars Advanced Radar... MEP Mars Exploration Program (NASA) MER Mars Exploration Rover (NASA) MEX Mars Express MSG Meteosat Second Generation MGS Mars... MNP Mars nearest point MO Mars Odyssey MOC Mission Operations Centre; Mars Observer Camera MOLA Mars Orbiter... Mars Pathfinder (NASA) Mission Planning System Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter model reference spectrum Mars Solar Orbital Mass Stiffness Model Mars...



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0.16/5
..., L. 18:15 OMEGA/Mars Express Limb Observations of Mars : The Dust Vertical... 1 ...................................................................................................123 Posters on the Mars Interior, Mars Geology & Mineralogy on display all... the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on ............................91 Mars Express Tellmann, S.; Pätzold, M.; Häusler... 11 The History of Mars Exploration Masson, Ph.L. Mars has always held...), Mars Pathfinder (1996), Mars Global Surveyor (1996), Mars Odyssey (2001), Mars Express (2003), and Mars... by the recent Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) and Mars Express missions to... data from Viking, Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions under an... fusing data from Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey and Mars Express instruments. 55... Insight from the Mars Express Orbiter and the Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit... SPICAM). 68 OMEGA/Mars Express Limb Observations of Mars : The Dust Vertical... of the closest Earth-Mars encounter as Mars passed within 0.372 AU... the Mars Express Orbiter payload, the Mars Express Orbiter Radio Science experiment (MaRS... by the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on Mars Express Tellmann, S.; Pätzold, M.; Häusler..., J.D. The radio science experiment MaRS on Mars Express sounded the Martian atmosphere... the upper atmosphere from Mars orbiters. 96 Mars Express/SPICAM UV: First... aerobraking and Mars Express measurements. Mars Global Surveyer (1997-1999) and Mars Odyssey... the Upper Atmosphere of Mars by SPICAM Aboard Mars Express, DPS Meeting... Search for Life on Mars Everett K. Gibson, Mars Express Interdiscipline Scientist, Mail... ongoing missions (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express and Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity... the plans for missions to Mars next decade. This will lead into... define the future of Mars Exploration. 120 NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO... Geology and Mineralogy Coordinated Mars Express OMEGA and Mars Exploration Rover Observations... Analysis of the Mars Topography..............................................................................................141 Dorninger, P.; Attwenger, M. Mars Express HRSC Context... Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express Hauber, E. Is Mars Hiding some Ice in..., J.; Marty, J-C.; Balmino, G.; Barriot, J-P. The Mars Radio-Science (MaRS) experiment provides Doppler shifts... of Mars, Venus, and Earth. 131 Coordinated Mars Express OMEGA and Mars Exploration... of data from Mars Global Surveyor’s Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), Mars Orbiter Laser... Depth of Ice on Mars Helbert, J.; Benkhoff, J. While Mars has been considered..., J-L.; Perrier, S. A New Mars Climate Database in Support of Mars Express Science ............................................................196... Mars Gibson, E.K.; McKay, D.S.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Clemett, S.; Wentworth, S.; Socki, R. The Mars Express Mission, Mars Exploration Rovers and surface samples from Mars (i.e. the... activity on Mars. While we anticipate sample return within the next 15...) during the present mission to Mars - "Mars Express". Several dusty spectra from..., D.; Ignatiev, N. Spectra of Mars recorded with the OMEGA/Mars Express experiment have... instruments on-board the Mars Express. 205 Mars Ozone Profiles Retrieved from... of the radio science experiment MaRS on Mars Express is the sounding... the .........................................224 Radio Science Experiment Mars on Mars Express Andert, T.P.; Pätzold, M. High... by the HRSC on Mars Express ...........................................................225 Giese, B. Mars Express and Phobos... Spatial Data for ..............................................233 Mars Cartography from MARS EXPRESS HRSC Imagery Dorrer..., D.; Zender, J.; Arviset, C. Exploring Mars by a European Small Mars Mission.......................................................................................238 Hoffmann, H.; Bischof... Mars Science Opportunities using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), ................249 Mars Express (MEX) and the Mars... Radio Science Experiment Mars on Mars Express Andert, T.P.; Pätzold, M. Mars Express will perform... more than 175,000 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbital Camera (MOC... Nirgal Vallis, by comparing Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey images. Geophys... of Spatial Data for Mars Cartography from MARS EXPRESS HRSC Imagery Dorrer... to operate it on Mars. 237 Distribution of Mars Express Science Data...-board of Mars Express. 238 Exploring Mars by a European Small Mars Mission Hoffmann... Joint Mars Science Opportunities using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), Mars Express (MEX) and the Mars... three operating orbiting spacecrafts (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express) and two... Stereo Camera (HRSC) aboard Mars Express imaged Mars and Phobos in 127... introduced several Mars datasets like MOLA (Mars Obiter Laser Altimeter), MDIM2.1 (Mars Digital Image Mosaic), MOC (Mars Orbiter...



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0.12/5
... business by doing this practically ....Next page 9 ...Entrepreneur in Action Winners... 14 A giant interplanetary leap to Mars Rintu Nath India created history... Research Organisation (ISRO) successfully placed Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) spacecraft, also... Mangalyaan, in the orbit of Mars. MOM is an orbiter craft... the Mangalyaan Mars in an elliptical orbit. For the orbiting Mars next six... (Source Wikipedia) remain a satellite of Mars, click pictures and sniff out... the first country to reach Mars’s orbit on a maiden venture, and... Asian country to launch a successful Mars mission, all with much less expenditure than any other Mars mission before it. MOM is... in the world to reach Mars, after the Russian Federal Space... ISRO’s Mars Orbiter captured this global view of Mars with its Mars Colour...,500 kilometres [Source: ISRO] The Mars Orbiter will be able to... near apoapsis. As a result, the Mars Orbiter will be able to... a series of global views of Mars at different phases and of... right in the first attempt (‘Mars Express’ in 2003). However, India... Asian countries that had attempted Mars missions, but failed. Accomplished at... space mission till date, the Mars Orbiter Mission is an ambitious... of the orbiter into Mars orbit. ISRO’s Mars Orbiter took this photo of the hazy limb of Mars on 24 September 2014, just... 8,449 kilometres. [Source: ISRO] Mars's limb from Mars Orbiter spacecraft Apoapsis and... orbiter around Mars When the spacecraft is closer to Mars, it will.... ....Next page 15 A giant interplanetary leap to Mars... As it goes around Mars... features 80,000 km, the Mars Orbiter will employ five instruments... of Martian atmosphere. exploration of Mars’ surface features, Interestingly, only three...’s Mangalyaan arrived at phere.The Mars Orbiter carries five sciMars, on... payloads to observe Martian MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and surface, atmosphere and... km for a detailed cessfully entered Mars’ orbit. Both understanding of the... is being maneuvered from ISRO's Mars misplement each other in solving... mystery of Mars’ missing water. payloads consist of a camera (Mars While on... itational sphere of influence of Mars, ISRO has already entire planet... out of five instruments have Mars Orbiter Mission is India's first... been activated. Mars Colour Camera (MCM) has capplanet Mars with an orbiter craft designed to orbit Mars. The tured and sent back breathtaking views of Mars. The images mission is designed... from the Mars Orbiter are truly captivating. Journey to Mars It was... first Moon mission Chandrayaan-1. The Mars mission was conceptualised during this... the trans-Mars injection requirements needed to place the Mars Orbiter into the correct heliocentric Mars transfer orbit..., the orbital insertion parameters at Mars, resource availability in the spacecraft... of Earth and Mars at the time of the Mars Orbiter’s arrival... gravitational sphere of influence of Mars and many other factors. Launch... ....Next page 16 A giant interplanetary leap to Mars... Construction on the Mars Orbiter... Dhawan Space Centre. Over the next 42 minutes, the PSLVshipped to... The successful launch of the Mars Orbiter Mission marked 2013. India... burn. At this point, the Mars cial. If it could be... from reaching the influence of Mars. If launch is deplanned 1,00...-km till 2016 when the next Mars apogee orbit. The resulting underlaunch... longer be launched directly into a Mars transfer The fifth orbit raising...-shot it into the correct Mars transfer orbit. With the needed... towards the red planet. Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) opIslands in the... on cember 2013. Cruise to Mars After leaving Earth orbit, a total... performed to ensure that the Mars Orbiter is aligned into the proper trajectory for arrival at Mars. On 22 September 2014 at... later. Mars Orbital Insertion (MOI) As the Mars Orbiter approached Mars for orbital... influence of Mars’s gravity, passed into the shadow of Mars. This entry... before the start of the Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) burn. As the MOI burn began, Mars Orbiter’s main liquid engine and... per second. ....Next page 17 A giant interplanetary leap to Mars... As this burn began, the spacecraft moved behind Mars as... MOI burn successfully accomplished, the Mars Orbiter entered a highly elliptical orbit... carries five sophisticated equipment. The Mars Colour Camera (MCC) is the... features and composition of the Mars. MCC has already captured and... view and detailed views of Mars. The global scientific community is... dedicated methane gas sensor to Mars. The presence of methane gas... life forms. Findings of ISRO’s Mars Orbiter will be vital in... MAVEN and other spacecraft orbiting Mars and surface rovers like Curiosity...



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0.15/5
... Technology Radio Laboratory (p. 162) © NASA. Mars’s surface view taken by Spirit... the launch pad, were located next to the combat periscopes. Evgeny... public response displayed on the next day after the TASS announcement... Design Achievement award for the Mars Pathfinder mission. Asteroid 7225 has... compatriots only. As a result, the next day’s, October 5 Pravda newspaper was... to beyond Pluto, orbited Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, and landed... significantly extended and for the next years there was literally no... of the unmanned flights to Mars and Venus. The principal technical..., first flights to Venus and Mars, the first artificial satellites of... of Ariane5. The so-successful Mars Express mission and its Venusian... a major scandal. I waited till his next accusation that Russians are not... and Italian observation stations. The next step in developing optical observations... as easily as with their next door neighbors. Technologically, the Space... friendly relations with Pietrov. The next stage of the INTERCOSMOS program.... Man made rovers searched through Mars. Long distance probes took pictures... very skeptical about a Mars mission in the next five decades. The challenges... for Finland to take the next step, joining the international COSPAR... to Mars. Today we are much better prepared to take the next... could start working towards a manned Mars flight almost immediately. However, it... should anticipate with excitement mankind’s next explorative step and feel willing... event. The media’s appetite for Mars information should be stimulated continously... fourth year of operation of Mars, are studying the Martian surface... contained in a microchip. In the next decades we will see hundreds... was appropriate (even when flying next to the Halley’s comet) — being.... The next years were shadowed by a loss of the Mars-96 automatic... discovery, and scientists involved in Mars interplanetary space probe experiment met... this cooperation neither long-term Mars expeditions, nor settling the Moon... for space experiments within the next few years. My real opportunity... years); Mariner-4 succeeded and reached Mars in July 1965 (no radiation..., such as human travel to Mars, comprehensive exploration of Europa, Titan... efficient study of the planet Mars than either a series of unmanned... Expedition to the Moons of Mars // Space Technology and Applications International... get activated, I brought a radioactive source next to them and listened if... cold during these operations. The next day I had a strong throat ache...-4 (1967) project. Artificial satellites of Mars and Venus, delivery of the... the tragic wreck of the Mars-96 interplanetary space station, confronted... this mission. The star coordinator’s next modification BOKZ-MF is included..., including Prognoz and Interball satellites, Mars-2, -3, -5 and Venera-9, -10, Vega-1, -2. Born..., as measured on satellite. My next ‘contact’ with space happened in... name replaced to Ivanov). Our next space adventure was with Elektron... program.  SPACE IN-SITU   around Mars. Keldysh listened to an audacious... onboard of Mars-2 and Mars-3. These experiments within the framework of Mars-71... was an ambitious project of a Mars satellite with many scientific instruments.... 242  Very soon, a new project, Mars-71, with a new scientific program... in the Moon, Venus, and Mars exploration. Babakin ‘skyrocketed the space... its surface bearing capacity. The next milestone of the Moon studies... really hard to overestimate. Our next experiments on Venera spacecraft with... data from the Martian satellites Mars-3  SPACE IN-SITU   and Mariner... for the whole ‘fleet’ of Mars-2-7 spacecraft were incommensurable with rather... after the successful landing of Mars-3 lander on the Martian surface... the parameters of atmosphere of Mars measured during the spacecraft descent... spacecraft to the Moon, Venus, Mars which were carrying, without exaggeration... Soviet achievement. 256  For the next few days, the Barcelona Congress... to the planets, beginning with Mars. Next Fifty Years I believe that the... ‘citizen space traveller’ in the next half century. Before the current... station missions to Venus and Mars. Moreover, this regulation established Interdepartmental... structure of the Moon, Venus, Mars, fine texture of Saturnian rings... planetary missions: Viking Mission to Mars (1969–1978) with responsibility for... orbital stations. In terms of Mars manned flight, Russia is technologically... cooperate and integrate? You mentioned Mars manned space flight: would it... certainly stay in space flights. Mars exploration is a long term process... countries meet individual challenges in Mars exploration. Every country will take... technologies for manned flight to Mars, which will open an opportunity... than, say, manned flight to Mars. But, fortunately, the humanity never.... In particular, manned spaceflight to Mars will require participation of various... electronic components available in the next shop. Hence, whereas on one... and analysing cosmic rays were next door, but somehow space research... seemed huge before. And what next? Other planets and worlds… Curious...



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... surface. Tuesday, March 24, 2009 MARS POLAR CAPS: PAST AND PRESENT... the Northern Polar Layered Deposits, Mars [#1423] Unconformities found in the NPLD of Mars resemble slopes and V shapes that... Science Conference (2009) highlightedabstracts.pdf MARS: GROUND ICE AND CLIMATE CHANGE... Radar Evidence for Glaciers in Mars Phlegra Montes Region [#1988] There... the Phlegra Montes region of Mars. The depth of the glacier... Field Test at the Haughton-Mars Project Impact Crater Field Station... Mars Science Laboratory instruments at the Haughton impact structure. 9:15 a.m. Chicarro A. F. * MARS-NEXT — A Future Major Step in the European Exploration of Mars [#1271] The Mars-NEXT mission represents a new concept for a three-lander network on Mars within... ESA and outlines the next steps toward implementation. MARS ANALOGS I: CHEMICAL AND... of methane adsorption onto JSC-Mars-1. Uptake coefficient values are small... cover a significant portion of the Mars surface. 40th Lunar and Planetary..., truly flat, Glints like a mirror.. MARS: GEOCHEMISTRY AND ALTERATION PROCESSES 6:30... Minerals in Nakhlites and on Mars [#1969] Clay minerals, known to... and on the surface of Mars, contain unique information about the...; A Search for Water in Equatorial Mars [#1453] High school students lead... Hydrothermal Alteration in Holden Crater, Mars [#1766] Using CRISM with HiRISE... defended from dust pollution. Chicarro A. F. Mars Express — Science Summary After Five... Orbit [#1392] ESA’s Mars Express has been orbiting Mars for over five..., allowing Europe to chart a future Mars exploration program. McEwen A. Keszthelyi L. Spencer...



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PUBLIC OPEN EVENINGS AT THE INSTITUTE OF ASTRONOMY WEDNESDAY 15TH OCTOBER 2008 Institute of Astronomy http://www.ast.cam.ac.uk Cambridge Astronomical Association http://www.caa-cya.org/home/index.php All comments, enquiries or suggestions please to Carolin Crawford (csc@ast.cam.ac.uk) Welcome to our new winter season of public open evenings, which will now run for nearly every Wednesday until mid-March. Each week there will be a 30 minute talk from a researcher in the department, starting at 7.15pm (doors before 7pm) and covering a different aspect of Astronomy at a very general level. The talk is followed by an opportunity to observe with both modern and historical telescopes if the weather is clear. Remember that the observing may be cold, so please wrap up warmly. You are welcome to use your own torch, but please wrap up the end in something see-through and RED (such as an old transparent sweetie wrapper or red tissue paper) so you don't lose your (or anyone else's) dark-sight adaption. The talk schedule for the term can be found at : http://www.ast.cam.ac.uk/public/public_observing/0809/timetable.html This week’s talk : Carolin Crawford is talking about A Phoenix on Mars Next week’s talk : Mark Hurn will be telling us about the History of the Cambridge Observatory WEBSITES ABOUT MARS EXPLORATION Of course in 30 minutes tonight I can only scratch the surface of all the wonderful information about - and dazzling images of - Mars available. If you want to learn more, why not take a look at: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/ for lots of general information http://phoenix.lpl.arizona.edu/ for information specific to the Phoenix mission http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/home/ to catch up on the progress of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/ with pictures from ESA’s Mars Express orbiter http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/mro/ for images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter And you can always find out what the European Space Agency http://www.esa.int/esaMI/Aurora/ and NASA http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/ are planning for future exploration of Mars IRIDIUM FLARES A few early evening Iridium flares will be visible during the next week. These are flashes of reflected sunlight off communication satellites in orbit above the Earth. Look in the general direction given at the time listed in the table to the right; watch out for a moving ‘star’ that quickly grows to a peak brightness and then fades away. The two in italics should be particularly bright. Note that these times are specific to Cambridge: if you live more than a few km away, go to http://www.heavens-above.com/ to get more appropriate timings for your viewing site. Date Local Time Altitude direction 16 Oct 18:18:45 44° SSW 16 Oct 19:54:17 52° SE 17 Oct 18:12:43 44° SSW 17 Oct 19:48:17 51° SE 18 Oct 19:42:16 49° SE THE NIGHT SKY AT 8PM ON 15TH OCTOBER 2008 o o o The sky will be dominated by the full moon. Jupiter is currently visible in the evening twilight sky, although it’s very low down (an altitude of only about 15 degrees or so) to the South. As for the other planets, Mercury will be well placed for viewing in just another week’s time. Sky map courtesy of http://www.heavens-above.com/ SITE SAFETY Please be aware that we have a major construction site in our midst over the winter, while the exciting new Kavli Institute of Cosmology is added to the IoA grounds. The site is safely fenced off, but still please don't tempt fate by exploring too far in the dark unless you know where you’re going! If you need orientation, the red rope light marks out a safe path between the observing and Madingley Rise, and you can always ask any of the staff for directions or assistance.



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...-9 a.m. Welcome and Opening 9-9:30 a.m. NASA’s Mars Exploration Program 9:30-10 a.m. Planetary... to the Moon, Venus, and Mars in 1960s 3-3:30 p.m. Instrument Accommodation... p.m. Perspectives on the Evolution of Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems... Aerocapture for High-Mass Mars Payloads 9:30-10 a.m. Mars Entry Atmospheric Data... Measurement System Characterization of the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System 5:10... Mission Lands on Mars • 8:30-9 a.m. Mars Science Laboratory: The Next Rover • 9-9:30 a.m. ExoMars... Probe Missions • 4:10-4:40 p.m. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model to... Landing System Design for the Mars Gravity Biosatellite Evening Open Planning... Minutes of Questions) 8:30-9 a.m. Why Mars Sample Return Will Never Happen...-9 a.m. Welcome and Opening 9-9:30 a.m. NASA’s Mars Exploration Program Doug McCuistion, NASA... The current decade for NASA’s Mars Exploration Program has been a remarkable success with the Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter orbiters, twin rovers... an even deeper understanding of Mars. The Mars Science Laboratory is the... surface in the next decade? How likely is a Mars Sample Return mission... result in a Mars Exploration Program that will engage the next generation, build... Mars mission is being studied by ESA, under the name Mars-Next, that... Saturn’s satellite in the future. Mars offers a major challenge for ballooning..., predict regionally, and act locally. Next, both government and commercial space... challenging and costly next generation of planetary missions. Mars Sample Return and... p.m. Perspectives on the Evolution of Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems... Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s experience. The Mars program’s success has depended on... In-Orbit Capture Mechanism for a Mars Sample Return Mission - Terminal Rendezvous... Gibbings, Kingston University Any perceived Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission is... II handheld sun photometer Atromos: Mars Companion Mission, Mid-Size Polar... component architecture level for probes. A Mars Sample return test case is... Center NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander landed on Mars on May 25, 2008... Ballute Aerocapture for High-Mass Mars Payloads Kristin Medlock, Alina Alexeenko...-assisted, low- to high-mass Mars aerocapture systems. Ballutes permit aerocapture...-Stokes equations apply. 9:30-10 a.m. Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) Requirements and Design for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Michelle Munk... performance and design margins. The Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and... measurement system, known as the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS... components under development like SpaceFibre, Next Generation Multipurpose Processor, Spacecraft Controller... to demonstrate critical technologies of a Mars surface mission, including the critical... for sample return missions e.g. from Mars. Therefore, an observation mission was... Measurement System Characterization of the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS... flight science requirement of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry descent... Mars. 8:30-9 a.m. Mars Science Laboratory: The Next Rover Michael Meyer, NASA Headquarters The Mars... of an Atmospheric Parameters Package. Mars’ atmosphere is highly variable in... clearly identified the exploration of Mars as a main objective to contribute... intermediate mission—the so-called NEXT (Next Exploration Science and Technology) mission... for NEXT is a Mars mission demonstrating aerobraking and rendezvous/ capture in Mars orbit... ExoMars is ESA’s next mission to planet Mars. The project is currently... mission phases, including launch, interplanetary, Mars orbit injection and orbiting, down... always flown,” with the heritage Mars heatshield material, SLA-561V. Screening... Center NASA’s Mars Sample Return project will bring Mars surface and atmosphere... Earth return from extraterrestrial bodies (e.g. Mars, comets or asteroids) involves a hyperbolic... Design for the Exploration of Mars Lisero Perez Lebbink, Technical University.... 4:10-4:40 p.m. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) to..., Stanley Associates The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) is... the mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM’s conventional (General Circulation Model... model output (Southwest Research Institute’s Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University’s Mars mesoscale model (MMM5) model) and... of three Mars years of TES nadir data. The Mars Science Laboratory..., University of California-Irvine Future Mars missions requiring increased landing accuracy... Landing System Design for the Mars Gravity Biosatellite Ashley Korzun, Christine... Braun, Georgia Institute of Technology Mars Gravity Biosatellite is a novel program... engineering, and hardware development, the Mars Gravity Biosatellite program offers a unique... the educational impact of the Mars Gravity Biosatellite program. Evening Open... wild history of Mars landing attempts. 8:30-9 a.m. Why Mars Sample Return Will... technical and programmatic, that a successful Mars Sample Return mission will have...