Спутник связи. Molniya 3-K. [Редактировать]

Космический аппарат связи «Молния-3К» создан НПО ПМ на базе ранее запущенных спутников этого же типа. Аппараты серии «Молния-3К» отличаются повышенной пропускной способностью каналов связи и увеличенным ресурсом (расчетный срок службы спутника – более 5 лет).

Основные изменения бортовых систем:

  • Для системы ориентации разработаны приборы ориентации на Солнце и Землю на новых (перспективных) комплектующих элементах, создан микропроцессорный блок управления (вычислитель), позволяющий реализовать самодиагностику в системе и обход неисправностей.
  • Для системы коррекции разработана новая двухкомпонентная двигательная установка с двигателем НИИмаш, обеспечивающая высокую точность и имеющая повышенный ресурс.
  • Для системы электропитания разработаны никельводородные аккумуляторы с регламентированным самозарядом, фотопреобразователи с легирующими добавками, а также комплекс автоматики управления источниками энергии и стабилизаторов напряжения нагрузки.
  • На борту создан контур управления, повышающий автономность функционирования КА до 30 суток.

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1Molniya 1-KНайтиНайти
226867НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - Россия
2Страна производитель - Россия
3Все спутники связи

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг1780
2Мощность, Вт1400

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2001-030A

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2001-07-20 at 00:47:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xMolniya 3-K
3Ракета-носитель 1xМолния М

Найдено 522 документов по запросу «Molniya 3-K». [Перейти к поиску]


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... Under Korolev 415 The Molniya-1 Communications Satellite 453 Molniya-1 in Space (and..., the first Soviet communications satellite Molniya-1, the early spectacular missions of... the first Soviet communications satellite, Molniya-1, we find touching profiles of... republic of Dagestan, who designed Molniya’s payload. Other more powerful luminaries... extravehicular activity. 10. The second Molniya-1 (or 11F67) communications satellite was... a control moment gyroscope for the Molniya-1 communications satellite, a spherical gyroscope for... the Molniya-1 on-board systems, to prepare and launch the Molniya-1 communications... Molniya-1 communications satellite had to be launched. Everyone involved with the Molniya... had fared better controlling the Molniya-1 satellite and interplanetary automatic stations.... Korolev’s proposal to transfer the Molniya communications satellite to new Chief... via Molniya-1 after Molniya-1 No. 4 stopped operating. 42 10/20/66 Molniya-1 No... preparations for and launches of Molniya-1 communications satellites. Academician Reshetnev headed... launch of the first Soviet Molniya-1 (Lightning-1) communications satellite 453 Rockets... to initiative, Korolev’s 454 The Molniya-1 Communications Satellite clout, and the... selected for the first Soviet Molniya-1 communications satellite. Before 1961, work... in charge of developing the Molniya-1 communications satellite. 12 . Tikhonravov was... boldest of the 462 The Molniya-1 Communications Satellite young enthusiasts could... preparing to launch the second Molniya-1, Kaplanov, Sheremetyevskiy, and I were sharing... had studied Kaplanov’s 464 The Molniya-1 Communications Satellite personal information became... the first prospectus publicizing the Molniya-1 proposal, which was distributed to... interested ministries. This prospectus announced Molniya-1 as an experimental communications satellite... performer—got involved in the Molniya-1 project. Roman Anisimovich Turkov, director... production chief on whom the Molniya-1 project depended. Exuberant energy, initiative... manufacture of 468 The Molniya-1 Communications Satellite Molniya-1, its assembly, the installation... senior military representative. 470 The Molniya-1 Communications Satellite Anatoliy Nikolayevich Andrikanis...-1 during the development of the Molniya-1 communications satellite. Decisions on complex... during management’s regular meetings. Where Molniya-1 was concerned, I was usually in... production territory. Testing the entire Molniya-1 series was a difficult exam for... Liverpool and Manchester. 474 The Molniya-1 Communications Satellite Viktor Popov’s laboratory... . SEP—Sistema elektropitaniya. 478 The Molniya-1 Communications Satellite arrays. In 1961... Molniya-1. “I have every right to be proud of the SEP for Molniya... use the development of the Molniya-1 for a “revolution” in cosmonautics: introducing... with the solar arrays. During Molniya-1’s third and subsequent spaceflights a rapid... . FEP—Fotoelektricheskiye preobrazovateli. 480 The Molniya-1 Communications Satellite them heavier. When...-based communications facilities. Joining the Molniya-1 project were officers from Military... Strategic Rocket Forces. 484 The Molniya-1 Communications Satellite TASS reports. There... the first Molniya-1 at the firing range. The first Molniya-1 complex along... range almost simultaneously. Notification that Molniya-1 No. 2 was ready for shipment... RKK Energiya A diagram of the Molniya-1 communications satellite shows its primary... the first Soviet communications satellite, Molniya-1 vehicle No. 2. After 287 seconds... to begin experiments with Molniya, the devastated Molniya team was released to... for Molniya-1. Psurtsev correctly judged that the State Commission for Molniya-1 needed... altogether trouble-free launch placed Molniya-1 vehicle No. 1 into an intermediate... for Molniya-1 used in all production and acceptance documentation. 494 Molniya-1 in... monitoring service reported that the Molniya-1 spacecraft inserted into a high elliptical... Mars interplanetary stations considered the Molniya antenna problems to be relatively... modifications had accumulated for subsequent Molniya spacecraft. We realized that the...’s funeral was successfully broadcast via Molniya-1 to Vladivostok. One month after... system. This system was called Molniya-2. Boris Suprun, a conceptual designer with... satellite. The primary difference between Molniya-2 and Molniya-1 was the use of..., was constantly improving the subsequent Molniya-1 spacecraft. Space communications received full..., successful modifications (Molniya-2 and Molniya-3) began to crowd out the Molniya-1. Since the... vehicle inherited the name Molniya from the Molniya-1 satellite.23 Both of...” together on the Molniya State Commissions. The Molniya launches were still going... information.” He proposed using the Molniya satellite for communications. The telemetry... of Molniya communications satellites, 453-490; and flight-testing of Molniya communications... of Molniya communications satellites, 453-490; and flight-testing of Molniya communications... of, 491-512 Molniya-2 communications satellite, 513-514 Molniya-3 communications satellite, 514...



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... and geostationary satellites is the Molniya orbit,8 which is an eccentric... of the limitations of the Molniya orbit by changing its critical... 2.2.1). Analyses showed that these polar Molniya orbits allow continous, high elevation... using three spacecraft, while a conventional Molniya orbit would require in excess... traditional polar orbiting, GEO and Molniya spacecraft, the literature shows several... concepts such as the Molniya and polar Molniya orbits. And finally, the..., P., and Macdonald, M. "Extension of the Molniya Orbit Using LowThrust Propulsion," 21st...



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... system and non-Keplerian polar Molniya orbits. Additionally, novel displaced eight... a given payload size and lifetime. Molniya orbits [7] will also be included... no propellant was needed. 3.6. Molniya orbits The Molniya orbit is a type of... a sidereal day. Characteristic of the Molniya orbit is the fixed 63... position of apogee remains unchanged[7]. Molniya orbits are natural and do... the continuous coverage. A reference 63.4° Molniya with a period of 12 h is... the spacecraft. For the reference Molniya, the distance of the spacecraft... Molniya (63.4°, dashed line) and polar Molniya (solid line) orbits. Polar Molniya 80 φ, deg 60 Molniya 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 80 Λ, deg 60 40 20 Polar Molniya Molniya... standard Molniya (dashed lines) and polar Molniya (solid lines). 3.7. Polar Molniya and Taranis constellation The concept of polar Molniya... the critical inclination of the Molniya orbit. To increase polar Page... that found for the classic Molniya orbit. Anderson and Macdonald also... spacecraft in a 12-hour polar Molniya orbit (see continuous line in..., and compared to the standard Molniya: the maximum value of Λ (worst... advantage with respect to the Molniya orbits is that in this... same applies for spacecraft in Molniya and eight-shaped orbits, that... hybrid pole-sitter (Ceriotti) Molniya Polar Molniya/Taranis (Anderson) Eight-shaped orbit... the apogee of the Molniya and polar Molniya orbits) to 3 million km... is very different. For the Molniya, resolution of 100 m to 1 km... obtained by spacecraft in Molniya and polar Molniya orbits (while in sight... equilibria, non-Keplerian orbits, Molniya and polar Molniya). A novel way to displace... these concepts but the (polar) Molniya, the main drawback is the... view; other concepts, like polar Molniya orbits, use spacecraft that are... providing unpublished data on displaced Molniya orbits and the Taranis constellation...] P.C. Anderson, M. Macdonald, Extension of the Molniya orbit using low-thrust propulsion...



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... 3B Volna Long March 2C Molniya Long March 2D PSLV Proton... military satellite system.30 The Molniya-1 and -3 satellites are in Highly... indications that maintenance of the Molniya, Strela, and Raduga systems will... Communications LEO 19/08/2003 Molniya-1T Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO... Communications GEO 06/10/2001 Molniya-3 Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO 20... Communications GEO 04/07/2000 Molniya-3 Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO 08... Communications MEO 15/06/1998 Molniya-1T Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO.../1997 Molniya-1T Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO 28/09/1998 Molniya-3 Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO 01/07/1998 Molniya-3 Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO 24/10/1996 Molniya-1T Molniya 8K78M.../11/1995 Molniya-3 Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO* 09/08/1995 Molniya-3 Molniya 8K78M... Navigation LEO 28/06/2000 Molniya-1T Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning... 26/08/1999 Kosmos-2393 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO... 24/12/1998 Kosmos-2388 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO... 23/09/1997 Kosmos-2368 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO... 17/04/1997 Kosmos-2351 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO... 20/12/1996 Kosmos-2342 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO... 05/09/1996 Kosmos-2340 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO... 16/01/1996 Kosmos-2312 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO...* 06/10/1995 Kosmos-2286 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO... incidents involving Soviet/Russian launches,” Molniya Space Consultancy, 1994; D S McKnight, “Determining... incidents involving Soviet/Russian launches,” Molniya Space Consultancy, 1994. Online: http...



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... the major systems (Gorizont, Ekran, Molniya, and Raduga) from 17 geographic... Satellite, communications, Russian, Gorizont, Ekran, Molniya, Raduga. 15. NUMBER OF 79... the major systems (Gorizont, Ekran, Molniya and Raduga) from 16 geographic... RUSSIAN SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS ............................ 1 1 3 II. THE MOLNIYA SYSTEM .................................................... A. BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT ................... B . M O LN... the major constellations (Gorizont, Raduga, Molniya, and Ekran) will be conducted... the Soviets launching Molniya 2 in November 1957 and Molniya 3 in May of... Union at the time of Molniya covered 8,650,010 square miles... identified as Molniya 1-01 (NORAD 1965 030A). Known as the "Molniya orbit... apart as Vladivostok and Moscow. Molniya 1-01 decayed from orbit on... to stay afloat. 6 II. THE MOLNIYA SYSTEM A. BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT The... is the Molniya system. The inauguration of the unique Molniya orbit and... provide continuous 24-hour coverage. Molniya 1-1 was launched on April 23...-to-Vladivostok television transmissions. The Molniya constellation utilizes the Orbita ground... providing 480 duplex channels. The Molniya system proved effective in deterring... satellites each normally comprise the Molniya constellation. Initially, the satellites were... 1969, with the launch of Molniya 1-11, the spacing was reduced..., thereby increasing the number of Molniya above the horizon at any... vice 41 o) two. (Wilson, 1992 p. B. MOLNIYA 1 Molniya 1 satellites (Figure 2-1), in use since... was the foundation of the Molniya 1 system. The spacecraft are equipped... approximately 4050 thousand hours. Figure 2-1 Molniya 1 Spacecraft 1oh,,. 41 19I.p. ) Each... using the first generation of Molniya spacecraft? Although it is 1960...-shelf technology. C. MOLNIYA 2 With the launch of the first Molniya 2 (1971-100A... possibly improvements in the Molniya system began. The Molniya 2 appeared to have... size and configuration over the Molniya 1. The new three-section panel... the Molniya l's two-section arrays of the first generation Molniya. With the Molniya....(Joh•n' 19M. p23) That the Molniya 2 series was experimental is apparent... duration of use. The first Molniya was launched on November 24... launched on February 11, 1977. D. MOLNIYA 3 The Molniya 3 spacecraft (Figure 2-2) exhibits the... as its experimental predecessor, the Molniya 2. The first of the seemingly... the Molniya 1 and 2 could only broadcast in black and white. Figure 2-2. Molniya... constellation of Molniya 3s was complete in 1975, the Molniya system consisted... time during the 1980's the Molniya 3 constellation was utilized as the... via Molniya 3. The U.S. end of the Molniya 3 transmission is received at a Molniya station.... IV- Ho-. p. 79 ) Although the Molniya 3 system was intended to be... eight satellites in the 1980's. Molniya 3s handle a major portion of... classical elements for the current Molniya constellation. This table is current... the analysis results for the Molniya satellites. An "M" indicates that the... expected from the highly elliptical Molniya orbit, availability was greatest in.... Notable exceptions to calling the Molniya system universally available are Dunedin... U.S. relay satel- 13 lites, the Molniya constellation could be considered a reliable... hemisphere. TABLE 2.1 MOLNIYA CLASSICAL ELEMENTS (NASA SATELLITE SITUATION REPORT) Molniya Molniya Molniya Molniya Molniya Molniya 1-85 1-86... 437 356 744 511 TABLE 2.2 MOLNIYA ANALYSIS RESULTS Molni .5M .12... receiving end of 18 Russia's Molniya broadcasting satellite, when searching for...



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... elliptical orbits,3 such as the Molniya or Tundra orbits, we use... and therefore not geostationary. For Molniya-type orbits, the term THEO... in a series is denoted by -n (e.g., Molniya-n). Launch dates are given up...-12), launched in 1996 on a Molniya orbit. In each case, the... Example 4.6). Although Russia generally prefers Molniya orbits to equatorial orbits, it..., with centimetre resolution,52 in Molniya orbit, refuelled by the Space... and Ground Track of a Satellite Molniya Orbit - ref.: Earth Equiv. altit...: 60.00 ° Apogee: 67.06 ° Molniya Orbit (Celestial ref.) [Galilean] Equiv...-C1 Figure 5.14. Orbit of a Molniya satellite, over 1 day (2 revolutions). Upper... frame) 5.4 Classifying Satellites by Mission Molniya Ellipt. orbit - Gr. track Equiv...: 60.71 ° Apogee: 67.24 ° Molniya Ellipt. orbit - Gr. track Equiv... of the (HEO) orbit of a Molniya satellite, with two different... Soviet then Russian satellites, the Molniya orbit (meaning ‘lightning’), since Kosmos... for Molniya-1, from Molniya-1-01 in 1965 to Molniya-1-91 in 1998, then Molniya-1-92 in 2003 and Molniya-1-93 (Kosmos-2405) in 2004, 17 for Molniya-2, from Molniya-2-01 in 1971 to Molniya-2-17 in 1977, 53 for the present series Molniya-3, from Molniya-3-01 in 1974 to Molniya-3-53 in...-21) in 1987, are in Molniya orbit. The Tundra and Supertundra... is not so for the Molniya orbits, where satellites cross this... are the characteristics of several Molniya orbits with the launch date... in km, angle in degrees): Molniya-1-01 (23 April 1965) [538.../65.0], Molniya-3-01 (21 March 1974) [250/40095/64.1], Molniya-3-50 (8 July 1999) [464/39889/62.8], Molniya-3-51 (20 July 2001) [407/40831/62.9], Molniya-3-52 (25 October 2001) [615/40658/62.9], Molniya-3-53 (19 June 2003) [637/39709/62.8], Molniya-1-93 (18... Fig. 5.18). As in the Molniya case, the VIRGO constellation is... in Nearby Stars) is on a Molniya orbit. The French satellite Corot... Oko series (‘eye’) are in Molniya orbit, from Kosmos-520 in... 1994 and 1997. They follow Molniya orbits with apogee over Russia... the SDS satellites, also in Molniya orbit. Mercury-1 (USA-105 or... . (5.43) 5.6 Appendix: Satellite Visibility Time Molniya Elliptical orbit - Ground track Equiv... ° Figure 5.24. Ground tracks. Upper : Molniya orbit. Lower : Supertundra orbit 254... time for HEO satellites. For a (Molniya-type) HEO satellite, we have... observe that, although the name Molniya, lightning, suggests speed, it is...



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...-035B 06:57 3211 Russia Molniya 1-8 r R 11S510 2410 Florida 1968 Jul...-035D 02:58 3888 Russia Molniya 1-11 BOZ H Blok-L BOZ 100...: Derby to Kalgoorlie 6723 Russia Molniya 2-6 r R 11S510 2410 Kansas; Nebraska; Iowa.../091, N73/107. 6935 Russia Molniya 1-25 BOZ H Blok-L BOZ 100..., No. 1, Jul 1988: 2. 7393 Russia Molniya 1S r R 8S812 3500 Venezuela: Coro...-074C 01:19 9051 Russia Molniya 1-35 BOZ H Blok-L BOZ 100..., private correspondence. Skylab 1 11475 Russia Molniya 1-44 r 74783 SW Australia: Esperance... USA NTS-1 r1 12067 Russia Molniya 1-48 BOZ 83 Alberta: Elnora...-030B 11:20 12369 Russia Molniya 3-15 r R 11S510 1981 Jun 26...-123C 05:48 14572 Russia Molniya 3-22 BOZ H Blok-ML BOZ... of Earth Satellites 6958 Russia Molniya 1-26 P Molniya-1 1650 South Africa RAE...-040C 02:07 15740 Russia Molniya 3-24 BOZ H Blok-ML BOZ... A. Figer, via SeeSat-L 16936 Russia Molniya 1-68 BOZ H Blok-ML BOZ... of Earth Satellites 19731 Russia Molniya 1-74 r R 11S510 2410 Texas: Abilene...-078C 10:19 20257 Russia Molniya 1-76 BOZ H Blok-ML BOZ...-081B 22:29 23421 Russia Molniya 1-88 r R 11S510 3500 Germany, Austria...-038B 00:44 25486 Russia Molniya 1-91 r R 11S510 2410 South Africa... kg Sighting Location 12134 Russia Molniya 3-14 r2 R Blok-L 25957 China... 2 27 1986-057A 16885 Russia Molniya 1-67 P Molniya-1 1650 Western Australia SeeSat...-041B 03:29 26868 Russia Molniya 3K-11 r R Delta SSPS AJ10... 13 1992-050D 22071 Russia Molniya 1-84 r2 R Blok-ML 33381...



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... Forecast – Launch Vehicles & Manned Platforms Molniya - Archived 1/2009 Outlook Unit Production.... The Soviet Union developed the Molniya for use by the Soviet... lunar and planetary missions, the Molniya is now used to place... in 1985 U.S. dollars. Since the Molniya is rarely (if ever) used... Forecast – Launch Vehicles & Manned Platforms Molniya Technical Data Design Features. Russia... Design Bureau #1 (OKB-1) developed the Molniya space booster in 1958/60... the ICBM R-7 missile (U.S. designation SL-6). Molniya’s main purpose is to lift... vehicle as the Soyuz, the Molniya features an additional upper stage... before the main engine fires. Molniya’s additional third stage (some call... rockets. A Molniya Sits on the Pad for Launch. Source: IKI Molniya-M Dimensions... – Launch Vehicles & Manned Platforms Page 3 Molniya Weight Launch weight Payload weight... each. Variants/Upgrades Molniya-L. Revised model (1963 through 1965). Molniya-M. Stage L upgrade... as Sputnik, Voskhod, Molniya, and Soyuz. The Molniya, originally developed for lunar... Two test models of the Molniya-L were launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome... an RD-108. Molniya Enters Market with a Bang Molniya’s actual market entry... occurred in October 1960, when a Molniya hoisted the Mars 1M-1 and... a real gem. In October 1962, a Molniya blasted off carrying the Sputnik... October 1960 and March 1964, Molniya rockets suffered a number of failures... improved model was dubbed the Molniya-M Block ML, the first of... in 1964. The last recorded Molniya failure was in 1990. Lavochkin..., Molniyas have lofted Luna, Prognoz, Molniya, Zond, MARS, Venera, and MAS... Forecast – Launch Vehicles & Manned Platforms Molniya Molniya-M successfully launched a classified Kosmos spacecraft... June 2005, a Molniya launch vehicle failed to insert a Molniya 3K satellite into... Molniya 3K military communications satellite – was destroyed. Russian Milsat Launched A Molniya rocket launched a Russian military satellite July 21, 2006. The Molniya-M rocket... 36 Molniyas Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos 2312 [Oko #80] Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Interbol 1/Magion 4 Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-3 47 Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches IRS 1C/Skipper Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-1 89 Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Interbol 2/Magion 5/Musat 1 Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-3 48 Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos 2340 [Oko #81] Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos 2342 [Oko #82] Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-1 90 Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos 2351 [Oko #83] Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-3 49 Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-3 50 Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos 2368 [Oko #84] Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-1K 1 Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-3 51 Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos 2388 [Oko #85] Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-1T Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-3 65 Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos-1T 93 Molniya-M (Blok-ML) fails to launch Molniya-3K Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos-2422 [Oko #87] Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) scheduled for retirement Last two launches of Molniya-M (Blok-ML) scheduled before Molniya retirement Space Systems Forecast – Launch Vehicles & Manned Platforms Page 5 Molniya Forecast Rationale The Molniya launches once or twice... in 2005 was a failure. The Molniya returned to flight in July... for the Molniya, which launches military payloads for Russia and Molniya. Production... could prompt a surprise comeback for Molniya. However, we believe it is... around 2009, will severely limit Molniya activity. Our forecast remains low... 2016 2017 Total TsSKB Progress Molniya Total 290 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 290 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 © 20 08... – Launch Vehicles & Manned Platforms Molniya Russian Molniya ELV Source: Energia January 2008



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... B. GEOSYNCHRONOUS C. TWENTY-FOUR HOUR MOLNIYA D. TWELVE-HOUR MOLNIYA E. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM F. LOW... Integration Center looked carefully at Molniya, Geosynchronous, Low Earth and Global... areas. to inclined eccentric geosynchronous. Molniya orbits Additionally, and the two... 22767 0 Yes 24 HR MOLNIYA 12 HR MOLNIYA 63.4350 63.4350... in Table V-2. C. TWENTY-FOUR HOUR MOLNIYA Orbital perturbations Earth's oblateness. occur... this inclination are known as Molniya orbits. value of the critical... is 63.4350 [Ref 7]. hour Molniya Figure V-3 orbit delivers a closed depicts... longitudes. Instead, the Molniya 0 0p Figure V-3 24-Hour Molniya Groundtrack track covers... Molniya orbital elements. Figure V-4 24-Hour Molniya Coverage Visibility TABLE V-3 24-HOUR MOLNIYA....0 degrees TWELVE HOUR MOLNIYA Figure V-5 portrays the twelve hour Molniya orbit. The... periods 44 .. " .. .....°.......................... .... Figure V-5 12-Hour Molniya Groundtrack occur, one over Iceland... twelve and twenty four hour Molniya orbit. Note that the twelve... Figure V-6 12-Hour/24-Hour Molniya Orbit Figure V-7 constrains the elevation... twelve hour Molniya orbital elements [Ref 7]. TABLE V-4 12-HOUR MOLNIYA ORBITAL ELEMENTS... polar or azimuth-elevation. For Molniya orbits, the angular and Doppler...-03 4.02E-M3 12 Hr Molniya 10 20 19.25 19... the Molniya of blocks to have communication The connectivity. twelve hour Molniya...



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... the US and known as ‘Molniya’, is a 4-stage version of the... launch Sputnik-1, the USSR R7 Molniya lunar and planetary launch vehicle... Saturn V. From left to right: Molniya, Proton-D, N-1, and Saturn V. 3. People and...] E-6 No. 2 lander USSR 4 Jan 1963 Molniya Luna class probe. Fourth stage...] E-6 No. 3 lander USSR 3 Feb 1963 Molniya Luna class probe. Did not...). Luna 4 lander USSR 2 April 1963 Molniya Spacecraft navigation system malfunctioned enroute.... 6 lander USSR 21 Mar 1964 Molniya Luna class probe. Third stage.... 5 lander USSR 20 Apr 1964 Molniya Luna class probe. Power was... lander USSR 12 Mar 1965 Molniya Luna class probe. Fourth stage.... 8 lander USSR 10 Apr 1965 Molniya Luna class probe. Third stage...). Luna 5 lander USSR 9 May 1965 Molniya Major errors in navigation and...). Luna 6 lander USSR 8 Jun 1965 Molniya Mid-course maneuver failed due... 3 flyby USSR 18 Jul 1965 Molniya Flew past the Moon at... Luna 7 lander USSR 4 Oct 1965 Molniya First launch attempt on 4 Sep...). Luna 8 lander USSR 3 Dec 1965 Molniya Attitude control system failed just... 9 lander USSR 31 Jan 1966 Molniya First successful lunar lander and... 111 orbiter USSR 1 Mar 1966 Molniya Luna class lander modified for... orbiter USSR 31 Mar 1966 Molniya Luna class lander modified for... orbiter USSR 24 Aug 1966 Molniya Luna class spacecraft modified for... orbiter USSR 22 Oct 1966 Molniya Luna class spacecraft modified for... lander USSR 21 Dec 1966 Molniya Second soft lander with more... orbiter USSR 16 May 1967 Molniya Second modification of the luna.... 112 orbiter USSR 7 Feb 1968 Molniya Identical to Luna 14. Third... 14 orbiter USSR 7 Apr 1968 Molniya Entered orbit on 10 Apr... No. 1 probe USSR 4 Feb 1961 Molniya Identical to the Venera 1 spacecraft... 1 probe USSR 12 Feb 1961 Molniya Communication failed in transit due... probe USSR 25 Aug 1962 Molniya A new modular spacecraft design for.../surf probe USSR 1 Sept 1962 Molniya Carried a pennant in an entry.... 1 flyby USSR 12 Sept 1962 Molniya Photo-flyby mission. Stranded in... mission USSR 19 Feb 1964 Molniya Test launch of an improved... probe USSR 27 Mar 1964 Molniya Stranded in low Earth orbit.../surf probe USSR 2 Apr 1964 Molniya Spacecraft flew toward Venus, but... 2 flyby USSR 12 Nov 1965 Molniya Flew by Venus at 23... probe USSR 16 Nov 1965 Molniya Communications failed 17 days before... flyby USSR 23 Nov 1965 Molniya Failed to depart from low... probe USSR 12 Jun 1967 Molniya Full responsibility for planetary missions... probe USSR 17 Jun 1967 Molniya Same design and science as.../surf probe USSR 5 Jan 1969 Molniya Successful atmospheric probe, entered the... probe USSR 10 Jan 1969 Molniya Same design and science as... probe USSR 17 Aug 1970 Molniya First successful planetary lander on... depart from low Earth orbit. Molniya 1972 (Celestial Window No. 8) Venera... probe USSR 27 Mar 1972 Molniya Landed 22 Jul 1972 on... probe USSR 31 Mar 1972 Molniya Same design and science as.... 1 flyby USSR 10 Oct 1960 Molniya Did not achieve Earth orbit.... 2 flyby USSR 14 Oct 1960 Molniya Did not achieve Earth orbit.... 3 flyby USSR 24 Oct 1962 Molniya Failed to depart from low...). Mars 1 flyby USSR 1 Nov 1962 Molniya Photo-flyby mission. First mission...-3 No. 1 probe USSR 4 Nov 1962 Molniya Failed to depart from low... mission USSR 11 Nov 1963 Molniya Test launch of a new spacecraft... 2 flyby USSR 30 Nov 1964 Molniya Photo-flyby mission. Communications failed... mission USSR 18 Jul 1965 Molniya Test mission using a spacecraft identical... third stage of the new Molniya launch vehicle failed both times... the 4th stage of the Molniya. The US took much longer... Codes: R7E: Luna; R7M: Molniya; R7M : Molniya modified for spacecraft control of...