Спутник связи. Molniya 1-92. [Редактировать]

2 апреля 2003 года в 01:53 UTC (05:53 мск) с 1-го Государственного космодрома Министерства обороны РФ «Плесецк» боевыми расчетами Космических войск РФ осуществлен пуск ракеты-носителя «Молния-М», которая вывела в космос спутник связи «Молния-1-92» (27707 / 2003 011А). Старт прошел в штатном режиме.
Отделение космического аппарата проходило вне зоны радиовидимости наземного измерительного комплекса. После вхождения в зону радиовидимости было получено подтверждение об успешном отделении космического аппарата в расчетное время - 02:50 UTC (06:50 мск) - от четвертой ступени ракеты-носителя. По сообщению пресс-службы КВ РФ, в 03:38 UTC (07:38 мск) спутник был взят на управление Космическими войсками, с ним установлена и поддерживается устойчивая телеметрическая связь.
По данным западных средств массовой информации, спутник создан специалистами НПО прикладной механики на базе платформыКАУР-2. Его масса - 1660 кг.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
2Страна оператор(владелец) - Россия
3Страна производитель - Россия
4Все спутники связи

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг1600
2Платформа, КАУР-21

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата (сведения с орбиты)2013-05-27

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2003-011A

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2003-04-02 at 01:53:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xMolniya 1-92
3Ракета-носитель 1xМолния М

Найдено 416 документов по запросу «Molniya 1-92». [Перейти к поиску]


Дата загрузки: 2017-05-20
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0.04/5
...-035B 06:57 3211 Russia Molniya 1-8 r R 11S510 2410 Florida 1968 Jul...-035D 02:58 3888 Russia Molniya 1-11 BOZ H Blok-L BOZ 100...: Derby to Kalgoorlie 6723 Russia Molniya 2-6 r R 11S510 2410 Kansas; Nebraska; Iowa.../091, N73/107. 6935 Russia Molniya 1-25 BOZ H Blok-L BOZ 100..., No. 1, Jul 1988: 2. 7393 Russia Molniya 1S r R 8S812 3500 Venezuela: Coro...-074C 01:19 9051 Russia Molniya 1-35 BOZ H Blok-L BOZ 100..., private correspondence. Skylab 1 11475 Russia Molniya 1-44 r 74783 SW Australia: Esperance... USA NTS-1 r1 12067 Russia Molniya 1-48 BOZ 83 Alberta: Elnora...-030B 11:20 12369 Russia Molniya 3-15 r R 11S510 1981 Jun 26...-123C 05:48 14572 Russia Molniya 3-22 BOZ H Blok-ML BOZ... of Earth Satellites 6958 Russia Molniya 1-26 P Molniya-1 1650 South Africa RAE...-040C 02:07 15740 Russia Molniya 3-24 BOZ H Blok-ML BOZ... A. Figer, via SeeSat-L 16936 Russia Molniya 1-68 BOZ H Blok-ML BOZ... of Earth Satellites 19731 Russia Molniya 1-74 r R 11S510 2410 Texas: Abilene...-078C 10:19 20257 Russia Molniya 1-76 BOZ H Blok-ML BOZ...-081B 22:29 23421 Russia Molniya 1-88 r R 11S510 3500 Germany, Austria...-038B 00:44 25486 Russia Molniya 1-91 r R 11S510 2410 South Africa... kg Sighting Location 12134 Russia Molniya 3-14 r2 R Blok-L 25957 China... 2 27 1986-057A 16885 Russia Molniya 1-67 P Molniya-1 1650 Western Australia SeeSat...-041B 03:29 26868 Russia Molniya 3K-11 r R Delta SSPS AJ10... 13 1992-050D 22071 Russia Molniya 1-84 r2 R Blok-ML 33381...



Дата загрузки: 2017-09-24
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0.41/5
... a mere 2 seconds at 04:10 U.T. Molniya 1-87 was being another satellite... t ESA StreakDet project The satellite Molniya 1-75 as it appeared at... the initial CCD success with Molniya 1-75, SSRAL set out to... CCD camera was with other Molniya satellites over many viewing conditions... obtained many images of those Molniya satellites that exhibited flashes with... of Molniya 1-75. SSRAL began doing tumble analysis of every Molniya satellite... notable at that time was Molniya 3-43. This satellite had been... during routine tracking of the Molniya 1-87 satellite. On April 12... images. The tumble period for Molniya 3-43 was found to be... 60 seconds at 00:10 Molniya 1-87 was being tracked on... analysis confirmedmust this object as Molniya It is opening of the... extremely rareshapes. that two But Molniya arewant seen in ment SE... by 14tained arc-minute view. Molniya 3-43 This is the ideal... satellite as17,far aswe tumble Molniya being tracked on March 1998... 1 size analysis confirmed object as Molniya 3-43. It is x2 Â y 2 size... their paths. extremely rare that Molniya satellites are fit seenusing in... 14and arc-minute of view. Molniya 3-43 at prime 10-inchsame... using the Meade The satellite Molniya 1-75 as it appeared at... first analysis. The used satellitefor Molniya 1-75 asDuring it appearedthe at... the initial CCD success with Molniya 1-75, trivial affair to detect... success with Molniya 1-75, CCD camera was with other Molniya satellites over... camera was with other Molniya satellites over Molniya trivial closing affairhowever, to...



Дата загрузки: 2017-04-09
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0.07/5
..., T.P. Andreeva1, A.R. Gumerov1, A.N. Sazhenkov2 1 2 JSC USPE “Molniya”, Ufa, Russian Federation OJSC “Aviadvigatel..., г. Уфа, ул. Зенцова, д. 70, e-mail: molniya@molniya-ufa.ru). Андреева Татьяна Петровна..., г. Уфа, ул. Зенцова, д. 70, e-mail: molniya@molniya-ufa.ru). Гумеров Артур Римович..., г. Уфа, ул. Зенцова, д. 70, e-mail: molniya@molniya-ufa.ru). Саженков Алексей Николаевич... USPE “Molniya” (70, Zentsova st., Ufa, 450052, Russian Federation, e-mail: molniya@molniya-ufa... USPE “Molniya” (70, Zentsova st., Ufa, 450052, Russian Federation, e-mail: molniya@molniya-ufa... USPE “Molniya” (70, Zentsova st., Ufa, 450052, Russian Federation, e-mail: molniya@molniya-ufa...



Дата загрузки: 2017-09-24
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0.16/5
... (GEO belt) and the Molniya apogee region (Molniya ring) present a large number... 240 80 300 330 270 Molniya Apogee Ring ~60° declination W Deep... Full GEO Belt region Molniya apogee region (Molniya ring) Definition (mid-latitude... squares represent the positions of Molniya objects at 30-minute intervals... full GEO belt and the Molniya ring once per evening requires... be able to observe the Molniya ring and could perform it... along the GEO belt and Molniya ring regions is fainter than... conditions and at most elevations. Molniya Ring Cumulative Distribution (%) Cumulative Distribution... geosynchronous belt (left) and the Molniya ring (right) as observed from... be representative of a geosynchronous object; Molniya This work was sponsored by... the GEO belt and the Molniya ring as described previously (cf... along the GEO belt and Molniya ring over the course of... and 5 arcsec/sec for the Molniya ring. This presents a single performance..., and 98.5 – 99% of the Molniya ring cases have limiting magnitudes... and a very bright sky background. Molniya Ring 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 Fraction with m > mlim Fraction... belt. (Right) Sensitivity along the Molniya ring. All calculations are for...



Дата загрузки: 2017-06-15
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1.09/5
... pastki qismi torayib borgan. Taqilmasi molniya tasmali. Old bo'lak yon... pastki qismi torayib borgan.Taqilmasi molniya tasmali va 1ta tugmali. Old... bo'ladi. Taqilmasi molniya tasmali Jinsi shimlarning, molniya tasmasi boshqa shimlarnikidan ancha... jinsi shimning molniya tasmasi juda baquvvat bo'lishi kerak. Molniya tasmaning tishlari...'qilgan, xarakatlarga chidamli bo'ladi. Molniya tasmaning matosini rangi asosan qora... kumush rang bo'lishi mumkun. Molniya tasma asosan 18 sm uzunlikda... Q 2 10 Qo’l 22 Izma joyiga molniya tasmani biriktirib tikish M 2 18 “Juki... o’ngiga ag’darish Izma joyiga molniya tasmani biriktirib tikish Izma joyini... Sarf normasi 1 Avra Astar Tugma Molniya tasmasi Mixparchin Ip Jami Sotilgan...



Дата загрузки: 2017-06-15
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0.08/5
... the satellite into a so-called Molniya orbit (≈ 500 km × ≈ 40.000...-stationary transfer orbit (GTO), the Molniya orbit employed by Russian communication... Soyuz/Fregat launcher to the Molniya orbit (≈40.000 km x ≈500... as the initial baseline. The Molniya orbit with a period of revolution... entire 2year mission period. The Molniya orbit also satisfies the requirement... orbit (LEO), the radiation in Molniya orbit is very harsh. Dose... dose-depth curves for the Molniya orbit during a 2-year lifetime, assuming... of RØMER in Molniya orbit -3 - MONS & Ballerina in Molniya Orbit. 2 Years Mission... curves for radiation in the Molniya orbit • At 2.5-mm absorption thickness... the time in the proposed Molniya orbit is spent outside the...



Дата загрузки: 2017-03-18
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0.12/5
... = 0.27 Molniya 1-4 1500 km – 40,000 km 2.0 In highly elliptical molniya orbit... in very elliptical orbits, called “Molniya” orbits. Their satellites pass close... whipping past the earth. Three Molniya Satellites, taking turns at farthest... period. The figure below shows a Molniya orbit and a geosynchronous (also called... from Earth’s Surface = 36000km Radiostat Molniya 1-4 Distance from Earth’s Surface = 24000km...”; Eccentricity = 0.27 In highly elliptical molniya orbit. Responsible for military and... differences in orbital speed. Russian Molniya Satellites (used in communications) orbit... whipping past the earth. Three Molniya Satellites, taking turns at farthest... RadioStat 1-4 0.27 42000 22680 77000 Molniya 1-4 0.70 27000 38000 92000 0 42000...



Дата загрузки: 2017-09-24
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0.12/5
... darkness. Satellites in 12-hour Molniya orbits provide hours-long periods... satellites. Two satellites in phased Molniya orbits can provide essentially continuous... 3 Polar 2 Polar 4 Incl 3 Incl 3 Tundra 2 Molniya 3 Magic MEO 20 SS LEO... the horizon). High earth (HEO) Molniya orbits are highly elliptical with... to the previously mentioned two Molniya HEO constellation, as well as... communications is a phased two-satellite Molniya constellation. (As mentioned above, Polar... continuous coverage requires the two Molniya satellites to be in different... its place. Another disadvantage of Molniya orbits is that user terminal... constellation.) Russian communication satellites in Molniya orbits provide communications to their.... (Molniya orbits were first used by the USSR.) The first prototype Molniya... there are currently 16 operational Molniya satellites that carry the Russian... traffic. Russia is also planning a Molniya orbit version of its Express... constellation. In a 2008 study, a dedicated Molniya constellation of small satellites was.... From Figure 4 above, a two-satellite Molniya constellation, similar to current Russian... Comsat Options with 2 Spacecraft in Molniya Orbits. For example, assuming typical... and deploy an EELV-launched Molniya system providing 1 to 2 Gbps total... two multi-mission spacecraft in Molniya orbits. One of the payloads... "Arktika" to be launched in Molniya orbits to monitor weather and... the Arctic region with their Molniya systems. Some European nations, including...



Дата загрузки: 2017-11-08
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0.3/5
... RE-ENTRY FEATURES FOR THE "MOLNIYA" TYPE ORBITS Yu.F. Kolyuka, N.M. Ivanov... ABSTRACT Space vehicles of the "Molniya" series, launched into the special... ~ 500 km. As a rule, the “Molniya" satellites of a concrete series form.... The first satellite of the "Molniya" series has been inserted into... all artificial satellites, space vehicles "Molniya" undergo the action of various... in case of space vehicles "Molniya" these changes of parameters have... the orbital parameters of the "Molniya" type satellites within the different... the orbits and lifetime of "Molniya" type space vehicles are given... that lifetime of space vehicle "Molniya" depends on the initial values... real space vehicles of the "Molniya-3" series, that recently terminated their... orbital evolution all of the "Molniya" class space vehicles sooner or... paper ~ 50 objects of the "Molniya" series remain in space). The... Russian telecommunication satellites of the “Molniya” series are inserted into special... orbits. The perigee altitude of a “Molniya” type orbit can vary depending... standard orbits of SC of “Molniya-1” series the value of this... foreign countries. Satellites of the “Molniya” series have been launched since... launched into orbits of the “Molniya” type subsequently). During the flight... of the orbits, the SC “Molniya” are equipped with a correcting propulsion... and the re-entry of a “Molniya” type satellite as a rule have...) orbits. The first SC of “Molniya” series re-entered in March... about 50 satellites of the “Molniya” series continue their orbital flights.... Having the mass exceeding 1.5 tons, “Molniya” spacecrafts at uncontrollable re-entry... at launching the SCs of “Molniya” series. At the same time... high elliptical orbit the SC “Molniya” periodically approaches the Earth entering... of solar batteries, the SC “Molniya” has a significant reflecting area promoting.... At the analysis of the “Molniya” type orbits evolution the influence... the Earth gravity field on “Molniya” type orbit evolution The influence... and a perigee distance of the “Molniya” type orbit due to the... ω = 300 26440 26400 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 t , days 0.8 1 1.2 Fig. 1. “Molniya” type orbit’s semi-major axis... ω = 300 7.38E-01 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 t, days 0.8 1 1.2 Fig. 2. “Molniya” type orbit’s eccentricity variation on... 6916 6912 6908 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 t, days Fig. 3. “Molniya” type orbit’s perigee distance variation.... 4. Variations of perigee distance of “Molniya” type orbit’s over fifteen years...) for parameters Ω and ω of the “Molniya” type orbits at different values... for angular elements of the “Molniya” type orbits Inclination, i 62° 62.... 2.2 Luni-solar perturbations of the “Molniya” type orbits The gravitational attraction... orbits, in particular in the “Molniya” type orbits. 2.2.1 Secular perturbations of... a semi-major axis of the “Molniya” type orbit a ≈ 26600 km, AL... orbital motion of the SC “Molniya” and the "third" body On....6 o for the case of basic “Molniya” type orbit are illustrated in... Moon and the Sun the “Molniya” type orbit parameters i , ω , Ω and rπ tend... drifts of parameters of the “Molniya” type orbit due to luni... rπ for the case of basic “Molniya” orbit at initial Ω = 280 o is... of perigee distance of the “Molniya” type orbit due to luni... atmospheric drag on the SC’ “Molniya” orbit The pressure of solar... on a surface of the SC “Molniya” leads to short-term and..., except a semi-major axis. For a “Molniya” type SC with the standard... influence on evolution of the “Molniya” type orbits from the point... the high elliptical orbit, SC “Molniya” is situated within the atmosphere... altitude Hmin ~ 500 km SC “Molniya” will have the altitude H <1000... influence of atmosphere on the “Molniya” orbit evolution will weaken even... on sc’ lifetime on the “Molniya” type orbits On the basis... the SC’ lifetime on the “Molniya” type orbits will be determined... changing of parameter rπ of the “Molniya” type orbit depending on ascending... the basic orbit of SC “Molniya” is shown at the different... the basic orbit of SC “Molniya” at different initial values Ω.   12... A FLIGHT AND RE-ENTRY OF A “MOLNIYA” TYPE SATELLITE Hmax , km If... of a high elliptical orbit of a “Molniya” type satellite decreased to a critical... of orbital parameters of SC “Molniya” up to the critical ones... in an example of SC “Molniya 3-43”. In Fig. 13 changing.... 13. Dynamics of the SC «Molniya 3-43» maximal and minimal altitudes.... 14 dynamics of the SC “Molniya 3-43” orbit altitudes changing during.... 14. Dynamics of the SC «Molniya 3-43» maximal and minimal altitudes... for the latest revolutions of “Molniya 3-43”, directly before it’s decaying... altitude and velocity of the «Molniya 3-43» on the latest revolutions... of orbital flight the SC “Molniya 3-43” descended on each revolution... on the lifetime of the “Molniya” type space vehicle. It is... Sun. The lifetime of SC “Molniya” depends on the initial values... phase of a flight of the “Molniya” type satellite and the re... in an example of SC “Molniya 343” are presented. The carried... considered perturbing factors all the “Molniya” type SCs sooner or later...



Дата загрузки: 2017-12-10
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0.83/5
... available technology, the Gisin Aviation Molniya combines the low-observable (LO... be seen in Figure 2. Figure 2 – Molniya Mission Profiles -2- 1.3. Design Drivers Upon... import. The extent to which Molniya adheres to the requirements of... in Table I. Table I - Molniya Compliance Matrix RFP Requirement Molniya System Cost < 20... in the forward quadrant (Figure 3). Molniya’s Likely RCS Level Figure 3 – Aircraft... primary goal of the design. Molniya may be required -4- to interdict... is obtainable for the configuration, Molniya will be able to operate... by a Mach 0.6 dash requirement. However, Molniya must meet the same field... the development process of the Molniya concept dramatically, allowing the project... that the maximum Mach number Molniya achieves is Mach 0.6, the decrease... allowed the optimization of the Molniya planform for the loiter mission... considerations in the design of Molniya was the forwardswept wing design.... A twin-engine aircraft such as Molniya, having sufficient power to continue... 4.4 – Low Observability 4.4.1. RCS Because the Molniya’s design mission includes loiter and... features of the geometry of Molniya are the product of geometric... the radar cross-section of Molniya, a solid model was evaluated using... and enemy AWACS assets. At Molniya’s 25,000ft loiter altitude, most...º. Because the main role of Molniya is ground observation and attack... aircraft sides to be parallel, Molniya sends a radar energy spike away... enemy radar tracking installations. Making Molniya’s radar and antenna installations as... be useful for employment on Molniya, however they are likely to... is just as important for Molniya’s mission as achieving low RCS... no SAMs capable of reaching Molniya at its cruise altitude target... “balanced observability” characteristic of the Molniya, the level of these emissions... to be used to provide Molniya with higher survivability during daylight... EOTS system. This system provides Molniya with 360° situational awareness as... the Molniya’s purposes is pictured in Figure 19. Figure 19 – Molniya EOTS... the payload capability of the Molniya, the likely candidates are LYNX8... payload’s radar emissions. Because of Molniya’s relatively low loiter altitude, the... a good choice for use in Molniya. For initial prototype production, it... Figure 23. - 43 - Figure 23- Molniya Palletized Payload System One foreseeable... bombs”, although not a part of Molniya’s RFP mission might require the... attachment. - 44 - 4.9. Fuel Tank Configuration Molniya requires a fuel capacity of 134ft3... wing-body joint/strake made Molniya able to carry a sizeable fuel... fuel management system implemented in Molniya, it becomes possible to move... payload deployment maneuver. Figure 24 - Molniya Fuel Tank Configuration - 45 - 4.10...-F-8785B. In order to design Molniya for these requirements, initial classification... levels had to be performed. Molniya’s design mission classified it as... input into Tornado to simulate Molniya’s aerodynamic configuration and the software...) technologies. The design mission of Molniya requires the following control capabilities..., the operational scheme of the Molniya will be extremely similar to... system lag requirement of the Molniya is <100 msec, there seems... the long-distance control of Molniya. Since the communications are conducted... configuration Molniya can self-deploy most anywhere in the world. With Molniya..., Molniya is easily deployable. In the example in figure 30 below, a Molniya... of the Global Hawk system, Molniya can be controlled throughout its... the Molniya system. As the two systems mentioned above, the Molniya UCAV... considering a system as expensive as Molniya, a higher systems redundancy seems to... into the aircraft system. Since Molniya is an unstable aircraft, the... level of maintenance requirements of Molniya to such a degree is highly... fuel. During the design of Molniya, all these issues were taken... in the production version of Molniya to ensure simple access to... expected to be problematic in Molniya’s design, since the does not... system was implemented on the Molniya. - 59 - The operational advantages of... can be made more flexible – a Molniya system could have multiple pallets... determine operational costs of the Molniya system, a set of variables needs... the main goals of the Molniya system is a dramatic decrease in... be $444K per year per Molniya system. Ope rating c o s t parame tric... package costs were split between 2 Molniya airframes, and the GCS costs... operating cost of $1.28M per Molniya air vehicle per year. Compared... air vehicle per year, the Molniya system provides not only a dramatic.../light attack mission profile of Molniya, the performance level stated in... 37 - Maximum Thrust Maneuvering Performance Molniya performs the all of the... the Quick Reaction Strike Mission, Molniya does not need to carry... quick reaction strike mission, the Molniya dashes back at Mach 0.6. This... at takeoff speed, sea level. Molniya’s profile on takeoff can be... - 72 - 7.0 – CONCLUSION The Gisin Aviation Molniya system has been demonstrated as... multidirectional design approach undertaken, the Molniya system was developed in an...