Спутник ФКИ. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. [Редактировать]

Многофункциональная автоматическая межпланетная станция (АМС) НАСА, предназначенная для исследования Марса. Аппарат построен компанией Lockheed Martin под руководством Лаборатории Реактивного Движения. Управляет аппаратом Лаборатория реактивного движения (Калифорнийский технологический институт); научной стороной миссии управляет НАСА (Вашингтон, округ Колумбия).

Запущен 12 августа 2005 года с космодрома на мысе Канаверал с помощью ракеты-носителя Атлас V. Достигнув Марса 10 марта 2006 года, начал серию манёвров для выхода на нужную орбиту, при помощи т. н. аэродинамического торможения (торможение в верхних слоях атмосферы планеты позволяет значительно сэкономить топливо). Орбитальные манёвры и различные проверки и калибровка оборудования закончились в ноябре 2006 года, после чего аппарат приступил к работе. Выйдя на орбиту Марса, MRO присоединился к пяти активно функционирующим космическим аппаратам, которые в тот момент находились либо на орбите, либо на поверхности планеты: спутникам Mars Global Surveyor, Марс Одиссей, Марс-экспресс и марсоходам (Спирит и Оппортьюнити) — таким образом, был установлен рекорд по количеству активно функционирующих космических аппаратов, находящихся на орбите и поверхности Марса.

Полезная нагрузка:

  • High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment — камера, использующая телескоп-рефлектор с диаметром 0,5 м, который является самым большим телескопом, использующимся в глубоком космосе. Имеет разрешение в 1 микрорадиан, то есть на поверхности Марса с высоты 300 км различимы детали размером всего 30 см (0.3 м на пиксель). Для сравнения, многие спутниковые снимки Земли имеют разрешение 0,5 м на пиксель, а снимки в Google Maps - до 1 метра на пиксель. Камера HiRISE снимает в трёх цветовых диапазонах с длинами волн от 400 до 600 нм (сине-зеленый или B-G), от 550 до 850 нм (красный) и от 800 до 1000 нм (ближний инфракрасный или NIR). HiRISE изображение «лица», находящегося в области Кидония. Ширина полосы захвата составляет от 1,2 км до 6 км для разных диапазонов. Каждое изображение размером 16,4 Гб сжимается до 5 Гб для последующей передачи на Землю. Все изображения сделанные при помощи данной камеры публикуются на её официальном сайте в формате JPEG 2000. Для облегчения поиска потенциальных мест посадок будущих миссий, камера может создавать изображения в виде стереопар, из которых можно рассчитать топографию рельефа с точностью до 25 см. HiRISE камера была создана компанией Ball Aerospace & Technologies. Первый снимок был получен 24 марта 2006 года.
  • Панхроматическая контекстная камера (Context Camera, CTX) снимает монохромные изображения в диапазоне от 500 до 800 нм, с максимальным разрешением снимков до 6 метров на пиксель. CTX предназначалась для создания контекстной карты Марса, которая в будущем пригодилась бы для наблюдения камерой HiRISE и спектрометром CRISM, наряду с этим камера используется в создании мозаик больших участков поверхности Марса, в долгосрочных наблюдениях за изменениями поверхности отдельных областей, и для создания стереоснимков ключевых регионов и потенциальных мест посадок будущих миссий. Оптика CTX состоит из Зеркально-линзового телескопа системы Максутова — Кассегрена с фокусным расстоянием 350 мм и ПЗС-линейки из 5064 пикселов. Прибор способен запечатлеть участок размером 30 км в ширину, и имеет достаточно внутренней памяти для сохранения изображения с суммарной длиной 160 км. Полученные изображения затем пересылаются в главный компьютер аппарата. Камера была создана и управляется компанией Malin Space Science Systems. По состоянию на февраль 2010 года, CTX картографировала 50% всей поверхности Марса. В 2012 она обнаружила точки падения 25-килограммовых балластных грузов, сброшенных с Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity во время посадки.
  • Mars Color Imager (MARCI) — широкоугольная камера, снимающая поверхность Марса в пяти видимых и двух ультрафиолетовых диапазонах. Разрешение её снимков относительно невелико. Каждый день, MARCI снимает около 84 фотографий и создаёт глобальную карту Марса с разрешением от 1 до 10 км на пиксель. Карты, созданные при помощи данной камеры, предоставляют ежедневный прогноз погоды для Марса, при их помощи можно охарактеризовать сезонные и годовые колебания температур, а также обнаружить присутствие водяного пара и озона в атмосфере Марса. Камера была создана и управляется компанией Malin Space Science Systems. MARCI имеет 180-градусный объектив рыбий глаз с набором из семи цветных фильтров напрямую связанных с одним ПЗС-сенсором.
  • Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) — спектрометр видимого и ближнего инфракрасного излучения, использующийся в создании подробных минералогических карт поверхности Марса. Прибор работает в диапазоне длин волн от 370 до 3920 нм, измеряя спектр в 544 каналах (каждый 6,55 нм в ширину), с максимальным разрешением 18 метров на пиксель, при работе с высоты 300 км. CRISM используется для идентификации минералов и химических веществ, свидетельствовавших бы о прошлой или настоящей активности воды на поверхности Марса. Они включают в себя: железо, оксиды, слоистые силикаты и карбонаты, спектр которых имеет особенности в видимом и инфракрасном диапазоне.
  • Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) — спектрометр с одним видимым/ближним ИК каналом (от 0,3 до 3,0 мкм) и восемью дальними инфракрасными (от 12 до 50 мкм) каналами. Каналы используются для измерения температуры, давления, водяного пара и уровня пыли в атмосфере. MCS наблюдает атмосферу на горизонте Марса, разбивая её на вертикальные участки и проводя свои измерения в пределах каждого сектора по 5 км каждый. Данные с прибора собираются в ежедневные глобальные карты погоды, с её основными показателями: температурой, давлением, влажностью и плотностью пыли. Спектрометр имеет два телескопа с апертурой 4 см и детекторы, предназначенные для регистрации интенсивности излучения в различных диапазонах.
  • Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD) — экспериментальный радиолокатор, предназначенный для исследования внутренней структуры марсианских полярных шапок. Он также собирает данные о подземных залежах льда, скалах и, возможно, жидкой воде, которая в какой-то момент времени может находится на поверхности Марса. SHARAD использует ВЧ-радиоволны в диапазоне между 15 и 25 МГц, что позволяет ему различать слои толще 7 м на глубинах до 1 км. Разрешение по горизонтали составляет от 0,3 до 3 км. SHARAD работает в паре с радиолокатором MARSIS, установленном на космическом аппарате Марс Экспресс, который имеет более низкое разрешение, но способен проникать на гораздо большую глубину. Оба радиолокатора созданы Итальянским космическим агентством.
  • Помимо своей съемочной аппаратуры, MRO несет множество инженерных инструментов. Для изучения гравитационного поля через вариации скорости космического аппарата используется Gravity Field Investigation Package, в состав которого входят чувствительные акселерометры, и измерения доплеровских сдвигов радиосигналов, переданных с MRO на Землю. Благодаря программно-определяемому радиооборудованию Electra, работающим в диапазоне UHF, возможна связь между MRO и другими космическими аппаратами. Скорость передачи данных составляет от 1 кбит/с до 2 Мбит/с. Кроме радиосвязи, при помощи Electra проводятся измерения доплеровских сдвигов, запись радиосигналов в режиме OLR для последующего декодирования на Земле, ведется учет времени с высокой точностью, около 5e−13. Доплеровская информация о приземлении спускаемых аппаратов или марсоходов может позволить ученым уточнить их месторасположение на поверхности Марса и траекторию спуска. Два предыдущих марсохода программы MER уже пользовались ранним поколением подобного радио, установленного на КА Mars Odyssey. Радиооборудование Electra использовалось для пересылки информации с марсоходов MER и Curiosity и аппарата Phoenix Mars lander. Камера оптической навигации (Optical Navigation Camera) производит фотосъемку лун Марса, Фобоса и Деймоса, и позволяет определить точную орбиту MRO по координатам звезд на этих снимках. Хотя подобный вариант навигации не является необходимым для миссии, он был использован как проверка технологий, которые в дальнейшем смогут использоваться для расчета с орбитами и приземления космических аппаратов. Проверка Optical Navigation Camera успешно проводилась в феврале-марте 2006 года. Существует предложение использовать камеру ONC для поиска малых лун, пылевых колец и старых орбитальных аппаратов.    

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1MROНайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Страна производитель - США
3Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12015-01-29. Зонд MRO нашел следы движения ледников Марса в недавнем прошлом.
Снимок поверхности Марса с аппарата MRO Новые снимки с зонда MRO помогли астрономам найти следы периодического движения ледников в средних широтах Марса за последние два миллиона лет, что свидетельствует о том, что красная планета еще не совсем "мертва" в климатическом смысле.
Теоретические модели показывают, что красная планета должна до сих пор обладать меняющимся климатом и остаточными геологическими процессами, возникающими в результате охлаждения и сжатия ее недр. Причиной таких изменений сегодня считается то, что наклон оси Марса к плоскости его орбиты должен достаточно сильно меняться со временем из-за гравитационного воздействия двух крупных спутников, Фобоса и Деймоса.
Тэги: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
22015-02-06. Марсианский зонд MRO заснял марсоходом Curiosity.
CuriosityОпубликован новый орбитальный снимок марсохода Curiosity, полученный марсианским зондом MRO.
Cнимок был получен 13 декабря 2014 года с помощью камеры высокого разрешения HiRISE, установленной на борту орбитального аппарата. На момент съемки марсоход находился в районе Pahrump Hills, которая является подножием горы Шарпа (Эолиды). Подробнее...Тэги: Mars Reconnaissance OrbiterMars Science Laboratory (MSL)
32015-02-19. Зонд MRO заснял горы на Марсе.
MRO Комплексная сеть изолированных гор, которая имеет в длину около 1400 км возможно скрывает большие массивы замороженного льда. Phlegra Montes протянулись от вулканического региона Elysium и были скорее всего сформированы за счет тектонической активности планеты и имеют возраст от 3.65–3.91 млрд лет.
По мнению ученых эти горы сравнительно недавно (несколько сот миллионов лет назад) были покрыты массивным ледником. Данная особенность позволило им выдвинуть гипотезу о существовании льда в заданном регионе на глубине до 20 метров.
Подробнее...Тэги: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
42016-10-21. ЕКА сообщило, что модуль «Скиапарелли» разбился при посадке на Марс.
По результатам анализа снимков поверхности Марса с орбитальных аппаратов (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter и Mars Odyssey 2001), Европейское космическое агентство определило, что модуль Schiaparelli разбился при посадке на Марс. Согласно сообщению агентства скорее всего космический аппарат упал с высоты от двух до четырех км (скорость перед столкновением составила более 300 км в час). Тэги: Exo-Mars. Демонстрационный десантный модуль СкиапареллиMars Reconnaissance Orbiter2001 Mars OdysseyЕвропейское космическое агентство

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2180
2Масса (сухая), кг1031
3Масса (полезной нагрузки), кг139
4Мощность, Вт2000.0

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС, год2

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2005-029A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (аппарат), млн. долл.450
2Стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.720
3Оператор NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4Производитель Lockheed Martin
5Производитель University of Arizona
6Производитель APL
7Производитель Космическое агентство Италии
8Производитель Malin Space Science Systems

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2005-08-12 at 11:43:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xMars Reconnaissance Orbiter
3Ракета-носитель 1xАтлас 5 401

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Viking 1 and 2 Orbiter Spacecraft Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Spacecraft Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO)—Lost in Space Due to Human Error MARS OBSERVER... of Energy (DOE), the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the European Space...’s Viking mission spacecraft (orbiter and lander combined) approaching Mars in 1976. (NASA... initial, or reconnaissance, phase of solar-system exploration. An orbiter spacecraft is... back spectacular images of Mars (Viking 1 and 2 orbiter spacecraft) and the outer... Surveyor has a detector, called the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), consisting of a single... years of meteoroid impacts. ✧ Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO)— Lost in Space Due... of the Mars Surveyor ’98 mission, NASA launched the Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO... of space exploration. m NASA’s Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) spacecraft is shown here... imager. Unfortunately, when the Mars Climate Orbiter arrived at the Red Planet... Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) and Mars Polar Lander (MPL), NASA officials sent the Mars... after landing, each rover performed reconnaissance of the particular landing site... action will be the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)—a robot spacecraft mission planned... instruments planned for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will do many things: they... collected by lunar-orbiting resource reconnaissance spacecraft. The presence of ample... hub—such as the proposed Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO). A cluster of nanorovers... of its rendezvous and orbital reconnaissance of Vesta, the Dawn spacecraft... into 11 months of orbital reconnaissance mission. Both a high-orbit scientific... currently planned. The Ceres orbital reconnaissance phase of this mission will..., 2006, from Cape Canaveral. This reconnaissance-type exploration mission will help... will complete the initial scientific reconnaissance of the solar system with... conduct detailed reconnaissance operations on Mars. In some mission scenarios, the Mars airplane... a robot airplane on Mars to perform aerial reconnaissance up long valleys and... probably successfully undertake only extraterrestrial reconnaissance missions. A machine capable of performing... perform space missions that combine reconnaissance and exploration. This assumes, however... could successfully undertake missions combining reconnaissance, exploration, and intensive study—all.... So, it contacts the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter and sends an interplanetary Eureka... probes might permit the direct reconnaissance of the nearest 1 million stars... and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reconnaissance satellite program called Corona. Started... Union. The era of satellite reconnaissance is born. Data collected by... spy satellites of the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) contribute significantly to... August 12, NASA launched the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter from Cape Canaveral AFS, Florida... March 10, NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter successfully arrived at Mars and began a six-month... were still functioning. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) A NASA orbiter spacecraft launched in... Mars Odyssey is an orbiter spacecraft designed to conduct a detailed exploration of Mars... Horizons Pluto-Kuiper Belt Flyby A reconnaissance-type exploration mission that will... on April 12, 2005. National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is the organization... that designs, builds, and operates U.S. reconnaissance satellites. URL: http://www.nro... 106 Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) 110 Mars Exploration Rover mission 135 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) 109 Mars... vehicle 141 Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) 110 Mars Exploration Rover mission 135 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) 109 Mars... 1 spacecraft 19–20 Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) 110–112 Mars Polar Lander (MPL... Receiving Laboratory) 140 LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) 152 Ludd, Ned 214 Luddite... Receiving Laboratory (LRL) 140 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) 152 Lunokhod 1 rover 48...–106 Mars airplane 185–187, 186 Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) spacecraft 110–112 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft 109–110 Mars..., 130–132 Mars airplane 185–187, 186 Mars balloon 156 Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) spacecraft 110–112, 111 Mars Environmental Survey Pathfinder. See Mars... Mars Odyssey spacecraft 43 Mars Odyssey 2001 spacecraft 112, 112–113, 138 Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) 52–53 Mars Pathfinder mission (Mars Environmental Survey..., 110, 134 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) 155, 155 Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO) 156, 157 Mathilde (asteroid) 173–174 MCO (Mars Climate Orbiter... servicing system (MSS) 89 MOC (Mars Orbiter Camera) 52–53 modem 60...) 206 MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) 155, 155 MTO (Mars Telecommunications Orbiter) 156, 157... interplanetary link 198 Mars Exploration Rover mission 137 Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO) 156...



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... offer best bet for locating Mars life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.5 Mars Orbiter Sees Effects of Ancient... view of Rosetta skimming past Mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.9 NASA’s THEMIS Mission Launches... can’t drill that deep on Mars.” Now, as Ulysses again passes... or so, robotic drilling on Mars reaches a depth of a couple yards... the search for life on Mars? Farmer says our best choice... offer best bet for locating Mars for millions or billions of... best places to look on Mars, he says, are deposits left..., 2007 [4] says Farmer, conditions on Mars then were likely similar to... for traces of life on Mars calls for two radically difthose... building blocks,” Farmer explains. ”The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity found ample... heads the next rover, the Mars Science Laboratory, will carry instruastrobiology... cellular remains and isms on Mars,” says Farmer, ”you need to... telescopic camera ever sent to Mars began examining the planet last... Science Experiment camera aboard the orbiter took the image in September... to be representative of early Mars. The haloes visible along fractures... best places to explore on Mars ”The most likely origin for... material lining the fractures. Another 1.5 Mars Orbiter Sees Effects of Ancient Un... cracks penetrating underground rock on Mars, according to a report based on... the first observations by NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. These fluids may have produced... took of other places on Mars after the initial Candor Chasma... account different surface conditions on Mars, and shows that the best... newly discovered frozen sea on Mars. The lead author, Lewis Dartnell... in the near-subsurface of Mars within the first couple of... life on Mars depends on liquid water surfacing on Mars, but the... liquid water was widespread on Mars was billions of years ago... levels near the surface of Mars for that long.” Figure 5: Ridges... Chasma region of Valles Marineris, Mars, retain ridge-like shapes as..., Mars Re- craters or areas where water has recently surfaced. connaissance Orbiter... our understand- tion environment on Mars and its effect on past and present ing of Mars and its history of climate... Zurek, project scientist for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter radiation behaves in the atmosphere... available on the Web at: [6] Mars would be within the ice... designed to find life on Mars do not drill deep shield... hydrogen to protect life on Mars from destructive enough to find... well below the surface of Mars, according to research cause it... craters, because the surface on Mars, cellular life could not survive... closer to the surface of Mars than a few discovered in the... environment for possible life on Mars. Unlike Earth, 8 1 SOLAR SYSTEM Vendelinus Astronomy Newsletter February 2007 Mars is not protected by a global... north and 9 degrees west. of Mars and at regular depths underground... the annual radiation doses on Mars to calculate the survival time... as in the subsurface of Mars, they are preserved but unable... subsurface radiFigure 6: ation environment on Mars and its effects on the... entists and engineers planning future Mars missions to find 20th, 2007... a hail storm Monday damaged the orbiter’s External Tank. A new target launch.... A satellite ’duo’ consisting of an orbiter for planetary investigation and one... the universe 5 The ’Mercury Planetary Orbiter’ (MPO) will be under ESA... ago than it is today. Orbiter (MMO) will be under the..., make preparations for a journey to Mars, conduct a wide range of scientific... for the eventual journey to Mars. In the next phase, the... view of Rosetta skimming past Mars Source: ESA Press Release, February... of the Rosetta spacecraft with Mars in the background, was taken... this morning. While the Rosetta orbiter instruments were switched off as... operational and collected data from Mars. uation of emerging technologies such... measurements independently from the Rosetta orbiter. 3.9 NASA’s THEMIS Mission Launches to... of some 1000 km from Mars. the mission may help protect... sequence of observations from today’s Mars close approach were run successfully... about the magnetic environment of Mars. The data sets acquired by... Astronomy Newsletter February 2007 any Mars spacecraft. While the mission continues... phase in November 2006, the orbiter has returned enough data to.... This ties the record for Mars data sent back between 1997 and 2006 by NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor mission. In late... Imaging Science Experiment camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter noticed a significant increase in noise... in the southern hemisphere of Mars where it was winter at... the bright tones are carbon Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft this month is set... second instrument concern aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is related to an instrument... across the atmosphere above Mars’ horizon. The Mars Climate Sounder maps the... relative motions of Earth and Mars in their orbits around the... to increase our understanding of Mars Williams brought tools and cables...



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... ......................................................... 11 1.3 PLANETARY OBSERVATION SYSTEMS .............................................................................. 12 1.3.1 Mars ............................................................................................................... 12 1.3.2 The Inner Planets............................................................................................ 14... .......................................................166 7.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 166 7.2 MARS ..................................................................................................................... 168 7.2.1 Spacecraft Motion about Mars .................................................................... 168 viii 7.2.2 Highly... Sample Return; SPO = Solar Polar Orbiter; VenusSR = Venus Sample Return............................................................................................ 39... of highly-elliptical orbits at Mars 0 degree argument of pericentre......................................................................................... 174... of highly-elliptical orbits at Mars – 0 degree argument of pericentre............................................................................. 174... of highly-elliptical orbits at Mars – 0 degree argument of pericentre ...................................................................................... 175... circular sun-synchronous orbits at Mars ....................................................................................................................... 180 Figure 7-10 Required radial... elliptical sun-synchronous orbits at Mars - 0 degree argument of pericentre ............................................................... 183... elliptical sun- synchronous orbits at Mars - 0 degree argument of pericentre ......................................... 184... elliptical sun-synchronous orbits at Mars - 0 degree argument of pericentre ............................................................... 184... elliptical sun-synchronous orbits at Mars - 0 degree argument of pericentre ............................................................... 185... inclination, sun-synchronous orbit at Mars (0 degree argument of periapsis) (a) Semi... Mission MPD Magnetoplasmadynamic xxx MRO Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter NASA National Aeronautics and Space..., engineering and mathematics (STEM) education. 1.3.1 Mars Exploration of the Martian environment... surface of Mars. The first successful artificial Martian satellite, Mars 2, was placed... orbit around Mars: the Russian Mars 5 in 1973, and American 2 The Mars Exploration... successful missions to Mars, until the launch of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS... subsurface including photographs from the Mars Orbiter Camera of gullies and debris... 2000s, both NASA’s Mars Odyssey and ESA’s Mars Express reached orbit, with... conduct exploration of Mars from orbit is the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched in... a comprehensive and multidisciplinary view of Mars to be obtained. Detailed information... spacecraft such as Mars Odyssey [46], MRO [47] and Mars Global Surveyor... the exploration of Mars with the reformulation of the Mars Exploration Program... - the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO) are... and 16, the Pioneer Venus 1 orbiter and Magellan, which have provided... Sample Return; SPO = Solar Polar Orbiter; VenusSR = Venus Sample Return 300.... For reference, the Solar Polar Orbiter is required to deliver 10... with recent missions including Mars Odyssey [46], Mars Express [43], MRO [45... on exploration of Mars with the reformulation of the Mars Exploration Program... exploration of Mars to fleets of spacecraft both around Mars and on... inclination, sun-synchronous orbit at Mars (0 degree argument of periapsis) (a) Semi... Difficult Road to Mars - A Brief History of Mars Explorationin the Soviet Union.... Lyons, D. T., Beerer, J. G., Esposito, P., and Johnston, D. M. "Mars Global Surveyor: Aerobraking Mission Overview..., W. P., Spencer, D. A., Thompson, T. W., and Zeitlin, C. J. "2001 Mars Odyssey Mission Summary", Space Science.... Chicarro, A., Martin, P., and Trautner, R. "The Mars Express Mission: An Overview." ESA... Smrekar, S. E. "An overview of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) science mission", Journal of... 46. Smith, J. C., and Bell, J. M. "2001 Mars Odyssey Aerobraking", Journal of Spacecraft..., D., and Halbrook, T. "An Overview of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Operations Challenges", AIAA... Results from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter", Science Vol. 203, 1979, pp..., S., Pabsch, A., Sachs, R., and Seboldt, W. "Mercury Orbiter with a Solar Sail Spacecraft", Acta... Borg, E. "Mercury Sun-Synchronous Polar Orbiter with a Solar Sail", Acta Astronautica..., A., Falkner, P., and Atzei, A. "Solar Polar Orbiter: A solar sail Technology Reference Study... Photovoltaic Assembly for the Rosetta Orbiter and Lander Spacecrafts," Sixth European...



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.... Also taking photos, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter has provided images of the... missions Herschel, Cryosat, Proba-2 and Mars Express made important discoveries and... 2012 manned dockings. China’s experimental orbiter SJ-11-04, launched by... Alliance Atlas 5 rocket launched NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission from SLC... It was announced that NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, would... told Interfax-AVN. >> The joint Mars exploration - ExoMars - envisioned by the... interplanetary spacecraft for a flight to Mars will be created no earlier... candidates include a mission to glimpse Mars’ interior, a voyage to the extraterrestrial... design review." Formally named the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution, or... is to collect information about Mars’ thinning atmosphere and its climate... and landing element of the Mars 2016 robotic mission. >> Chinese space... of the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter has been completed. The spacecraft...’s next two science missions. Solar Orbiter and Euclid were selected by... begun redesigning a two-pronged robotic Mars mission to accommodate greater participation... interplanetary mission since the 1996 Mars 96 mission, disintegrated over the... the Mars500 virtual flight to Mars ’landed’ on their destination planet... voyages, such as a trip to Mars. The researchers studied seven astronauts.... >> 15 March 2011: NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) team released the final...: NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter discovered the total amount of atmosphere on Mars changes dramatically... on ESA’s newly selected Solar Orbiter mission. >> 19 November 2011: A new...: In research related to the Mars Express mission, conditions favourable to... in unprecedented detail. 1 April 2011: Mars Express has returned images of... doughnut-shaped asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, which launched in... the experiments for a new international Mars lander that will launch toward... mission success for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). >> 17 July 2011: Two... new imagery from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), sent up to circle... a precursor to Mars missions. >> 5 August 2011: Observations from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed possible flowing water during the warmest months on Mars. NASA’s Mars Exploration Program keeps bringing...-and-go driving, NASA’s intrepid Mars rover Opportunity has covered just... September 2011: China’s second moon orbiter Chang’e-2, which is drifting deep... km away from Earth. The orbiter is scheduled to travel around... equivalent layers on Earth and Mars will help astronomers refine their... 1 in January 1986. >> 9 December 2011: Mars rover Opportunity has found slivers... on Mars Express acquired a detailed view of the martian satellite. The orbiter.... >> 9 June 2011: The Chang’e-2 lunar orbiter bid farewell to the moon... research. The country’s second lunar orbiter thus became China’s furthest travelled... measurements made by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the most precise and complete... mass memory system on board Mars Express caused science observations to... making excellent progress in returning Mars Express to routine service. Some... October 2011: NASA, the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) and the U.S. Air.... NASA picked robotic missions to Mars, a comet and Saturn’s moon Titan... nuclear reactor which could power a Mars colony. >> C. Design, Technology and Development... orbits of Mars and Jupiter. >> 15 March 2011: NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO... high-definition, live TV from Mars. >> 16 October 2011: A new computer...) launched its Robotic Mission to Mars web-based programme, where students... control a real rover on a simulated Mars surface from their school and... launched VSSEC’s Robotic Mission to Mars programme. This web-based programme...’," Mr Dixon said. The VSSEC Mars Autonomous Science Laboratory (MASL) touched.... The VSSEC Robotic Mission to Mars programme maximises the effectiveness of... acquired by the robotic Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), which has been circling... and modify Kennedy Space Center’s Orbiter Processing Facility-3, the Space Shuttle... launch of its latest Mars mission, the Mars Science Laboratory. >> Page 104... expected to build the first orbiter to be launched in 2017... And Mass CRISM Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars Page 123 Highlights... Orbiter Laser Altimeter LRA Laser Retroreflector Array LRO Lunar Reconaissance Orbiter MARCI Mars Color Imager MARIE Mars Radiation Environment experiment MaRS Mars Radio Science experiment MARSIS Mars... (NASA Sounding Rocket Experiment) MAVEN Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN MB Mössbauer Spectrometer MCS Mars Climate Sounder MDIS Mercury Dual... and Innovation of Malaysia MRO Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter MSL Mars Science Laboratory NADIR Neutral... Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars SQUID Superconducting Quantum Interference Device...



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...-month mission. Japan's Kaguya lunar orbiter ended its 21-month mission... with the Moon. NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation... focus on putting people on Mars, not the Moon. The report... path toward an initial human Mars capability. The plan, which urged... one of the moons of Mars. And although the current NASA..., and, eventually undertaking missions to Mars. The first system is scheduled... whether humans can survive on Mars. The “mission” began on 31... long as a real mission to Mars. The participants had no television... build instruments for ESA’s Solar Orbiter mission, one of five ESA... committed by ESA, the Solar Orbiter is planned for launch in... Enceladus, which would include a NASA orbiter and an ESA lander and... system six years later. NASA's orbiter, currently called Jupiter Europa, would... performance of many of the orbiter’s instruments, most of them were... Neutron Detector aboard NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter further confirmed the presence of... and Kashgar. Japan's Kaguya lunar orbiter (see prior reports) ended its... dust it raised. NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation... the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC... NASA announced that the Phoenix Mars lander had shut down for..., after which neither the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter nor the Mars Odyssey spacecraft were able... days of no communications from Mars, NASA’s Spirit rover radioed back... months. On 28 July NASA’s Mars rover Opportunity discovered the largest meteorite yet found on Mars. Named Block Island, the iron... Rock, found in 2004. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter’s (MRO’s) radar discovered several dirt... reservoirs of water ice on Mars. Then on 23 February MRO... 4 million years. These deposits on Mars, which appear to be almost... the heat shield for the Mars Science Laboratory on 16 June... heat shield ever built for a Mars probe, and larger than the... vehicle, named Curiosity, from the Mars entry temperature, which could reach... type of landing sequence on Mars. After the heat shield has...-Grunt mission to land on Mars’ moon Phobos and return soil...-kg Chinese Mars orbiter called Yinghuo-1, which will study the Mars ionosphere, its... was postponed to the next Mars launch window, in 2011. And... August to cooperate on two Mars exploration projects. ESA will use... send a robotic rover to the Mars surface (see prior reports) and... agreed to rework their individual Mars exploration programmes into a single programme... groups, such as the International Mars Exploration Working Group. Subsequent developments... spacecraft received a gravity assist during a Mars flyby on 17 February, boosting... analysis of the structure of Mars’ interior. The Strofio instrument is... to extend the missions of Mars Express, Venus Express, and Cluster until 31 December 2009. Mars Express was launched in June... useful on the Moon or Mars, where it could be manufactured... imagery. On 6 August the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) announced that their... several sections of the Shuttle orbiter during its earliest flights. It... future large spacecraft land on Mars -- spacecraft too big to survive... of 600 updates on the Mars Phoenix mission, when over 38... vehicles identified as examples were a Mars lander and a lunar rover. Canada... use on the Moon and Mars. The Micro-Ecological Life-Support... February Google (USA) added a Mars category, Google Mars, to the website Google... Google added a new “Live from Mars” update, which includes such features as real-time tracking of Mars orbiters, access to raw data, historical globe maps of Mars, and guided fly-around tours... close-up views of the Mars Science Laboratory rover model. Photosynth... imagery from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Beginning this... ESA announced the creation of a Mars Exploration Joint Initiative (MEJI) to... lead to the return of Mars samples in the 2020s. Cooperation... with NASA in a two-step Mars exploration programme that retains Europe... technology, as well as developing a Mars lander and rover. The agreement... idea of whether the new Mars-exploration scenario can be kept... descent and landing on the Mars surface. The lander will not.... ESA also will provide a Mars telecommunications orbiter for the 2016 mission, with... ESA’s rover deployed to the Mars surface by the same Sky... to use for the large Mars Science Laboratory rover to be... expects to make sure the Mars mission contracts are distributed to... single contributor to the redesigned Mars effort, so that ESA will... projects. A mission to Mars in 2013, called "Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution... past and current evolution of Mars. NASA will have operational control... to measure the characteristics of Mars’ solar winds and their ionospheric... final, backing for the 2016 Mars rover and lander mission Enhanced...), and the Chang’e 2 robotic lunar orbiter, due for launch in October... to provide its Gokturk optical reconnaissance Earth observation satellite system in...



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... Dextre. Endeavour also transferred its Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS) to... those used to build the orbiter’s robotic arm; the new systems... detailed pictures of a Space Shuttle orbiter docked with the Station. Expedition... U.S. Air Force and the National Reconnaissance Office) that included a Memorandum of... detector for launch on the Mars Science Laboratory mission. This detector... environment during the trip to Mars, as well as the radiation... the planet’s surface. Characterizing the Mars radiation environment will increase our... the transfer of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to the Science Mission... is completing humankind’s first basic reconnaissance of the solar system by... of a large-scale investigation of Mars, with an ever-more-capable... Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that confirmed the discovery.... On December 15, 2010, NASA’s Mars Odyssey, which had launched in... set by NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor, which orbited Mars from 1997 to... monitoring of seasonal changes on Mars from year to year and... by NASA’s Phoenix lander and Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit and Opportunity... weather by NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor and NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Odyssey will support the 2012 landing of the Mars Science... the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Dawn studied the... during the warmest months on Mars. Dark, fingerlike features appeared and... in the middle latitudes of Mars’s southern hemisphere. Some aspects of... on struts of the Phoenix Mars Lander. If further study of... also share orbits with Neptune, Mars, and Jupiter. Two of Saturn... in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter and more than... hybrid tent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capability. The LEMV hybrid increase... troops in Afghanistan, and provide reconnaissance in Libya. A miniaturized version of.... For the U.S. Government, the National Reconnaissance Office successfully them in 25... Space-Based Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance stone in upgrading our Nation...‑based intelligence, surveil‑ lance, and reconnaissance capabilities. The Air Force launched... temperatures (200 K) found in the Mars environment. The NIST Manufacturing Extension... for studies of the moon, Mars, Saturn, and asteroids. A c t i v i t i e s dynamics in... of their mission lives. The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover was... is currently exploring a region on Mars known as Gale Crater. Voyagers... is a participating scientist for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission that is currently operating on Mars. He is a chair of the.... Grant is also on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science team... NASM during the museum’s annual “Mars Day!” family educational event, which... the science teams for the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding instrument on Mars Express, both the High Resolution... Radar instruments on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the MESSENGER mission... included work on the moon, Mars, Earth, Mercury, and Asteroid 433... km 97.1 min 97.8° U.S. National Reconnaissance Office February 6, 2011 USA 225... km 109.7 min 90° U.S. National Reconnaissance Office’s Rapid Pathfinder Program February... km 665.9 min 26.5° U.S. National Reconnaissance Office April 15, 2011 USA... km 107.5 min 63.4° U.S. National Reconnaissance Office May 7, 2011 USA 230... km 692.2 min 26.5° U.S. National Reconnaissance Office U.S. Air Force robotic space... Lunar Precursor Robotic Program Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Launch Services Program Large Synoptic... microelectromechanical systems Manufacturing Extension Partnership Mars Exploration Rover MErcury Surface, Space... Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Science Laboratory Mobile Satellite Service... Service National Resources Inventory National Reconnaissance Office O P P&W PA-1 PDR PIDDP PMM... power system Rocket Propulsion Test A c t i v i t i e s Orbiter Boom Sensor System Orbiting Carbon...



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... terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars): it is the smallest, one... there have The winged Shuttle orbiter is been five Shuttles used... Telescope http://hubblesite.org/ NASA Mars Exploration Rovers http://marsrovers.jpl... A Few Basic Facts About Mars for months. Mars has polar ice caps... terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars): it is the smallest, one... Solar System (Mercury, Venus, or Mars, typical spacecraft carries a few hundred... – Orbiter $446 million Venus Magellan 1989 – 1994 Orbiter $680 million Mars Mars Express 2003 – Orbiter $150 million Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 2005 – Orbiter $720 million... the Solar System.. Mars, continued Type Total Cost Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit... – Lander / rover $820 million Phoenix Mars 2007 – Lander $417 million Pioneer... $905 million1 Galileo 1989 – 2003 Orbiter, atmosphere probe $1.5 billion Pioneer 11... $350 million Cassini-Huygens 1997 – Orbiter, lander to Titan $3.4 billion Uranus...) NEAR Shoemaker 1996 – 2001 Flyby, orbiter, lander $220.5 million Comet (9P... Comet (67 P/ ChuryumovGerasimenko) Rosetta 2004 – Orbiter, lander $980 million Jupiter Saturn... traveling from the Earth to Mars. Standards Benchmarks Science Overview 88..., driving vehicles to ▼ Earth and Mars Orbit Transparency 1, 2, 3 avoid being hit... to where Mars is at that moment? (Desired answer: Mars would have... for in their orbiter mission. MES SE E. Mission 3: Orbiter 1. Use masking tape... Mission 2: Flyby Pros Cons Mission 3: Orbiter Pros Cons Mission 4: Lander Pros... they want to do a flyby, orbiter, or a lander mission? The total... if the cost of the orbiter mission is two times more... it will be a flyby, an orbiter, or a lander mission, but also... to go with a flyby, an orbiter, or a lander mission, and they...://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/ Mars Exploration Rover Mission http://marsrovers... The Sun r r Mars at launch The Earth at landing r r Mars at landing.... ▼ MESSENGER (launched in 2004): This orbiter mission flew by Mercury three... 9 (1975): The mission featured an orbiter, as well as a lander, which...): Consisted of an to Venus: orbiter, which used radar to make... Express (Arrived in 2006): This orbiter mission is studying the atmosphere... the surface. Lunar Orbiter 1-5 (1966-1967): These orbiter missions mapped the surface...,16,17 (1969-1972): These orbiter/lander missions were the first... for analysis. Clementine (1994): This orbiter discovered that there might be... ice under the surface. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (Launched in 2009): Maps the... surface. Mariner 9 (1971-1972): This orbiter mission provided detailed views of... 1 and 2 (1976-1982): These combined orbiter/lander missions sent back the...), recorded a marsquake, and monitored weather. Mars Pathfinder (1997): Included a stationary lander... planet. ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ to Mars: 2001 Mars Odyssey (2001-2006): This orbiter found evidence for... near the south pole of Mars. Mars Exploration Rovers (Arrived in 2004... the past. Mars Express (Arrived in 2003): This orbiter mission has gathered... components to the mission: the orbiter was the first spacecraft to...-Huygens (Arrived in 2004): This orbiter mission was the first to... like to make on an orbiter mission: a. b. c. d. N page 4 of 10 GER... New Planet MES SE D. Mission 3: Orbiter Each team member gets two... 1: Strange New Planet MES SE 3) Orbiter Mission Pros: Cons: 4) Lander Mission... what type of mission (flyby, orbiter or lander) will best help... will be (circle one): Flyby Orbiter Lander Why? B) Additional cost for...? ▼ What type of mission (flyby, orbiter, lander) will you use and... Cost Risk Factor Flyby (none) 1 Orbiter $100 million 2 Lander $200 million... the target from a distance Flyby Orbiter Lander $3 million Stereo Camera Digital... images of the target Flyby Orbiter Lander $3 million Panoramic Camera Digital... the target (rocks, atmosphere) Flyby Orbiter Lander $1 million Spectrometer 2 (using either... the target (rocks, atmosphere) Flyby Orbiter Lander $3 million (continued on the... solar wind in detail Flyby Orbiter Lander $2 million Magnetometer Measures basic..., and the solar wind Flyby Orbiter Lander $0.5 million Basic Radar Takes... bounced off the surface Flyby Orbiter $1 million Advanced Radar Measures the... features below the surface Flyby Orbiter $2.5 million Laser Altimeter Determines the... the surface of the target Orbiter $1.5 million Seismometer Monitors quakes on... is from the Earth. Mission 3: Orbiter Pros: ▼ Can observe more details... maybe not more than an orbiter mission.) ▼ More hazardous than the... when the lander or the orbiter that acts as a communications relay... Moon MES SE Mars ▼ Why did the water on Mars disappear from... the Daedalia Planum region on Mars (bottom). (Picture credits: USGS/ Hawaiian... middle: Apollinaris Patera volcano on Mars; top right: heavily cratered south...: eroded Victoria impact crater on Mars; bottom middle: the cratered surface... the Kuiper Belt) Mars Express (Mission to Mars) http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov... http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/express/mission/sc_comm.html Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Mission to Mars...



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... is defined by the Shuttle Orbiter, constructed in the 1970s. In... this future understanding. Mars Science Laboratory, NASA’s flagship Mars mission launched in... reusable tiles on the Shuttle Orbiter to ablative systems employed for... inflatable aerodynamic decelerator for human Mars missions. Flexible ablators (either silicone... and Orion). The Space Shuttle Orbiter represents the SOA for mid... Apollo-based hypersonic guidance of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) established feasibility... high-mass Mars missions. Current systems analysis for human Mars missions is... a supersonic propulsive descent capability for Mars applications will require accomplishment of...-Throttling, High-Thrust Engines for Mars Descent Provides both Supersonic Retropropulsion... determine altitude and vertical velocity (Mars Pathfinder). In addition, horizontal velocity... optical imaging with onboard correlation (Mars Exploration Rover). Technical Capability Objectives...; airbags as used in Mars Pathfinder and the Mars Exploration Rovers; and.... Advancement of propulsion capabilities for Mars applications will require accomplishment of..., subsonic heat shield separation for Mars robotic vehicles, parachute (drogue) deployment.... Mars Odyssey experienced atmosphere density that was 20% of predicted; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter encountered... MMOD Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter MOLA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle MPCV Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter MRO Mars Science Laboratory MSL Mars Sample Return MSR... Planetary Flagship: Mars Sample Return Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission... 2 years Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission (DRA 5.0) Enhancing 2033... Technology Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission (DRA 5.0) Enhancing 2033... Planetary Flagship: Mars Sample Return Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission... 2 years Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission (DRA 5.0) Enhancing 2033... 3 years Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission (DRA 5.0) Enhancing 2033... 3 years Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission (DRA 5.0) Enhancing 2033... phenolic impregnated Technology Performance Goal: Mars Sample Return’s (MSR’s) carbon ablator...-efficient configuration with hypersonic L/D > 0.4 for Mars precursors, < 10mt payloads up to...: X-23, X-24, X-37, Space Shuttle Orbiter, Buran. Applications have been limited... Venus and Mars. 2. Human Mars exploration: deliver 20-40 t to Mars. TRL Parameter... vehicle shroud sizes. Parameter, Value: Mars Science Laboratory, 4.5 m diameter, 200 W/cm2... payloads, Capability Performance Goal: Human Mars: landing footprint < landing tests (1990s... mass, 2x MSL; altitude, > -2 km Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Technology Needed... Needed Capability: Supersonic parachutes for Mars deceleration. Capability Description: Provide decelerator...-Throttling, High Thrust Engines for Mars Descent TECHNOLOGY Technology Description: Provides... Engine used bipropellant hypergolic propellants; Mars Terminal Descent retro-thrusters are... Crane (1 t landed) is SOA for Mars. Mars. Mars Lander engine thrust: 3 kN Throttle... Mission Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission (DRA 5.0) Parameter, Value... the Art: Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument on Mars Science Laboratory (MSL... Date Strategic Missions: Mars 2020 Enabling Planetary Flagship: Mars Sample Return Enabling... Enhancing Strategic Missions: Mars 2020 Planetary Flagship: Mars Sample Return Mission Class... 2 years Strategic Missions: Mars 2020 Planetary Flagship: Mars Sample Return New Frontiers... data products for Mars, Earth as used for Mars Science Laboratory (MSL... of the Art: Mars Science Laboratory (MSL)/Mars Capability Performance Goal: Dedicated compute element. Parameter, Value: Parameter, Value: Reconnaissance Orbiter... Technology Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission (DRA 5.0) Enhancing 2033...%), lunar return (25%), Mars return (40%), robotic Mars (30%), human Mars (45%), Venus... Mission Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission (DRA 5.0) Parameter, Value... -- -- -- 3 years Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission (DRA 5.0) Enhancing 2033...) but not employed on aerobraking orbiter. Parameter, Value: Staff time: 75...: Reduce staff time without on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), Autonomous Aerobraking corridor control... -- -- -- 3 years Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission (DRA 5.0) Enhancing 2033... Planetary Flagship: Mars Sample Return Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission... Planetary Flagship: Mars Sample Return Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission... Planetary Flagship: Mars Sample Return Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission... Planetary Flagship: Mars Sample Return Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission... Planetary Flagship: Mars Sample Return Planetary Exploration: DRM 9 Crewed Mars Surface Mission...



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... Mars missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.2. Ancient Mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.3. Geologically Young Mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.1.4. Modern Mars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.2. The Mars Exploration Program... been identified. The Uranus Orbiter and Probe mission was selected... Exploration Institute. and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LRO). Investigating the distribution of... and Ferrari (1977) from Lunar Orbiter and Apollo 15 and 16... dual launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO: Chin et al., 2007... al., 2010). China’s Chang’E-2 Moon orbiter has been launched on 1 October... 2013/2014) consists of an orbiter and landing probe. Contact in... lunar lander and an Indian orbiter and mini-rover. A lunar multielement... and integration of current lunar orbiter data, to the development of... Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), Mars Express (MEx), Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter... habitable environments. Observations from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed possible flowing water... mission ESA intends to provide a Mars Orbiter and an Entry, Descent and... Module (EDM). The Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) will accommodate scientific instruments... with the Chinese Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) orbiter. However, due to an engine... exploration that begins with orbital reconnaissance and in situ martian surface... from Mars with a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) into orbit. A Mars Sample Return Orbiter (Sample... scientifically and technically. Orbital reconnaissance, experience with surface operations and... container reaches Mars orbit it will rendezvous with a Mars Sample Return Orbiter that... sample return cacher, Mars ascent vehicle, and Earth-return orbiter. Planning for... interpreting and validating information from orbiter and rover missions on extraterrestrial... 6.1.3. MDRS/F-MARS The Mars Society operates two simulated Mars habitats, the Flashline Mars Arctic... to provide data to an orbiter directly. Also, the challenge of..., with a phased approach with orbital reconnaissance, small landers, a network of landers... Mars environment concerning atmosphere, dust storms, plasma and radiation. China’s Yinghuo-1 orbiter... will send the Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) orbiter piggyback on the Russian mission... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter MA Moon Agreement MAP Project Mars Analog Path (ISU) MAV Mars... MEPAG Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group MER Mars Exploration Rover MEx Mars Express Orbiter... Logistics Module MRO Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter MSL Mars Science Laboratory MSR Mars Sample Return NAC... lunar missions include the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in orbit since June... on Oceanic Research European Moon Orbiter NASA Science Mission Directorate Space... Engineering and Mathematics Trace Gas Orbiter Europlanet Trans National Access United... Outer Space Affairs Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) orbiter piggyback on the Russian Phobos... Landers MAVEN Trace Gas Orbiter MSL Martian Rovers Mars Sample Return ExoMars... ESA and ASI. Trace Gas Orbiter EDM ExoMars planned Launch 2010... program encompasses Luna-Glob (a Moon orbiter and landing probe) in 2012... combination with the Indian Chandrayaan-2 orbiter and minirover), and the Luna... and data collection. The Chang’E-2 orbiter was the first mission within... will send the Yinghou-1 (YH-1) orbiter with the Russian Phobos-Grunt... 2012. ISRO would contribute an orbiter – Chandrayaan-2 – and a mini-rover to... recent fleet of orbiter precursors for science, technology and reconnaissance. The second...: a synthetic aperture radar on lunar reconnaissance orbiter, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary..., G., Brylow, S., Foote, M., et al. Lunar reconnaissance orbiter overview: the instrument suite and... (LAMP) instrument on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter (LRO) mission, in: 41st Lunar... aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. J. Geophys. Res... minerals on Mars observed by the CRISM instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Nature 354..., M.C., Greenhagen, B.T., et al. The lunar reconnaissance orbiter diviner lunar radiometer experiment. Space.... and the LROC Team. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera: first results, in: 41st... of radiation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary.... Vondrak, R., Keller, J., Chin, G., Garvin, J. Lunar reconnaissance orbiter (LRO): Observations for lunar exploration...



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...-angle self-portrait by the Mars Curiosity rover. Due to the... never-explored dwarf planet Ceres. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter produced exciting news about current...’ve established a permanent presence on Mars using landers, rovers and orbiters... framed by a wheel of the Mars Curiosity rover. Above: From left... in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, icy Ceres is... might not strike most like Mars and Saturn’s moon Titan. In... the mission, planned as a Jupiter orbiter that will make more than... from campus participation, including two (Mars 2020 and NuSTAR) with Caltech... that current-day streaks on Mars involve liquid water, it was... and life is less clear. MARS EXPLORATION MARS WATER, TODAY Left: Rippled..., when scientists working with JPL’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter announced finding dark streaks on... latest finding, scientists used the orbiter’s spectrometer to identify changes in... then on the surface of Mars today. 31 THE SALTS INVOLVED... can agree on is that Mars today is far from part... just beneath the surface, liquid Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has found year, Curiosity arrived... AN OXIDIZER IN water on Mars’ surface will rapidly evapo- not... — a substance commonly used as an Mars is an ever-changing planet..., and then some: Incredibly, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was very... going is steeper, but the Mars spending its 12th year actively... at least once existed on Mars Mount Sharp in earnest. Along... celebrate, next rover destined for Mars in the year ies at... also announced that, minerals from Mars’ most ancient era.   based on... path rooted in the historic Mars lander of the took him... and landing archaeology.” systems for Mars 2020, Baker’s role has grown... has been full-time on Mars rovers ever experimental prototype — and...’s amazing success has set with Mars 2020, we’re sticking very... close to what worked with Mars Science stakes.” In the parlance... fly in 2018, an Earth orbiter featuring a radar to study rain... help land large payloads at Mars. The project’s doughnut-shaped inflator... 4000 5000 6000 Ron Ross Mars Exploration Cryogenic Society of America... Institutional Computing, InSight, Juno, Mars 2020, Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Science Laboratory, Rosetta, Spitzer... Johns Hopkins University Europa, Mars 2020, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Teledyne Technologies Incorporated Entrepreneur Ronald... Supersonic Decelerator, Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2, Mars 2020, Near-Earth Object Widefield... Technologist Fuk K. Li Director for Mars Exploration 48 National Aeronautics and...