Спутник связи. Molniya-3K. [Редактировать]

Космический аппарат связи «Молния-3К» создан НПО ПМ на базе ранее запущенных спутников этого же типа. Аппараты серии «Молния-3К» отличаются повышенной пропускной способностью каналов связи и увеличенным ресурсом (расчетный срок службы спутника – более 5 лет).

Основные изменения бортовых систем:

  • Для системы ориентации разработаны приборы ориентации на Солнце и Землю на новых (перспективных) комплектующих элементах, создан микропроцессорный блок управления (вычислитель), позволяющий реализовать самодиагностику в системе и обход неисправностей.
  • Для системы коррекции разработана новая двухкомпонентная двигательная установка с двигателем НИИмаш, обеспечивающая высокую точность и имеющая повышенный ресурс.
  • Для системы электропитания разработаны никельводородные аккумуляторы с регламентированным самозарядом, фотопреобразователи с легирующими добавками, а также комплекс автоматики управления источниками энергии и стабилизаторов напряжения нагрузки.
  • На борту создан контур управления, повышающий автономность функционирования КА до 30 суток.

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - Россия
2Страна производитель - Россия
3Все спутники связи

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг1780
2Мощность, Вт1400

Информация о неудачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром Плесецк
2Дата пуска2005-06-21
3Полезная нагрузка 1xMolniya-3K
4Ракета-носитель 1xМолния М

Найдено 19 документов по запросу «Molniya-3K». [Перейти к поиску]


Дата загрузки: 2017-04-08
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0.1/5
... Forecast – Launch Vehicles & Manned Platforms Molniya - Archived 1/2009 Outlook Unit Production.... The Soviet Union developed the Molniya for use by the Soviet... lunar and planetary missions, the Molniya is now used to place... in 1985 U.S. dollars. Since the Molniya is rarely (if ever) used... Forecast – Launch Vehicles & Manned Platforms Molniya Technical Data Design Features. Russia... Design Bureau #1 (OKB-1) developed the Molniya space booster in 1958/60... the ICBM R-7 missile (U.S. designation SL-6). Molniya’s main purpose is to lift... vehicle as the Soyuz, the Molniya features an additional upper stage... before the main engine fires. Molniya’s additional third stage (some call... rockets. A Molniya Sits on the Pad for Launch. Source: IKI Molniya-M Dimensions... – Launch Vehicles & Manned Platforms Page 3 Molniya Weight Launch weight Payload weight... each. Variants/Upgrades Molniya-L. Revised model (1963 through 1965). Molniya-M. Stage L upgrade... as Sputnik, Voskhod, Molniya, and Soyuz. The Molniya, originally developed for lunar... Two test models of the Molniya-L were launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome... an RD-108. Molniya Enters Market with a Bang Molniya’s actual market entry... occurred in October 1960, when a Molniya hoisted the Mars 1M-1 and... a real gem. In October 1962, a Molniya blasted off carrying the Sputnik... October 1960 and March 1964, Molniya rockets suffered a number of failures... improved model was dubbed the Molniya-M Block ML, the first of... in 1964. The last recorded Molniya failure was in 1990. Lavochkin..., Molniyas have lofted Luna, Prognoz, Molniya, Zond, MARS, Venera, and MAS... Forecast – Launch Vehicles & Manned Platforms Molniya Molniya-M successfully launched a classified Kosmos spacecraft... June 2005, a Molniya launch vehicle failed to insert a Molniya 3K satellite into its... – a Russian Molniya 3K military communications satellite – was destroyed. Russian Milsat Launched A Molniya rocket launched a Russian military satellite July 21, 2006. The Molniya-M rocket... 36 Molniyas Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos 2312 [Oko #80] Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Interbol 1/Magion 4 Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-3 47 Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches IRS 1C/Skipper Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-1 89 Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Interbol 2/Magion 5/Musat 1 Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-3 48 Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos 2340 [Oko #81] Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos 2342 [Oko #82] Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-1 90 Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos 2351 [Oko #83] Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-3 49 Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-3 50 Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos 2368 [Oko #84] Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-1K 1 Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-3 51 Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos 2388 [Oko #85] Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-1T Molniya-M (Blok-ML) launches Molniya-3 65 Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos-1T 93 Molniya-M (Blok-ML) fails to launch Molniya-3K Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) launches Kosmos-2422 [Oko #87] Molniya-M (Blok-2BL) scheduled for retirement Last two launches of Molniya-M (Blok-ML) scheduled before Molniya retirement Space Systems Forecast – Launch Vehicles & Manned Platforms Page 5 Molniya Forecast Rationale The Molniya launches once or twice... in 2005 was a failure. The Molniya returned to flight in July... for the Molniya, which launches military payloads for Russia and Molniya. Production... could prompt a surprise comeback for Molniya. However, we believe it is... around 2009, will severely limit Molniya activity. Our forecast remains low... 2016 2017 Total TsSKB Progress Molniya Total 290 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 290 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 © 20 08... – Launch Vehicles & Manned Platforms Molniya Russian Molniya ELV Source: Energia January 2008



Дата загрузки: 2017-04-08
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0.07/5
... as those used for Russian Molniya satellites), and EXT is a designation... (a June 21 Molniya launch) failed, destroying its noncommercial payoad (Molniya 3K). All other..., Kosmos 2415, Kosmos 2416, and Molniya 3K—lost in a launch failure) Four... 2005 Russia Volna 1 Kosmos 3M 3 Molniya 1 Rockot 2 Dnepr 1 Soyuz 11 Proton.... In June, a Molniya launched the military communications satellite Molniya 3K; however, both the... V Volna Barents Sea Plesetsk Molniya 3K 6/21/2005 Molniya 6/23/2005 V Zenit 3SL...



Дата загрузки: 2017-05-20
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0.05/5
...-035B 06:57 3211 Russia Molniya 1-8 r R 11S510 2410 Florida 1968 Jul...-035D 02:58 3888 Russia Molniya 1-11 BOZ H Blok-L BOZ 100...: Derby to Kalgoorlie 6723 Russia Molniya 2-6 r R 11S510 2410 Kansas; Nebraska; Iowa.../091, N73/107. 6935 Russia Molniya 1-25 BOZ H Blok-L BOZ 100..., No. 1, Jul 1988: 2. 7393 Russia Molniya 1S r R 8S812 3500 Venezuela: Coro...-074C 01:19 9051 Russia Molniya 1-35 BOZ H Blok-L BOZ 100..., private correspondence. Skylab 1 11475 Russia Molniya 1-44 r 74783 SW Australia: Esperance... USA NTS-1 r1 12067 Russia Molniya 1-48 BOZ 83 Alberta: Elnora...-030B 11:20 12369 Russia Molniya 3-15 r R 11S510 1981 Jun 26...-123C 05:48 14572 Russia Molniya 3-22 BOZ H Blok-ML BOZ... of Earth Satellites 6958 Russia Molniya 1-26 P Molniya-1 1650 South Africa RAE...-040C 02:07 15740 Russia Molniya 3-24 BOZ H Blok-ML BOZ... A. Figer, via SeeSat-L 16936 Russia Molniya 1-68 BOZ H Blok-ML BOZ... of Earth Satellites 19731 Russia Molniya 1-74 r R 11S510 2410 Texas: Abilene...-078C 10:19 20257 Russia Molniya 1-76 BOZ H Blok-ML BOZ...-081B 22:29 23421 Russia Molniya 1-88 r R 11S510 3500 Germany, Austria...-038B 00:44 25486 Russia Molniya 1-91 r R 11S510 2410 South Africa... kg Sighting Location 12134 Russia Molniya 3-14 r2 R Blok-L 25957 China... 2 27 1986-057A 16885 Russia Molniya 1-67 P Molniya-1 1650 Western Australia SeeSat...-041B 03:29 26868 Russia Molniya 3K-11 r R Delta SSPS AJ10-118K... 13 1992-050D 22071 Russia Molniya 1-84 r2 R Blok-ML 33381...



Дата загрузки: 2016-10-31
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0.06/5
... 04 SNAPSHOT INTELSAT 1 F-1 ¿? COSMOS 0065 MOLNIYA-1-01 KH 7-17 KH 7-17... COSMOS 0180 INTELSAT 2 F-4 SOYUZ 7KL1 MOLNIYA-1-06 DMSP BLOCK-4A F10... 0228 COSMOS 0229 EXPLORER 38 MOLNIYA-1-09 COSMOS 0230 COSMOS 0231... 0276 COSMOS 0277 COSMOS 0278 MOLNIYA-1-11 CANYON 2 NIMBUS 03 SECOR... BIOSATELLITE 3 STV 2 N-1 5L COSMOS 0289 MOLNIYA-1-12 COSMOS 0290 DMSP BLOCK... RHYOLITE 1 METEOR 1-05 KH 8-27 MOLNIYA-1-14 COSMOS 0350 COSMOS 0351... 0387 COSMOS 0388 COSMOS 0389 MOLNIYA-1-17 COSMOS 0390 COSMOS 0391... 1-09 COSMOS 0429 COSMOS 0430 MOLNIYA-1-18 COSMOS 0431 COSMOS 0432... 0455 COSMOS 0456 COSMOS 0457 MOLNIYA-2-01 COSMOS 0458 COSMOS 0459... COSMOS 0467 COSMOS 0468 INTELSAT 4 F-3 MOLNIYA-1-19 COSMOS 0469 AUREOLE 1 COSMOS... 0481 METEOR 1-11 COSMOS 0483 MOLNIYA-1-20 SRET 1 COSMOS 0484 INTERCOSMOS... 0520 EXPLORER 47 COSMOS 0521 MOLNIYA-2-03 RADCAT RADSAT COSMOS 0522... COSMOS 0537 INTERCOSMOS 08 MOLNIYA-1-22 NIMBUS 05 MOLNIYA-2-04 COSMOS 0538... METEOR 1-14 COSMOS 0552 SALYUT 2 MOLNIYA-2-05 COSMOS 0553 INTERCOSMOS 09... INTELSAT 4 F-7 COSMOS 0581 COSMOS 0582 MOLNIYA-1-24 COSMOS 0583 COSMOS 0584... 0599 COSMOS 0600 COSMOS 0601 MOLNIYA-2-07 COSMOS 0602 EXPLORER 50... 0610 COSMOS 0611 COSMOS 0612 MOLNIYA-1-26 COSMOS 0613 COSMOS 0614... 0623 COSMOS 0624 COSMOS 0625 MOLNIYA-2-08 AUREOLE 2 COSMOS 0626 COSMOS... 1 AEROS 2 MOLNIYA-2-10 COSMOS 0667 COSMOS 0668 COSMOS 0669 MOLNIYA-1-S COSMOS 0670... COSMOS 0694 COSMOS 0695 INTELSAT 4 F-8 MOLNIYA 3-01 SKYNET 2B COSMOS 0696... METEOR 1-20 SYMPHONIE A COSMOS 0698 MOLNIYA-2-11 COSMOS 0699 COSMOS 0700... 0705 COSMOS 0706 COSMOS 0707 MOLNIYA-2-12 SMS 2 STARLETTE COSMOS 0708... ARYABHATA COSMOS 0729 COSMOS 0730 MOLNIYA-1-29 ANIK A3 EXPLORER 53... SYMPHONIE B COSMOS 0757 MOLNIYA-1-31 COSMOS 0758 KIKU 1 MOLNIYA-2-14 COSMOS 0759... 2 COSMOS 0786 MOLNIYA-2-15 PROGNOZ 04 RADUGA 1 METEOR 1-23 MOLNIYA 3-04 COSMOS...ón Militar Comunicaciones 32 COSMOS 0789 MOLNIYA 1-32 COSMOS 0790 COSMOS 0791... 1 COSMOS 0805 ISS 1 COSMOS 0806 MOLNIYA 1-33 COSMOS 0807 LES 8 LES... NOSS 01 LAGEOS 1 COSMOS 0817 MOLNIYA 3-05 COMSTAR 1 METEOR 1-25 COSMOS... COSMOS 0843 COMSTAR 2 COSMOS 0844 MOLNIYA 1-35 INTERCOSMOS 16 COSMOS 0845... 0891 IMEWS 07 COSMOS 0892 MOLNIYA-2-17 COSMOS 0893 TANSEI-3 COSMOS... COSMOS 0946 SIRIO 1 COSMOS 0947 MOLNIYA 1-38 COSMOS 0948 COSMOS 0949... 1 ISEE 2 COSMOS 0960 COSMOS 0961 MOLNIYA 3-08 TRANSAT COSMOS 0962 METEOSAT... 3 COSMOS 1026 PROGRESS 02 GEOS B MOLNIYA 1-41 RADUGA 4 COSMOS 1027 SDS... 1070 COSMOS 1071 COSMOS 1072 MOLNIYA 3-11 METEOR 1-29 SCATHA COSMOS... 1103 COSMOS 1104 ARIEL 6 AMS 4 MOLNIYA 3-12 SOYUZ 34 BHASKARA 1 COSMOS... COSMOS 1117 SJ COSMOS 1118 MOLNIYA 1-44 COSMOS 1119 WESTAR 3 COSMOS... 03 COSMOS 1148 COSMOS 1149 MOLNIYA 1-46 COSMOS 1150 FLTSATCOM 3 COSMOS... Militar Recursos terrestres Militar 42 MOLNIYA 1-47 COSMOS 1189 PROGRESS 10... COSMOS 1220 COSMOS 1221 SBS 1 MOLNIYA 1-48 COSMOS 1222 COSMOS 1223... EKRAN 6 COSMOS 1236 COSMOS 1237 MOLNIYA 3-14 COSMOS 1238 COSMOS 1239...-IK 1 PROGRESS 12 COSMOS 1242 MOLNIYA 1-49 COSMOS 1243 INTERCOSMOS 21... COSMOS 1259 RADUGA 8 COSMOS 1260 MOLNIYA 3-15 YANTAR 2K COSMOS 1261... otras aplicaciones Militar Militar 44 MOLNIYA 3-16 COSMOS 1276 COSMOS 1277... 1316 MOLNIYA 3-17 CHALET 3 COSMOS 1317 COSMOS 1318 COSMOS 1319 MOLNIYA 1-51... COSMOS 1330 CAT 2 CAT 4 MARECS-A MOLNIYA 1-52 COSMOS 1331 COSMOS 1332... COSMOS 1339 COSMOS 1340 WESTAR 4 MOLNIYA 1-53 COSMOS 1341 INTELSAT 5 F-4 COSMOS... PROGRESS 14 COSMOS 1387 LANDSAT 4 MOLNIYA 1-55 COSMOS 1388 COSMOS 1389... 1443 COSMOS 1444 MOLNIYA 3-20 EKRAN 10 COSMOS 1445 MOLNIYA 1-56 COSMOS... COSMOS 1698 MOLNIYA 1-65 METEOR 3-01 COSMOS 1699 COSMOS 1700 MOLNIYA 1-66... 1739 COSMOS 1740 KH 9-20 MOLNIYA 3-28 SSF-D- 6 COSMOS 1741 PROGRESS... 1784 STRELA 3-5/10 COSMOS 1785 MOLNIYA 3-30 COSMOS 1786 COSMOS 1787... COSMOS 1922 STTW 2 COSMOS 1923 MOLNIYA 1-71 SPACENET 3R TELECOM 1C...ífico De otras aplicaciones 61 MOLNIYA 1-74 COSMOS 1986 COSMOS 1987... COSMOS 2044 COSMOS 2045 FLTSATCOM 8 MOLNIYA 1-76 COSMOS 2046 GORIZONT 19... COSMOS 2050 COSMOS 2051 QUANT 2 MOLNIYA 3-36 COSMOS 2052 GRANAT 05...-1 QQW-2 RESURS F-09 COSMOS 2100 MOLNIYA 3-39 PROGRESS M-05 METEOR 2-20... 2 NADEZHDA 3 COSMOS 2137 PROGRESS M-07 MOLNIYA 3-40 COSMOS 2138 16.10... OKEAN 3 COSMOS 2150 COSMOS 2151 MOLNIYA 1-81 RESURS F-11 REX 1 GORIZONT... 22 SARA TUBSAT A RESURS F-12 MOLNIYA 1-82 INTELSAT 6 F-5 METEOR 3-05 PROGRESS... FSW 14 FOTON 8 DFS 3 KOPERNIKUS MOLNIYA 3-42 COSMOS 2211 COSMOS 2212... 2240 COSMOS 2241 COSMOS 2242 MOLNIYA 3-44 ALEXIS-1 COSMOS 2243 COSMOS... 24 RESURS F-17 PROGRESS M-18 MOLNIYA 1-86 GORIZONT 27a COSMOS 2251... NATO 4-B TELSTAR 401 DBS 1 THAICOM 1 MOLNIYA 1-87 GALS-1 EUTELSAT 2F5 TURKSAT... 2287 COSMOS 2288 COSMOS 2289 MOLNIYA 3-A PROGRESS M-24 COSMOS 2290 USA... INTERBOL-1 MAGION 4 PANAMSAT 4A KOREASAT 1 MOLNIYA 3-B GEMSTAR 1 JCSAT 3 N-STAR A COSMOS 2319... 75 ITALSAT F2 TELECOM 2D MOLNIYA 1-89 ADEOS 1 JAS-2 ZHONGXING 7 FAST... FAISAT 2 INTELSAT 803 COSMOS 2346 MOLNIYA 1-90 IRIDIUM 19 IRIDIUM 34... FM26 ORBCOMM FM27 ORBCOMM-FM28 MOLNIYA 1-91 STEX EUTELSAT W2 SIRIUS... 1H QUICKSCAT FUSE RADUGA G-45 MOLNIYA 3-63 GLOBALSTAR MO30 GLOBALSTAR MO32... DIRECTV 8 FOTON 14 PROGRESS M-53 MOLNIYA 3K COSMOS-1 IA 8 EKSPRESS AM-3 SJ...



Дата загрузки: 2017-02-06
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0.14/5
... SINP MSU: Experiments in Space Molniya 3K ISS Coronas F Express Meteor-3 Measurements...



Дата загрузки: 2016-12-11
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0.04/5
... stage in August) and a Russian Molniya 3K spacecraft in December. Fortunately, debris...



Дата загрузки: 2017-06-15
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0.12/5
... satellites in the highly eccentric Molniya orbits which exhibit peculiar mean... the Earth’s oblateness. Satellites in a Molniya orbit are in a 2-to-1 meanmotion.... Although the peculiarities of the Molniya orbits are absent in the... they follow a circular orbit, the Molniya type error model was adopted...  2 e0   4 1   2  e0  e0 cos 20            (A.16)     3k  1  3 2 3k 22 13  78 2  137 4 M  1  2 2 3  4 2a0  0 16a0  07      n   (A.17) 0   3k 2  1  5 2 3k 22 7  114 2  395 4 5k 4 3  36... 4a0  08     204 n   0 (A.18) APPENDIX    3k 2 n  1 0 2 a0  04 (A.19)    2 3 2      3k2 4  19...) 7 (A.49) u     (A.47) k2 4 pL 2 3k 2 2 pL 3k 2 2 pL r   2   1 sin 2u 2 sin 2u...



Дата загрузки: 2017-04-24
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0.09/5
... 3B Volna Long March 2C Molniya Long March 2D PSLV Proton... military satellite system.30 The Molniya-1 and -3 satellites are in Highly... indications that maintenance of the Molniya, Strela, and Raduga systems will... June, Russia lost its Molnya-3K military satellite when the Molnya... Communications LEO 19/08/2003 Molniya-1T Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO... Communications GEO 06/10/2001 Molniya-3 Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO 20... Communications GEO 04/07/2000 Molniya-3 Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO 08... Communications MEO 15/06/1998 Molniya-1T Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO.../1997 Molniya-1T Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO 28/09/1998 Molniya-3 Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO 01/07/1998 Molniya-3 Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO 24/10/1996 Molniya-1T Molniya 8K78M.../11/1995 Molniya-3 Molniya 8K78M Russia Communications HEO* 09/08/1995 Molniya-3 Molniya 8K78M... Navigation LEO 28/06/2000 Molniya-1T Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning... 26/08/1999 Kosmos-2393 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO... 24/12/1998 Kosmos-2388 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO... 23/09/1997 Kosmos-2368 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO... 17/04/1997 Kosmos-2351 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO... 20/12/1996 Kosmos-2342 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO... 05/09/1996 Kosmos-2340 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO... 16/01/1996 Kosmos-2312 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO...* 06/10/1995 Kosmos-2286 Molniya 8K78M Russia Early Warning HEO... incidents involving Soviet/Russian launches,” Molniya Space Consultancy, 1994; D S McKnight, “Determining... incidents involving Soviet/Russian launches,” Molniya Space Consultancy, 1994. Online: http...



Дата загрузки: 2017-02-22
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0.08/5
... other programs, such as the Molniya-I communications satellite, the Luna automated... OKB-I's and appeared for the Molniya-I space launch vehicles, of airplane... days. On March 27, 1966, a Molniya-I communications satellite lifted off from... oscillations that had caused the Molniya-I accident would not occur again... 'Molniya-M'" (Englishtitle), Nauosti kosmonautikiI (January1-12, 199/): 29-34. The Molniya-I satellitein... I (1997): 16-18: Stepan Mikoyan, r"Molniya': From 'Spiral' to M,qKS" (English... designated was launched as the Molniya-M). and was not able to... the Kosmonaut Vladimir Komarou, to Molniya-I satellites in Earth orbit, to... first time jointly used the Molniya-I 22. 23 24 satellite Petrov... a 1976. NPO Molniya had hitherto bomber. KB-90) Molniya), was established zero... old Molniya Potopalov, Building twenty on a new launcher, design ers. NPO Molniya... the basis of the old Molniya which misthis is with that... Korporatsiya. p, 362. 134 Stepan Mikoyan, "'Molniya': From 'Spiral' to MAKS" (English... S. G. ,qrutyunov. Note that both KB Molniya and KB Burevestnikwere also located... Designer of NPO Despite Molniya, Lozino-Lozinskiy's Molniya seems to have been...)? was I'm not trying that MPO Molniya and Burevestnik, plane, Ignoring came..., died an ignominious bomber, NPO Molniya necessity with to finish. ''_ 1978... suitable of the time, having Molniya about also conclusively of money... kerosene those Spiral puttered cessful Molniya not only never had anything...-102 SL-6 SL-6 A-2e A 2e Molniya Molniya-M R-7A R-TA 8K78 Oct. I 0, 1960... spaceship. 498. 7K-PPK 502 Molniya 473: see also Soyuz-P for...-26. spaceship, 525, see also Molniya 556, 557, 561. 565. 567.... 473,591. P spaceship 195,250 3K spaceship, 7KTG spaceship, 7K-TK...



Дата загрузки: 2017-04-08
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0.07/5
...-80-91 Email: molniya@molniya-ufa.ru Internet: www.molniya-ufa.ru ОАО... of sector Shavva A.P., research engineer 3k. THIRD DAY OF CONFERENCE – 14... UFA SCIENTIFIC AND PRODUCTION ENTERPRISE MOLNIYA, OJSC, Russia URAL OPTICAL AND...-80-91 Email: molniya@molniya-ufa.ru Internet: www.molniya-ufa.ru 2, N. Lipatova... ENTERPRISE MOLNIYA, OJSC Ufa OJSC “Ufa Scientific and Production Enterprise “Molniya” is... to the customer’s technical requirements “Molniya” is developing pyrometrical systems for...