Спутник ФКИ. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. [Редактировать]

Многофункциональная автоматическая межпланетная станция (АМС) НАСА, предназначенная для исследования Марса. Аппарат построен компанией Lockheed Martin под руководством Лаборатории Реактивного Движения. Управляет аппаратом Лаборатория реактивного движения (Калифорнийский технологический институт); научной стороной миссии управляет НАСА (Вашингтон, округ Колумбия).

Запущен 12 августа 2005 года с космодрома на мысе Канаверал с помощью ракеты-носителя Атлас V. Достигнув Марса 10 марта 2006 года, начал серию манёвров для выхода на нужную орбиту, при помощи т. н. аэродинамического торможения (торможение в верхних слоях атмосферы планеты позволяет значительно сэкономить топливо). Орбитальные манёвры и различные проверки и калибровка оборудования закончились в ноябре 2006 года, после чего аппарат приступил к работе. Выйдя на орбиту Марса, MRO присоединился к пяти активно функционирующим космическим аппаратам, которые в тот момент находились либо на орбите, либо на поверхности планеты: спутникам Mars Global Surveyor, Марс Одиссей, Марс-экспресс и марсоходам (Спирит и Оппортьюнити) — таким образом, был установлен рекорд по количеству активно функционирующих космических аппаратов, находящихся на орбите и поверхности Марса.

Полезная нагрузка:

  • High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment — камера, использующая телескоп-рефлектор с диаметром 0,5 м, который является самым большим телескопом, использующимся в глубоком космосе. Имеет разрешение в 1 микрорадиан, то есть на поверхности Марса с высоты 300 км различимы детали размером всего 30 см (0.3 м на пиксель). Для сравнения, многие спутниковые снимки Земли имеют разрешение 0,5 м на пиксель, а снимки в Google Maps - до 1 метра на пиксель. Камера HiRISE снимает в трёх цветовых диапазонах с длинами волн от 400 до 600 нм (сине-зеленый или B-G), от 550 до 850 нм (красный) и от 800 до 1000 нм (ближний инфракрасный или NIR). HiRISE изображение «лица», находящегося в области Кидония. Ширина полосы захвата составляет от 1,2 км до 6 км для разных диапазонов. Каждое изображение размером 16,4 Гб сжимается до 5 Гб для последующей передачи на Землю. Все изображения сделанные при помощи данной камеры публикуются на её официальном сайте в формате JPEG 2000. Для облегчения поиска потенциальных мест посадок будущих миссий, камера может создавать изображения в виде стереопар, из которых можно рассчитать топографию рельефа с точностью до 25 см. HiRISE камера была создана компанией Ball Aerospace & Technologies. Первый снимок был получен 24 марта 2006 года.
  • Панхроматическая контекстная камера (Context Camera, CTX) снимает монохромные изображения в диапазоне от 500 до 800 нм, с максимальным разрешением снимков до 6 метров на пиксель. CTX предназначалась для создания контекстной карты Марса, которая в будущем пригодилась бы для наблюдения камерой HiRISE и спектрометром CRISM, наряду с этим камера используется в создании мозаик больших участков поверхности Марса, в долгосрочных наблюдениях за изменениями поверхности отдельных областей, и для создания стереоснимков ключевых регионов и потенциальных мест посадок будущих миссий. Оптика CTX состоит из Зеркально-линзового телескопа системы Максутова — Кассегрена с фокусным расстоянием 350 мм и ПЗС-линейки из 5064 пикселов. Прибор способен запечатлеть участок размером 30 км в ширину, и имеет достаточно внутренней памяти для сохранения изображения с суммарной длиной 160 км. Полученные изображения затем пересылаются в главный компьютер аппарата. Камера была создана и управляется компанией Malin Space Science Systems. По состоянию на февраль 2010 года, CTX картографировала 50% всей поверхности Марса. В 2012 она обнаружила точки падения 25-килограммовых балластных грузов, сброшенных с Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity во время посадки.
  • Mars Color Imager (MARCI) — широкоугольная камера, снимающая поверхность Марса в пяти видимых и двух ультрафиолетовых диапазонах. Разрешение её снимков относительно невелико. Каждый день, MARCI снимает около 84 фотографий и создаёт глобальную карту Марса с разрешением от 1 до 10 км на пиксель. Карты, созданные при помощи данной камеры, предоставляют ежедневный прогноз погоды для Марса, при их помощи можно охарактеризовать сезонные и годовые колебания температур, а также обнаружить присутствие водяного пара и озона в атмосфере Марса. Камера была создана и управляется компанией Malin Space Science Systems. MARCI имеет 180-градусный объектив рыбий глаз с набором из семи цветных фильтров напрямую связанных с одним ПЗС-сенсором.
  • Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) — спектрометр видимого и ближнего инфракрасного излучения, использующийся в создании подробных минералогических карт поверхности Марса. Прибор работает в диапазоне длин волн от 370 до 3920 нм, измеряя спектр в 544 каналах (каждый 6,55 нм в ширину), с максимальным разрешением 18 метров на пиксель, при работе с высоты 300 км. CRISM используется для идентификации минералов и химических веществ, свидетельствовавших бы о прошлой или настоящей активности воды на поверхности Марса. Они включают в себя: железо, оксиды, слоистые силикаты и карбонаты, спектр которых имеет особенности в видимом и инфракрасном диапазоне.
  • Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) — спектрометр с одним видимым/ближним ИК каналом (от 0,3 до 3,0 мкм) и восемью дальними инфракрасными (от 12 до 50 мкм) каналами. Каналы используются для измерения температуры, давления, водяного пара и уровня пыли в атмосфере. MCS наблюдает атмосферу на горизонте Марса, разбивая её на вертикальные участки и проводя свои измерения в пределах каждого сектора по 5 км каждый. Данные с прибора собираются в ежедневные глобальные карты погоды, с её основными показателями: температурой, давлением, влажностью и плотностью пыли. Спектрометр имеет два телескопа с апертурой 4 см и детекторы, предназначенные для регистрации интенсивности излучения в различных диапазонах.
  • Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD) — экспериментальный радиолокатор, предназначенный для исследования внутренней структуры марсианских полярных шапок. Он также собирает данные о подземных залежах льда, скалах и, возможно, жидкой воде, которая в какой-то момент времени может находится на поверхности Марса. SHARAD использует ВЧ-радиоволны в диапазоне между 15 и 25 МГц, что позволяет ему различать слои толще 7 м на глубинах до 1 км. Разрешение по горизонтали составляет от 0,3 до 3 км. SHARAD работает в паре с радиолокатором MARSIS, установленном на космическом аппарате Марс Экспресс, который имеет более низкое разрешение, но способен проникать на гораздо большую глубину. Оба радиолокатора созданы Итальянским космическим агентством.
  • Помимо своей съемочной аппаратуры, MRO несет множество инженерных инструментов. Для изучения гравитационного поля через вариации скорости космического аппарата используется Gravity Field Investigation Package, в состав которого входят чувствительные акселерометры, и измерения доплеровских сдвигов радиосигналов, переданных с MRO на Землю. Благодаря программно-определяемому радиооборудованию Electra, работающим в диапазоне UHF, возможна связь между MRO и другими космическими аппаратами. Скорость передачи данных составляет от 1 кбит/с до 2 Мбит/с. Кроме радиосвязи, при помощи Electra проводятся измерения доплеровских сдвигов, запись радиосигналов в режиме OLR для последующего декодирования на Земле, ведется учет времени с высокой точностью, около 5e−13. Доплеровская информация о приземлении спускаемых аппаратов или марсоходов может позволить ученым уточнить их месторасположение на поверхности Марса и траекторию спуска. Два предыдущих марсохода программы MER уже пользовались ранним поколением подобного радио, установленного на КА Mars Odyssey. Радиооборудование Electra использовалось для пересылки информации с марсоходов MER и Curiosity и аппарата Phoenix Mars lander. Камера оптической навигации (Optical Navigation Camera) производит фотосъемку лун Марса, Фобоса и Деймоса, и позволяет определить точную орбиту MRO по координатам звезд на этих снимках. Хотя подобный вариант навигации не является необходимым для миссии, он был использован как проверка технологий, которые в дальнейшем смогут использоваться для расчета с орбитами и приземления космических аппаратов. Проверка Optical Navigation Camera успешно проводилась в феврале-марте 2006 года. Существует предложение использовать камеру ONC для поиска малых лун, пылевых колец и старых орбитальных аппаратов.    

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1MROНайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Страна производитель - США
3Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12015-01-29. Зонд MRO нашел следы движения ледников Марса в недавнем прошлом.
Снимок поверхности Марса с аппарата MRO Новые снимки с зонда MRO помогли астрономам найти следы периодического движения ледников в средних широтах Марса за последние два миллиона лет, что свидетельствует о том, что красная планета еще не совсем "мертва" в климатическом смысле.
Теоретические модели показывают, что красная планета должна до сих пор обладать меняющимся климатом и остаточными геологическими процессами, возникающими в результате охлаждения и сжатия ее недр. Причиной таких изменений сегодня считается то, что наклон оси Марса к плоскости его орбиты должен достаточно сильно меняться со временем из-за гравитационного воздействия двух крупных спутников, Фобоса и Деймоса.
Тэги: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
22015-02-06. Марсианский зонд MRO заснял марсоходом Curiosity.
CuriosityОпубликован новый орбитальный снимок марсохода Curiosity, полученный марсианским зондом MRO.
Cнимок был получен 13 декабря 2014 года с помощью камеры высокого разрешения HiRISE, установленной на борту орбитального аппарата. На момент съемки марсоход находился в районе Pahrump Hills, которая является подножием горы Шарпа (Эолиды). Подробнее...Тэги: Mars Reconnaissance OrbiterMars Science Laboratory (MSL)
32015-02-19. Зонд MRO заснял горы на Марсе.
MRO Комплексная сеть изолированных гор, которая имеет в длину около 1400 км возможно скрывает большие массивы замороженного льда. Phlegra Montes протянулись от вулканического региона Elysium и были скорее всего сформированы за счет тектонической активности планеты и имеют возраст от 3.65–3.91 млрд лет.
По мнению ученых эти горы сравнительно недавно (несколько сот миллионов лет назад) были покрыты массивным ледником. Данная особенность позволило им выдвинуть гипотезу о существовании льда в заданном регионе на глубине до 20 метров.
Подробнее...Тэги: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
42016-10-21. ЕКА сообщило, что модуль «Скиапарелли» разбился при посадке на Марс.
По результатам анализа снимков поверхности Марса с орбитальных аппаратов (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter и Mars Odyssey 2001), Европейское космическое агентство определило, что модуль Schiaparelli разбился при посадке на Марс. Согласно сообщению агентства скорее всего космический аппарат упал с высоты от двух до четырех км (скорость перед столкновением составила более 300 км в час). Тэги: Exo-Mars. Демонстрационный десантный модуль СкиапареллиMars Reconnaissance Orbiter2001 Mars OdysseyЕвропейское космическое агентство

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2180
2Масса (сухая), кг1031
3Масса (полезной нагрузки), кг139
4Мощность, Вт2000.0

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1САС, год2

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2005-029A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Стоимость (аппарат), млн. долл.450
2Стоимость (проекта), млн. долл.720
3Оператор NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4Производитель Lockheed Martin
5Производитель University of Arizona
6Производитель APL
7Производитель Космическое агентство Италии
8Производитель Malin Space Science Systems

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2005-08-12 at 11:43:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xMars Reconnaissance Orbiter
3Ракета-носитель 1xАтлас 5 401

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... Mars missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.2. Ancient Mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.3. Geologically Young Mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.1.4. Modern Mars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.2. The Mars Exploration Program... been identified. The Uranus Orbiter and Probe mission was selected... Exploration Institute. and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LRO). Investigating the distribution of... and Ferrari (1977) from Lunar Orbiter and Apollo 15 and 16... dual launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO: Chin et al., 2007... al., 2010). China’s Chang’E-2 Moon orbiter has been launched on 1 October... 2013/2014) consists of an orbiter and landing probe. Contact in... lunar lander and an Indian orbiter and mini-rover. A lunar multielement... and integration of current lunar orbiter data, to the development of... Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), Mars Express (MEx), Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter... habitable environments. Observations from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed possible flowing water... mission ESA intends to provide a Mars Orbiter and an Entry, Descent and... Module (EDM). The Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) will accommodate scientific instruments... with the Chinese Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) orbiter. However, due to an engine... exploration that begins with orbital reconnaissance and in situ martian surface... from Mars with a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) into orbit. A Mars Sample Return Orbiter (Sample... scientifically and technically. Orbital reconnaissance, experience with surface operations and... container reaches Mars orbit it will rendezvous with a Mars Sample Return Orbiter that... sample return cacher, Mars ascent vehicle, and Earth-return orbiter. Planning for... interpreting and validating information from orbiter and rover missions on extraterrestrial... 6.1.3. MDRS/F-MARS The Mars Society operates two simulated Mars habitats, the Flashline Mars Arctic... to provide data to an orbiter directly. Also, the challenge of..., with a phased approach with orbital reconnaissance, small landers, a network of landers... Mars environment concerning atmosphere, dust storms, plasma and radiation. China’s Yinghuo-1 orbiter... will send the Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) orbiter piggyback on the Russian mission... Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter MA Moon Agreement MAP Project Mars Analog Path (ISU) MAV Mars... MEPAG Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group MER Mars Exploration Rover MEx Mars Express Orbiter... Logistics Module MRO Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter MSL Mars Science Laboratory MSR Mars Sample Return NAC... lunar missions include the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in orbit since June... on Oceanic Research European Moon Orbiter NASA Science Mission Directorate Space... Engineering and Mathematics Trace Gas Orbiter Europlanet Trans National Access United... Outer Space Affairs Yinghuo-1 (YH-1) orbiter piggyback on the Russian Phobos... Landers MAVEN Trace Gas Orbiter MSL Martian Rovers Mars Sample Return ExoMars... ESA and ASI. Trace Gas Orbiter EDM ExoMars planned Launch 2010... program encompasses Luna-Glob (a Moon orbiter and landing probe) in 2012... combination with the Indian Chandrayaan-2 orbiter and minirover), and the Luna... and data collection. The Chang’E-2 orbiter was the first mission within... will send the Yinghou-1 (YH-1) orbiter with the Russian Phobos-Grunt... 2012. ISRO would contribute an orbiter – Chandrayaan-2 – and a mini-rover to... recent fleet of orbiter precursors for science, technology and reconnaissance. The second...: a synthetic aperture radar on lunar reconnaissance orbiter, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary..., G., Brylow, S., Foote, M., et al. Lunar reconnaissance orbiter overview: the instrument suite and... (LAMP) instrument on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter (LRO) mission, in: 41st Lunar... aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. J. Geophys. Res... minerals on Mars observed by the CRISM instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Nature 354..., M.C., Greenhagen, B.T., et al. The lunar reconnaissance orbiter diviner lunar radiometer experiment. Space.... and the LROC Team. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera: first results, in: 41st... of radiation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter, in: 41st Lunar and Planetary.... Vondrak, R., Keller, J., Chin, G., Garvin, J. Lunar reconnaissance orbiter (LRO): Observations for lunar exploration...



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... the surface, which NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter discovered for much of the... and analysis. Observations made by orbiter spacecraft during the evaluation of... I trajectories flown by Mars Odyssey, Spirit, Opportunity and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. During the cruise... that arrival day. NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey have been adjusting the... resembles Mars Polar Lander’s more than Viking’s. Mars Polar Lander reached Mars in..., perhaps, images to the Mars Odyssey orbiter for relay to Earth. In... daily commands relayed from an orbiter passing overhead in the morning... NASA’s Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and with the European Space Agency’s Mars Express... be relayed by Mars orbiters. NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will be the... of the European Space Agency’s Mars Express orbiter. A helical UHF antenna mounted... relayed to Phoenix from an orbiter. The UHF part of the... so far north on Mars. NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter found evidence in early... from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which had just arrived at Mars. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter saw that Region... well as views from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter’s High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment... orbit. Spectrometers on NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter found evidence of copious water... and climate using advanced orbital reconnaissance. Over the next 20 years... hundreds of hillside gullies. That orbiter’s longevity even allowed before-and... Space Agency on the European orbiter has assessed the thickness and... planet. The newest robot at Mars, NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, has returned additional details.... Other observations early in this orbiter’s twoyear primary science phase, which...’s Mars missions together constitute the agency’s Mars Exploration Program. The Phoenix Mars Lander... study Mars’ atmosphere while descending through it. A proposed orbiter would search Mars for... are: q Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission, or Maven. This orbiter would... q The Great Escape mission. This orbiter would directly determine the basic...’s Mars Global Surveyor collected more information than any previous Mars project. The orbiter continued to examine Mars’ surface and... from deadly cosmic rays. This orbiter provided details used to evaluate... their landings. q Mars Odyssey (April 2001 - present): This NASA orbiter’s prime mapping... the Mars Exploration Rovers and for Phoenix. Relays via this orbiter have... 2008. q Mars Express (2003 - present): This is a European Space Agency orbiter with... deep covering the entire planet. q Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2005 - present): This multipurpose spacecraft... most favored. One of the orbiter’s telescopic cameras is capable of... for NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory. The telecommunications capability of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will serve.../62, Mars flyby, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 1: USSR, 11/1/62, Mars flyby..., Mars flyby 8/5/69, returned 126 photos Mars 1969A, USSR, 3/27/69, Mars orbiter, did not reach Earth orbit Mars 1969B, USSR, 4/2/69, Mars orbiter, failed during launch Mariner 8: U.S., 5/8/71, Mars orbiter, failed during launch Kosmos 419: USSR, 5/10/71, Mars orbiter, achieved Earth orbit only Mars 2: USSR, 5/19/71, Mars orbiter/lander arrived... due to steep entry Mars 3: USSR, 5/28/71, Mars orbiter/lander, arrived 12... before failing Mariner 9: U.S., 5/30/71, Mars orbiter, in orbit 11/13/71... photos Mars 4: USSR, 7/21/73, failed Mars orbiter, flew past Mars 2/10/74 Mars 5: USSR, 7/25/73, Mars orbiter, arrived 2/12/74, lasted a few days Mars 6: USSR, 8/5/73, Mars flyby... the planet Viking 1: U.S., 8/20/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 6/19/76-1980.../76-1982 45 Viking 2: U.S., 9/9/75, Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 8/7/76-1987, lander..., 7/7/88, Mars orbiter and Phobos lander, lost 8/88 en route to Mars Phobos 2: USSR, 7/12/88, Mars orbiter and Phobos lander, lost 3/89 near Phobos Mars Observer: U.S., 9/25... just before Mars arrival 8/21/93 Mars Global Surveyor: U.S., 11/7/96, Mars orbiter, arrived... laser-altimeter shots Mars 96: Russia, 11/16/96, orbiter, two landers and two penetrators, launch vehicle failed Mars Pathfinder..., 7/4/98, Mars orbiter, failed to enter orbit 12/03 Mars Climate Orbiter: U.S., 12/11/98, lost upon arrival 9/23/99 Mars... on arrival 12/3/99 Mars Odyssey: U.S., 3/7/01, Mars orbiter, arrived 10/24/01... and Opportunity Mars Express/Beagle 2: European Space Agency, 6/2/03, Mars orbiter/lander, orbiter completed..., currently conducting extended mission Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: U.S., 8/12/05, Mars orbiter, began orbiting 3/12/06...



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...: R&A, Lunar Quest, Discovery, New Frontiers, Mars Exploration, Outer Planets, and Technology... 2011. The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN), Mars Scout mission, will... minerals on the surface. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and (if technically possible... by the CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometers for Mars) instrument on the... close quarters. It comprises a large orbiter, which is designed to operate... Decadal Survey, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) science mission are three... 2010, ESMD will transfer Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) operational control and funding... Dev Ops Res Research Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Science Mission Lunar Atmosphere... a small Class III, Enhanced Class D Orbiter. Estimated Project Deliverables The spacecraft.... All completed Discovery missions (NEAR, Mars Pathfinder, Lunar Prospector, Deep Impact... European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft in orbit around Mars, with a goal... Frontiers Program. It will conduct reconnaissance of Pluto and its moons... 2015. New Horizons will conduct a reconnaissance of the Pluto-Charon system...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration FY 2011 Budget Request...'s Budget Request 2009 Mars Science Lab MAVEN 2009 Mars Science Lab MAVEN..., incremental, discovery-driven exploration of Mars to determine the planet's physical... should extraction prove impossible. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is in its extended... of salt deposits. Meanwhile, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission continues... opportunity to fly on a Mars 2016 orbiter mission to measure trace gases...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Project Descriptions and Explanation of Changes Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Currently in... takes a major step forward in Mars exploration, both technically and scientifically... development section of this document. Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN..., a robotic orbiter mission, will provide a comprehensive picture of the Mars upper atmosphere... on designs from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and 2001 Mars Odyssey missions. Additional detail...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Other Missions & Data Analysis... the geological processes that shaped Mars, particularly those involving water. Currently... of the next decade at Mars. Mars Mission Operations (MMO) provides management... 2011. The Mars Exploration Program plans future missions to Mars that build...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Program Commitments Commitment/Output... operational presence on Mars Mars Exploration same At least one Mars mission will... every opportunity (every 26 months) Mars Exploration same Implementation Schedule Project... Res Mars Odyssey Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Express The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Mars...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Program Management The Jet... for implementation of the Mars Exploration Program. Mars Program science resides at... Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) JPL JPL, ARC, GRC, JSC, GSFC None Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter... Rayonnements (CESR) Mars Odyssey JPL JPL, MSFC None Mars Express (MEX) JPL... in the 2016 (trace gas orbiter) and the 2018 (two rovers...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Independent Reviews Review Type... Development: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab FY 2011... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Purpose The Mars Science... NASA's Spirit and Opportunity Mars rovers. The Mars Science Laboratory is engineered... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Commitments The Mars Science... elemental and isotopic composition of Mars samples Same Same Chemistry & Mineralogy... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Schedule Commitments The Mars Science... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Management 2009 Mars Science... Development: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Risk... In Formulation: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Mars Atmosphere & Volatile EvolutioN FY... launch vehicle cost. Project Purpose Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN... provide a comprehensive picture of the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, solar energetic... address key scientific questions about Mars' evolution. Specific MAVEN science objectives... In Formulation: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Mars Atmosphere & Volatile EvolutioN Estimated... In Formulation: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Mars Atmosphere & Volatile EvolutioN Project... In Formulation: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Mars Atmosphere & Volatile EvolutioN Project...



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... Analysis PS- 35 MARS EXPLORATION ………………………………………… PS- 39 2013 Mars Atmosphere and Volatile... close quarters. It comprises a large orbiter, which is designed to operate... Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, Lunar Management, and... selected flight missions reviews. LUNAR RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER The primary objective of the... target, Pluto. It will conduct reconnaissance of Pluto and its moons... on Mars, characterize the climate of Mars, characterize the geology of Mars, and prepare for human exploration. The Mars... Mars Exploration program include the current operating missions 2001 Mars Odyssey, 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Mars Express with the European Space Agency, 2005 Mars PS-39 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE MARS EXPLORATION Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and the 2011 Mars.... The Mars Exploration program also includes Mars Program Management, Mars Technology, Mars Operating and Extended Missions, and Mars Research... Orbiter 2016 (EMTGO) mission and planning for the previous NASA/ESA Mars... the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA). A future Mars mission planned within the Mars Next Decade project is being defined. Mars...-41 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-42 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-43 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-44 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-45 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-46 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN...-47 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS EXPLORATION 2013 MARS ATMOSPHERE & VOLATILE EVOLUTION (MAVEN....6 15.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 M ars Express 2005 M ars Reconnaissance Orbiter 30.1 40.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 242.9 174.0 65....9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2016 ExoM ars Trace Gas Orbiter 32.6 27.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Change From FY... Mars Odyssey, 2003 Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and the 2011 Mars... included: Mars Research and Analysis, Mars Technology, Mars Mission Operations, Mars Extended Operations, Mars Next Decade, and Mars Program Management. PS-49 SCIENCE: PLANETARY SCIENCE: MARS... Operations Non-Operating Missions MARS RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS Mars Research and Analysis... and temperature patterns, Mars will become host to Mars Science Laboratory (MSL... about whether life existed on Mars. • • Mars Fundamental Research program, which funds... about Mars; Mars Data Analysis, which analyzes archived data collected on Mars missions... science community peer review. MARS TECHNOLOGY Mars Technology focuses on technology investments...-orbit communications improvements (e.g. Electra). MARS MISSION OPERATIONS Mars Mission Operations provides management... development and execution of Mars multi-mission operations. Mars Mission Operations supports... ANALYSIS Formulation Development Operations MARS EXTENDED OPERATIONS Mars Extended Operations provides funding... based on scientific merit. MARS NEXT DECADE Mars Next Decade provides funds... in an integrated strategy. MARS PROGRAM MANAGEMENT Mars Program Management provides for... integration. Operating Missions 2001 MARS ODYSSEY 2001 Mars Odyssey, currently in its...’s UHF system. 2003 MARS EXPLORATION ROVER 2003 Mars Exploration Rover, the rover..., and low light levels. MARS EXPRESS Mars Express, currently in its second...: MARS EXPLORATION OTHER MISSIONS AND DATA ANALYSIS Formulation Development Operations 2005 MARS RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), currently in extended... MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY (MSL) 2011 Mars Science Laboratory, currently on cruise to Mars, takes a major step forward in Mars exploration, both... zones on Mars. Recent Achievements 2011 MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY 2011 Mars Science Laboratory... scheduled for September 2014. 2005 MARS RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER Using the 2005 MRO data... surface operations. 2003 MARS EXPLORATION ROVER 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity’s study... hospitable for life. 2001 MARS ODYSSEY 2001 Mars Odyssey has become the... for a Uranus orbiter and probe, and an Enceladus orbiter. The objectives of the Uranus mission will include inserting an orbiter... primary objectives of the Enceladus orbiter will include determining the nature... manages the mission. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras...



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0.14/5
..., Lunar Quest, Discovery, New Frontiers, Mars Exploration, the Outer Planets, and... selected in FY 2010. Mars Exploration The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launch... minerals on the surface. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and (if technically possible... mission and MAVEN, a Mars aeronomy mission, as the Mars Scout 2nd mission... close quarters. It comprises a large orbiter, which is designed to operate... (ILN) are two small robotic orbiter and lander missions currently under... to accomplish Exploration objectives, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) will be transitioned to... communication from the Moon. The orbiter is currently planned for a launch... Lunar Network (ILN) 1 & 2 Research Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Science Mission Mar-08.... All completed Discovery missions (NEAR, Mars Pathfinder, Lunar Prospector, Deep Impact... European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft in orbit around Mars, with a goal... missions. New Horizons will conduct reconnaissance of Pluto and its moon... 2015. New Horizons will conduct a reconnaissance of the Pluto-Charon system...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration FY 2010 Budget Request...'s Budget Request 2009 Mars Science Lab MAVEN 2009 Mars Science Lab MAVEN..., incremental, discovery-driven exploration of Mars to determine the planet's physical... an ancient hydrothermal system. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has completed its first...: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Plans For FY 2010 Mars Science Laboratory...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Project Descriptions and Explanation of Changes Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Currently in... takes a major step forward in Mars exploration, both technically and scientifically...) NASA selected the second Mars Scout mission, Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN..., a robotic orbiter mission, will provide a comprehensive picture of the Mars upper atmosphere... on designs from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and 2001 Mars Odyssey missions. SCI-131...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Other Missions & Data Analysis... the geological processes that shaped Mars, particularly those involving water. Currently... of the next decade at Mars. Mars Mission Operations (MMO) provides management... opportunity. The Mars Exploration Program plans future missions to Mars that build... planning include a Mars mission in 2016, 2018, and potentially Mars Sample Return...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Program Commitments Commitment/Output... operational presence on Mars Mars Exploration Same At least one Mars mission will... Res Mars Odyssey Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Scout (Phoenix) Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Express The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Mars...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Program Management The Jet... responsibility for implementation of the Mars Exploration Program. Project Management Responsibility... Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) JPL JPL, ARC, GRC, JSC, GSFC None Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter... include Canada, Spain, and Russia. Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN... Rayonnements (CESR) Mars Odyssey JPL JPL, MSFC None Mars Express (MEX) JPL...: Theme: Program: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Independent Reviews Review Type... Development: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab FY 2010... of Earth and Mars are favorable for flights to Mars only a few... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Purpose The Mars Science... NASA's Spirit and Opportunity Mars rovers. The Mars Science Laboratory is engineered... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Commitments The Mars Science... elemental and isotopic composition of Mars samples Same Same Chemistry & Mineralogy... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Schedule Commitments The Mars Science... Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Management 2009 Mars Science... Development: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration 2009 Mars Science Lab Project Risk... In Formulation: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Mars Atmosphere & Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN... provide a comprehensive picture of the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, solar energetic... address key scientific questions about Mars' evolution. Specific MAVEN science objectives... In Formulation: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Mars Atmosphere & Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN... In Formulation: Science Planetary Science Mars Exploration Mars Atmosphere & Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN... collaborative effort with a four year orbiter prime mission. Cassini is the...



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0.16/5
...-RF experiment on the U.S. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission, both scheduled for launch... such diverse topics as Mars polar science, spacecraft reconnaissance of asteroids and... of the well-known Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon... Geophysics (PG&G), Cartography, Cosmochemistry, the Mars programs, and others. In recent... definition of the 2008 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and 2010 Lunar Lander missions...), Automatic Recognition of Landforms on Mars Using Terrain Segmentation and Classification... Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars, 423 pages. Heggy, E., S.M. Clifford, R.E. Grimm... Southwestern Egyptian Desert: Implications for Mars Shallow Sounding, Geophys. Res. Letter..., R. Poreda, J.W. Rice, and K. Tanaka (2004), Mars Chronology: Assessing Techniques for Quantifying.... 6) Treiman, A.H., and W.S. Kiefer (2003), Exploring Mars, NASA Educational Brief EB-2003... “Simulation of a surfacepenetrating radar for Mars exploration'' by Carl Leuschen, Stephen... Mapping of Valley Networks on Mars, Computers & Geoscience. 6) Bureau, H., B. Ménez, V. Malavergne... simulations, Fourth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration, abstract... materials, Fourth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration, abstract... Polar Region of Mars, Fourth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and..., R.N. McGinnis, R. Ney, and S.K. Sandberg (2006), Mars analog investigations of the West... Sounding of Asteroid Interiors, Spacecraft Reconnaissance of Asteroid and Comet Interiors... Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Spacecraft Reconnaissance of Asteroid and Comet Interiors... the Hemispheric Dichotomy in Eastern Mars: Lithospheric Thickness and Subsurface Structure...) Heavens, N.G., L.E. Kirkland, and P.M Adams (2005) Mars Analog Field Infrared Spectroscopy at... Climate on Early Mars. 2nd Conference on Early Mars: Geologic, Hydrologic, and..., R. Poreda, J.W Rice., and K. Tanaka (2004), Mars Chronology: Assessing Techniques for Quantifying...), Learning About Mars Geology Using Thermal Infrared Spectral Imaging: Orbiter and Rover... Chamber Systems on Mars, Sixth International Conference on Mars, abstract 3252. 6) Kiefer...) Treiman, A.H. (2003), Mantle metasomatism in Mars: Evidence from bulk chemical compositions..., and G. Briggs (2003), From global reconnaissance to sample return: A proposal for... the water on Mars, Sixth International Conference on Mars, abstract no. 3269... Sounding Radars on Mars, Sixth International Conference on Mars, abstract no. 3012... (2003), Past Habitability of Mars: Interpretations of Mars Global Surveyor TES, Eos... Magma Production on Present-day Mars NASA Mars Fundamental Research Program 07... Studies of Tectonic Features on Mars NASA Mars Data Analysis Program 53... Volcanic Spreading and Deformation on Mars NASA Mars Data Analysis Program 2005... Studies of Tectonic Features on Mars NASA Mars Data Analysis Program 2005... of Craters on Mars Resulting from Oblique Impact NASA Mars Data Analysis...) A.H. Treiman Acid Fog on Mars NASA Mars Fundamental Research Program 01/2006... Desert and ColdClimate Analogs of Mars NASA Mars Fundamental Research Program 07... and Cold Climate Analogs of Mars NASA Mars Fundamental Program Research 06... Magma Production on Present-Day Mars NASA Mars Fundamental Research Program 07... and Cold-Climate Analogs of Mars NASA Mars Fundamental Research Program 06... and Electromagnetic Laboratory Investigations of Mars Analogs: Characterization Studies in the... LPI CAN NCC5-679 NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, participating scientist, SHARAD Instrument 06... Road to Mars: Understanding Prebiotic Earth as a Mars Analog NASA Mars Fundamental Research... S.M. Clifford • Fourth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration (October... on Early Mars (October 2005) • Third International Conference on Mars Polar Science... the Forward Contamination of Mars (2004 – 2006) • Participant, Mars Exploration Program and... for NASA Mars Data Analysis Program (2002 – 2004) • • W.S. Kiefer Mars Data Analysis...) • • • • • • E.S. Heggy MARSIS (NASA-ESA 2004, Mars Express mission): Participating in MARSIS... Experimental Geochemistry group, 2000) • Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Requirements Definition Team (March... Science (2004 – 2005) -- Skytellers (2005) -- Mars Geology Education Modules (2005 – 2008... Evolution of Early Mars”, Second Conf. on Early Mars. (Oct. 11, 2004.... 2006). Treiman A.H. “Volatile Elements on Mars: Mineralogical Evidence”, Jahrestagung der Deutschen...”, LASP, U. Colorado. (Feb. 2003). Clifford S.M. “Mars: The Effect of Stratigraphic Variations... Institute). Workshop on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Image Targeting Selection... gsinstitut Fourth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration; Octobe... in 2006: Workshop on Spacecraft Reconnaissance of Asteroid Interiors; October 5-6, 2006... Approaches for Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter; Jun e 12–1 4, 200 3; Luna r and... ESMD and through the Lunar Reconnaissance Or biter (LRO), New Horizons... with a nationally distributed team. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, New Horizons, and MESSENGER — Explore...



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0.06/5
... and Attack Assessment 8 Surveillance and Reconnaissance 9 Commercial Utilization of Space 11... 1: Current U.S. Space-Based Surveillance and Reconnaissance Systems 10 Figure 1: Global Space... attack assessment, and surveillance and reconnaissance. S pa c e a n d U . S . S e c u r i t y x Executive Summary •  The growing... to space-based surveillance and reconnaissance satellites has led the U.S. to... arrival of the new space orbiter, the Orion, in 2015, the... exploration missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and the Sun as... Command, Control, Communications, intelligence and reconnaissance. Satellite communications capabilities provide the... stations and sensors on National Reconnaissance Organization (NRO) spy satellites, DSP... opportunities. Surveillance and Reconnaissance. Space-based surveillance and reconnaissance capabilities were first... sophisticated space-based surveillance and reconnaissance systems for over fifty years... arrival of precision-guided munitions, reconnaissance satellites have become “the key...  Richard A. Best, “Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Programs: Issues for Congress.... 27  Best, “Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Programs: Issues for Congress... broad elements of U.S. surveillance and reconnaissance satellites. In particular, the systems... 1: Current U.S. Space-Based Surveillance and Reconnaissance Systems28 System Function Last Reported... to space-based surveillance and reconnaissance satellites has led the United... uses ranging from navigation to reconnaissance, together with a space manufacturing base... in electron­ic/ signals intelligence reconnaissance satellites.75 China hopes to...); 2) early warning; (3) communications; and (4) intelligence/ reconnaissance. Russia remains today a major provider... both Persona and Kobalt-M optical reconnaissance satellites into orbit. The most... station capable of military-quality reconnaissance and of attacking and defending... missions. Thus far, the Moon, Mars, and various asteroids and comets...” payload onto the surface of Mars; (2) to demonstrate the surface mobility... a distance of several kilometers on Mars; (3) the ability to gain access to sub-surface Mars , including the collection of samples... samples immediately after collection on Mars for scientific analysis.149 Many... eventually 148  “Europe Returns to Mars: The ESA ExoMars Mission,” Available... Aperture Radar-Lupe (magnifying glass)) reconnaissance system that will consist of... Program for Satellite-based Radar Reconnaissance,” OHB System; SAR-Lupe Brochure..., the SAR-Lupe and HELIOS reconnaissance systems will form a comprehensive radar... and cosmology), space exploration (to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and in the... the fields of Earth observation/reconnaissance and military telecommunications satellites. The... Gamma-Ray Burst Mission, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Harmony ISS Module... cost-efficient worldwide Earth observation/reconnaissance satellite system. SKYNET is a British... on imaging data supplied by U.S. reconnaissance satellites. Japan’s first satellites were... establishing an advanced space-based reconnaissance capability to monitor regional threats... systems that could have military reconnaissance applications: 212  “H-IIB Launch Vehicle... could be adapted for military reconnaissance purposes. “Information Gathering Satellites” (IGS... two are currently providing major reconnaissance data to Japan. In addition... a new program of Japanese military reconnaissance satellites, or perhaps an expansion... Satellites System (QZSS) Venus Climate Orbiter (PLANET-C) HTV (H-II Transfer Vehicle....htm#02. 237  “Chandrayaan-1 Lunar Orbiter,” National Space Science Data Center...  Somini Sengupta, “India Launches Unmanned Orbiter to Moon,” NewYork Times, October...’s space ventures is its military reconnaissance satellites known as Ofeq. Indeed... A new and highly sophisticated Israeli reconnaissance satellite, TecSAR (also referred to... world in terms of satellite reconnaissance capability. The SAR equipment deployed... all future Ofeq and other reconnaissance satellites, like TecSAR, will be... for intelligence, early warning, surveillance/reconnaissance, command and control, navigation/precision... its apparent attempt to lase a U.S. reconnaissance satellite in 2006 highlight 3 The... long-range ballistic missiles, photo reconnaissance, communications, and navigation satellites, together... impede the use of photo reconnaissance satellites which were considered crucial... following the downing of a U.S. strategic reconnaissance aircraft, the U-2, by the Soviet... was accomplished by U.S. reconnaissance aircraft), the first U.S. photo-reconnaissance satellites provided clear... attack assessment, and surveillance and reconnaissance to support military operations. Space... and the development of the reconnaissance strike complex. The weaponization of... to the functioning of the U.S. reconnaissance strike complex. In addition, the... terrorism, particularly for intelligence gathering, reconnaissance, and surveillance. Space allows the...



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0.36/5
... latter, such as the International Mars Exploration Working Group, having a more... Exploration Journey A human mission to Mars is surely a long-term objective...’s natural satellite, and spacecraft at Mars continued unabated on their course.... 2.2 Beyond LEO – The Moon and Mars 2.2.1 Moon Lunar scientific exploration will...) NASA will launch its Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) with a surface impactor, the... generation crew and cargo vehicles). 2.2.2 Mars Mars is a key focus for space..., and water. Better knowledge of Mars would help us understand Earth... evolution. The scientific exploration of Mars is motivated by the search... life ever exist on Mars? Will Mars be able to support human... are the questions that drive Mars exploration with, current investigations centered..., and geologic 8 landforms. Spacecraft at Mars map mineralogical and geomorpholigical features... are currently five spacecraft exploring Mars, three from orbit and two... are the U.S. Mars Odyssey (launched in 2001), ESA’s Mars Express (launched in 2003), and the U.S. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (launched in... in May 2008 by the U.S. Mars Phoenix lander, which performed superbly... of the near surface. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has been successfully providing high... maps of critical atmospheric properties. Mars Express has been exploring the interior, surface, and atmosphere of Mars. It as produced high-resolution... composition of the icecaps. The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity... continue the scientific exploration of Mars. There are currently two U.S. missions in development. First is the Mars Science Laboratory, planned for launch is 2011. The Mars Science Laboratory will use a longduration... measurements, assessing the habitability of Mars for past or present life... <$500m) mission called MAVEN, an orbiter that will provide information about...-Grunt is expected to study Mars from orbit, including its atmosphere... the Phobos-Grunt mission. The Mars Express camera took high-resolution... study of Mars. 3.2 Joint Development for Robotic Exploration – Mars Sample Return A Mars Sample... many international priority lists for Mars science. In 1993, the international community established the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG) to... a forum for the coordination of Mars exploration and develop an international... under the name iMARS – international Mars Architecture for the Return of... “Preliminary Planning for an International Mars Sample Return Mission: Report of... launched separately: one carrying an orbiter that includes the Earth return... a sample-acquisition rover and the Mars ascent vehicle that launches the sample from Mars’ surface. The reference architecture also... complexities of a human mission to Mars and have identified many of... requirements for a human mission to Mars at its Exploration Conference in July, and NASA finalized its Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0. A brief review... and transportation to and from Mars taking approximately 180 days each... the Mars radiation and solitary environment. A successful human mission to Mars will... lunar and Mars missions (see paras 2.2.1 and 2.2.2) • Chandrayaan orbiter mission • Kaguya orbiter mission (see also JAXA Exploration Highlights in Annex) • Chang’e 1 orbiter mission • Several Mars orbiting and landed missions... 3.1) Development of a reference architecture for Mars Sample Return mission by iMARS... MSTO/ MAVEN orbital surface PhobosGrunt Mars Science Lab 16 ISECG will... on-board the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and ESA Mars Express missions. Last, in... AO for small missions, a lunar orbiter has been selected and the... for field testing for robotic Mars exploration technologies (rovers mobility/long... a GIS (Geographical Information System) for Mars called PAGIS (Planetary Geosciences Information... in competition is the lunar orbiter previously mentioned. The MDS experiment... commit funds to the ESA Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation programme (currently... human exploration activities. The satellite orbiter would act as a telecommunications station... prototypes for future Moon and Mars exploration missions. 2008 Highlights: Significant..., landed on the surface of Mars. The weather station's lidar instrument... instruments for the Moon and Mars, manipulators and tools, vision systems... control and a terrestrial breadboard of a Mars science rover. 23 o o o o The Canadian... missions: ILN, Selene-2, Mars Sample Return, Mars Science Orbiter, Lunar mobility system, Lunar... terrestrial prototypes of Moon and Mars rovers and other space technologies... possible areas of cooperation in a Mars Sample Return mission. Our ad... framework of a long-term cooperation. A Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation programme with...-term technology goals leading to a Mars Sample Return mission, and system... exploration programs – we landed on Mars, added to the International Space...: NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander safely reached a soft landing on Mars on May...



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.... Chapter 23: Aqueous Alteration on Mars Douglas W. Ming, Richard V. Morris NASA... indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination... (lander), jarosite (lander), kieserite (orbiter), gypsum (orbiter) and other Fe-, Mg-, and...), phyllosilicates (orbiter, meteorites), hematite and nanophase iron oxides (telescopic, orbiter, lander), and... alteration have been suggested on Mars. Acid-sulfate weathering (e.g., formation of... aqueous weathering and alteration on Mars and their implications for specific... timing for possible life on Mars. 2. Definitions and Terminology 2.1 Aqueous Alteration... based upon measurements made at Mars. The Mineralogical Alteration Index (MAI..., Mariner, Viking, Phobos, Pathfinder, and Mars Global Surveyor), martian meteorites, and... and lander missions (MER, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express). 4 Ming, Morris, and... ISM instrument onboard the Phobos-2 orbiter (Murchie et al., 2000), confirming... Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (Christensen et al... X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner microrover also found... Mars (the MER rovers Spirit and Opportunity, and the Mars Odyssey and Mars.... The recent arrival of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) will provide additional information... the martian surface. 5.1 Mineralogical Markers 5.1.1 Mars Odyssey: Water Ice, Hydrated Minerals... most significant discoveries by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS...é (OMEGA) instrument onboard the Mars Express orbiter has returned visible/near IR... with measurements from the Odyssey orbiter, where the GRS has detected.... 6.1. Isochemical vs. Open-System Alteration Mars is a basaltic planet and the... phases on the surface of Mars including (1) Oxidative weathering of ultramafic... mineral surfaces in the dry Mars environment. Laboratory simulated acid weathering... synthetic basaltic analogs derived from Mars Pathfinder soil and rock compositions... other poorly crystalline phases on Mars in general. Another potential aqueous... or a limited number of pathways. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data will enhance our understanding... next landed mission on Mars is the 2007 Mars Phoenix Scout Mission... indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination... proposed for the surface of Mars. Mars is a basaltic planet, so most... extent of aqueous alteration on Mars. Acknowledgements DWM and RVM acknowledge... of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover Project, NASA Mars Fundamental Research Program..., D. (1993) Groundbased imaging spectroscopy of Mars in the near-infrared – preliminary.... (2005) Mars Surface Diversity as Revealed by the OMEGA/Mars Express Observations... mineralogy and aqueous Mars history derived from OMEGA/Mars Express data. Science..., J. L., and E. Murad (1996) Schwertmannite on Mars? Spectroscopic analyses of schwertmannite, its.... 5, 337-58. Blaney, D.L. (2006). The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission. In...: Mineralogical evidence for evaporates on Mars. Meteoritics & Planet. Sci., 34, 407... (1990) Iron-sulfur mineralogy of Mars: Magmatic evolution and chemical weathering... of the 3-µm absorption feature on Mars: Observations over eastern Valles Marineris..., S., Greene, E., Silverman, S., and Greenfield, M. (2001a) Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer... compositional equivalent in Columbia Hills, Mars. J. Geophys. Res., 112, doi:10...,067. Clark, R.N, and McCord, T.B. (1982) Mars residual north polar cap: Earth... distribution of neutrons from Mars: Results from Mars Odyssey, Science, 297, 75.... Foley, N., T. Ecomonou, et al., (2007). Mars Pathfinder. This book. Fries, M., Rost...) Physical and chemical weathering. In Mars. H.H. Kielffer, B.M. Jakosky, C.W. Snyder, and M.S. Matthews.... Hunt, G. E., Logan, L. M., and Salisbury, J. W. (1973) Mars: Component of infrared spectra and.... Kevie, W., and Yenmanas, B. (1972) Detailed reconnaissance soil survey of Southern Central... North Polar region of Mars detected by OMEGA/Mars Express, Science, 307... the Viking landing sites on Mars, U.S.G.S. Prof. Paper 1389. Moore, H. J., Liebes... and sampling under rocks on Mars, U.S.G.S. Prof. Paper 1081. Morris, R. V., G. Klingelh...) Hematite, pyroxene, and phyllosilicates on Mars: Implications from oxidized impact melt...) Mineralogy, composition, and alteration of Mars Pathfinder rocks and soils: Evidence..., and dust at Meridiani Planum, Mars: Opportunity’s journey across sulfate-rich... OMEGA team. (2005) Phyllosilicates on Mars and implications for early martian... Science Investigation at Meridiani Planum, Mars, Science, 306, 1698-1703. Squyres... modeling of evaporation processes on Mars: Insight from the sedimentary record... subsurface regolith in Gusev crater, Mars. J. Geophys. Res., 111, E02S17, doi... Valleys and indigenous weathering in Mars meteorites: Implications for water and...; MPF = Mars Pathfinder; MER = Mars Exploration Rovers; MGS = Mars Global Surveyor; MEx = Mars Express... measurements on the surface of Mars $ = primary or secondary phase & = possible... indices to evaluate alteration on Mars. a) Mineralogical Alteration Index (MAI) established...



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...Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) Mars Atlas Space Applications Centre Indian ... Ahmedabad-380015 India ii Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) Mars Atlas 2015 Published by... by Mars Colour Camera (MCC) during the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) journey towards Mars. v vi Sahara Desert as seen by Mars... towards Mars. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Mars Orbiter Mission has been successfully going around the Mars since... payloads namely Mars Colour Camera (MCC), Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM) and... have provided unique information about Mars at varying spatial resolutions. It... Mars Atlas Remote exploration of the Mars by various space missions like Mars-Odyssey, Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO... understood. With the launch of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) on 5th November... occurring on Mars as captured by different instruments onboard Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), in particular by Mars Colour Camera... Mars Impact Craters Global views of Mars 11 Dust detection on Mars 20 Mars... 36 Solar System 01 The Mars 03 Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) ISSDC and... Results Moons of Mars 111 Global Albedo Map of Mars 118 Temperature...: https://spacetechinfo.worldpress.com The Mars Mars is the fourth planet from.... The average recorded temperature on Mars is ~-63°C with a maximum temperature... and characterized by rugged surfaces. Mars’ western hemisphere is a massive volcano... to be captured asteroids. 3 Mars Orbiter Mission Spacecraft Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is ISRO... space probe dedicated for the Mars research. Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) was launched... the 4 surface of Mars and its atmosphere. Mars Orbiter Mission spacecraft Deployed View... and atmospheric processes acting on Mars. Considering these requirements, five scientific.... These five scientific payloads are, Mars Colour Camera (MCC), Thermal Infrared... (TIS), Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM), Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA... bolometer device. Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM) is a differential radiometer based... the presence of life on Mars. Measurements of D/H (deuterium/ hydrogen) ratio... loss process from Mars surface through the atmosphere. Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition... Martian exosphere. Mars Colour Camera Methane Sensor for Mars Thermal-Infrared Imaging... Photometer Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyzer 5 Orbit of MOM around Mars The Mars orbiter... orbit around Mars and MCC camera acquires images of Mars Surface with... 02 Global Views of Mars Global views of Mars captured by MCC... view of Mars This global image of Mars was acquired by Mars Colour... shows major geological features of Mars namely, 1) Gale crater, 2) Amazonis Planitia... below Elysium Planitia region of Mars. 2) Amazonis Planitia is located between... view of Mars This global view of Mars was acquired by Mars Colour... volcanic and tectonic features of Mars, 1) Olympus Mons, 2) Arsia Mons, 3) Pavonis... view of Mars The adjoining image was acquired by Mars Colour Camera... found in large concentrations by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission of USA, which indicate... for long periods. The second Mars Exploration Rover (MER), named, Opportunity... on Mars. 1 17 Global view of Mars This image was taken by Mars... shows various geological terrains of Mars such as: 1) Huygens crater, 2) Syrtis... on Mars. 4 3 19 2 6 1 5 Dust Detection on Mars Lunae Planum region on Mars contain... very active on Mars. The dust dynamics on Mars also affects the... Detection on Mars N N 21 Detected dust layer on Mars on October 20... of Mars Mars disc 2 Dec 2014 Mars Terminator Mars disc 13 Dec 2014 Mars Terminator Mars disc 21 Nov 2014 Mars... Plume Limb images of Mars captured by Mars Colour Camera (MCC) have... Eos Chaos region of Mars was taken by Mars Colour Camera (MCC... Margaritifer Terra Margaritifer Terra on Mars preserves the record of aqueous... and adjoining regions of Mars was taken by Mars Colour Camera (MCC... was taken by Mars Colour Camera (MCC) onboard Mars Orbiter Mission spacecraft on... and adjoining regions of Mars was taken by Mars Colour Camera (MCC... Mangala Fossa region of Mars was taken by Mars Colour Camera (MCC... was taken by Mars Colour Camera (MCC) on board Mars Orbiter Mission on... Terra Sirenum region on Mars was taken by Mars Colour Camera (MCC... was taken by Mars Colour Camera (MCC) on board Mars Orbiter Mission on... was taken by Mars Colour Camera (MCC) on board Mars Orbiter Mission on... Mars: Phobos and Deimos 111 Moons of Mars : Phobos and Deimos Phobos Mars... Mars Surafce Phobos is larger moon of Mars and its transit over Mars was captured by Mars Colour... Deimos, Moon of the Mars were taken by Mars Colour Camera (MCC... of Mars using Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM) Global albedo maps of Mars... E 150 E 180 E Temperature Distribution on Mars using Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer...) detects emitted infrared radiation from Mars in 7-13 µm spectral region. This...