Спутник ДЗЗ. NOAA 16. [Редактировать]

NOAA-  представляет собой космический аппарат из серии из пяти «оперативных полярных спутников наблюдения окружающей среды» (Polar Operational Environmental Satellites, POES) с улучшенными характеристиками радиометрической аппаратуры и аппаратуры построения изображения. Пять аппаратов этой серии должны эксплуатироваться до 2010 г. Кроме того, часть аппаратуры по программе POES будет установлена на спутниках европейской метеосистемы METOP.

Начиная с 2009 г. предполагается начать запуск аппаратов нового типа в рамках системы NPOESS взамен эксплуатируемых сейчас NOAA и DMSP (последние созданы по программе ВВС США).

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1Advanced TIROS-N (ATN)НайтиНайти
2POES 16НайтиНайти
326536НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Тип орбиты - НОО
4Страна производитель - США
5Все спутники ДЗЗ

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12015-11-26. По данным центра наблюдения аппарат разрушился.
Joint Space Operations Center сегодня информировал общественность о том, что вполне вероятно, что запущенный в 2000-ом году космический аппарат NOAA 16 вышел из строя. Обломки были зафиксированны в 8:16 на орбитах 641 и 857 км. В 18:30 центр также зафиксировал дополнительные объекты которые находятся на орбите в том месте где должен был находиться космический аппарат. Всего в центре насчитали порядка 19 осколков. При этом, их появление не может быть объяснено столкновением с космическим мусором поскольку традиционно США достаточно пристально следят за безопастностью своих аппаратов.Тэги: NOAA 16

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг1457
2Мощность, Вт830

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град99.0
2Апогей, км863.2
3Перигей, км849.1
4Период, минут101.9
5САС, год2
6Длинный диаметр эллипса, км7227

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2000-055A

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Оператор National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
2Производитель Lockheed Martin

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2000-09-21 at 10:21:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xNOAA 16
3Ракета-носитель 1xТитан 2

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «NOAA 16». [Перейти к поиску]


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... due to processing issues at NOAA. 8 April 2015 TMI data are... input data files originating at NOAA. This networking issue prevented the... reprocessed 3B41RT and 3B42RT after NOAA forwarded revised, fully populated IR... accurate. 11 October 2012 the NOAA server providing access to sounder... the first opportunity after the NOAA server came up, PPS retrieved... provide the fill-in by NOAA/CPC don't necessarily exhibit the... September 2012 A network outage at NOAA prevented the original IR input... Obtain Information about the Data 16. Appendices 16.1 Read a File of Data... Example Keywords (searchable as *keyword*) 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 3 2A12RT... operational level 2 AMSU-B precipitation estimates; 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 5 6. NESDIS... level 2 MHS precipitation estimates; and 7. NOAA/NWS/CPC Merged 4-Km Geostationary... Kummerow et al. 1996); the NOAA Scattering algorithm (Grody 1991); and... estimates. See "3B42" for details. ........................................................................ 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 6 The... the case that, despite the 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 7 • • • • long... in the second retrospective processing. ........................................................................ 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 9 3. Storage....gsfc.nasa.gov/precipitation/tovas/ . ........................................................................ 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 10...+ # ambig. pixels 1382400& uncal precip 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 11... (2-byte integer) precipitation_error (2-byte integer) 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 13... actual estimates as development proceeds. 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 14...+VAR precipitation values* with p = -0.01 * ( v + 1 ) 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 15..., graupel, and hail. ............................................................................ 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 16 The *time zone... the Climate Prediction Center (CPC), NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction... is the delivery of all NOAA-18 MHS granules that contain... the gradual failure of the NOAA-16 AMSU-B during 2010, the point... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) platforms from early 2000 to 2011. The NOAA satellites are placed in sun... system matured. As well, the NOAA-17 50-GHz channel failed... to solar flare activity. Finally, NOAA-17 gradually failed during 2010... details are available in the NOAA KLM User's Guide (September 2000 revision) at http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/index.htm, specifically at http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/html/c3... Status NOAA-15 1 January 2000 - 14 September 2010 inactive NOAA-16 4 October 2000 - 16 February 2011 inactive (last used for 30 April 2010) NOAA-17... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) platforms since mid-2005 as... details are available in the NOAA KLM User's Guide (September 2000 revision) at http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/index.htm, specifically at http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/html/c3... Record Status NOAA-18 25 May 2005 – current active NOAA-19 9 March... (Meteosat, European Community). There are 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 30... 14 Sep 2010 CICS; CLASS NOAA-15 1 June 2007 AMSU-B CICS... 30 Apr 2010 CICS; CLASS NOAA-16 1 June 2007 AMSU-B CICS archive... 17 Dec 2009 CICS; CLASS NOAA-17 1 June 2007 MHS 25... archive before 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 31 NOAA-18 MHS NOAA-19... of the precipitation estimation techniques. 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 32..., so Ta data sets from NOAA/NCDC are employed in a correction... antenna temperature (Ta). Systematic navigation 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 33... from the loss of the NOAA-17 50-GHz channel. Some.../ AMSU-B instrument: http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/html/c3/sec3-4.htm in the NOAA KLM User's Guide (September 2000 revision): http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/index.htm.../ MHS instrument: http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/html/c3/sec3-9.htm in the NOAA KLM User's Guide (September 2000 revision): http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/index.htm... MTSat NASA NCAR NCDC NESDIS NOAA NWS PERSIANN Fleet Numerical Meteorological... Microwave/Temperature 2 Ta Antenna Temperature 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 44... 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 45 .......................................................................... 16. Appendices Appendix 16.1 *Read a File of Data... appears in file read3B4XRT.c . .......................................................................... Appendix 16.2 *Read the Header Record, FORTRAN... appears in file read_header.f . .......................................................................... Appendix 16.3 *Read a File of Data In... 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 46 .......................................................................... Appendix 16.4 *Read a File of Data, IDL... in file read_rt_file.pro . .......................................................................... Appendix 16.5 *Read a File of Data Line... code appears in file read_rt_lines.f . .......................................................................... 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 47



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...% is absorbed by the atmosphere: 16% by gases and dust and... from a few centimeters to around 5 m (16 ft). Frost heaving (frost heave... (MSU) that was carried on NOAA satellites. AMSU comprises two separate... measures profiles of atmospheric humidity. NOAA-15 was the first satellite... has since been carried on NOAA-16 and NOAA-17 (see POES). advanced... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites (see POES... air that has flowed south 16 http://arab2000.forumpro.fr FREEDOM... (300–600 miles) wide, extends 16,000 km (10,000 miles... atmospheric moisture occurs below 5000 m (16,500 ft). Water in the... 4–6 7 – 10 4–7 8 – 12 4 moderate breeze 11 – 16 13 – 18 5 6 fresh breeze strong... and humidity profiles from the NOAA polar-orbiting satellites. These messages... values are typically 8–14 knots (9–16 mph). The sea breeze’s vertical... at temperatures of –12°C to –16°C (10°F to 3°F); and thin hexagonal... be as high as 5000 m (16,000 ft), in the European... wind speed by at least 16 knots (18 mph), rising to... is a constituent body of both NOAA’s NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE (NWS) and... Scale, which is defined by 16 fixed points, so that this... (forest); 32–63, subhumid (grassland); 16–31, semi-arid (steppe); and <16, arid (desert). Thornthwaite’s second classification (... seldom heard at distances beyond 16 km (10 miles). The rumbling... occasionally as synonymous with the NOAA polar-orbiting operational satellites (POES... the order of 14 knots (16 mph). The trade winds are... The temperature of 0.01°C (273.16 K) at which liquid water, ice... 3000 km (2000 miles) and 16,000 km (10,000 miles..., usually within the first 5000 m (16,500 ft) above the Earth... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) launches the weather satellite TIROS... h–1 6.1024 × 0.061 024 1 231.01 1 16.3871 3785.4 106 104 in3....592 1.016 047 × 106 g 1 1000 1 16.0185 0.016 0185 2.767 99... 32 313 20 68 528 16 293 0 32 492 0 273 –20 –4 454 –16 253 –40 –40 420 –32... for Environmental Prediction www.ncep.noaa.gov National Weather Service (NWS) www.nws.noaa.gov Unisys Weather www.weather... Prediction Center www.cpc.ncep.noaa Environment Canada www.ec.gc... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) www.noaa.gov US Environmental Protection Agency... Niño El Niño site, NOAA www.pmel.noaa.gov/toga-tao/el....noaa.gov Severe weather Storm Prediction Center, NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory, NOAA www.spc.noaa.gov www.nssl.noaa.gov...



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.../NOAA-16&-17 Pubu Ciren QSS Group Inc. Lanham, Maryland, U.S.A Changyong Cao NOAA... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s polar-orbiting satellites for over... of the comparison between HIRS/NOAA-16&-17 radiances with the convolved...-1b radiance data from HIRS/NOAA-16&17 and that from AIRS... April 2002. HIRS is onboard NOAA polar orbiting satellites. Similar to... data are acquired from the NOAA Satellite Active Archive. Table 1. Specification... AIRS/Aqua and HIRS/NOAA AIRS/Aqua HIRS/NOAA Spectral Coverage 3.74... nadir overpasses between Aqua and NOAA-16 & -17 occur every 2-3 days. After... are found for Aqua vs. NOAA-16 and Aqua vs. NOAA17 respectively... Ch 13 Ch 17 Ch 16 Figure 1. HIRS spectral response functions... channels (solid line for NOAA-16; dashed line for NOAA-17). Red lines...&NOAA-16 ∆ ── Aqua&NOAA-17 Figure 2. Collocated intersections between AIRS/AQUA and HIRS/NOAA-16 (or NOAA... between AIRS/Aqua and HIRS/NOAA-16 on July 22, 2003. It... the intersections and for both NOAA-16 and NOAA-17. In addition, to... of Julian day, for NOAA-16 and NOAA-17 respectively. The corresponding statistics... between AIRS/Aqua and HIRS/NOAA-16 on July 22, 2003. AIRS... channel 16. There is no significant difference between NOAA-16 and NOAA-17 in... noticeably smaller in NOAA-16/HIRS than those for NOAA-17/HIRS (see... both NOAA16/HIRS and NOAA-17/HIRS. a. NOAA-16 b. NOAA-17 Figure 4. Difference between... Ch. 11 Ch. 15 Ch .16 Ch. 18 mean 5.1 -0.8 -0.5 -0.7 -0.1 0.04 0.02... -1.0 -0.1 std 1.9 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.9 AIRS-HIRS ∆BT1 NOAA-16 ∆BT2 ∆BT1 NOAA-17 ∆BT2 It was... HIRS Channel 6, 10,11,15,16 and 18. Slightly larger (about... NOAA-16/HIRS vs. AIRS and NOAA-17/HIRS vs. AIRS comparisons. However, NOAA... (or 57) intersections for NOAA-16 vs. AIRS (or NOAA-17 vs. AIRS...



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... slot other the Atlantic (at 16:00 UT) for each month..., Applied Optics, 1997, Vol. 36, 16, 3785-3787 MSG SEVIRI APPLICATIONS... profiles from the 6-hourly 1.25° NOAA Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses... VIRI data over Western Europe, 16 June 2006. multilayered clouds. Efforts... Radiation Sciences Branch and the NOAA GOES-R program. The MODIS data... from the polar orbiting satellites NOAA (and in future METOP) for.... where the preoperational processing of NOAA-A VHRR had started are shown... blue: Cabauw, pink: Payerne). Both. NOAA A VHRR and MSG based results... broadband measurements, whereas for the NOAA overpasses a narrow-to-broadband conversion... started the operational processing of NOAA-A YHRR data to derive the... surface solar global radiation from NOAA A VHRR data in high latitudes... to NoW Casting) cloud algorithm [.5).16). On the other hand. a cloud... products is given in [10], [16]. The cloud layer boundaries (GLA09... the following order: 4 s, 1 s, 0.2 s, and 0.25 s [16]. If a cloud layer height is... been excluded of the comparison ( 16%/4% of the total). Oxy. - Oct.... 2. Semicmpirical surface model usable with NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer...-year European cloud climatology from NOAA//AVHRR data in comparison to...(D 13): 10.1029/2001JD000742, 2002. [ 16] P. Yang. K.N. Liou, K. Wyser, and D. Mitchell... was developed and applied to NOAA AVHRR data. It uses in... the AVHRR sensor aboard the NOAA satellite series [e.g. 12, 13]. The... Wavelength (µm) Terra MODIS ch 20 -NOAA 16 AVHRR ch. 3 ····•······ Meteosat SEVIRI ch... of cloud microphysical properties from NOAA AVIIRR measurements for FIRE and... (Solar Backscattering of UV on NOAA Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites). The...~1 -22-20-18-16-U-12-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 2 4 6 8 10 tz 1.• 16 Figure I5: Difference... clouds and aerosols. Such a version [16] was used to derive SW... the global oceans, .J. Climate, Vol. 16, No. 4, 636-656, 2003. 11...-MSG/TEN/03/0011, 2005. 16. Pinker, R. T., Wang, 1-1 .. King, M., and Platnick... measurements, Adv. Space Res., Vol. 16, No. 10, 10,10710, 116... tropical Atlantic atmosphere, J. Climate, Vol. 16, No. 23, 3858-3876, 2003... with a temporal composition window of 16 days. In order to reproduce....ethz.ch Radiation Network: 81 ~ i.m:: 16.02.2006 12:00 Lia.... nme UTC(hour} 9 12 IJTC 16 11!1 21 24 200 0 0 3 SJ • • ' 12 16 18 21 24 ~ . : 200 • • nm... 07 .08.2005 1200 0 3 l!I 9 12 16 18 T\m• 1JTC (hour) \1TC... the data manager is in 16 bit pgm file format. Channels... albedo DH product was tested [16]. Using the spectral albedos for... of Environment, 101, 212-229. 16. MSG Land SAF, Land Surface... has been operational within the NOAA NESDIS programme since 2002. The...



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... (3 cos2 i − 1) 4 p Âåëè÷èíà (3.34) (3.35) (3.36) 360n ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ñóììàðíûé óãëîâîé íàáåã èñòèííîé àíîìàëèè çà ñóòêè. Òåïåðü ìû ìîæåì ëåãêî ñäåëàòü îöåíêè äëÿ âåëè÷èíû èçìåíåíèÿ äîëãîòû âîñõîäÿùåãî óçëà, àðãóìåíòà ïåðèãåÿ è ñðåäíåé àíîìàëèè çà ñóòêè äëÿ íåêîòîðûõ õàðàêòåðíûõ ñïóòíèêîâ. Òàê äëÿ ïîëÿðíûõ ìåòåîðîëîãè÷åñêèõ ñïóòíèêîâ òèïà NOAA RE /p ∼ 1.2, i = 98o , cos i ∼ −1.2. ∆Ωday ∼ 1o.... 2 äâèæåíèÿ ÷àñòèöû v⊥ E0 = E⊥ + E∥ = Îäíàêî âäîëü òåïåðü ñêîðîñòè íàïðàâëåíèÿ îðáèòàëüíîãî ìàãíèòíîãî ïîëÿ v∥ áóäóò èçìåíÿòüñÿ ñî è ñêîðîñòè âðåìåíåì. äâèæåíèÿ Íî ïîëíàÿ ýíåðãèÿ ÷àñòèöû ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ, ò.å. ÿâëÿåòñÿ èíâàðèàíòîì â íåçàâèñèìîñòè îò ñòðóêòóðû ìàãíèòíîãî ïîëÿ. Åñëè ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî ìàãíèòíîå ïîëå ìåíÿåòñÿ ñëàáî â ïðîñòðàíñòâå, òî â òåîðèþ ìîæíî ââåñòè òàê íàçûâàåìûå àäèàáàòè÷åñêèå èíâàðèàíòû, ò.å. âåëè÷èíû, ìåíÿþùèåñÿ ñëàáî âìåñòå ñ ìàãíèòíûì ïîëåì. Åñëè ïîëå ìåíÿåòñÿ ñëàáî, òî ìîæíî îæèäàòü, ÷òî äâèæåíèå ÷àñòèöû áóäåò â öåëîì íàïîìèíàòü äâèæåíèå â îäíîðîäíîì ïîëå, íî ñ ìåäëåííî èçìåíÿþùèìèñÿ õàðàêòåðèñòèêàìè. Ñðåäè ýòèõ õàðàêòåðèñòèê ìîãóò íàéòèñü òàêèå, êîòîðûå ïðè ñëàáîì èçìåíåíèè äðóãèõ âåëè÷èí îñòàþòñÿ ïîñòîÿííûìè. Ýòè 138 Ôèçèêà îêîëîçåìíîãî êîñìè÷åñêîãî ïðîñòðàíñòâà ïîñòîÿííûå õàðàêòåðèñòèêè è íàçûâàþòñÿ àäèàáàòè÷åñêèìè èíâàðèàíòàìè. Äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû óñòàíîâèòü òàêèå àäèàáàòè÷åñêèå èíâàðèàíòû, íåîáõîäèìî òî÷íî ñôîðìóëèðîâàòü ïîíÿòèå ìåäëåííîñòè èçìåíåíèÿ ïîëÿ H ïðè äâèæåíèè ÷àñòèöû â íåì. Äåéñòâèòåëüíî, ïðè ñëàáîì èçìåíåíèè ïîëÿ äâèæåíèå ÷àñòèöû ïðîèñõîäèò âäîëü ñèëîâîé ëèíèè ñî ñêîðîñòüþ v∥ R è è ïî îêðóæíîñòè ðàäèóñà ñî ñêîðîñòüþ v⊥ . Èçìåíåíèå ìàãíèòíîãî ïîëÿ ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ ÷àñòèöû ñâÿçàíî ñ òåì, êàê áûñòðî ìåíÿåòñÿ ïîëå ïðè ñìåùåíèè ÷àñòèöû çà õàðàêòåðíûé èíòåðâàë âðåìåíè îò îäíîé òî÷êè ïðîñòðàíñòâà ê äðóãîé. ßñíî, ÷òî åñëè ÷àñòèöà äâèæåòñÿ âäîëü ñèëîâîé ëèíèè î÷åíü áûñòðî, òî è ïîëå áóäåò ìåíÿòüñÿ áûñòðî. Õàðàêòåðíûì èíòåðâàëîì âðåìåíè äëÿ ÷àñòèöû â ìàãíèòíîì ïîëå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïåðèîä T = 2π/ΩL åå îáðàùåíèÿ ïî îðáèòå, ïåðïåíäèêóëÿðíîé ñèëîâîé ëèíèè.  òàêîì ñëó÷àå ìåäëåííîñòü èçìåíåíèÿ äîëæíà îçíà÷àòü, ÷òî çà ïåðèîä îáðàùåíèÿ ïîëå ïî÷òè íå èçìåíèëîñü, ò.å.: ∆HT = T dH << H. dt (4.16) Áóäåì ñ÷èòàòü, ÷òî ýòî óñëîâèå âûïîëíåíî. Êðîìå ýòîãî ñëåäóåò ïðåäïîëàãàòü, ÷òî èçìåíåíèå ïîëÿ â íàïðàâëåíèè ïåðïåíäèêóëÿðíîì ñèëîâîé ëèíèè òàêæå ìàëî. Ïðè ìåäëåííîì èçìåíåíèè ïàðàìåòðîâ ñèñòåìû íåêîòîðûå èç ôèçè÷åñêèõ âåëè÷èí, ñâÿçàííûõ ñ äâèæåíèåì, îñòàþòñÿ ïîñòîÿííûìè. Òàêèå âåëè÷èíû íàçûâàþòñÿ àäèàáàòè÷åñêèìè èíâàðèàíòàìè. Èç îáùåé òåîðèè àäèàáàòè÷åñêèõ èíâàðèàíòîâ (ñì., íàïðèìåð, â [?] ) ñëåäóåò, ÷òî àäèàáàòè÷åñêèé èíâàðèàíò I ñâÿçàí ñ ýíåðãèåé E ôèíèòíîãî äâèæåíèÿ ÷àñòèöû òàêèì îáðàçîì, ÷òî ∂E = ω, ∂I ω ãäå - ñîáñòâåííàÿ ÷àñòîòà ôèíèòíîãî äâèæåíèÿ, êîòîðàÿ àäèàáàòè÷åñêèì èíâàðèàíòîì ìîæåò íå áûòü è ìåäëåííî ìåíÿåòñÿ ñî âðåìåíåì.  ñèëó ýòîãî âåëè÷èíû I è ω äèíàìè÷åñêè íå çàâèñèìû è ìîæíî íàïèñàòü: E = ωI. Ýòà ôîðìóëà ìîæåò áûòü èñïîëüçîâàíà (4.17) äëÿ âû÷èñëåíèÿ ñàìèõ àäèàáàòè÷åñêèõ èíâàðèàíòîâ. Ïðè äâèæåíèè ÷àñòèöû â ñëàáî íåîäíîðîäíîì ìàãíèòíîì ïîëå ýíåðãèåé ôèíèòíîãî äâèæåíèÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ÷àñòü êèíåòè÷åñêîé ýíåðãèè ÷àñòèöû îðáèòàëüíîãî âðàùåíèÿ: m 2 m E⊥ = v ⊥ = 2 2 ( eH mc )2 Ë.Ä.Ëàíäàó, Å.Ì.Ëèôøèö. Ìåõàíèêà. Ì.:Íàóêà, 1973 139... .Òèï îðáèòû: Ãåîñòàöèîíàðíûé. 191 Êîñìè÷åñêèå ëàáîðàòîðèè Ðèñ. VI-13-5. Åâðîïåéñêèå ãåîñòàöèîíàðíûå ìåòåîðîëîãè÷åñêèå ñïóòíèêè ñåðèè METEOSAT POES Ñïóòíèêè ñåðèè NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...) ëåòàþò ñ íà÷àëà 70-õ ãîäîâ íà âûñîòå ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî 800 êì (ñ÷èòàåòñÿ, ÷òî ïåðâûì ñïóòíèêîì ýòîé ñåðèè áûë ñïóòíèê TIROS-M, çàïóùåííûé 23 ÿíâàðÿ 1970 ã.). Íà ñïóòíèêàõ ñåðèè NOAA óñòàíîâëåíû äâà êîìïëåêñà ïðèáîðîâ: AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution...-è êàíàëüíûé ÈÊ Çîíä Âûñîêîãî Ðàçðåøåíèÿ (HIRS/2): îïðåäåëåíèå âåðòèêàëüíîãî ïðîôèëÿ òåìïåðàòóðû, ñîäåðæàíèÿ âîäÿíûõ ïàðîâ è îçîíà. Äàííûå ïîëÿðíî-îðáèòàëüíûõ ñïóòíèêîâ NOAA èñïîëüçóþòñÿ äëÿ äîëãîñðî÷íûõ ïðîãíîçîâ ïîãîäû, ìîíèòîðèíãà àòìîñôåðû è ïîãîäíûõ ÿâëåíèé, à òàêæå äëÿ îáåñïå÷åíèÿ áåçîïàñíîñòè ïîëåòîâ (â ò. ÷. äëÿ îáíàðóæåíèÿ îáëàêîâ âóëêàíè÷åñêîãî ïåïëà) è áåçîïàñíîñòè âîäíîãî òðàíñïîðòà (ìîíèòîðèíã è ïðîãíîçèðîâàíèå ëåäîâîé îáñòàíîâêè). Äàííûå, ïîëó÷åííûå ñïóòíèêîì, íàêàïëèâàþòñÿ â áîðòîâîì ÇÓ, à çàòåì ïåðåäàþòñÿ â öåíòðû ïðèåìà äàííûõ.  íàñòîÿùèé ìîìåíò â  ÐÖÏÎÄ âåäåòñÿ ïðèåì äàííûõ ñ ïÿòè ÈÑÇ ñåðèè NOAA. Ýòî NOAA-15, NOAA-16, NOAA-17, NOAA-18 è NOAA-19. Ðèñ. VI-13-6. Ìåòåîðîëîãè÷åñêèå ñïóòíèêè ñåðèè NOAA (ÑØÀ) Îáëàñòè ïðèìåíåíèÿ èíôîðìàöèè: Ýêîëîãèÿ: à)îáíàðóæåíèå êðóïíûõ ïðîìûøëåííûõ âûáðîñîâ è ìîíèòîðèíã ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ; á)îáíàðóæåíèå êðóïíûõ ñáðîñîâ çàãðÿçíÿþùèõ âåùåñòâ â âîäî¼ìû; 193 èõ äàëüíåéøåãî Êîñìè÷åñêèå ëàáîðàòîðèè â)îáíàðóæåíèå è îöåíêà ìàñøòàáîâ êàòàñòðîôè÷åñêèõ íàâîäíåíèé; ã)ìîíèòîðèíã áîëüøèõ ðåãèîíîâ ñ öåëüþ âûÿâëåíèÿ îïàñíûõ èñòî÷íèêîâ çàðàæåíèÿ; ä)ìîíèòîðèíã ïûëüíûõ áóðü. Ìåòåîðîëîãèÿ: à)âîññòàíîâëåíèå âåðòèêàëüíîãî ïðîôèëÿ òåìïåðàòóðû è âëàæíîñòè àòìîñôåðíîãî âîçäóõà; á)îïåðàòèâíûé ïðîãíîç ó÷àñòêîâ ñèëüíîãî öèêëîãåíåçà; â)âèçóàëüíîå îòîáðàæåíèå ñîñòîÿíèÿ ïîãîäû è ñîñòàâëåíèå ñèíîïòè÷åñêèõ êàðò; ã)îöåíêà ñîñòîÿíèÿ è êîíòðîëü äèíàìèêè ñíåæíîãî ïîêðîâà. Ñåëüñêîå è ëåñíîå õîçÿéñòâî: êîíòðîëü çà âîçíèêíîâåíèåì è ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèåì ëåñíûõ è ñòåïíûõ ïîæàðîâ. Îêåàíîëîãèÿ è ãèäðîëîãèÿ: à) îöåíêà ëåäîâîé îáñòàíîâêè; á)îïåðàòèâíîå îòñëåæèâàíèå çîí çàòîïëåíèé â ïåðèîä âåñåííåãî ïîëîâîäüÿ è ïàâîäêà. Õàðàêòåðèñòèêè NOAA-15 Ðàçìåðû îñíîâíîãî òåëà,ì 4.2 , 1.88..., DSN; (Ïîäñèñòåìà ñâÿçè è êîììóíèêàöèé ïåðâè÷íîé òåëåìåòðèè) * Communication Subsystem: NOAA - S-band @ NOAA Receiving Stations, TBD (Ïîäñèñòåìà ñâÿçè è êîììóíèêàöèé NOAA) * Total Onboard Data...: 78 & 6.9 kbps and 434 bps (Ïðèåìî-Ïåðåäàò÷èê ïåðâè÷íîé òåëåìåòðèè) * NOAA Real Time Solar Wind Mission...



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... Administration satellite 16 (NOAA-16) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) (16) Earth Resource... 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 L7 ETM... / IRMSS⁎ Ikonos Quickbird NPOESS VIIRS NOAA-16 AVHRR ERS-2 ATSR-2 SPOT-4 VGT...) onboard the NOAA-6,-7,-8,-10,11,-12,-14,-15,-16 spacecraft, Terra Moderate... (ADEOS-2), all with respect to NOAA-9 AVHRR. They reported on modeling... good. The worst case involves NOAA-16 AVHRR, with S ranging from 9.7% to..., the only problem cases are NOAA-16 AVHRR, which has poor |S| results... all other sensors (12% to 16%), and ERS-2 ATSR-2, which has... except for cross-calibrations between NOAA-16 AVHRR and some of the... Band if½qðkÞsS ðkÞsV ðkÞsG ðkÞ ð16Þ þgðkފE0 ðkÞdðkÞg; where ρ(λ) is the surface... radiance). The integrand in Eq. (16), without the η(λ) term, is plotted... of the integrand from Eq. (16) are plotted as a function of... and near-infrared channels of NOAA-11 and -14 AVHRRs by....03.003 ARTICLE IN PRESS 16 P.M. Teillet et al. / Remote Sensing..., N. G. (1997). In-flight calibration of NOAA AVHRR visible and near-IR... the NOAA-7,-9, and -11 spacecraft. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 16, 1931... Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-14 spacecraft. International Journal of..., J. A. (2001). Updated calibration coefficients for NOAA-14 AVHRR channels 1 and 2. International... the Absolute Calibration of the NOAA AVHRR Sensors In-Flight. Remote.... International Journal of Remote Sensing, 16(13), 2317−2340. 17 Vermote...



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..., we focus The l o w spatial resolution NOAA-AVHRR on criteria commonly used... affect this. For example, the NOAA AVHRR sensor 8.3.2 Swath Width scans... receiving hardware, resulted in PC- (e.g., NOAA-AVHRR and MODIS) can be...-SAR and For example, the NOAA-AVHRR has provided SPOT-HRVIR... .-ire monitoring from space, including NOAA- AVI-IRR, Landsat-TM and... robust m~tion).The polar orbiting NOAA series acquires and automatic, for... real-time. Satellites such as NOAA and Up to now, it is essentially NOAA-AVHRRthat Meteosat broadcast their data... fire saturates quickly, and thus NOAA satellite passes in the afternoon.... The products are based on NOAA AVHRR images of the 21... different portions of the including NOAA-AVHRR, EOS-MODIS, SPOT- Electromagnetic...- rently being constructed. puted from NOAA-AVHRR images (Sannier Thermal infrared... variable spatially and tempo- daily NOAA-AVHRR satellite data. The network... fires input data are daily NOAA- 14 AVHRR afternoon occur in... of the software will enable NOAA- 16 imagery t o be all fires. The...(AVHRR) sensor onboard the US NOAA (National occur only rarely, have... park each year. During the 16 years of pre- fii-t? regime... remote sensing data such as NOAA-AVHRR can be used as... Vegetation Fires 8.6.3.3 NOAA-AVHRR Products sensible results (Figure 8.16), additional issues and... syntheses fires. With a PC-based NOAA receiver maintained are used by... Board is increasingly interested from NOAA-AVHRR was not directly perceived... The fire products obtained from NOAA- the southern part of the... methodologyto monitor fire activity using NOAA- January 1996. In 1994, these... emphasis was Images from the NOAA-AVHRR (Advanced placed on the... Meteorological Sew- resolution (recorded onto NOAA- I 4 space- ices Agency (NMSA), in...-Sahara Africa 8.7 FUTURE EXPECTATIONS The NOAA-AVHRR, Landsat and SPOT satellite... more accessible t o a wider range of 8.6.5.2 NOAA-AVHRR Products users. This means... NMSA hosts receivingstations for the NOAA- that are more user-friendly...) and active fire information from NOAA-AVHRR data over west Ethiopia...



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... of the ATOVS instruments: the NOAA series, NASA’s Aqua satellite and... tested as an Satellite NOAA-15 NOAA-16 NOAA-17 NOAA-18 NOAA-19 Aqua MetOp-A Local time of the ascending node 16... experiment” ”two-satellite experiment” ”NOAA-15 experiment” ”NOAA-19 experiment” ”all-satellite experiment” Satellite MW sounders NOAA-18 MetOp-A NOAA-15 NOAA-18 MetOp-A NOAA-18 NOAA-19 MetOp-A NOAA-15 NOAA-16 NOAA-17 NOAA-18 NOAA-19... the system, namely MetOp-A and NOAA-18, respectively orbiting in the morning (a.m.) and afternoon (p.m.) orbit. The “NOAA-15 experiment” included AMSU-A data... to MetOp-A and NOAA-18. In contrast, the ”NOAA-19 experiment” considered as an additional third satellite NOAA-19 flying close to NOAA-18’s orbit. Figure...-satellite experiment”, the “NOAA-15 experiment”, and the “NOAA-19 experiment”. The... of these experiments. While the “NOAA-15 experiment” ensures a better sampling... to the “NOAA-19 experiment”, the constellation in the “NOAA-19 experiment... AMSU-A on NOAA-19 were not assimilated in the “NOAA-19 experiment...-A on the NOAA-15 satellite. 2 "Two-satellite experiment" METOP-A NOAA-18 80...°E 120°E 140°E 160°E "NOAA-15 experiment" METOP-A NOAA-18 NOAA-15 80°N 80...°E 120°E 140°E 160°E "NOAA-19 experiment" METOP-A NOAA-18 NOAA-19 80°N 80...” (top), the “NOAA-15 experiment” (middle), and the “NOAA-19 experiment” (bottom... 0.9 0.95 1 Standard deviation (normalised) −0.6 −0.4 −0.2 “NOAA-15 experiment” “NOAA-19 experiment” 0 0.2 Mean (K) 0.4 0.6 Background... for the ”NOAA-15 experiment” (black) and the ”NOAA-19 experiment” (red... have been normalised to the “NOAA-19 experiment”. RESULTS Departure statistics.... When comparing the “NOAA-15 experiment” and the “NOAA-19 experiment”, there... radiosonde humidity observations. Both NOAA-15 and NOAA-19 bring some small... in the system (onboard of NOAA-18 and MetOp-A) compared to... in the “NOAA-15 experiment” than in the “NOAA-19 experiment” (see... geopotential of the “NOAA-15 experiment” versus the “NOAA-19 experiment” is... 4). Both the assimilations of NOAA-15 and NOAA-19 data have a clearly... in the “two-satellite experiment”, “NOAA-15 experiment” and the “all... evenly-spaced orbits (MetOp-A, NOAA-18 and NOAA-15) performs better than... a less optimal coverage (MetOp-A, NOAA-18 and NOAA-19): it results in... 0 -0.02 -0.04 0 1 2 3 4 5 Forecast day “NOAA-15 experiment” – “NOAA-19 experiment” Figure 4: Normalised... error between the “NOAA-15 experiment” and the “NOAA-19 experiment” for.... Negative values indicate that the “NOAA-15 experiment” has smaller RMS errors than the “NOAA-19 experiment”. 6 S. Hemisphere, 500 hPa... experiment” – “no-MW sounder experiment” “NOAA-15 experiment” – “no-MW sounder...-MWsounder experiment” (black), between the “NOAA-15 experiment” and the “no... that the “two-satellite experiment”, “NOAA-15 experiment”, and “all-satellite...



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... по координации пространственных частот, JAXA, NOAA, НАСА и Роскосмос), НПО, а также организациями... Национального управления океанических и атмосферных исследований (NOAA)), ежедневно предоставляя трехмерные профили температуры... в инфракрасных лучах (TIROS-N) и серии спутников NOAA. Сегодня SST измеряется также с помощью... управления по исследованию океанов и атмосферы (NOAA), получают начиная с 1978 года непрерывный... г.), полет 2 AVHRR с 1981 г. (NOAA 7), в настоящее время на NOAA 17, 18, 19; VIRS... состояние AVHRR с 1981 г. (NOAA 7), в настоящее время на NOAA 17, 18, 19; выводы... г.), фаза из поляриметрии HIRS на NOAA 17, 18, 19 MODIS на...; сети наземного базирования (WMO GAW, NOAA, AGAGE) AIRS на Aqua (2002... предусмотрены Не предусмотрены Не предусмотрены 16 Рек. МСЭ-R RS.1883 Измерение...; сети наземного базирования (WMO GAW, NOAA, AGAGE) AIRS на Aqua (2002... относительно альбедо поверхности AVHRR на NOAA 17, 18, 19: выводы относительно... с 1979 года, в настоящее время на NOAA 17, 18, 19; SSM/I на... года (TIROS-N), в настоящее время на NOAA 17, 18, 19 CrIS на... AVHRR с 1981 года (NOAA 7), в настоящее время на NOAA 17, 18, 19; MODIS... AVHRR с 1979 года (NOAA 6), в настоящее время на NOAA 17, 18, 19; MODIS... года (TIROS-N), в настоящее время на NOAA 17, 18, 19; MODIS на..., данные с 1981 года (NOAA 6), в настоящее время на NOAA 16, 17, 18; MODIS на..., данные с 1981 года (NOAA 7), в настоящее время на NOAA 16, 17, 18; VIRS на... (2000 г.), Aqua (2002 г.) AVHRR на NOAA 16, 17, 18 AIRS; AMSR-E на...



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... 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 19 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 21 21... 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21... search technique. 2 The ATSR-2 instrument 16 2.10 Other cloud measurement instruments... and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA] polar-orbiting satellites since NOAA-6 (launched in 1979... developed for the instrument at NOAA [Stowe et al., 2002; Jacobowitz... relation: n(r) = 2.373 × r 6 exp(−6r/rm ) (16) The effective radius is defined... midlatitudes is not clear. Figure 16: A comparison of MISR and ATSR... of Overlapping Cirrus Cloud from NOAA’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer... the NOAA/NESDSIS science data stewardship program: Focus on NOAA-16 and NOAA-17...–793. 68 REFERENCES Kidwell, K. B. [2009], NOAA KLM user’s guide, February 2009 revised edn. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/pod-guide/ncdc... High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft’, International Journal of...