Спутник ДЗЗ. NOAA 18. [Редактировать]

Также известен как NOAA-18 , является последним из серии аппаратов под общим названием POES (спутники наблюдения за погодой которые были заменены серией аппаратов NPOES). NOAA-18 был запущен 6 февраля 2009.Основным инструментом аппарата являются:

  • Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/3) - САС 4 года;
  • High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS/4) - САС 4 года;
  • Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) - САС 4 года;
  • Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectral Radiometer (SBUV/2) - САС 2 года;
  • Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) - САС 5 лет.

 

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
1Advanced TIROS-N (ATN)НайтиНайти
2NOAA-NНайтиНайти
328654НайтиНайти

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Тип орбиты - НОО
4Страна производитель - США
5Все спутники ДЗЗ

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг1457
2Масса (полезная нагрузки), кг235
3Полезная нагрузка 1xHIRS/2
4Полезная нагрузка 1xСканирующий микроволновый радиометр AMSU-A
5Полезная нагрузка 1xМикроволновый радиометр влажностного зондирования атмосферы MHS
6Полезная нагрузка 1xРадиометр AVHRR-3

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град99.1
2Апогей, км870.7
3Апогей, км870.6
4Перигей, км848.7
5Перигей, км848.8
6Период, минут102.0
7Длинный диаметр эллипса, км7230

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2005-018A

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2005-05-20 at 10:22:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xNOAA 18
3Ракета-носитель 1xДельта 2

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «NOAA 18». [Перейти к поиску]


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... of Remote Sensing . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 Vegetation indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 NOAA satellites and AVHRR sensor . . . . 2.4.3 Application... xiii 1 2 4 5 5 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11 12 16 18 20 22 23 24 28... than in other seasons (from 18 to 35). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.3 Graphs of... and 1990 - 2010) (adapted from NOAA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 . 17 Cycle of sugar cane... series extracted from raw the NOAA/AVHRR images. . . . . 170 A.7 Image of... 2.1 Equatorial crossing time of latest NOAA-AVHRR satellites. 4.1 4.2 The steps of... Normalized Difference Vegetation Index , 23 NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... stored remote sensing images from NOAA-AVHRR since April, 1995. At... than in other seasons (from 18 to 35). Rainfall is another... and 1990 - 2010) (adapted from NOAA). precipitation in the Planet. Specifically... the region. Thus, the driving 18 2.2 Weather and Climate Agrometeorology and...) data (Huete et al., 1997). 2.4.2 NOAA satellites and AVHRR sensor Several... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with the Advanced Very High... and free access to data. NOAA-AVHRR images have been used... evaluation (Maignan et al., 2008). NOAA meteorological satellites are scheduled to... February 2009 four satellites (NOAA-15, NOAA-17, NOAA-18, and NOAA-19) have been... latest NOAA-AVHRR satellites. Table 2.1: Equatorial crossing time of latest NOAA-AVHRR satellites. Orbit Satellites Ascending (LT) Descending (LT) NOAA-15 05:00 p.m. 05:00 a.m. NOAA-17 10:00 p.m. 10:00 a.m. NOAA-18 04:00 a.m. 04:00 p.m. NOAA-19... Remote Sensing thermal infrared. The NOAA-AVHRR has a 12 hour temporal... at the view angle of NOAA satellites to capture and to... High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT). NOAA-AVHRR images have geometric distortions... of remote sensing in Agriculture NOAA-AVHRR images are a source of... low resolution, such as the NOAA-AVHRR. In recent years, several... used remote sensing images of NOAA-AVHRR due to existence of... low spatial resolution, such as NOAA can be used with satisfactory... in NDVI time series from NOAA-AVHRR imagery. This approach makes.../01/1991 to 01/18/2009 Source E 5 3 N 18,000 41,658 3 6,593... of five float attributes (a, b, c, d, e) and 18,000 events generated according to... Attribute a b e µp 35.5 10.8 0.42 µp−1 18.13 15.0 0.3 σp 0.3 8.5 0.18 σp−1 7.3 8.3 0.17 As in real... ) temperature measured for a period of 18 years at Piracicaba region, which... [einit , ei , eend ](tinit , tend ) 18: for all Patterns V , M , P do 19.../2001-10/04/2001] [01/18/2005-01/21/2005] in... to support the mining of NOAA-AVHRR multi-temporal images associated... necessary tasks to geo-reference NOAA-AVHRR images. The geo-referencing... data with indexes extracted from NOAA-AVHRR images. In the next... from time series extracted from NOAA-AVHRR. The process of time.../09/1966) ⇒ Rain[43.0; 241.6; 18.8](01/05/1966 - 01/08... region of Brazil [43.0, 241.6, 18.8] in the period between (01...: • creation and organization of the NOAA-AVHRR database, which was employed...¸co˜es entre Imagens AVHRR-NOAA e Dados Clim´aticos para Regi... de soja utilizando imagens AVHRR-NOAA. Master, Unicamp. Anyamba, A. and Tucker... of sahelian vegetation dynamics using noaa-avhrr ndvi data from 1981...¸c˜ao e o ndvi em imagens avhrr/noaa para a cana-de-a¸cu ´car... imagens dos sat´elites AVHRR/NOAA, em S˜ao Paulo, e dados agroclim... sugar cane, based on avhrr/noaa satellite images, and the climate... climate record. Journal of Climate, 18:1326–1350. Guha, S., Meyerson, A., Mishra...´ısticas gerais dos sat´etiles noaa: hist´orico, instrumentos e comunica¸ca... ambientais brasileiras dos sat´elites NOAA e TIROS-N. Oficina de textos, S˜ao...). Monitoring brazilian soybean production using noaa/avhrr based vegetation condition indices..., C. A. B. (2007). An´alise do ndvi/noaa em cana-de-a¸cu ´car... and social challenges. Ecological Applications, 18(4):885–898. McNicholas, P. D., Murphy, T. B., and... ambientais brasileiras dos sat´elites NOAA e TIROS-N 271, p. Oficina de textos... using a time series of avhrr/noaa satellite images. In Proceedings of... 1960-2000. Journal of Climate, 18:5011–5023. 159 Vlachos, M., Gunopulos... scope of research that involves NOAA/AVHRR multi-temporal images. However... series extracted from raw the NOAA/AVHRR images. Figure A.6(a) presents the... to be submitted to raw NOAA/AVHRR images for sugar cane... are associated to pixels in NOAA/AVHRR images. Figure A.8 shows the...



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... of the ATOVS instruments: the NOAA series, NASA’s Aqua satellite and... tested as an Satellite NOAA-15 NOAA-16 NOAA-17 NOAA-18 NOAA-19 Aqua MetOp...” ”NOAA-15 experiment” ”NOAA-19 experiment” ”all-satellite experiment” Satellite MW sounders NOAA-18 MetOp-A NOAA-15 NOAA-18 MetOp-A NOAA-18 NOAA-19 MetOp-A NOAA-15 NOAA-16 NOAA-17 NOAA-18 NOAA-19... NOAA-18, respectively orbiting in the morning (a.m.) and afternoon (p.m.) orbit. The “NOAA-15... coverage to MetOp-A and NOAA-18. In contrast, the ”NOAA-19 experiment” considered as an additional third satellite NOAA-19 flying close to NOAA-18’s orbit. Figure 1 shows...-satellite experiment”, the “NOAA-15 experiment”, and the “NOAA-19 experiment”. The... of these experiments. While the “NOAA-15 experiment” ensures a better sampling... to the “NOAA-19 experiment”, the constellation in the “NOAA-19 experiment... AMSU-A on NOAA-19 were not assimilated in the “NOAA-19 experiment...-A on the NOAA-15 satellite. 2 "Two-satellite experiment" METOP-A NOAA-18 80°N 80...°E 120°E 140°E 160°E "NOAA-15 experiment" METOP-A NOAA-18 NOAA-15 80°N 80°N 70...°E 120°E 140°E 160°E "NOAA-19 experiment" METOP-A NOAA-18 NOAA-19 80°N 80°N 70...” (top), the “NOAA-15 experiment” (middle), and the “NOAA-19 experiment” (bottom... 0.9 0.95 1 Standard deviation (normalised) −0.6 −0.4 −0.2 “NOAA-15 experiment” “NOAA-19 experiment” 0 0.2 Mean (K) 0.4 0.6 Background... for the ”NOAA-15 experiment” (black) and the ”NOAA-19 experiment” (red... have been normalised to the “NOAA-19 experiment”. RESULTS Departure statistics.... When comparing the “NOAA-15 experiment” and the “NOAA-19 experiment”, there... radiosonde humidity observations. Both NOAA-15 and NOAA-19 bring some small... in the system (onboard of NOAA-18 and MetOp-A) compared to the... in the “NOAA-15 experiment” than in the “NOAA-19 experiment” (see... geopotential of the “NOAA-15 experiment” versus the “NOAA-19 experiment” is... 4). Both the assimilations of NOAA-15 and NOAA-19 data have a clearly... in the “two-satellite experiment”, “NOAA-15 experiment” and the “all... evenly-spaced orbits (MetOp-A, NOAA-18 and NOAA-15) performs better than the... a less optimal coverage (MetOp-A, NOAA-18 and NOAA-19): it results in a better... 0 -0.02 -0.04 0 1 2 3 4 5 Forecast day “NOAA-15 experiment” – “NOAA-19 experiment” Figure 4: Normalised... error between the “NOAA-15 experiment” and the “NOAA-19 experiment” for.... Negative values indicate that the “NOAA-15 experiment” has smaller RMS errors than the “NOAA-19 experiment”. 6 S. Hemisphere, 500 hPa... experiment” – “no-MW sounder experiment” “NOAA-15 experiment” – “no-MW sounder...-MWsounder experiment” (black), between the “NOAA-15 experiment” and the “no... that the “two-satellite experiment”, “NOAA-15 experiment”, and “all-satellite...



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... due to processing issues at NOAA. 8 April 2015 TMI data are... input data files originating at NOAA. This networking issue prevented the... reprocessed 3B41RT and 3B42RT after NOAA forwarded revised, fully populated IR... accurate. 11 October 2012 the NOAA server providing access to sounder... the first opportunity after the NOAA server came up, PPS retrieved... products were re-run for 18 UTC 10 October through 03... provide the fill-in by NOAA/CPC don't necessarily exhibit the... September 2012 A network outage at NOAA prevented the original IR input... 3B42RT for 12, 15 and 18 UTC on 13 September 2012... level 2 MHS precipitation estimates; and 7. NOAA/NWS/CPC Merged 4-Km Geostationary... Kummerow et al. 1996); the NOAA Scattering algorithm (Grody 1991); and... the Climate Prediction Center (CPC), NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction... (only) at 00, 06, 12, 18 UTC. Satellite Sub-sat. Lon.... 16 April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 18 ........................................................................ *SSMI Level 2 precipitation estimates* are... and • “Late” multi-satellite product ~18 hr after observation time, (with... is the delivery of all NOAA-18 MHS granules that contain data... the gradual failure of the NOAA-16 AMSU-B during 2010, the... horizontal polarization values for 6, 10, 18, 23, 36, and 89 GHz... Status F13 29 January 2002 - 18 November 2009 inactive F14 29... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) platforms from early 2000 to 2011. The NOAA satellites are placed in sun... system matured. As well, the NOAA-17 50-GHz channel failed... to solar flare activity. Finally, NOAA-17 gradually failed during 2010... details are available in the NOAA KLM User's Guide (September 2000 revision) at http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/index.htm, specifically at http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/html/c3.... Satellite Period of Record Status NOAA-15 1 January 2000 - 14 September 2010 inactive NOAA-16 4 October 2000 - 16 February... used for 30 April 2010) NOAA-17 28 June 2002 - 17... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) platforms since mid-2005 as... details are available in the NOAA KLM User's Guide (September 2000 revision) at http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/index.htm, specifically at http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/html/c3... of Record Status NOAA-18 25 May 2005 – current active NOAA-19 9 March... 14 Sep 2010 CICS; CLASS NOAA-15 1 June 2007 AMSU-B CICS... 30 Apr 2010 CICS; CLASS NOAA-16 1 June 2007 AMSU-B CICS... 17 Dec 2009 CICS; CLASS NOAA-17 1 June 2007 MHS 25... April 2015 TRMM 3B4XRT_doc_V7 31 NOAA-18 MHS NOAA-19 9 Mar 2009 ongoing..., so Ta data sets from NOAA/NCDC are employed in a correction... from the loss of the NOAA-17 50-GHz channel. Some... Rev. 1.16 Rev. 1.17 Rev. 1.18 by GJH by GJH by... November 2009 Rev. 2.8 by GJH 18 November 2009 Rev. 2.9 by GJH... GJH 14 March 2012 Rev. 2.18 by GJH 25 June 2012.../ AMSU-B instrument: http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/html/c3/sec3-4.htm in the NOAA KLM User's Guide (September 2000 revision): http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/index.htm.../ MHS instrument: http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/html/c3/sec3-9.htm in the NOAA KLM User's Guide (September 2000 revision): http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/klm/index.htm... MTSat NASA NCAR NCDC NESDIS NOAA NWS PERSIANN Fleet Numerical Meteorological...



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... kebakaran, yaitu menggunakan data satelit NOAA/AVHRR kemudian diakurasikan dengan groundcheck... data yang diperoleh dari satelit NOAA. Hal ini disebabkan oleh beberapa... 12 15 16 16 16 18 19 II. III. IV. V. PENDAHULUAN.../Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer 3 (NOAA/AVHRR) kemudian dilakukan groundcheck di... dalam mengakses informasi dari satelit NOAA yaitu pendeteksian api resolusi satelit... direkam oleh AVHRR pada satelit NOAA memberikan cara untuk mendapatkan informasi... dengan data hotspot dari satelit NOAA AVHRR memiliki bias yang sangat.../Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA AVHRR) merupakan satelit yang paling... hotspot dideteksi dengan menggunakan satelit NOAA kemudian disampaikan menuju antena penerima... NOAA merupakan satelit yang menghasilkan data hotspot dapat dengan mudah diakses, 18... FFPMP (2004) sensor pada satelit NOAA AVHRR tidak dapat menembus awan.... Selain itu, khusus untuk citra NOAA resolusi yang dihasilkan masih rendah... penangkapan dan pemrosesan dari data NOAA-AVHRR dilakukan dengan menggunakan sistem... nilai-nilai kecerahan. Untuk data NOAA-AVHRR nilai-nilai kecerahan tersebut.... Langkah pertama yang dilakukan, citra NOAA-AVHRR dipilah menjadi dua obyek.... Satu piksel pada citra satelit NOAA, TERRA dan AQUA setara dengan... hotspot pada saat ini adalah NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... tersebut dimiliki oleh Amerika Serikat. NOAA dikelola oleh United States Departemen... yang sering digunakan adalah satelit NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... suhu darat dan laut. Satelit NOAA dapat digunakan bebas, tapi untuk... mahal. Indonesia memiliki 7 stasiun satelit NOAA, termasuk milik Kementrian Kehutanan-JICA.... Sebagai monitor dari hotspot, satelit NOAA memiliki kelemahan. Pada sensor tersebut... (National Oceanic and Atomospheric Administration) NOAA-18. - Laporan kegiatan patroli pemadaman kebakaran... dari hasil pengelolaan citra data NOAA yang berupa koordinat geografis dari... data hotspot hasil rekaman satelit NOAA-18 yang dikeluarkan oleh beberapa penyedia... koordinatnya. Rendahnya resolusi spsial citra NOAA yaitu sekitar 1,1 km x 1,1 km merupakan... 1 7 Jul 71 13 8 Agus 130 18 9 Sep 111 5 10 Okt 0 0 11... data yang diperoleh dari satelit NOAA. Hal ini disebabkan oleh beberapa... 18 titik hotspot dari 130 titik hotspot yang diperoleh dari data NOAA... 102.404 88 3434 29.1 18 47 Gambar 13 Analisis spasial... 102 20,7 6 Semak/belukar 98 18 116 23,5 7 Tanah Terbuka/lahan...,2 Bahan bakar 1 2 1 4 2 2 3 2 3 2 22 13,5 Waktu 2 3 4 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 18 11,04 7 8 9 10 1) Musim Musim... konversi lahan. Hasil identifikasi satelit NOAA, area yang paling banyak ditemukan... kebakaran menggunakan data citra satelit NOAA AVHRR tergolong sangat rendah. Kendala... Sattelite Imagery and Comparition of NOAA Sattelite Imagery with Fighters Informastion... and Monitoring Using Modis and NOAA AVHRR Image for Wild Fire... 6616 3031 6545 9199 6144 18,169% 15,115% 32,992... 3,308% 21,664% 11,379% 18,440% 9,889% 10,512% 3,157...



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... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite, NOAA 19, or NOAA-N Prime, aboard a Delta... problems. The Lockheed Martin−built NOAA-N Prime was the latest and... and building for NASA and NOAA since the first Television and... launched in April 1960. Replacing NOAA 18, NOAA-N Prime would become the primary... equator. NOAA-N Prime was carrying the same primary instruments that NOAA 18 had... miles (346 kilometers) from Earth. 18 NASA announced that it had... ‘Buried’ in Pacific,” 9 February 2009. 18 Marcia Dunn for the Associated... no intervention from Lonchakov. 20 18 February NASA’s JPL announced that... Planet Missions,” JPL news release 18 February 2009, http://www.jpl... or more. GAO had audited 18 NASA projects, with a combined life... US$50 billion. Of those 18 projects, 13 had entered the... propellant. The new igniter, approximately 18 inches (45.7 centimeters) in diameter... the rocket. 35 ISS Expedition 18 Commander E. Michael Fincke and cosmonaut... at the ISS, replacing Expedition 18 crew member Sandra H. Magnus, who... return to Earth with Expedition 18 Commander E. Michael Fincke and Flight...-069_Exp19_Launch.html (accessed 4 May 2011). 18 Aeronautics and Astronautics: A Chronology, 2009... Lonchakov were returning from Expedition 18. During that expedition, the ISS... addition, the crew of Expedition 18 had performed scientific experiments, including... longest in NASA history. 71 18 May Astronauts John M. Grunsfeld and..., Dead Battery Bedevil Hubble Repairs,” 18 May 2009. 70 27 Aeronautics... the 41,500-pound (18,824-kilogram, or 18.8-tonne) load from... One Last Hug,” Space.com, 18 May 2009, http://www.space... as it had intended. 86 18 June NASA successfully launched its... Impactor,” news release 09-143, 18 June 2009, http://www.nasa... control of GOES 14 to NOAA. NOAA would perform check-out operations... 2009. 91 NASA, “NASA and NOAA’s GOES-O Satellite Successfully Launched,” news... those four hardware components. 101 18 July NASA astronauts David A. Wolf... to Space Station,” Space.com, 18 July 2009, http://www.space...,” Newport News Daily Press (VA), 18 August 2009; Clara Moskowitz, “Inflatable... Comet Dust,” Los Angeles Times, 18 August 2009. 119 Shelby G. Spires... reviews, 100 peer reviews, and 18 subsystem-design reviews. 131 3 September.... The pair unreeled 60 feet (18.29 meters) of cable in...’s robotic arm to capture the 18-ton (16.33-tonne, or... New Cargo Ship From Orbit,” 18 September 2009; “ISS Crew Snares... Ship,” Florida Today (Brevard, FL), 18 September 2009. 142 Spacewarn Bulletin... launched the LCROSS spacecraft on 18 June 2009 as a companion mission... 2009 Regolith Excavation Challenge on 18 October, marking the first time... test vehicle produced 2.6 million pounds (1.18 million kilograms) of thrust, accelerating...= 111_house_hearings&docid=f:51928.pdf (accessed 18 January 2012). 60 Aeronautics and.../HQ_09-258-Lunar_Lander.html (accessed 18 November 2011); Lunar X Prize, “$1,650.../nov/HQ_09-256_NAC.html (accessed 18 November 2011); Debra Werner, “Bolden... Jr., and Randolph J. Bresnik. 162 18 November Space Shuttle Atlantis arrived.../nov/HQ_09-257_Messenger.html (accessed 18 November 2011); Peter N. Spotts, “NASA.../nov/HQ_09-279_Atlantis_lands.html (accessed 18 November 2011); Mark Carreau for... solar system’s innermost planet. 178 18 December NASA announced that it... fully open position. During the 18 December test, engineers opened the... Cosmos,” news release 09-292, 18 December 2009; John Croft, “NASA... Program by DARPA,” news release, 18 December 2009, http://www.orbital... for Spacecraft Clusters,” Space News, 18 December 2009. 182 James Dean... NAC NAS NCAR NESC NGLLXPC NOAA NSF NASA Advisory Council National...=111_house_hearings& docid=f:51928.pdf (accessed 18 January 2012). U.S. Government Accountability Office...



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0.03/5
... (3 cos2 i − 1) 4 p Âåëè÷èíà (3.34) (3.35) (3.36) 360n ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ñóììàðíûé óãëîâîé íàáåã èñòèííîé àíîìàëèè çà ñóòêè. Òåïåðü ìû ìîæåì ëåãêî ñäåëàòü îöåíêè äëÿ âåëè÷èíû èçìåíåíèÿ äîëãîòû âîñõîäÿùåãî óçëà, àðãóìåíòà ïåðèãåÿ è ñðåäíåé àíîìàëèè çà ñóòêè äëÿ íåêîòîðûõ õàðàêòåðíûõ ñïóòíèêîâ. Òàê äëÿ ïîëÿðíûõ ìåòåîðîëîãè÷åñêèõ ñïóòíèêîâ òèïà NOAA RE /p ∼ 1.2, i = 98o , cos i ∼ −1.2. ∆Ωday ∼ 1o...) äëÿ âû÷èñëåíèÿ ñàìèõ àäèàáàòè÷åñêèõ èíâàðèàíòîâ. Ïðè äâèæåíèè ÷àñòèöû â ñëàáî íåîäíîðîäíîì ìàãíèòíîì ïîëå ýíåðãèåé ôèíèòíîãî äâèæåíèÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ÷àñòü êèíåòè÷åñêîé ýíåðãèè ÷àñòèöû îðáèòàëüíîãî âðàùåíèÿ: m 2 m E⊥ = v ⊥ = 2 2 ( eH mc )2 Ë.Ä.Ëàíäàó, Å.Ì.Ëèôøèö. Ìåõàíèêà. Ì.:Íàóêà, 1973 139 R2 = m 2 2 Ω R . 2 L (4.18) Ìàãíèòîñôåðà Ñîáñòâåííîé ÷àñòîòîé îðáèòàëüíîãî äâèæåíèÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ÷àñòîòà Ëàðìîðà ΩL . Èç ñîîòíîøåíèÿ (4.18) ñëåäóåò, ÷òî àäèàáàòè÷åñêèì èíâàðèàíòîì äâèæåíèÿ ÷àñòèöû â ñëàáî íåîäíîðîäíîì ìàãíèòíîì ïîëå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñëåäóþùàÿ âåëè÷èíà: I= 2 E⊥ mv⊥ m = = ΩL R 2 . ΩL 2ΩL 2 Ðèñ. IV-11-1. Äâèæåíèå ÷àñòèöû â íåîäíîðîäíîì ìàãíèòíîì ïîëå Äðóãèìè ñëîâàìè, êâàäðàò ñêîðîñòè èëè êèíåòè÷åñêàÿ ýíåðãèÿ îðáèòàëüíîãî äâèæåíèÿ ìåíÿþòñÿ ïðîïîðöèîíàëüíî ÷àñòîòå, êîòîðàÿ çàâèñèò ëèíåéíî îò âåëè÷èíû ìàãíèòíîãî ïîëÿ: E⊥ = I eH = µH, mc... ýÂ, â áëèæàéøèå ãîäû ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ïîñòðîèòü òðè ãèãàíòñêèå óñòàíîâêè ñ äåòåêòîðàìè, ðàçìåùåííûìè íà ïëîùàäè áîëåå 2 1000 êì . Ñ èõ ïîìîùüþ ó÷åíûå íàäåþòñÿ ïîëó÷èòü îòâåò íà âîïðîñ î ñïåêòðå ÊË â îáëàñòè ñâåðõâûñîêèõ ýíåðãèé è î ìàêñèìàëüíî âîçìîæíîé ýíåðãèè êîñìè÷åñêèõ ÷àñòèö. ÊË ñâåðõâûñîêèõ ýíåðãèé áóäóò óäåðæèâàòüñÿ â Ãàëàêòèêå åå ìàãíèòíûìè ïîëÿìè, åñëè ðàäèóñ êðèâèçíû òðàåêòîðèè ÷àñòèöû ìíîãî ìåíüøå ðàçìåðîâ Ãàëàêòèêè. Èñïîëüçóÿ ñîîòíîøåíèå ìåæäó ýíåðãèåé ÷àñòèöû (E , ýÂ), ðàäèóñîì êðèâèçíû åå òðàåêòîðèè r ( r ≃ 1022 ñì - ðàçìåð Ãàëàêòèêè) è íàïðÿæåííîñòüþ ìàãíèòíîãî ïîëÿ ( H ≃ 10−6 Ý), 158 Ôèçèêà îêîëîçåìíîãî êîñìè÷åñêîãî ïðîñòðàíñòâà E = 300Hr, ïîëó÷èì ìàêñèìàëüíóþ ýíåðãèþ ÊË, êîòîðûå ìîãóò óäåðæèâàòüñÿ â íàøåé 18 Ãàëàêòèêå: Emax ≃ 10 ýÂ. Ýòî ãîâîðèò î òîì, ÷òî ÊË áîëåå âûñîêèõ ýíåðãèé ìîãóò èìåòü ìåòàãàëàêòè÷åñêîå ïðîèñõîæäåíèå 1.2 ! . Ñîëíå÷íûå êîñìè÷åñêèå ëó÷è Ñîëíöå ñàìî òàêæå ÿâëÿåòñÿ èñòî÷íèêîì ñîëíå÷íûõ êîñìè÷åñêèõ ëó÷åé (ÑÊË). ÑÊË - ýòî çàðÿæåííûå ÷àñòèöû, óñêîðåííûå âî âñïûøå÷íûõ ïðîöåññàõ íà Ñîëíöå äî ýíåðãèé, âî ìíîãî ðàç ïðåâûøàþùèõ òåïëîâûå ýíåðãèè ÷àñòèö íà åãî ïîâåðõíîñòè. ÑÊË âïåðâûå áûëè çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíû â íà÷àëå 40-õ ãîäîâ èîíèçàöèîííûìè êàìåðàìè - íàçåìíûìè ïðèáîðàìè, êîòîðûå ðåãèñòðèðîâàëè âûñîêîýíåðãåòè÷íûå ìþîíû. ×òî æå ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé âñïûøêà ÑÊË? Àñòðîíîìû, íàáëþäàþùèå çà Ñîëíöåì, çàìåòèëè, ÷òî âî âðåìÿ ðîñòà ñîëíå÷íîé àêòèâíîñòè â àêòèâíûõ îáëàñòÿõ íà ïîâåðõíîñòè Ñîëíöà, ãäå ñîñðåäîòî÷åíî ìíîãî ïÿòåí è èìååòñÿ ñëîæíàÿ êîíôèãóðàöèÿ ôîòîñôåðíûõ ìàãíèòíûõ ïîëåé, íåîæèäàííî âîçíèêàåò ÿðêîå ñâå÷åíèå â îïòè÷åñêîì äèàïàçîíå ñïåêòðà. Ïðèìåðíî â ýòî æå âðåìÿ íàáëþäàåòñÿ óâåëè÷åíèå ðàäèîèçëó÷åíèÿ Ñîëíöà è î÷åíü ÷àñòî ïîÿâëåíèå ðåíòãåíîâñêîãî è ãàììà-èçëó÷åíèé, ñîïðîâîæäàþùèõ âûáðîñ êîðîíàëüíîãî âåùåñòâà â âèäå ïîòîêà óñêîðåííûõ çàðÿæåííûõ ÷àñòèö.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ïîëàãàþò, ÷òî îñíîâíûì èñòî÷íèêîì ýíåðãèè ñîëíå÷íîé âñïûøêè ÿâëÿåòñÿ ýíåðãèÿ àííèãèëÿöèè ñîëíå÷íîãî ìàãíèòíîãî ïîëÿ â àêòèâíîé îáëàñòè è îáðàçîâàíèå íåéòðàëüíîãî òîêîâîãî ñëîÿ. Çàðÿæåííûå ÷àñòèöû ÑÊË, óñêîðåííûå â ñîëíå÷íîé âñïûøêå, âûáðàñûâàþòñÿ â ìåæïëàíåòíîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî è çàòåì ðàñïðîñòðàíÿþòñÿ â íåì. Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå ÑÊË â ìåæïëàíåòíîé ñðåäå îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ óñëîâèÿìè, êîòîðûå ñóùåñòâîâàëè â íåé äî âñïûøêè. Åñëè óñëîâèÿ áûëè ñïîêîéíûìè, òî åñòü ñêîðîñòü ñîëíå÷íîãî âåòðà íå ñëèøêîì îòëè÷àëàñü îò ñðåäíåé, è ìàãíèòíîå ïîëå íå èñïûòûâàëî ñóùåñòâåííûõ ôëóêòóàöèé, òî ÑÊË áóäóò ðàñïðîñòðàíÿòüñÿ â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ çàêîíîì äèôôóçèè, ïðè÷åì äèôôóçèÿ âäîëü ìàãíèòíûõ ñèëîâûõ ëèíèé áóäåò îïðåäåëÿþùåé. Åñëè ïðè âñïûøêå íà Ñîëíöå ãåíåðèðîâàíà ìîùíàÿ óäàðíàÿ âîëíà, òî ÷àñòèöû óñêîðÿþòñÿ íà ôðîíòå âîëíû ïðè åå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè â êîðîíå Ñîëíöà è â ìåæïëàíåòíîé ñðåäå. Íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî ÑÊË íà îðáèòå Çåìëè íàáëþäàþòñÿ â òåõ ñëó÷àÿõ, êîãäà ìàãíèòíàÿ ñèëîâàÿ ëèíèÿ, ïåðåñåêàþùàÿ ìåñòî âñïûøêè, ïðîõîäèò ÷åðåç Çåìëþ. Ñòàòèñòè÷åñêèé àíàëèç ÷èñëà çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííûõ ñîáûòèé ÑÊË ñ ýíåðãèÿìè áîëåå íåñêîëüêèõ ñîòåí ìåãàýëåêòðîíâîëüò ïîêàçûâàåò, ÷òî íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî ðåãèñòðèðóþòñÿ ÑÊË, êîòîðûå áûëè óñêîðåíû âî âñïûøêàõ, èìåâøèõ ìåñòî íà çàïàäíîì ëèìáå (êðàå) Ñîëíöà.  ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû ïîÿâèëèñü äîêàçàòåëüñòâà òîãî, ÷òî óñêîðåíèå ÷àñòèö ìîæåò ïðîèñõîäèòü íà ôðîíòå óäàðíîé âîëíû âáëèçè Ñîëíöà. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, óñêîðåííûå ÷àñòèöû ìîãóò ðåãèñòðèðîâàòüñÿ òàêæå è âäàëè îò ëèíèè ñîåäèíåíèÿ ! http://astro... .Òèï îðáèòû: Ãåîñòàöèîíàðíûé. 191 Êîñìè÷åñêèå ëàáîðàòîðèè Ðèñ. VI-13-5. Åâðîïåéñêèå ãåîñòàöèîíàðíûå ìåòåîðîëîãè÷åñêèå ñïóòíèêè ñåðèè METEOSAT POES Ñïóòíèêè ñåðèè NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...) ëåòàþò ñ íà÷àëà 70-õ ãîäîâ íà âûñîòå ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî 800 êì (ñ÷èòàåòñÿ, ÷òî ïåðâûì ñïóòíèêîì ýòîé ñåðèè áûë ñïóòíèê TIROS-M, çàïóùåííûé 23 ÿíâàðÿ 1970 ã.). Íà ñïóòíèêàõ ñåðèè NOAA óñòàíîâëåíû äâà êîìïëåêñà ïðèáîðîâ: AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution...-è êàíàëüíûé ÈÊ Çîíä Âûñîêîãî Ðàçðåøåíèÿ (HIRS/2): îïðåäåëåíèå âåðòèêàëüíîãî ïðîôèëÿ òåìïåðàòóðû, ñîäåðæàíèÿ âîäÿíûõ ïàðîâ è îçîíà. Äàííûå ïîëÿðíî-îðáèòàëüíûõ ñïóòíèêîâ NOAA èñïîëüçóþòñÿ äëÿ äîëãîñðî÷íûõ ïðîãíîçîâ ïîãîäû, ìîíèòîðèíãà àòìîñôåðû è ïîãîäíûõ ÿâëåíèé, à òàêæå äëÿ îáåñïå÷åíèÿ áåçîïàñíîñòè ïîëåòîâ (â ò. ÷. äëÿ îáíàðóæåíèÿ îáëàêîâ âóëêàíè÷åñêîãî ïåïëà) è áåçîïàñíîñòè âîäíîãî òðàíñïîðòà (ìîíèòîðèíã è ïðîãíîçèðîâàíèå ëåäîâîé îáñòàíîâêè). Äàííûå, ïîëó÷åííûå ñïóòíèêîì, íàêàïëèâàþòñÿ â áîðòîâîì ÇÓ, à çàòåì ïåðåäàþòñÿ â öåíòðû ïðèåìà äàííûõ.  íàñòîÿùèé ìîìåíò â  ÐÖÏÎÄ âåäåòñÿ ïðèåì äàííûõ ñ ïÿòè ÈÑÇ ñåðèè NOAA. Ýòî NOAA-15, NOAA-16, NOAA-17, NOAA-18 è NOAA-19. Ðèñ. VI-13-6. Ìåòåîðîëîãè÷åñêèå ñïóòíèêè ñåðèè NOAA (ÑØÀ) Îáëàñòè ïðèìåíåíèÿ èíôîðìàöèè: Ýêîëîãèÿ: à)îáíàðóæåíèå êðóïíûõ ïðîìûøëåííûõ âûáðîñîâ è ìîíèòîðèíã ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ; á)îáíàðóæåíèå êðóïíûõ ñáðîñîâ çàãðÿçíÿþùèõ âåùåñòâ â âîäî¼ìû; 193 èõ äàëüíåéøåãî Êîñìè÷åñêèå ëàáîðàòîðèè â)îáíàðóæåíèå è îöåíêà ìàñøòàáîâ êàòàñòðîôè÷åñêèõ íàâîäíåíèé; ã)ìîíèòîðèíã áîëüøèõ ðåãèîíîâ ñ öåëüþ âûÿâëåíèÿ îïàñíûõ èñòî÷íèêîâ çàðàæåíèÿ; ä)ìîíèòîðèíã ïûëüíûõ áóðü. Ìåòåîðîëîãèÿ: à)âîññòàíîâëåíèå âåðòèêàëüíîãî ïðîôèëÿ òåìïåðàòóðû è âëàæíîñòè àòìîñôåðíîãî âîçäóõà; á)îïåðàòèâíûé ïðîãíîç ó÷àñòêîâ ñèëüíîãî öèêëîãåíåçà; â)âèçóàëüíîå îòîáðàæåíèå ñîñòîÿíèÿ ïîãîäû è ñîñòàâëåíèå ñèíîïòè÷åñêèõ êàðò; ã)îöåíêà ñîñòîÿíèÿ è êîíòðîëü äèíàìèêè ñíåæíîãî ïîêðîâà. Ñåëüñêîå è ëåñíîå õîçÿéñòâî: êîíòðîëü çà âîçíèêíîâåíèåì è ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèåì ëåñíûõ è ñòåïíûõ ïîæàðîâ. Îêåàíîëîãèÿ è ãèäðîëîãèÿ: à) îöåíêà ëåäîâîé îáñòàíîâêè; á)îïåðàòèâíîå îòñëåæèâàíèå çîí çàòîïëåíèé â ïåðèîä âåñåííåãî ïîëîâîäüÿ è ïàâîäêà. Õàðàêòåðèñòèêè NOAA-15 Ðàçìåðû îñíîâíîãî òåëà,ì 4.2 , 1.88..., DSN; (Ïîäñèñòåìà ñâÿçè è êîììóíèêàöèé ïåðâè÷íîé òåëåìåòðèè) * Communication Subsystem: NOAA - S-band @ NOAA Receiving Stations, TBD (Ïîäñèñòåìà ñâÿçè è êîììóíèêàöèé NOAA) * Total Onboard Data...: 78 & 6.9 kbps and 434 bps (Ïðèåìî-Ïåðåäàò÷èê ïåðâè÷íîé òåëåìåòðèè) * NOAA Real Time Solar Wind Mission...



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... Analysis (LA) 00, 06, 12, 18 UTC 00, 03, 06, 09, 12, 15, 18, 21 UTC 00, 03, 06, 09, 12, 15, 18, 21 UTC Early analysis: 2h20m...,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 UTC) (00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 UTC) 11h50m (00,12UTC... Microwave Sounding Unit - A) onboard NOAA-15, -16, -18, -19, Metop-A and Aqua, and MHS (Microwave Humidity Sounder) onboard NOAA-18... the azimuthal resolution is 0.703◦ . 2.2.2.18 R/A Radar/Raingauge Analyzed Precipitation (R/A) data... into the Meso-scale Analysis. 18 2.3.10 CDA: Feedback Data Base... )m Rn = n Bn n n n ∆(p s )m n ( Qn = where (2.5.17) −1 (2.5.18) denotes statistical and zonal-wavenumber....6 (c) AMSU-A T B (K) satellite Aqua Metop-A NOAA-15 NOAA-16 NOAA-18 NOAA-19 channel 4 x 0.45 0.45... 1.02 (d) MHS T B (K) satellite Metop-A NOAA-18 NOAA-19 channel 3 18 18 x 4 13.5 13.5 13.5 5 9 9 9 (e) SSMIS..., 03, 06, 09, 12, 15, 18 and 21UTC). Figure 2.6.1 shows a schematic... Ch is expressed as φ φκ Ch(i, j,κ)(i , j ,κ ) = δκ,κ C h(i, j)(i , j ) , (2.6.18) where (i, j) and (i , j ) denotes horizontal coordinates...,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 UTC) a day to produce...



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... четыре раза в сутки в сроки 0, 6, 12 и 18 ч по Всемирному скоординированному времени (ВСВ... на нескольких спутниках серии “NOAA-KLM”. Спутники серии “NOAA” (National Oceanic and...” и “Aqua”. 441 Глава 11. Моря 18 декабря 1999 г. NASA (Национальное аэрокосмическое... (Sydney Levitus). ** http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/indprod.html. *** http... июня 2010 г. по данным спутника “NOAA-18” (23 ч 55 мин ВСВ). 447... части в обоих морях за последние 18 лет в целом увеличива448 лась. Оценки... августа 2005 г. по данным спутника “NOAA-18” (22 ч 47 мин ВСВ). 449... побережье Черного моря за последние 18 лет в целом немного увеличивалась. Оценки... (Красноводск), 16 — Челекен, 17 — Огурчинский, 18 — Астара, 19 — Бандар Анзали, 20... — Евпатория; 16 — Игнеада; 17 — Ильичевск; 18 — Камышовая; 19 — Кацивели; 20 — Керчь...; 16 — Бердянская коса; 17 — Геническ; 18 — Заветное; 19 — Керчь; 20 — Маргаритово... современных опусканий со скоростью –0,15...–0,18 см/год (Лилиенберг и др., 1972... прогноза уровня Каспийского моря с заблаговременностью 5—18 лет (до 2018 г.). В качестве предикторов... радиовысотомером, представлена на рис. 11.18, на котором показаны разного рода...–84 (Rapp, 1998), Рис. 11.18. Принципиальная схема альтиметрических измерений и основные... по их тренду за последние 18 лет, дает подъем среднегодового уровня... уровня Каспийского моря на перспективу 6 и 18 лет, в кн.: Гидрометеорологические аспекты проблемы..., HAH Украины, МГИ, ОФ ИнБЮМ, с. 18—30. Каплин П.  А., Селиванов А.  О., 1999. Изменение... 000, М., ГУГК при СМ СССР, 18 с. Каталог наблюдений над уровнем на... движений Европейской части СССР, Геоморфология, № 1, с. 1—18. Лукьянова С.  А., Никифоров Л.  Г., Рычагов Г.  И., 1996. Голоценовые....), Washington, D.  C., U.  S. Government Printing Office, 190 p. (NOAA Atlas NESDIS 60). Cazenave A., Bonnefond..., J.  Atmos. and Oceanic Technology, vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 982–993, doi... the World Ocean, Wash., DC, NOAA Prof. Paper No. 13, U.  S., Gov...



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... that are tracking and collecting NOAA, DMSP, AQUA, TERRA, MetOp and... has one Terascan system collecting NOAA and DMSP. The Antenna became... has one Terascan system collecting NOAA, DMSP and MetOp. This Antenna.... We are presently collecting NOAA-18, NOAA-19, DMSP F-17, F-18, AQUA, TERRA, MetOp... 1 gig per raw pass file, NOAA, DMSP and MetOp are around... (Automatic Weather Station) data from NOAA header information is collected by.../JPSS NOAA DMSP AQUA TERRA MetOp Page 3 Coverage Gap at McMurdo NOAA-18, NOAA-19, DMSP F-17, F-18, AQUA, TERRA, MetOp... collect NOAA passes that contain AWS data broadcast to overflying NOAA-18 passes... and funding. Possibility of resolving NOAA-19 processing problem and potentially... to argue for capability upgrade. NOAA will go X in the next...



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Overview of WRFDA Jake Liu NCAR/MMM DA 8 March. 2016 1 WRFDA is a Data Assimilation system built within the WRF software framework DA 8 March. 2016 2 DA algorithms currently available in WRFDA • 3DVAR and FGAT – Different options for choice of control variables (e.g., Psi/Chi or U/V) and background error covariance modeling (e.g., vertical EOF or vertical recursive filter) • 4DVAR – TL/Adjoint (i.e., WRFPlus code) of WRF up-to-date with WRF – Allow LBC control variable and Jc-DFI • Hybrid-3DEnVar – Can run in dual-resolution mode – Can ingest ensemble from global or regional sources • ETKF: for generating ensemble analysis DA 8 March. 2016 3 WRFDA Observations  In-Situ: -  Bogus: -  DA  Remotely sensed retrievals: SYNOP METAR SHIP BUOY TEMP PIBAL AIREP, AIREP humidity TAMDAR TC bogus Global bogus - Atmospheric Motion Vectors (geo/polar) SATEM thickness Ground-based GPS TPW or ZTD SSM/I oceanic surface wind speed and TPW Scatterometer oceanic surface winds Wind Profiler Radar data (reflectivity/retrieved rainwater, and radial-wind) Satellite temperature/humidity/thickness profiles GPS refractivity (e.g. COSMIC) Stage IV precipitation/rain rate data (4D-Var only) Radiances: Interface to both CRTM and RTTOV, clear-sky and all-sky assimilation – – – – – – – – – – – – HIRS AMSU-A AMSU-B MHS AIRS SSMIS IASI ATMS MWTS MWHS SEVIRI AMSR2 NOAA-16, NOAA-17, NOAA-18, NOAA-19, METOP-A NOAA-15, NOAA-16, NOAA-18, NOAA-19, EOS-Aqua, METOP-A, METOP-B NOAA-15, NOAA-16, NOAA-17 NOAA-18, NOAA-19, METOP-A, METOP-B EOS-Aqua DMSP-16, DMSP-17, DMSP-18 WRFDA is flexible to allow assimilation METOP-A, METOP-B of different formats of observations: Suomi-NPP • Little_r (ascii), HDF, Binary FY-3 • NOAA MADIS (netcdf), FY-3 • NCEP PrepBufr, METEOSAT • NCEP radiance bufr GCOM-W1 (new in V3.8) 8 March. 2016 4 www2.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/users/wrfda DA 8 March. 2016 5 Radar DA for hydrological application OBS STEP Hydromet Real Time Exp. during spring time • The goal is to improve lo cal-scale QPF in coupled hydromet system • < 1 h rapid update • Radar radial velocity an d reflectivity assimilation • High resolution vs. ense mble • Impact of terrain • Improved results in capt uring localized storms 15KM 3KM DA 8 March. 2016 OPER WRFDA RADAR 6 Beijing Met Bureau - RUC 30/10/3.3/1.1-km 9km 3km 3-hourly 3DVAR with radar DA NCAR Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) Focus on Typhoon & Meiyu Hybrid-3DEnVar 3km  synop + metar  ship  buoy * sound  gpsref  profiler  airep  quikscat  SatWind 15km Taiwan Central Weather Bureau Arctic System Reanalysis @15km DA 8 March. 2016 7 12km 12km 4km CONUS Europe 4km Operational domains by PWS (hybrid-3DEnVar) Ensemble covariances from global GFS ensemble Atlantic Hurricane 15km DA 8 March. 2016 Mexico 4km 12km 8 January 26-27, 2015: Northeast “Blizzard?” PWS 4km CONUS forecast NCEP NAM forecast ECMWF forecast 1/25/12z Cycle 1/25/12z Cycle Table of average forecasted snowfall totals in inches, 48 hours in advance of storm ECMWF NAM-12 NWS PWS Actual PHL 13 8 10-15 3 1.2 LGA 21 21 20-25 8 11.0 EWR 21 18 20-25 6 6.5 BOS 23 22 25-30 28 24.6 DA © 2015 Panasonic Avionics Corp. 8 March. 2016 Proprietary & Confidential Panasonic Weather Solutions 9 3/14/2016 9 AMSR2 all-sky radiance DA Observed Tb background Tb • 3DVAR with total water control variable, • Symmetric observation error model • Applied to Hurricane Sandy forecast Yang et al., 2016 DA 8 March. 2016 10 Ongoing/Future R&D • DA Algorithms – Multi-resolution incremental 4DVAR – Hybrid-4DEnVar (under test) (and hybrid-4DVAR) – Ensemble analysis within WRFDA • Observations – Radar, all-sky and high-res. radiances, surface observations • Applications – Focus more on convective-scale with flow-dependent covariance – New area: chemistry/aerosol DA. Guerrette&Henze, 2015, GMD • WRFPlus-Chem (TL/AD of WRF/Chem) and WRF/Chem-4DVAR • Toward a more coherent NCAR DA program for next generation DA – Ideas from this workshop DA 8 March. 2016 11