Спутник ФКИ. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. [Редактировать]

Многофункциональная автоматическая межпланетная станция (АМС) НАСА, предназначенная для исследования Марса. Аппарат построен компанией Lockheed Martin под руководством Лаборатории Реактивного Движения. Управляет аппаратом Лаборатория реактивного движения (Калифорнийский технологический институт); научной стороной миссии управляет НАСА (Вашингтон, округ Колумбия).

Запущен 12 августа 2005 года с космодрома на мысе Канаверал с помощью ракеты-носителя Атлас V. Достигнув Марса 10 марта 2006 года, начал серию манёвров для выхода на нужную орбиту, при помощи т. н. аэродинамического торможения (торможение в верхних слоях атмосферы планеты позволяет значительно сэкономить топливо). Орбитальные манёвры и различные проверки и калибровка оборудования закончились в ноябре 2006 года, после чего аппарат приступил к работе. Выйдя на орбиту Марса, MRO присоединился к пяти активно функционирующим космическим аппаратам, которые в тот момент находились либо на орбите, либо на поверхности планеты: спутникам Mars Global Surveyor, Марс Одиссей, Марс-экспресс и марсоходам (Спирит и Оппортьюнити) — таким образом, был установлен рекорд по количеству активно функционирующих космических аппаратов, находящихся на орбите и поверхности Марса.

Полезная нагрузка:

  • High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment — камера, использующая телескоп-рефлектор с диаметром 0,5 м, который является самым большим телескопом, использующимся в глубоком космосе. Имеет разрешение в 1 микрорадиан, то есть на поверхности Марса с высоты 300 км различимы детали размером всего 30 см (0.3 м на пиксель). Для сравнения, многие спутниковые снимки Земли имеют разрешение 0,5 м на пиксель, а снимки в Google Maps - до 1 метра на пиксель. Камера HiRISE снимает в трёх цветовых диапазонах с длинами волн от 400 до 600 нм (сине-зеленый или B-G), от 550 до 850 нм (красный) и от 800 до 1000 нм (ближний инфракрасный или NIR). HiRISE изображение «лица», находящегося в области Кидония. Ширина полосы захвата составляет от 1,2 км до 6 км для разных диапазонов. Каждое изображение размером 16,4 Гб сжимается до 5 Гб для последующей передачи на Землю. Все изображения сделанные при помощи данной камеры публикуются на её официальном сайте в формате JPEG 2000. Для облегчения поиска потенциальных мест посадок будущих миссий, камера может создавать изображения в виде стереопар, из которых можно рассчитать топографию рельефа с точностью до 25 см. HiRISE камера была создана компанией Ball Aerospace & Technologies. Первый снимок был получен 24 марта 2006 года.
  • Панхроматическая контекстная камера (Context Camera, CTX) снимает монохромные изображения в диапазоне от 500 до 800 нм, с максимальным разрешением снимков до 6 метров на пиксель. CTX предназначалась для создания контекстной карты Марса, которая в будущем пригодилась бы для наблюдения камерой HiRISE и спектрометром CRISM, наряду с этим камера используется в создании мозаик больших участков поверхности Марса, в долгосрочных наблюдениях за изменениями поверхности отдельных областей, и для создания стереоснимков ключевых регионов и потенциальных мест посадок будущих миссий. Оптика CTX состоит из Зеркально-линзового телескопа системы Максутова — Кассегрена с фокусным расстоянием 350 мм и ПЗС-линейки из 5064 пикселов. Прибор способен запечатлеть участок размером 30 км в ширину, и имеет достаточно внутренней памяти для сохранения изображения с суммарной длиной 160 км. Полученные изображения затем пересылаются в главный компьютер аппарата. Камера была создана и управляется компанией Malin Space Science Systems. По состоянию на февраль 2010 года, CTX картографировала 50% всей поверхности Марса. В 2012 она обнаружила точки падения 25-килограммовых балластных грузов, сброшенных с Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity во время посадки.
  • Mars Color Imager (MARCI) — широкоугольная камера, снимающая поверхность Марса в пяти видимых и двух ультрафиолетовых диапазонах. Разрешение её снимков относительно невелико. Каждый день, MARCI снимает около 84 фотографий и создаёт глобальную карту Марса с разрешением от 1 до 10 км на пиксель. Карты, созданные при помощи данной камеры, предоставляют ежедневный прогноз погоды для Марса, при их помощи можно охарактеризовать сезонные и годовые колебания температур, а также обнаружить присутствие водяного пара и озона в атмосфере Марса. Камера была создана и управляется компанией Malin Space Science Systems. MARCI имеет 180-градусный объектив рыбий глаз с набором из семи цветных фильтров напрямую связанных с одним ПЗС-сенсором.
  • Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) — спектрометр видимого и ближнего инфракрасного излучения, использующийся в создании подробных минералогических карт поверхности Марса. Прибор работает в диапазоне длин волн от 370 до 3920 нм, измеряя спектр в 544 каналах (каждый 6,55 нм в ширину), с максимальным разрешением 18 метров на пиксель, при работе с высоты 300 км. CRISM используется для идентификации минералов и химических веществ, свидетельствовавших бы о прошлой или настоящей активности воды на поверхности Марса. Они включают в себя: железо, оксиды, слоистые силикаты и карбонаты, спектр которых имеет особенности в видимом и инфракрасном диапазоне.
  • Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) — спектрометр с одним видимым/ближним ИК каналом (от 0,3 до 3,0 мкм) и восемью дальними инфракрасными (от 12 до 50 мкм) каналами. Каналы используются для измерения температуры, давления, водяного пара и уровня пыли в атмосфере. MCS наблюдает атмосферу на горизонте Марса, разбивая её на вертикальные участки и проводя свои измерения в пределах каждого сектора по 5 км каждый. Данные с прибора собираются в ежедневные глобальные карты погоды, с её основными показателями: температурой, давлением, влажностью и плотностью пыли. Спектрометр имеет два телескопа с апертурой 4 см и детекторы, предназначенные для регистрации интенсивности излучения в различных диапазонах.
  • Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD) — экспериментальный радиолокатор, предназначенный для исследования внутренней структуры марсианских полярных шапок. Он также собирает данные о подземных залежах льда, скалах и, возможно, жидкой воде, которая в какой-то момент времени может находится на поверхности Марса. SHARAD использует ВЧ-радиоволны в диапазоне между 15 и 25 МГц, что позволяет ему различать слои толще 7 м на глубинах до 1 км. Разрешение по горизонтали составляет от 0,3 до 3 км. SHARAD работает в паре с радиолокатором MARSIS, установленном на космическом аппарате Марс Экспресс, который имеет более низкое разрешение, но способен проникать на гораздо большую глубину. Оба радиолокатора созданы Итальянским космическим агентством.
  • Помимо своей съемочной аппаратуры, MRO несет множество инженерных инструментов. Для изучения гравитационного поля через вариации скорости космического аппарата используется Gravity Field Investigation Package, в состав которого входят чувствительные акселерометры, и измерения доплеровских сдвигов радиосигналов, переданных с MRO на Землю. Благодаря программно-определяемому радиооборудованию Electra, работающим в диапазоне UHF, возможна связь между MRO и другими космическими аппаратами. Скорость передачи данных составляет от 1 кбит/с до 2 Мбит/с. Кроме радиосвязи, при помощи Electra проводятся измерения доплеровских сдвигов, запись радиосигналов в режиме OLR для последующего декодирования на Земле, ведется учет времени с высокой точностью, около 5e−13. Доплеровская информация о приземлении спускаемых аппаратов или марсоходов может позволить ученым уточнить их месторасположение на поверхности Марса и траекторию спуска. Два предыдущих марсохода программы MER уже пользовались ранним поколением подобного радио, установленного на КА Mars Odyssey. Радиооборудование Electra использовалось для пересылки информации с марсоходов MER и Curiosity и аппарата Phoenix Mars lander. Камера оптической навигации (Optical Navigation Camera) производит фотосъемку лун Марса, Фобоса и Деймоса, и позволяет определить точную орбиту MRO по координатам звезд на этих снимках. Хотя подобный вариант навигации не является необходимым для миссии, он был использован как проверка технологий, которые в дальнейшем смогут использоваться для расчета с орбитами и приземления космических аппаратов. Проверка Optical Navigation Camera успешно проводилась в феврале-марте 2006 года. Существует предложение использовать камеру ONC для поиска малых лун, пылевых колец и старых орбитальных аппаратов.    

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1MROНайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Страна производитель - США
3Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12015-01-29. Зонд MRO нашел следы движения ледников Марса в недавнем прошлом.
Снимок поверхности Марса с аппарата MRO Новые снимки с зонда MRO помогли астрономам найти следы периодического движения ледников в средних широтах Марса за последние два миллиона лет, что свидетельствует о том, что красная планета еще не совсем "мертва" в климатическом смысле.
Теоретические модели показывают, что красная планета должна до сих пор обладать меняющимся климатом и остаточными геологическими процессами, возникающими в результате охлаждения и сжатия ее недр. Причиной таких изменений сегодня считается то, что наклон оси Марса к плоскости его орбиты должен достаточно сильно меняться со временем из-за гравитационного воздействия двух крупных спутников, Фобоса и Деймоса.
Тэги: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
22015-02-06. Марсианский зонд MRO заснял марсоходом Curiosity.
CuriosityОпубликован новый орбитальный снимок марсохода Curiosity, полученный марсианским зондом MRO.
Cнимок был получен 13 декабря 2014 года с помощью камеры высокого разрешения HiRISE, установленной на борту орбитального аппарата. На момент съемки марсоход находился в районе Pahrump Hills, которая является подножием горы Шарпа (Эолиды). Подробнее...Тэги: Mars Reconnaissance OrbiterMars Science Laboratory (MSL)
32015-02-19. Зонд MRO заснял горы на Марсе.
MRO Комплексная сеть изолированных гор, которая имеет в длину около 1400 км возможно скрывает большие массивы замороженного льда. Phlegra Montes протянулись от вулканического региона Elysium и были скорее всего сформированы за счет тектонической активности планеты и имеют возраст от 3.65–3.91 млрд лет.
По мнению ученых эти горы сравнительно недавно (несколько сот миллионов лет назад) были покрыты массивным ледником. Данная особенность позволило им выдвинуть гипотезу о существовании льда в заданном регионе на глубине до 20 метров.
Подробнее...Тэги: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
42016-10-21. ЕКА сообщило, что модуль «Скиапарелли» разбился при посадке на Марс.
По результатам анализа снимков поверхности Марса с орбитальных аппаратов (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter и Mars Odyssey 2001), Европейское космическое агентство определило, что модуль Schiaparelli разбился при посадке на Марс. Согласно сообщению агентства скорее всего космический аппарат упал с высоты от двух до четырех км (скорость перед столкновением составила более 300 км в час). Тэги: Exo-Mars. Демонстрационный десантный модуль СкиапареллиMars Reconnaissance Orbiter2001 Mars OdysseyЕвропейское космическое агентство

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2180
2Масса (сухая), кг1031
3Масса (полезной нагрузки), кг139
4Мощность, Вт2000.0

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС, год2

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2005-029A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (аппарат), млн. долл.450
2Стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.720
3Оператор NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4Производитель Lockheed Martin
5Производитель University of Arizona
6Производитель APL
7Производитель Космическое агентство Италии
8Производитель Malin Space Science Systems

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2005-08-12 at 11:43:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xMars Reconnaissance Orbiter
3Ракета-носитель 1xАтлас 5 401

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter». [Перейти к поиску]


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... using a typical intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) mission profile. The analysis... Launch Vehicle; Shrouds; Encapsulating; Launching; Mars Missions; Payloads; Habitats; Aerocapture 20100017233... Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy Reconnaissance satellites, first deployed in the... oversight committees. NTIS Law (Jurisprudence); Reconnaissance; Security 20100017485 Air Force Inst... Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Morinelli, Patrick J.; Socoby, Joseph; Hendry... certification effort of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Space Communications Network (SCN... being granted certification. Author Lunar Orbiter; Reconnaissance; Tracking Stations; Targets; Communication Networks... data from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter cruise from Earth to Mars are used to... Interferometry; Tracking Stations; Space Navigation; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 20100017412 Massachusetts Inst. of Tech... highlands [16]. Author Geological Surveys; Mars Surface; Stratigraphy; Craters; Geochronology; Lava... planform and to-pography using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) altimetry data... past ages Author Mars Global Surveyor; Photogeology; Digital Data; Mars Surface; Photomaps... Dichotomies; Planetary Geology; Geological Surveys; Mars Surface; Stratigraphy; Highlands 20100017204 NASA.... Author Planetary Geology; Geological Surveys; Mars Surface; Geophysics 20100017205 NASA, Washington... fiscal year. Author Geological Surveys; Mars Surface; Stratigraphy; Highlands; Mapping 20100017206... [5-13]. Author Geological Surveys; Mars Surface; Drainage; Craters; Mars 1 Spacecraft; Segments 20100017208... geology of Mars using mainly Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Odyssey imaging... map. Author Mars Surface; Planetary Geology; Landforms; 2001 Mars Odyssey; Mars Global Surveyor... [2]. Author Geological Surveys; Mapping; Mars Exploration; Mars Surface; Planetary Mapping; Remote Sensing.... Author Geological Surveys; Gravitation; Landforms; Mars Surface; Planetary Mapping; Stratigraphy; Erosion... -10277. Author Geological Surveys; Geomorphology; Mars Surface; Stratigraphy; Structural Properties (Geology..., Mars-GRAM is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). Mars-GRAM and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser... Spectrometer (TES). Author Atmospheric Models; Mars Atmosphere; Monte Carlo Method; Perturbation...; Atmospheric General Circulation Models; Mars Surface; Mars Global Surveyor 111 20100017246 Naval... meteorites. Author Principal Components Analysis; Mars Exploration; Thermal Emission; Roving Vehicles.... Author Antarctic Regions; SNC Meteorites; Mars Surface; Lithology; Planetary Geology; Regolith... for the JPL Mars Technology Program in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL.... Author Principal Components Analysis; Reflectance; Mars Exploration; Roving Vehicles; Dust Storms.... CASI Atmospheric Entry; Descent; Mars Landing; Payloads; Mars Missions 92 SOLAR PHYSICS...; Exposure; Radiation Shielding; Radiation Effects; Mars Exploration; Gamma Rays; Health; Hazards... 204 Subject Term Index 2001 MARS ODYSSEY Mars Global Geologic Mapping: About... Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – 24 Using Web 2.0 Techniques in... Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – 24 DOSIMETERS Hanford External Dosimetry... Patera and Hesperia Planum, Mars – 103 Mars Structural and Stratigraphic Mapping along... Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – 24 GERMANIUM P-Type Point Contact... Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – 24 GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT Applying... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – 24 LUNAR ORBITER Tracking Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – 24... by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity – 196 MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR Mars Global Geologic... Region of Mars – 103 Athabasca MARS LANDING The Challenge of Mars EDL (Entry... from Global Geologic Mapping – 109 MARS RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER A Global Approach to Delta Differential... Tyrrhena Patera and Hesperia Planum, Mars – 103 Mars Global Geologic Mapping: About... Track New L2C Signal – 63 RECONNAISSANCE Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues, February... Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – 24 REDUNDANCY SEE Tolerant Self... Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – 24 SPECTRA Assured Wireless Networking... Patera and Hesperia Planum, Mars – 103 Mars Structural and Stratigraphic Mapping along... Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – 24 Workplace Solutions: Reducing Exposure... Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – 24 TRAFFIC Airport Related Traffic... Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – 24 Caster, Raymond S. Slot Nozzle... Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – 24 Henney, Chris Impact Modeling... Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – 24 Morris, Jonathan A. Integrated System... Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – 24 Sommeijer, B. P. Iterated Radau Method...



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... Programs (2006) Assessment of NASA’s Mars Architecture 2007-2016 (2006) Assessment...) Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars (2005) Principal-Investigator-Led Missions... these NASA missions, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, is already in implementation and..., University of Chicago; the Moon-Mars Science Linkages Science Steering Group of the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group; Noah... surfaces of both Earth and Mars. The Moon today presents a record... other terrestrial planets such as Mars and Venus, and can reveal...), Chandrayaan-1 (India), and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (United States). Scientific results from... terrestrial planets—Mercury, Venus, an Mars—were formed and life emerged... surfaces of both Earth and Mars. The Moon today presents a record... inspirational journey to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. This report focuses... been formed at ~4.5 Ga when a Mars-size body called Thea struck..., was the Clementine polar lunar orbiter, a joint NASA/Department of Defense... for understanding the early Earth, Mars, Mercury, and differentiated asteroids such... system? They also suggest that Mars too would have experienced a cataclysm... on other solid bodies, particularly Mars. Significant uncertainties remain in the... hypothesis, a collision between Earth and a Mars-sized object ejects debris and... deposits. For example, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) will provide photometry, morphology... the impact. SOURCE: NASA Lunar Orbiter 2. Science Goal 6c—Quantify the... is no longer in the reconnaissance phase. As a result of Apollo... case for the exploration of Mars over the past decade, multiple... Explorer������������������������������� ], Chang’e, Chandrayaan-1, LRO [Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter]—see below), column (a) of Table... desirable from priority targets. Relay orbiter for farside stations (e.g., relay of... from 10 km orbit. Relay orbiter for farside stations (e.g., relay of... cancelled. SELENE, however, is a mature orbiter prepared for launch in 2007... in March 2003. Chang’e 1, a lunar orbiter with a broad complement of modern... the black background NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is scheduled for launch in... of 2008 of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). In identifying prioritized basic..., the period after the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission but with some... gaps with a back-up lunar orbiter mission. 2. Conduct a robotic landed mission... terrestrial planets, including Earth and Mars. Many details of the differentiation...), Chandrayaan-1 (India), and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (United States). Scientific results from... outpost or base, preparation for Mars exploration, the development of in... to the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) on Mars, would conduct reconnaissance and identify... first LPRP mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, is already in implementation and...-gravity environment oriented toward human Mars exploration requirements are not within...’e—a Chinese National Space Administration lunar orbiter Chesapeake—an ancient subsurface impact... be launched with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LEAG—the NASA Lunar Exploration... Mission Directorate LRO—NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LSAM—NASA’s Lunar Surface Access... below the crust MER—NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover obliquity—the angle..., a Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency lunar orbiter SIM—the Apollo Scientific Instrument... 3:15 p.m. Science Opportunities from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Gordon Chin, NASA Goddard Space... (SELENE, Chang’e 1, Chandrayaan 1 and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) will orbit the Moon carrying..., and VLBI support for future orbiter, lander and rover missions. We... Paulikas, Carlé Pieters   October 3-4 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Team Meeting Phoenix, Arizona... links, space weathering of materials, Mars mineralogy, and planetary exploration; she... the Mars Exploration Rovers project, is a participating scientist for the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Investigation on the Mars Global Surveyor...), and chair of the NASA Mars Data Analysis Program Review Panel... Athena Science team for the Mars Exploration Rovers mission. MICHAEL DUKE... missions to the Moon and Mars. His planetary science interests relate... martian surface provided by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera... co-investigator on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, scheduled for launch in 2008... space missions—the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the European Mars Express, and the European... scientific papers on the Moon, Mars, and Ganymede and has written... with responsibility for NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the Stardust... assessment algorithms for landing on Mars. Dr. Howard’s unique accomplishments have... includes Deep Space-1, Lunar Prospector, Mars Odyssey, and MESSENGER, as well... papers on Mercury, Venus, and Mars. Dr. Lucey’s lunar research has... of Defense/NASA Clementine lunar orbiter and a participating scientist for NASA... of Life, the Mars Astrobiology Task Group, the Mars Architecture Assessment Task...



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... energy interplanetary transfers, such as Mars or asteroid intercepts, already require... less than the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) or the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), which used.... Mars Dawn (EP) Deep Impact Deep Space 1 (EP) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Mars Odyssey Mars Polar Lander Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.... Mars Dawn (EP) Deep Impact Deep Space 1 (EP) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Mars Odyssey Mars Polar Lander Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.... Mars Dawn (EP) Deep Impact Deep Space 1 (EP) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Mars Odyssey Mars Polar Lander Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.... Mars Dawn (EP) Deep Impact Deep Space 1 (EP) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Mars Odyssey Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Moon Mars Polar... Aeronautics and Space Administration, “Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): Leading NASA’s Way Back... National Aeronautics and Space Administration, “Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2,” Press... Aeronautics and Space Administration, “2001 Mars Odyssey Launch,” Press Kit, April... National Aeronautics and Space Administration, “Mars Exploration Rover Launches,” Press Kit... National Aeronautics and Space Administration, “Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Launch,” Press Kit, August 2005...



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..., 20052 Bandwidth utilization in the Mars exploration environment has been projected... requirements of an efficient Earth/Mars interplanetary communications network have so... duplex service between Earth and Mars using technology currently available. Interesting...-generation Mars network consisting of (1) Mars-Earth Backbone Network (2) Mars vehicle proximity networks (3) Mars... equipment on each scientific orbiter sent to Mars and all rovers that... between Earth and Mars. They also suggest that Mars may become a communication... L5 in a redundant configuration (2) Earth-Mars communication three using areosynchronous (MSO) relay satellites (3) Earth-Mars communication using four to six... Mars (4) Earth-Mars communication acting through a relay (MLO) in low orbit around Mars.../data on § Currently, the current Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MRO is such an example... combined sciencecommunications in orbit around Mars currently constitute the basis for..., involving Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity (2004, NASA), Orbiters Mars Odyssey (2001, NASA) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2005, NASA), Mars Express** (2003... point relay L1-Mars or Earth-L1-L2-Mars whichever is possible... mission to Mars, such as the proposed combination of Mars Science Laboratory and Rover Curiosity and the current Mars Odyssey orbiter... various science-telecommunications platforms to Mars (e.g., MRO, MTO) were conceived. In... a multi-mission complex constellation of Mars orbiting spacecraft (called “microsats”) and...-link level between various Mars-orbiting spacecraft and Mars surface assets, CCSDS... Lunar Telecommunications Orbiters and for Mars a pair of areostationary satellites connected... Relay Satellites in Mars Synchronous Orbit Relay Satellites in Mars Synchronous/Areostationary... Aeronautics and Astronautics directly traversing Mars/Earth distances, transmissions were relayed... propulsion needs. C. Technology Reference Platforms 1. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter The research tasks for this... nodes to connect Earth and Mars. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was launched in August..., line of sight between the Orbiter and Earth DSN ground stations... Earth and Mars, approximately 0.38 AU (Mars Opposition) and 2.67 AU (Mars Conjunction... change, from Earth-Mars direct to Earth-Mars through relay systems, in... each host planet (i.e., Areostationary around Mars, Geostationary around Earth) and denoted... of Earth and Mars, chasing the planetary motion of Mars and avoiding... between foci of Mars orbit = Orbital Offset ( ∗ (26) ) of Mars and Earth... Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Mars MIR/G (Mars) N1 Group N2 Group... Segment B and Mars orbiters, landers, rovers, other terminals of Mars network. Deep... Multi-hop Network for Earth-Mars Communication using Multipurpose Interplanetary Relay... interplanetary network between Earth and Mars on a permanent basis [2] To establish... orbit for MIR/G – Mars gateway Heliocentric orbit (Mars affinity) for MIR/R group... File Delivery Protocol Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars Context Camera Deep... Mars Climate Sounder Mars Exploration Rover – A aka SPIRIT Mars Exploration Rover – B aka OPPORTUNITY Mars Global Surveyor Mars High Energy Orbit Mars Low Energy Orbit Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Synchronous Orbit Mars Telecommunication Orbiter... communication and networking technologies for Mars exploration. International Communications Satellite Systems..., B., McLaughlin, B., Fieseler, P., Thomas, R., et al. Mars relay coordination lessons learned. IEEE... Noreen, G. Relay communications strategies for Mars exploration through 2020. Acta Astronautica... Electra proximity link payload for Mars Relay telecommunications and navigation. 54th..., P. and Carrico, J. Sun-Mars Libration Points and Mars Mission Simulations. 11 th... Ka-band link management and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: longterm weather statistics versus forecasting... predictions for atmospheric entry of Mars Science Laboratory. IEEE Aerospace Conference... optical communications downlink budget from Mars: System parameters. IPN Progress Report..., D., Bondurant, R., Boroson, D., et al. The Mars laser communication demonstration. IEEE Aerospace..., D.V. and Sharma, J. Link analysis of Mars-Earth optical communications system. Free..., D. and Nelson, K. Architectural design for a Mars communications and navigation orbital infrastructure... Hastrup, R., Cesarone, R., Srinivasan, J. and Morabito, D. Mars Comm/Nav MicroSat Network. 13th..., W., Hastrup, R. and Cesarone, R. Telecommunications for Mars Rovers and Robotic Mission. Space...). 42 Taylor, J., Lee, D.K. and Shambayati, S., "Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Telecommunications," DESCANSO Design and Performance...



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... surface science awaiting us at Mars greatly outstrips available mission opportunities... addition to scientific value, some Mars human exploration Strategic Knowledge Gaps... (Figure 1), or carried aboard an orbiter for a modest mass of 10... survive Mars atmospheric entry from hyperbolic trajectories at ~7 km/sec. While orbiter..., MARSDROP microlanders could go to Mars on a dedicated carrier whose trajectory... its intended target area on Mars. Within this library, a prioritized number... from the HiRISE camera aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The use of a parawing... provided by a UHF link through Mars-orbiting assets. Figure 3: Scaled parawing... investigations in sensitive locales on Mars under the most stringent planetary... capability enables a new class of Mars science investigations by offering the..., enables access to regions of Mars deemed scientifically interesting, but too... deployment is possible sufficiently above Mars’ surface. The ability to steer... several recommendations stemming from the Mars Exploration Program Advisory Group (“Findings... examine the scientific motivation for a Mars microprobe development, followed by plausible... flight by 2019 (or later Mars opportunities) as a daughter spacecraft carried with a primary Mars mission. The Valles Marineris canyon... the most stimulating questions about Mars; e.g., what are the organic constituents... features have been identified in Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE images taken months apart... more intriguing recent observations on Mars suggest the potential presence of.... Alternatively, the payload could provide reconnaissance data of the ultimate or... >100 km from the Mars surface at a Mars-relative velocity of approximately... can be sent via an orbiter. Figure 9: MARSDROP full-size 3D..., and engineering data to an orbiter when it is in view... from Earth sent via a relay orbiter. For example, if methane is... perform two-way communication with a Mars orbiter (e.g., Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and others). With a 1 W RF output..., and transmit data to a Mars orbiter autonomously. The orbiter will also command MARSDROP... four overflights per sol for a Mars relay orbiter (assuming a ~370-400 km.../fluttering. aboard the low-cost Mars Pathfinder Sojourner rover, • Measure the... capsule glideslope at and aboard Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and altitude... Spectrometer (TLS) aboard the Curiosity Mars rover following, though a great many... seismic detectors simultaneously operational on Mars, new impact crater locations can... than emissions not synchronized with Mars’ revolution around the Sun. Prior... understand the surface context for orbiter imagery, and can be instrumental...’s planetary exploration program. 43 BEYOND MARS Mars, of course, is not unique... and Mars. The Huygens entry probe carried with the Cassini orbiter had..., as was Cassini. If a mother orbiter is around Titan, then telecommunications... large, as seems likely given Mars experience, a mathematical description of the... existence-proof-level design for Mars microlanders, which utilize highheritage small spacecraft and Mars mission hardware and software. This... any Mars-bound primary mission. Once demonstrated, each future primary Mars mission... different landing sites of Viking, Mars Pathfinder, Phoenix, and MSL showed... MEPAG recommendations and to NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. 53 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Research... primary and daughter lander enter Mars’ atmosphere at approximately the same... Microprobes at Exciting Sites on Mars.” International Astronautical Congress IAC-14... and In Situ Exploration from Mars Missions,” Lunar & Planetary Science Conference... deposits and organic preservation on Mars.” Nature Geoscience 1: 355-358, 2008..., S. Byrne, and M. I. Richardson, “Sublimation of Mars's southern seasonal CO2 ice cap... north polar observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Color Imager,” Icarus 194, 501... III,, “Chasma Boreale, Mars: Topographic characterization from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and... of the 1985-2006 Mars Orbiter Camera science investigation,” Mars 5, pp. 1-60. 2010..., Robert A. Mitcheltree, and F. McNeil Cheatwood. "Mars Microprobe Entry-toImpact Analysis", Journal... for UHF Proximity Links Including Mars Surface-to-Orbit Applications," Proceedings..., M. C., and Edgett, K. S., “Sedimentary Rocks on Mars,” Science 290, no. 5498, pp... Seismometer For Subsurface Probing On Mars,” Conference on the Geophysical Detection... gas sublimation-driven activity in Mars' southern polar regions: I. Erosion of... Milliken, R. E., “A recent ice age on Mars: Evidence for climate oscillations from... has been operating on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity since December... 49 Schofield, J., and Coauthors, “The Mars Pathfinder Atmospheric Structure Investigation/Meteorology... environmental sensor suite for the Mars Science Laboratory rover,” Space Science... Martin, P. Daniel Burkhart, Gavin F. Mendeck, “Mars Science Laboratory: Entry, Descent, and... NASA Mars Exploration Program, "The Mars Exploration Program's Science Theme" as http://mars...



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... Mars missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.2. Ancient Mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.3. Geologically Young Mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.1.4. Modern Mars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.2. The Mars Exploration Program... been identified. The Uranus Orbiter and Probe mission was selected... Exploration Institute. and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LRO). Investigating the distribution of... and Ferrari (1977) from Lunar Orbiter and Apollo 15 and 16... dual launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO: Chin et al., 2007... al., 2010). China’s Chang’E-2 Moon orbiter has been launched on 1 October... 2013/2014) consists of an orbiter and landing probe. Contact in... lunar lander and an Indian orbiter and mini-rover. A lunar multielement... and integration of current lunar orbiter data, to the development of... Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), Mars Express (MEx), Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter... habitable environments. Observations from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed possible flowing water... mission ESA intends to provide a Mars Orbiter and an Entry, Descent and... Module (EDM). The Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) will accommodate scientific instruments... with the Chinese Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) orbiter. However, due to an engine... exploration that begins with orbital reconnaissance and in situ martian surface... from Mars with a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) into orbit. A Mars Sample Return Orbiter (Sample... scientifically and technically. Orbital reconnaissance, experience with surface operations and... container reaches Mars orbit it will rendezvous with a Mars Sample Return Orbiter that... sample return cacher, Mars ascent vehicle, and Earth-return orbiter. Planning for... interpreting and validating information from orbiter and rover missions on extraterrestrial... 6.1.3. MDRS/F-MARS The Mars Society operates two simulated Mars habitats, the Flashline Mars Arctic... to provide data to an orbiter directly. Also, the challenge of..., with a phased approach with orbital reconnaissance, small landers, a network of landers... Mars environment concerning atmosphere, dust storms, plasma and radiation. China’s Yinghuo-1 orbiter... will send the Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) orbiter piggyback on the Russian mission... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter MA Moon Agreement MAP Project Mars Analog Path (ISU) MAV Mars... MEPAG Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group MER Mars Exploration Rover MEx Mars Express Orbiter... Logistics Module MRO Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter MSL Mars Science Laboratory MSR Mars Sample Return NAC... lunar missions include the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in orbit since June... on Oceanic Research European Moon Orbiter NASA Science Mission Directorate Space... Engineering and Mathematics Trace Gas Orbiter Europlanet Trans National Access United... Outer Space Affairs Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) orbiter piggyback on the Russian Phobos... Landers MAVEN Trace Gas Orbiter MSL Martian Rovers Mars Sample Return ExoMars... ESA and ASI. Trace Gas Orbiter EDM ExoMars planned Launch 2010... program encompasses Luna-Glob (a Moon orbiter and landing probe) in 2012... combination with the Indian Chandrayaan-2 orbiter and minirover), and the Luna... and data collection. The Chang’E-2 orbiter was the first mission within... will send the Yinghou-1 (YH-1) orbiter with the Russian Phobos-Grunt... 2012. ISRO would contribute an orbiter – Chandrayaan-2 – and a mini-rover to... recent fleet of orbiter precursors for science, technology and reconnaissance. The second...: a synthetic aperture radar on lunar reconnaissance orbiter, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary..., G., Brylow, S., Foote, M., et al. Lunar reconnaissance orbiter overview: the instrument suite and... (LAMP) instrument on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter (LRO) mission, in: 41st Lunar... aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. J. Geophys. Res... minerals on Mars observed by the CRISM instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Nature 354..., M.C., Greenhagen, B.T., et al. The lunar reconnaissance orbiter diviner lunar radiometer experiment. Space.... and the LROC Team. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera: first results, in: 41st... of radiation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary.... Vondrak, R., Keller, J., Chin, G., Garvin, J. Lunar reconnaissance orbiter (LRO): Observations for lunar exploration...



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... the surface, which NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter discovered for much of the... and analysis. Observations made by orbiter spacecraft during the evaluation of... I trajectories flown by Mars Odyssey, Spirit, Opportunity and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. During the cruise... that arrival day. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey have been adjusting the... resembles Mars Polar Lander’s more than Viking’s. Mars Polar Lander reached Mars in..., perhaps, images to the Mars Odyssey orbiter for relay to Earth. In... daily commands relayed from an orbiter passing overhead in the morning... NASA’s Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and with the European Space Agency’s Mars Express... be relayed by Mars orbiters. NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will be the... of the European Space Agency’s Mars Express orbiter. A helical UHF antenna mounted... relayed to Phoenix from an orbiter. The UHF part of the... so far north on Mars. NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter found evidence in early... from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which had just arrived at Mars. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter saw that Region... well as views from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter’s High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment... orbit. Spectrometers on NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter found evidence of copious water... and climate using advanced orbital reconnaissance. Over the next 20 years... hundreds of hillside gullies. That orbiter’s longevity even allowed before-and... Space Agency on the European orbiter has assessed the thickness and... planet. The newest robot at Mars, NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, has returned additional details.... Other observations early in this orbiter’s twoyear primary science phase, which...’s Mars missions together constitute the agency’s Mars Exploration Program. The Phoenix Mars Lander... study Mars’ atmosphere while descending through it. A proposed orbiter would search Mars for... are: q Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission, or Maven. This orbiter would... q The Great Escape mission. This orbiter would directly determine the basic...’s Mars Global Surveyor collected more information than any previous Mars project. The orbiter continued to examine Mars’ surface and... from deadly cosmic rays. This orbiter provided details used to evaluate... their landings. q Mars Odyssey (April 2001 - present): This NASA orbiter’s prime mapping... the Mars Exploration Rovers and for Phoenix. Relays via this orbiter have... 2008. q Mars Express (2003 - present): This is a European Space Agency orbiter with... deep covering the entire planet. q Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2005 - present): This multipurpose spacecraft... most favored. One of the orbiter’s telescopic cameras is capable of... for NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory. The telecommunications capability of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will serve.../62, Mars flyby, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 1: USSR, 11/1/62, Mars flyby..., Mars flyby 8/5/69, returned 126 photos Mars 1969A, USSR, 3/27/69, Mars orbiter, did not reach Earth orbit Mars 1969B, USSR, 4/2/69, Mars orbiter, failed during launch Mariner 8: U.S., 5/8/71, Mars orbiter, failed during launch Kosmos 419: USSR, 5/10/71, Mars orbiter, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 2: USSR, 5/19/71, Mars orbiter/lander arrived... due to steep entry Mars 3: USSR, 5/28/71, Mars orbiter/lander, arrived 12... before failing Mariner 9: U.S., 5/30/71, Mars orbiter, in orbit 11/13/71... photos Mars 4: USSR, 7/21/73, failed Mars orbiter, flew past Mars 2/10/74 Mars 5: USSR, 7/25/73, Mars orbiter, arrived 2/12/74, lasted a few days Mars 6: USSR, 8/5/73, Mars flyby... the planet Viking 1: U.S., 8/20/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 6/19/76-1980.../76-1982 45 Viking 2: U.S., 9/9/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 8/7/76-1987, lander..., 7/7/88, Mars orbiter and Phobos lander, lost 8/88 en route to Mars Phobos 2: USSR, 7/12/88, Mars orbiter and Phobos lander, lost 3/89 near Phobos Mars Observer: U.S., 9/25... just before Mars arrival 8/21/93 Mars Global Surveyor: U.S., 11/7/96, Mars orbiter, arrived... laser-altimeter shots Mars 96: Russia, 11/16/96, orbiter, two landers and two penetrators, launch vehicle failed Mars Pathfinder..., 7/4/98, Mars orbiter, failed to enter orbit 12/03 Mars Climate Orbiter: U.S., 12/11/98, lost upon arrival 9/23/99 Mars... on arrival 12/3/99 Mars Odyssey: U.S., 3/7/01, Mars orbiter, arrived 10/24/01... and Opportunity Mars Express/Beagle 2: European Space Agency, 6/2/03, Mars orbiter/lander, orbiter completed..., currently conducting extended mission Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: U.S., 8/12/05, Mars orbiter, began orbiting 3/12/06...



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... possible ancient ocean shoreline on Mars using submeter-resolution Digital Terrain... the lowland northern hemisphere of Mars in the geological past. The..., HiRISE, shoreline, landscape visualisation 1. Introduction Mars appears to be a cold and...’s surface. Additionally, c. 4 Ga years ago Mars lost a large part of its... a permanent feature. Second to Earth, Mars is the most intensely investigated... the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS; NASA, duration: 1997 – 2006) and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO; NASA, duration: 2006 – now). The ESA mission of the Mars Express orbiter (duration: 2003 – now) has... of valuable data. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC... exploration of the surface of Mars. MOC included two wide-angle... instrument – CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) provides 18 m/pixel mineralogical... the surface of Mars (Mustard et al., 2008). Mars Express is equipped... composition of the surface of Mars at 0.3–5 km spatial resolution (Bibring... existence on ancient Mars was provided by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity... composition of the surface of Mars by OMEGA spectrometer have demonstrated... of water on Mars was also confirmed by Mars Science Laboratory rover... margin, because the chronology of Mars, calibrated against lunar data and... surface (the “warm and wet Mars” hypothesis). Fairén (2010) suggested that... of which hypothesis is favoured, Mars’s global dichotomy imposes the location... possible ancient ocean shoreline on Mars... ocean likely covered even up...-resolution Viking orbiter imagery and earlier data from the Mars Global Surveyor... extent of each stereo pair. Mars simple cylindrical projection. Google Earth image of Mars globe provided by NASA/USGS... possible ancient ocean shoreline on Mars... Fig. 3. 'Good-pixel map' images... possible ancient ocean shoreline on Mars... 295 Fig. 6. Perspective view of... taken on the surface of Mars by Spirit, Opportunity and Curiosity.... 8. Visualisations of the landscape of Mars. Views, from the east, on... provides an excellent image of Mars landforms at both regional and... details from the surface of Mars with submeter precision. In stereoscopic... in the geological history of Mars, resulting in freezing of the... possible ancient ocean shoreline on Mars... References Auld, K.S. & Dixon, J.C., 2014. Classification..., 2005. Mars Surface Diversity as Revealed by the OMEGA/ Mars Express Observations... Mineralogical and Aqueous Mars History Derived from OMEGA/Mars Express Data. Science..., K., Faccio, R., Apuzzo, M.L.J. & Pagán, V.M., 2013. The Mars Science Laboratory Landing. World Neurosurgery.... Carr, M.H. & Head, J.W., 2003. Oceans on Mars: An assessment of the observational..., M.H. & Head, J.W., 2010. Geologic history of Mars. Earth and Planetary Science Letters... gullies on Mars: Gullies as the latestage phase of Mars’ most recent.... Fairén, A.G., 2010. A cold and wet Mars. Icarus 208, 165– 175. Fair.... Glacial pal- 299 eoenvironments on Mars revealed by the paucity of... landforms along proposed shorelines on Mars: Implications for a northern lowlands-filling.... The sedimentary rock record of Mars: Distribution, origins, and global stratigraphy, in Sedimentary Geology of Mars. SEPM Special Publication 102, 1–48... at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars. Science 343, 6169, doi:10... views and new directions in Mars research. Space Science Reviews 96..., M.A. & Pratt, S., 2002. Northern lowlands of Mars: Evidence for widespread volcanic flooding.... Ultrahigh resolution topographic mapping of Mars with MRO HiRISE stereo images... of Martian fines with the Mars Curiosity Rover. Science 341, 6153... camera investigation on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Journal of Geophysical Research 112..., K. S., 2000. Sedimentary rocks of Early Mars, Science 290(5498), 1927–1937... and aqueous sedimentation on Early Mars, Science 302(5652), 1931–1934... of the 1985–2006 Mars Orbiter Camera science investigation. Mars 5, 1–60. Marchant, D.R. & Head..., R.L., Mellon, M.T., Squyres, S.W., Thomas, N. & Weitz, C.M., 2007. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter’s High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment..., A.D., 2005. Large alluvial fans on Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research 110.... Hydrated silicate minerals on Mars observed by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM instrument. Nature... High Resolution Stereo Camera of Mars Express. ESA Special Publications SP..., K., 2005. Early Crustal Evolution of Mars. Annual Review of Earth and..., C. & Omega Team, 2005. Phyllosilicates on Mars and implications for early Martian..., C.L., McGovern, P.J., Abshire, J.B., Afzal, R.S. & Sun, X., 2001. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter: Experiment summary after... year of global mapping of Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research 106... aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Science 306, 5702, 1709–1714... shorelines in northern Arabia Terra, Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets..., L.J., 2006. Quantitative geomorphology of the Mars Eberswalde Delta. Geological Society of...



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... Valley, Antarctica, and implications for Mars, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 115, 137... and understanding aqueous environments on Mars, J.Geophys. Res., 117, E00J16, doi... major environmental transitions on early Mars at Northeast Syrtis Major, Geophys..., L. H. Roach, J. F. Mustard, and S. L. Murchie, Most Mars minerals in a nutshell: Various alteration..., hydrothermal alteration, and diagenesis on Mars from phyllosilicate mineral assemblages, Clays... J.-P. Bibring, Neartropical subsurface ice on Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, 1, L01202... the central Mawrth Vallis region, Mars, their potential formational processes, and... mineralogy after one Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, J. Geophys Res... and Data Set from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Primary Science Phase, J. Geophys Res... Layered Deposits in Valles Marineris, Mars, J. Geophys. 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... processes on Mars (studied by ESA’s ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter). By bringing... subglacial volcanism on Iceland and Mars 1 de Vet, Sebastiaan 1 University of... Radial Structures on Ascraeus Mons (Mars) 1 2 3 4 Pozzobon, R. , Mazzarini, F. , Bistacchi, A. , Massironi, M. , 1 5 Marinangeli... Morphometry of Scoria Cones on Mars: Insights from Numerical Modeling of... Youngest Large Igneous Province on Mars: Tomographic Reconstruction of a Sequence of... of sulphate-rich terrains on Mars: Copahue volcano, Argentina 1 1 2 Rodriguez, Alejandro... Rolling of glaciovolcanic glass on Mars: insights from wind tunnel experiments... using Lunar Orbiter and Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC... crater depth (taken from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter, LOLA, data) from... subglacial volcanism on Iceland and Mars 1 de Vet, Sebastiaan . 1 University of... of putative subglacial edifices on Mars I will show the comparable nature... Radial Structures on Ascraeus Mons (Mars) 1 2 3 4 1 Pozzobon, R. , Mazzarini, F. , Bistacchi, A. , Massironi, M. , Marinangeli... ESA Mars Express mission) at 12 m/px and CTX (Context Camera, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter... high spatial resolutions from future orbiter, rover or lander missions will... Space Research Organization), and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO, NASA). The typically lowalbedo... lunar pyroclastic deposits using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera data, J. Geophys. Res. Planets... a magmatic system uniquely diverse for Mars and reminiscent of terrestrial volcanic.... ********** Morphometry of Scoria Cones on Mars: Insights from Numerical Modeling of... within volcanic edifices on Earth, Mars, and Venus. Building a volcanic edifice.... Images acquired with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) [1] allow new advances... better the Martian features. On Mars, potential lava tube candidates were... highland volcanism occurred early in Mars` history and stopped not later...) data obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Basaltic volcanism on the... model derived by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) [9] with a hori... measurements were performed on Lunar Orbiter IV images with a spatial resolution... Youngest Large Igneous Province on Mars: Tomographic Reconstruction of a Sequence of... ancient [1]. In contrast, Elysium Planitia, Mars (Fig. 1a) hosts a relatively young.... Thus far, the majority of Mars datasets have also restricted investigations... of sulphate-rich terrains on Mars: Copahue volcano, Argentina 1 1 2 Rodriguez, Alejandro...-situ and orbital analyses of Mars’ surface suggests that a significant part...)2(OH)6] has been identified on Mars by spectrometric techniques on board... are most efficient in producing Mars-like mineralogies. Fig. 1: PHREEQC model... Carr M. H. (2007) The Surface of Mars. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. Christensen... system, Burns Formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240...-bearing Burns Formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240...) The sedimentary rock cycle of Mars. In The Martian Surface: Composition... Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater, Mars. J. Geophys. Res. – Planets 111, EO2S12... aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum. Mars. Science 306, 1709. Tosca N. J., McLennan... for secondary Fe mineralogy on Mars. J. Geophys. Res. – Planets 113. Varekamp... will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design... capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander, with the Reconnaissance goal: Characterize... formulation stage. To accomplish the reconnaissance objectives and the investigations that... included in the notional payload: a Reconnaissance Camera (for high-resolution imaging..., the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). The... effect on all subsequent landed Mars missions, which thereafter focused mainly... two elements: 1) the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) to study atmospheric trace... achieve a successful soft landing on Mars and demonstrate technologies for the... of ESA’s Mars Exploration Programme remains an international Mars Sample Return (MSR... a lander as part of an orbiter mission to Europa, the icy... will be confirmed by the orbiter, before the landing unit is... fulfilling the scientific objectives an orbiter and lander mission has to... sufficiently long to generate global (orbiter) or detailed local (lander) characterizations... use technologies applied for Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rover, namely the... shied volcanoes. Unlike the Earth, Mars would have been a transient convecting... per pixel (m/px) spatial resolution Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) digital elevation... identification of pyroclastic deposits on Mars and the Moon with nearinfrared... near-infrared spectra from the Mars Express OMEGA imaging spectrometer for... glass-bearing deposits globally on Mars at 1 km resolution. Where available... Rolling of glaciovolcanic glass on Mars: insights from wind tunnel experiments... fluid thresholds for detachment of Mars-analogue volcanic glass particles in... surface wind shears on planet Mars. A large morphological and granulometric variety...