Спутник технологический. Near Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE). [Редактировать]

Военно-исследовательский космический аппарат выполняющий испытания экспериментальной аппаратуры наблюдения факелов баллистических ракет и системы лазерной межспутниковой связи. Основной полезной нагрузкой МКА является мультиспектральный датчик сопровождения TSP (Track Sensor Payload), разработанный компанией Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC; г. Сан-Диего, Калифорния) по заказу Исследовательской лаборатории ВВС США на авиабазе Кёртланд. TSP разработан на базе датчика КА MSTI-3 с добавлением канала длинноволнового ИК-диапазона и имеет приемники трех типов: ПЗС для видимого спектра, на основе соединения индий-сурьма для коротко- и средневолнового ИК и типа кадмий-ртуть-теллур для длинноволнового ИК-диапазона. В качестве дополнительного полезного груза МКА несет терминал лазерной связи LCT (Laser Communications Terminal), установленный по соглашению с правительством ФРГ и по инициативе германской стороны. Эта аппаратура, разработанная компанией Tesat-Spacecom, будет использоваться для экспериментов по лазерной связи между МКА NFIRE и германским МКА радиолокационного наблюдения TerraSAR-X, а также с наземными станциями. В состав аппаратуры LCT массой 30 кг входит телескоп с апертурой 127 мм и наведением в пределах полусферы; энергопотребление составляет 130 Вт, а скорость обмена информацией превышает 5 Гбит/с

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - США
2Тип оператора(владельца) - военные
3Тип орбиты - НОО
4Страна производитель - США

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12015-09-30. Агентство противоракетной обороны США осуществило сведение с орбиты космического аппарата NFIRE.
Агентство противоракетной обороны США формально объявило о том, что космический аппарат NFIRE будет сведен с орбиты и закончит свое активное существование.
Near-Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE), был построен компанией Orbital ATK и запущен в околоземное пространство в 2007 году при помощи ракеты Минотавр 1. Его целью являлся сбор данных о запусках ракет различного назначения. По оригинальному проекту аппарат должен был также служить тестовой площадкой для отработки технологий уничтожения ракет, однако, под воздействием законодателей, от данной идеи пришлось отказаться. В результате агентство решило оснастить его экспериментальной системой лазерной связи. В ходе проведения тестирования оптической полезной нагрузки аппарат успешно осуществил более 950 сеансов межспутниковой связи. Тэги: Near Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE)

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг494

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град48.2
2Апогей, км478.2
3Перигей, км454.7
4Период, минут93.8
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км6837

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2007-014A

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2007-04-24 at 06:48:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xNear Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE)
3Ракета-носитель 1xМинотавр 1

Найдено 86 документов по запросу «Near Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE)». [Перейти к поиску]


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... FY 2014 FY 2015 The NFIRE Program funding will be captured... 0603895C for FY 2010 for NFIRE. The best way to dissuade... space. Additionally, STSS provides a new infrared sensor phenomenology for the BMDS... constellation. Space based visible and Infrared (IR) sensors will complement radars.... Space-based sensors will enable near continuous threat observation and tracking...-01 FTS-02 Contract Activity Near Field Infrared Experiment Laser Comm Terminal Experiments/Operations... of test efforts on the NFIRE secondary payload, German-provided Laser... of test efforts on the NFIRE secondary payload, German-provided Laser... of test efforts on the NFIRE secondary payload, German-provided Laser... of test efforts on the NFIRE secondary payload, German-provided Laser... Targets of Opportunity (TOOs). Other Near Field Infrared Experiment Targets of Opportunity Targets of... 2014 FY 2015 Note: . The NFIRE Program funding will be captured... 0603895C for FY 2010 for NFIRE. A. Mission Description and Budget Item... two satellites with visible and infrared sensors into low earth orbit... collect data within the satellites' field of view. Data collection should... the STSS Demonstration program and NFIRE program, MDA Space Architecture modeling... provided by Advanced Overhead Persistent Infrared (OPIR) sensors. Common threat engineering... alternatives for space-based sensors (infrared and visible) to provide global... development and verification FY 2008 Near Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE) RDT&E Articles (Quantity) FY 2009... 2011 12,608 0 NOTE: The NFIRE Program funding will be captured... 0603895C for FY 2010 for NFIRE. The NFIRE satellite containing the Tracking... elements, we will fund the NFIRE operations on the ground to.../ Various Cost Categories: Common Threat Near Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE) Contract Method & Type Prime Contract... of the targets' flights with infrared sensors. The data is used... Document and BMD System Specification. NFIRE funding will be forwarded to... will provide funding for the NFIRE program in this program element... 4 1 2 3 2011 4 1 2 3 2012 4 1 2 3 2013 4 1 2 3 2014 4 1 2 3 2015 4 1 2 3 4 Near Field Infrared Experiment On-Orbit Operations Laser Comm... Tracking & Surveillance System Schedule Profile Near Field Infrared Experiment On-Orbit Operations Laser Comm...



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... Defense Support Program MIRACL Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser DTRA Defense... Vehicle MPX Micro-satellite Propulsion Experiment EHF Advanced Extremely High Frequency... Space Agency NEO Near-Earth Object EU European Union NFIRE Near-Field Infrared Experiment FALCON Force...-Based Interceptors SBIRS Space-Based Infrared System SBL Space-Based Laser... were revived in 2000. The Near-Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE), originally due for launch in... and test a “kill vehicle” for NFIRE once again came under Congressional... passing through the Earth’s magnetic field. The motion generates electric current... is more efficient in the field of space exploration than breakthroughs... cooperation and exchanges in the field of space technology, these exchanges... an intergovernmental agency in the field of defense capacities development, research... additional topics in the space field, namely those pertaining to the... security missions, particularly in the field of meteorology and Earth observation... cooperate with Russia in the field of satellite navigation.122 In... privatization and consolidation in the field may hold promise for space... more acute in the military field where they are associated with... DSP system with Space Based Infrared High (SBIRS-High) satellites over... System (MUOS) (2009) Space Based Infrared High System (2007) and Space... difficult to detect with spacebased infrared sensors because of their proximity... other sensors, such as the infrared Earth sensors which are part... also include a Wave Particle Interaction Experiment, which will research the physics... through the Space Visible Sensor experiment,16 is being pursued through... defense purposes.24 EKVs use infrared sensors to detect ballistic missiles.... In 1997, the US Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (MIRACL) was... meters of another satellite. The Near-Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE), designed to provide support to... to record the findings. Although NFIRE is not designed for space... a kinetic kill vehicle on the NFIRE satellite to be launched in... the interceptor missiles and the NFIRE kill vehicle could potentially be...-based telescopes. Labeled a “controlled cratering experiment,” the goal of this mission... study for an asteroid deflection experiment called Don Quixote in 2005..., including the German space robotics experiment ROKVISS, the US and Japanese... multisensor homing techniques (e.g., radar and infrared) and integration of multiple sensor...). It also performed a Relay Mirror Experiment in 1990, which tested groundbased... as targets.”11 The US Near-Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE), scheduled for launch in 2006... US Congress on whether the NFIRE system should be allowed to... for the Micro-Satellite Propulsion Experiment (MPX) which would include two... moon and asteroids as targets NFIRE Under development 2006/2007 MDA... on the development of the NFIRE satellite. A typical technology development and... systems. The US Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS)-High and Space... missile defense system 2005: US NFIRE Kill Vehicle test currently cancelled... 2006 NFIRE test. The US Senate Appropriations Committee reviewing the NFIRE program... approved $13.7-million for the NFIRE program, told the MDA to... the deployable NFIRE Kill Vehicle.”33 Critics, however, suggest NFIRE is an actual weapons system, and that recommendations to move NFIRE....35 There are suggestions that NFIRE might test MDA’s hypertemporal imager... security in 2005. The controversial NFIRE program, however, may eventually demonstrate... debates in the US over NFIRE highlight the challenges of balancing..., about 650 kilograms each, with infrared and visible-band sensors, are.... 116 117 “Air Force to Experiment with Geostationary-Orbit Sentinel,” Space....htm. 45 M. Hurley, “Tactical Microsatellite Experiment (TacSat 1),” Navy Research Laboratory Review... trapped by the Earth’s magnetic field. The lower belt is situated... Optical Observation and Orbit Determination Experiment Initiated,” National Space Development Agency..., quantum cascade, xenon-fluoride, both infrared and x-ray free electron lasers... journals Chinese Journal of Lasers, Infrared and Laser Engineering, High Powered... Optics Letters, and Laser and Infrared. Sun ChengweiZhang, NingDu, Xiangwan, “Recent... of the high power DPL,” Infrared and Laser Engineering, No. 5 (2005... 2005 in the Chinese journals Infrared and Laser Engineering, Chinese Space... solid state laser in space,” Infrared and Laser Engineering, No. 2 (2005... Urges Kill Vehicle Use in NFIRE Test,” Global Security Newswire, 29... from NFIRE,” Space News, 23 August 2004. 13 “Microsatellite Propulsion Experiment Industry.../pdfs/11_94.2.pdf; “Relay Mirror Experiment,” Ball Aerospace. Online: http://www... Urges Kill Vehicle Use in NFIRE Test,” Global Security Newswire, 29... Kill Vehicle Use in NFIRE Test.” 35 The experiment was designed to... using a ground-based kill vehicle. “Near Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE),” MissileThreat.com. Online: http://www... Aboard NFIRE Satellite,” Space News, 19 August 2005; Marc Sellinger, “NFIRE proposal...



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... MKV MOST MPX MTCR NASA NFIRE NMD NOAA NORAD NSTAC ORS... Agency Medium Earth Orbit Mid Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser Miniature Kill... Propulsion Experiment Missile Technology Control Regime National Aeronautics and Space Administration Near-Field Infrared Experiment... Space-Based Interceptors Space-Based Infrared System Space-Based Laser Space... delays. The US Space-Based Infrared SystemHigh, the Space-Based Radar... operate in GEO to provide a near real-time operating picture in... US MDA in 2000. The Near-Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE), due for launch in 2006... NFIRE satellite. It would include a sensor package which would test lightweight infrared... Services Committee authorized funding for NFIRE, but added the condition that... of Representatives cut funding for NFIRE. By August 2004, the House... settled to maintain funding for NFIRE at the requested amount. In..., the MDA announced that the NFIRE kill vehicle main thruster had... flybys moved to 2007. Presently, NFIRE is planned to perform a test... remove the kill vehicle on NFIRE, noting that this was a positive... plasma and the Earth’s magnetic field, producing a current along the tether... and receive signals, and the field of view of their ground... China announced its intentions to field a space debris monitoring center by... situational awareness.87 Canada’s planned Near Earth Orbit Surveillance Satellite asteroid... is more efficient in the field of space exploration than breakthroughs... cooperation and exchanges in the field of space technology, these exchanges... an intergovernmental agency in the field of defense capacities development, research... security missions, particularly in the field of meteorology and Earth observation... Tel Aviv University Ultra Violet Experiment (TAUVEX) will be the first... application of military force in near-real-time tactical operations through... more acute in the military field where they are associated with... DSP system with Space Based Infrared High (SBIRS-High) satellites over... images using electromagnetic communications providing near-realtime satellite imagery.14 Open...) (24) GEO (22) Space Based Infrared High System (2007) and Space... detect satellites using space-based infrared sensors because of their proximity... other sensors, such as the infrared Earth sensors which are part... through the Space Visible Sensor experiment.19 Since then, the US... system is to “provide a predictive, near-real time operating picture of... Conventional explosives launched into orbit near target, detonated when within range... interceptor missile. Designed to employ infrared sensors to detect and collide... In 1997, the US Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (MIRACL) was....50 The EKV will use infrared sensors to detect ballistic missiles... employ micro-satellites to maneuver near a satellite and explode within close... delayed without explanation.106 The Near-Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE), designed to employ a kill vehicle... the kinetic-kill component of NFIRE, which has an inherent space..., cuts in such programs as NFIRE, could be considered to have.... It also performed a Relay Mirror Experiment in 1990 which tested ground... US 139 Space Security 2004 Near-Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE), scheduled for launch in 2006... for the Micro-Satellite Propulsion Experiment (MPX) which would include two... systems Mission Clementine Stage Complete NFIRE Under 2006 development Planned N/A MDA... on the development of the NFIRE satellite. A typical technology development and... completion. 2004: US MDA cuts NFIRE Kill Vehicle Interceptor In February... development and deployment of the NFIRE satellite, due for launch in... The former would test lightweight infrared sensors for missile tracking. The... relating to the development of NFIRE, including the integration and testing... Services Committee authorized funding for NFIRE, but added the condition that... of Representatives cut funding for NFIRE.21 By August 2004, the... settled to maintain funding for NFIRE at the requested amount. However... moved to 2007.22 Presently, NFIRE is planned to perform a test... program and Soviet particle beam experiment, the non-deployment of such.... Despite budget cutbacks, research into NFIRE suggests that the US MDA... systems. The US Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS)-High and Space... remove the kill vehicle on NFIRE, noting that this was a positive... Launch Industry: Recent Trends and Near-Term Outlook,” Futron Corporation, 21...-1.htm. 22M. Hurley, “Tactical Microsatellite Experiment (TacSat 1),” Navy Research Laboratory Review... trapped by the Earth’s magnetic field. The lower belt is situated...-satellite technologies and “plans to field ASATs,” but does not substantiate... Optical Observation and Orbit Determination Experiment Initiated,” NASDA Report 99, September.../pdfs/11_94.2.pdf; “Relay Mirror Experiment,” Ball Aerospace. Online: http://www.../0603886C.pdf. 11“Microsatellite Propulsion Experiment Industry Day,” Air Force Material... remove “kill vehicle” sensor from NFIRE,” Space News, 23 August 2004... orbital space, i.e. the region of near-earth space above 100 kilometers...



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... Laser Communications Project: NFIRE-to-TerraSAR-X ISLs and NFIRE-to-Ground SGLs... no clouds exist. The SILEX experiment demonstrated in 2001 the very... I come to the OICETS downlink experiment, which was performed in 2009... valuable tests of fundamental physics. – Field tests underway 24 4/9/10 Ƚ Ĵĸ Ƚ LASER.... TerraSAR-X (TSX) – NFIRE Parameters TSX Antenna diameter Rx: NFIRE 125 mm 125... OICETS Workshop, Tenerife TerraSAR-X/NFIRE Ù OGS TSX/NFIRE Antenna diameter Rx: 125... Workshop, Tenerife TSX/NFIRE Ù LCT in OGS TSX/NFIRE Antenna diameter Rx... of quantum physics (Bell-type experiment over 1000km) 3. In-flight validation... space ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ARTEMIS OICETS SMART-1 TerraSAR-X NFIRE (ESA) (ESA-JAXA) (ESA) (DLR...: EOEP-3: Long Range Differential Absorption Experiment for Trace Gas Measurements at... and LOLA in 2006; TerraSAR-X/NFIRE experiment at 1064nm with coherent detection... 2.8 Gbps) • The 144km inter-island experiment demonstrated single photon transmission and... to NFIRE, 487Gbit First coherent bi-directional link TESAT OGS – NFIRE, 84Gbit... Laser Communications Project: NFIRE-to-TerraSAR-X ISLs and NFIRE-to-Ground SGLs.... Ƚ Ĺĺ Ƚ NFIRE is the Near Field Infrared Experiment. NFIRE’s original reason for existence was to obtain near field (km... and then observe in the near field km class range engagement. It... a US satellite for a joint lasercom experiment. She accepted the offer and... crosslinks have been demonstrated between NFIRE and TerraSar-X, demonstrating the strong... km orbit while NFIRE for most of the experiments NFIRE is in... success in laser communications between NFIRE and TerraSAR-X satellites. These experiments.... Ƚ IJıı Ƚ NFIRE is the Near Field Infrared Experiment. NFIRE’s original reason for existence was to obtain near field (km... and then observe in the near field km class range engagement. It... km orbit while NFIRE for most of the experiments NFIRE is in... acquire phase and frequency with NFIRE. Because NFIRE has its comm interface... success in laser communications between NFIRE and TerraSAR-X S satellites. These experiments... of optical inter-orbit link experiment with ESA Conceptual sketch of... optical satellite to ground link experiment with NICT 1993 OICETS project...) for in-orbit laser communication experiment. ¾ LUCE was designed for compatible... Link Experiment JAXA ¾ JAXA and NICT began to discuss in-orbit experiment... the experiment as a result of deliberations. ¾ Added function for the experiment; - open... code. ¾ Success in optical communication experiment with Optical ground stations (NICT... engaged members of in-orbit experiment, NICT, ESA, DLR, JPL and... verification of OICETS ᮦSatellite-ground g experiment p p procedures ᮦOperation summary 2 Ƚ IJijı Ƚ Rebuilding of.... for House Keeping Func. for Experiment OICETS was in operation JAXA.... for House Keeping Func. for E Experiment i t Experiments were conducted again i 3 Rebuilding...-ground experiment procedures JAXA NICT OGS Planning of entire experiment schedule Distribution 6 weeks before Long-term Visible pass analysis Candidates experiment... determination C fi Confirmation ti Approval Experiment D t collection Data ll ti and... successfully. N: OICETS was in the experiment mode but the weather prevented.... 12 N: OICETS was in the experiment mode but the weather prevented... Experiments ¾Weather data of the experiment days ¾FPS level during Experiments... Ƚ IJijĹ Ƚ Weather data of the succeeded experiment days 2EHUSIDIIHQKRIHQ $LUSRUW *HUPDQ\ 9LVLELOLW... of Up link signal. • 4ͲOGSs experiment was very good opportunity to... kind of international experiment will be realized very near future. International Workshop... GOLCE workshop 13/05/2010 Experiment set- up 3 Power Experiments Description... Outline • Introduction • Configuration of “KODEN” experiment KODEN: Kirari Optical Communication Demonstration... 13, 2010 Configuration of the experiment Laser Utilizing Communications Equipment (LUCE...-to-ground optical links. 4-OGSs experiment is a rare opportunity for the..., 2010 Conditions for satellite movements Experiment date: December 23, 2008 13... QD (31.8-cm diameter) 14 Ƚ IJĹĸ Ƚ Experiment date: December 23, 2008 GOLCE2010... 14 16 Time [sec] 18 Experiment date: December 23, 2008 20... QD (31.8-cm diameter) 16 Ƚ IJĹĹ Ƚ Experiment date: December 23, 2008 GOLCE2010... 0 -0.5 ᱳ -5 10 -4 10 -3 -2 10 Time [sec] Experiment date: December 23, 2008 -1 10... QD (31.8-cm diameter) 18 Ƚ IJĹĺ Ƚ Experiment date: December 23, 2008 GOLCE2010... with different apertures in Phase-4 experiment. • Invitation to the common analysis... addition... Recent success in orbit experiment s ensured the readiness of optical.... - ARTEMIS(ESA)- SPOT4(F) / OICETS -TerraSAR (G) - NFIRE (US) 8 OICETS: the first step... code. • Success in optical communication experiment with Optical ground stations (NICT...) – – – – Results of Artemis and TerraSAR-X experiment AlphaSat TDP Deep spade lasercom... to many programs; AlphaSat, SENTINEL 1,2.. • NFIRE to TerraSAR-X lasercom project was... test • Preparation of OICETS-OGS experiment was presented by Dr. Takayama...



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... 197 Endnotes Acronyms Third Generation Infrared Surveillance Program (formerly AIRSS) ABM... High Frequency system AIRSS Alternative Infrared Satellite System ANGELS Autonomous Nanosatellite... MIRACL Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser MiTEX Micro-satellite Technology Experiment MKV... Stars MPX Micro-satellite Propulsion Experiment MSS Mobile Satellite Service MTCR...) NEO Near-Earth Object NEOSSat Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite NFIRE Near-Field Infrared Experiment NGA National...-Based Interceptors SBIRS Space Based Infrared System SBL Space Based Laser... intercept creates largest manmade debris field in history • Trackable space debris... creation of such a massive debris field at a relatively high altitude in... largely been halted. 2007 Developments • NFIRE successfully tests sensor system in... technology development continued through the NFIRE test and MKV program, restraint... intercept creates largest manmade debris field in history On 11 January... well as how the debris field has changed over time.19....24 The largest trackable debris field prior to the Chinese intercept....8° and the impact created a debris field of 285 trackable pieces, the... creation of such a massive debris field at a relatively high altitude in... and receive signals and the field of view of their ground... are subdivided into Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Near Earth Comets (NECs... cooperation and exchanges in the field of space technology, these exchanges... security missions, particularly in the field of meteorology and Earth observation... of the Space Capsule Recovery Experiment on 22 January 2007.85... SRE-1 India India Space recovery experiment VSSC SSO 2007-013B 4/23... more acute in the military field, where they are associated with... system with the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) to provide advanced...-WASS) SIGINT HEO 3 Space Based Infrared System (2009); Space Tracking and... for the Alternative Infrared Satellite System, renamed Third Generation Infrared Surveillance Program... Sensing Satellite-1 (Yaogan-1) for “scientific experiment, survey of land resources, appraisal... meter — Cartosat-2 and the Technology Experiment Satellite, which provides tactical and... information for commanders in the field via direct in-theatre download... 100 kilograms, it has an infrared imaging sensor and a high-resolution... black-and-white, color, and infrared images. It is intended to... 2007-014A 4/24/07 Minotaur 1 NFIRE US US Research GD/Gilbert... known as Moving Object Detection Experiment (MODEx). This mode will support... (USAF) initiated the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) and the Space... in 1995.13 The first infrared sensor was launched in 2006... program in 2006: the Alternative Infrared Satellite System (AIRSS), supposedly designed... 2008, including testing of the infrared sensor used for detection, delivery... the Alternative Infrared Satellite System, now renamed Third Generation Infrared Surveillance Program... and carried aboard the MDA’s NFIRE satellite.72 The German laser...” that was originally part of NFIRE. The experiments focused on satellite... laser terminals onboard the US NFIRE satellite and the German TerraSAR... to detect with space-based infrared sensors because of their proximity... other sensors, such as the infrared Earth sensors that are part... through the Space Visible Sensor experiment,41 is being pursued through... the final experiment of the program.52 During the experiment the two... NextSat and its optical and infrared sensors were able to reacquire... defense purposes.60 EKVs use infrared sensors to detect ballistic missiles... In 1997 the US Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (MIRACL) was... the GMD system both use infrared sensors to detect ballistic missiles... repeat rendezvous maneuvers. The MDA Near-Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE), designed to provide support to... MDA cancelled the kill vehicle experiment after Congress expressed concerns about... Microsatellite Demonstration Science and Technology Experiment Program (MiDSTEP) sponsored by the... Microsatellite Demonstration Science and Technology Experiment Program (MiDSTEP) sponsored by DARPA... US also performed a Relay Mirror Experiment in 1990, which tested ground... Systems Negation Trend 7.4). The US Near-Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE) is designed to include many... US Congress on whether the NFIRE system should be allowed to... listed as justification for a second NFIRE mission in the FY2007 budget... study for the Microsatellite Propulsion Experiment (MPX), which would include two... moon and asteroids as targets NFIRE Ongoing 2007 MDA Testing space... Space Security 2008 2007 Development NFIRE successfully tests sensor system in... US Missile Defense Agency (MDA) NFIRE satellite was launched on 24... long-, medium-, and short-wave infrared.27 It is intended to... Force Base in California. The NFIRE satellite observed the missile plume... follow-on program to the NFIRE is the Space Test Bed... technology development continued through the NFIRE test and MKV program, restraint... systems. The US Space-based Infrared System-High and Space Tracking... Science LEO 12/03/2000 NFIRE Minotaur 1 US Technology LEO 24...



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... 162 Endnotes Acronyms Third Generation Infrared Surveillance (U.S.) ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile... Foreign Entities CHIRP Commercially Hosted Infrared Payload CNES Centre national d’études... Technology Experiment Program Milstar Military Satellite Communications System (U.S.) MIRACL Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (U.S.) MiTEX Micro-satellite Technology Experiment (U.S.) MTCR... Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (Canada) NEOWISE NEO Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer NFIRE Near-Field Infrared Experiment... Satellite Communications SBIRS Space Based Infrared System (U.S.) SBSS Space Based Space... satellite constellation, the Space Based Infrared System, and the Wideband Global... selects prime contractor • Commercially Hosted Infrared Payload (CHIRP) mission begins Space... June 2011 the JAXA Akari infrared astronomical telescope was maneuvered into... gathered by the NEO Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE).155 Between... with the Space Visible Sensor experiment that was decommissioned in 2008... be conducted is a Probe for Infrared Spectroscopy for Mars (Prism), which... of 54 km, and an infrared multispectral scanner of 5m/10m... deployment.140 CHIRP (commercially hosted infrared payload), demonstrated in September 2011... as it supports next-generation infrared sensor system development, reduces technology... system with the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) to provide advanced... is discussed below. The Alternative Infrared Space System, intended to act...-on program 3GIRS (Third Generation Infrared Surveillance).10 The U.S. Space Tracking... The long-struggling Space Based Infrared System, meant to replace the... Teague, director of the USAF Infrared Space Systems Directorate, said that... operate in GEO, and four infrared payloads hosted on classified satellites... September the USAF Commercially Hosted Infrared Payload (CHIRP) was launched on... scanning payload with a wide field-of-view infrared staring sensor that covers... to compete on a level playing field for contracts to launch U.S. government... six Yaogan satellites for “scientific experiment, survey of land resources, appraisal... 100 kg, it has an infrared imaging sensor and a high-resolution... black-and-white, color, and infrared images intended to support construction....58 2011 Development Commercially Hosted Infrared Payload mission begins The CHIRP... will collect realworld wide field-of-view infrared data while examining spacecraft... defense purposes. 33 EKVs use infrared sensors to detect ballistic missiles..., China called the event an experiment, not an anti-satellite test... satellite for the megawatt U.S. Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (MIRACL) was... Yun 1C satellite was a scientific experiment and not an anti-satellite... ASAT program.81 The MDA Near-Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE), designed to provide support to... 2005 the MDA cancelled the experiment after Congress expressed concerns about... a pair of Micro-satellite Technology Experiment (MiTEx) satellites into an unknown... Microsatellite Demonstration Science and Technology Experiment Program (MiDSTEP) sponsored by DARPA... carried two dummies and a biological experiment payload supplied by Germany and... believe that an activity or experiment planned by it or its... with any such activity or experiment. A State Party to the Treaty... believe that an activity or experiment planned by another State Party... consultation concerning the activity or experiment. Article X In order to promote... Hosted Infrared Payload,” online: www.hostedpayload. com/video/chirp-commercially-hosted-infrared..., “Fact Sheet on Space Based Infrared System,” Center for Defense Information... 101-2; Tonya Racasner, “Third Generation Infrared Program Team Wins AF Space...-1.htm. 19 M. Hurley, “Tactical Microsatellite Experiment (TacSat 1),” Navy Research Laboratory, 2004... 2011. 81 UPI, “U.S. military modifies infrared contract,” 5 April 2011, online: www.../04/05/US-military-modifies-infrared-contract/UPI10941302026182. 82 Air-Force... Space War, “USAF Commercially Hosted Infrared Payload Launched from Kourou,” 23... Agency’s NFIRE satellite. See Aviation Week and Space Technology, “NFIRE testing laser... Brian Berger and Jeremy Singer, “Field Narrows for DARPA’s Falcon Program... Hosted Infrared Payload,” online: www.hostedpayload. com/video/chirp-commercially-hosted-infrared-payload. 62 Air Force Space Command, “Commercially Hosted Infrared Payload... cascade, xenon-fluoride, and both infrared and X-ray free electron lasers... journals Chinese Journal of Lasers, Infrared and Laser Engineering, High Powered... Optics Letters, and Laser and Infrared. See also Sun Chengwei, Zhang... of the High Power DPL,” 5 Infrared and Laser Engineering, 2005, at... Solid State Laser in Space,” 2 Infrared and Laser Engineering, 2005, at..., online: www.armscontrolwonk.com/741/nfire-kill-vehicle-finally-dead-really... Ray, “Delta 2 Rocket Puts Military Experiment into Space,” Spaceflight Now, 21... has contributed to defining the field.” Jonathan McDowell Astrophysicist, Harvard-Smithsonian...



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..., integration and test) and the Near Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE). Our FY05-FY08 emphasis is...-in-the-loop ground tests, a field campaign of battle management/fire..., a joint Kinetic Energy Interceptor -Airborne Infrared Sensor team successfully collected high... collection of overhead non-imaging infrared sensor data in support of..., airborne, and overhead non-imaging infrared observations have greatly increased our... contain the very high resolution, near head on aspect angle phenomenology... Near Field Infrared Experiment is built to address this specific data need. The Near Field Infrared Experiment low... year long experiment will collect high resolution visible and infrared imagery, integrate... of hyper-temporal short wave infrared sensors for early launch detection... to collect near field visible, long, medium, and short wave infrared measurements of.... MDA plans to launch the Near Field Infrared Experiment satellite in 2Q FY 2006... and Test program and the Near Field Infrared Experiment. We have recently implemented a performance... targets of opportunity and the Near Field Infrared Experiment in both open and closed... demonstrate a fielded prototype capability in a near operational configuration. This operational prototype...-08. We will begin incremental field testing of Kinetic Energy Interceptor... radar data with overhead nonimaging infrared data; and the ability to... sources of overhead non-imaging infrared data. The command and control... capability. MDA is executing the Near Field Infrared Experiment to mitigate endgame homing and... target, the purpose of this experiment is to enhance the quantity... high resolution phenomenology data. The Near Field Infrared Experiment is a low earth orbiting satellite... to collect near field visible and long, medium and short wave infrared measurements... for the experiment include the collection of visible and infrared imagery, early..., and hyper-temporal short wave infrared and visible data collection for... capability validation. The MDA held a Near Field Infrared Experiment continuation review in summer 2004... primary experiment objectives. Over the one-year lifetime of the Near Field Infrared satellite... 2 - dedicated target fly-bys - the Near Field Infrared Experiment satellite views dedicated boosting targets... the sub-meter resolution near field infrared (IR) data, the Near Field Infrared Experiment will conduct two... Operation reviews with Army Conducted NFIRE independent and continuation reviews Initiated... of other Overhead Non-imaging Infrared Sensors to KEI boost/ascent... Planned Accomplishment: • • • • • • • Conduct Direct Downlink Experiment (Lab) Conduct KEI Command and... Defense System Interceptors FY 2004 NFIRE RDT&E Articles (Quantity) FY 2005... Conduct Near Field Infrared Experiment Mission Training Conduct Near Field Infrared Experiment Mission Rehearsals Complete procurement of Near Field Infrared Experiment targets FY 2006 Planned Program: RDT&E Articles: 1 NFIRE Experiment Satellite... acceptance of Launch Vehicle Launch Near Field Infrared Experiment Satellite Conduct Initial On-Orbit... Conduct On-Orbit Calibration Conduct Near Field Infrared Experiment Mission 1 - Target of Opportunity Project... Near Field Infrared Experiment Mission 2 , Near Field Boosting Target Fly By FY 2007 Planned Program: • • Conduct Near Field Infrared Experiment Mission 4, Ground based Hyper Temporal Experiment Conduct Near Field Infrared Experiment Mission 1 – Target... the components of Project R113 (Near Field Infrared Experiment). 0 0 0 0 FY 2004 FY 2005 FY... Live Fire Test Planning & Execution NFIRE Spacecraft Tracking Payload Launch Vehicle... Categories: Experimentation & Test Experimentation & Test-NFIRE Contract Method & Type Performing Activity... NFIRE Experimentation Test -NFIRE Experimentation Test -NFIRE Experimentation & Test NFIRE Experimentation & Test NFIRE Experimentation & Test NFIRE.../Timeline Demonstrations Conduct Direct Downlink Experiment Demonstrate CONUS KEI data fusion... Intercept Test #1 Conduct Intercept Test #2 Near Field Infrared Experiment Deliver Track Sensor Payload Complete... Ground Segment Launch Site Readiness NFIRE Launch NFIRE Experiment Deliver 2 Multi-Stage Boost.../Timeline Demonstrations Conduct Direct Downlink Experiment Build C2BMC Pathfinder Shelter Demonstrate... Intercept Test #1 Conduct Intercept Test #2 Near Field Infrared Experiment Deliver Track Sensor Payload FY... Ground Segment Launch Site Readiness NFIRE Launch NFIRE Experiment Type 2 Mission - Flyby Deliver... near-peer adversaries. The Kinetic Energy Interceptor program along with the Near Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE...



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... Medium Earth Orbit MIRACL Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser MKV Miniature... Stars MPX Micro-satellite Propulsion Experiment MSV Mobile Satellite Ventures MTCR... Space Administration (US) NEO Near-Earth Object NFIRE Near-Field Infrared Experiment NGA National Geospatial-Intelligence...-Based Interceptors SBIRS Space Based Infrared System SBL Space-Based Laser... programs, including the Space Based Infrared System, the Wideband Global SATCOM... the launch of a Space Based Infrared System sensor; however, the program... by the newly initiated Alternative Infrared Satellite System. Russia closed a seven..., spacebased technology experiments, and a second NFIRE test, the Congressional Subcommittee on... cable in the Earth’s magnetic field provides propellant-free propulsion for... cooperation and exchanges in the field of space technology, these exchanges... security missions, particularly in the field of meteorology and Earth observation... system with the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) to provide advanced...) (2009) Space Based Infrared System (2008); Alternative Infrared Satellite System; Space Tracking... Based Infrared System (SBIRS), which is intended to meet the military’s infrared... be a simpler alternative, the Alternative Infrared Satellite systems (AIRSS).110 It... satellite is intended for “scientific experiment, survey of land resources, appraisal... with the ISRO-operated Technological Experiment Satellite, which has a remote sensing... now building the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) and the Space... to detect with space-based infrared sensors because of their proximity... other sensors, such as the infrared Earth sensors that are part... to operationalize the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS), designed to replace... released.56 The first SBIRS infrared sensor was launched into HEO... program in 2006: the Alternative Infrared Satellite System (AIRSS), supposedly designed... through the Space Visible Sensor experiment,17 is being pursued through... defense purposes.28 EKVs use infrared sensors to detect ballistic missiles... In 1997 the US Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (MIRACL) was.... The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) Near-Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE), designed to provide support to... MDA cancelled the kill vehicle experiment after Congress expressed concerns about... Microsatellite Demonstration Science and Technology Experiment Program (MiDSTEP) sponsored by DARPA... Based Interceptor Test Bed, the Near Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE), and several small satellite programs... US also performed a Relay Mirror Experiment in 1990, which tested ground... Systems Negation Trend 7.4). The US Near-Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE), scheduled for launch in 2007... for the Micro-Satellite Propulsion Experiment (MPX), which would include two... systems. The US Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) and Space Tracking... Space Tracking and Surveillance System, Near Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE), the Missile Defense Space Experimentation...; 2) a propulsion experiment believed to be the classified Microsatellite Propulsion Experiment (MPX) designed... technologies; and 3) a Target Risk-Reduction Experiment using a microsatellite as a target for... missile interceptors.”54 The propulsion experiment will test the ability of... period. The Target Risk Reduction Experiment would use a microsatellite as a cooperative... track it. The distributed sensing experiment with three microsatellites is scheduled...’s missile early warning Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) advanced slightly in... began to develop the Alternative Infrared Satellite System, which is intended... 2007). 20 M. Hurley, “Tactical Microsatellite Experiment (TacSat 1)” Navy Research Laboratory Review... 83. 56 MissileThreat, “Space Based Infrared System –High (SBIRS-High)”, online... 2006) at 3-4; MissileThreat, “Space Based Infrared System –High (SBIRS-High)”. 62... Awards GD Contract for Alternative Infrared Satellite System” Spacewar (12 December... Orbit to Ground Optical Communication Experiment” Spacemart.com (12 June 2006... the High Power DPL” (2005) 5 Infrared and Laser Engineering at 511... State Laser in Space” (2005) 2 Infrared and Laser Engineering, at 127... Optical Observation and Orbit Determination Experiment Initiated” (September 2000), online: NASDA... in the Atmosphere” (2006) 35(1) Infrared and Laser Engineering at 49... Propagation in Atmosphere” (2006) 35(2) Infrared and Laser Engineering at 130134... Laser Communication System” (2006) 35(3) Infrared and Laser Engineering at 322... Detecting Space Target” (2006) 35(4) Infrared and Laser Engineering at 445... Ray, “Delta 2 Rocket Puts Military Experiment into Space” Spaceflight Now (21... Factsheet: MiTEx (Micro-satellite Technology Experiment)” (14 July 2006), online: Center... 2007); Ball Aerospace, “Relay Mirror Experiment”, online: Ball Aerospace (date accessed... Force Material Command, “Microsatellite Propulsion Experiment Industry Day” (30 August 2004... Queensland, News Release, “Hyshot Scramjet Experiment Blasts off in South Australian... Queensland, News Release, “Hyshot Scramjet Experiment Blasts off in South Australian...



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... MD Space Exp Center 0516 NFIRE 0517 Space Test Bed 0602... for standup of this center - Near Field Infrared Experiment - In FY07, funded in the... additional space layer capabilities. The Near Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE) technology effort will collect high... the Block 2006 STSS and NFIRE satellites. One of the major... data (STSS, External Sensors Lab, NFIRE, STSS Surrogate Testbed and Defense... include such things as near real-time infrared (IR) tracking experiments, IR.... NFIRE The Near Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE) technology effort project completes the program to collect near field phenomenology... of the experiment is to collect hyper-temporal short wave infrared and... detection and tracking capability. The experiment will include three plume signature... fly-bys, and ground observations. NFIRE will carry a Laser Communication Terminal... the other MDA missions. The NFIRE satellite will be operated from... 0603895C BMD System Space Program Near term funding for the space... the Space Test Bed, the Near Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE), and the Missile Defense Space... Center (MDSEC). In FY06, the NFIRE program was transferred from the... FY07, MDA has moved the NFIRE program and all associated funding... BMDS elements that rely on, experiment with, or seek to improve... the MDSEC activity are: STSS, NFIRE, External Sensors Laboratory (ESL), Project.... A.3 Major System Element Goals Near Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE) • Launch the Near Field Infrared Experiment satellite • Conduct multiple data... Description Major Event Contract Activity Near Field Infrared Experiment TSP Delivery Ground Segment Readiness... data (STSS, External Sensors Lab, NFIRE, STSS Surrogate Testbed and Defense... things such things as near real-time infrared (IR) and IR tracking... testbed • Conduct IR-IR Tracking Experiment Study • Support system development of... to the BMDS beginning with near real-time radar IR and...-IR Tracking Experiment Space-based IR Contributions IR-IR Tracking Experiment Expand...-IR Tracking Experiment Space-based IR Contributions IR-IR Tracking Experiment Expand... (ACD&P) COST ($ in Thousands) 0516 NFIRE RDT&E Articles Qty FY 2006...: FY 2007 Funding for the NFIRE Program is split between the... Program Element 0603893C. Because the NFIRE launch will take place in... and analysis for the Primary NFIRE Satellite as well as for... and Budget Item Justification The Near Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE) technology effort will collect high... of the experiment is to collect hyper-temporal short wave infrared and... detection and tracking capability. The experiment will include three plume signature... to the plume data collections, NFIRE will carry a Laser Communication Terminal... the other MDA missions. The NFIRE satellite will be operated from... missile engagement performance. Project: 0516 NFIRE MDA Exhibit R-2A (PE 0603895C... B. Accomplishments/Planned Program FY 2006 NFIRE RDT&E Articles (Quantity) FY 2007...,125 5,172,657 Project: 0516 NFIRE MDA Exhibit R-2A (PE 0603895C... 0 4,877 69,855 Project: 0516 NFIRE Total Cost 387,402 4,138... Cost ( $ in Thousands ) Cost Categories: NFIRE Subtotal Test and Evaluation Contract... PYs Cost 0 0 0 0 0 Remarks Project: 0516 NFIRE MDA Exhibit R-3 (PE 0603895C) Line... Cost ( $ in Thousands ) Cost Categories: NFIRE JNIC Research and Development Contractor... 20,851 Remarks Project: 0516 NFIRE MDA Exhibit R-3 (PE 0603895C) Line... 2008 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 2010 4 1 2 3 2011 4 1 2 3 2012 4 1 2 3 2013 4 1 2 3 4 Near Field Infrared Experiment TSP Delivery SV Integration and... (planned) P lanned A ctivity Project: 0516 NFIRE MDA Exhibit R-4 (PE 0603895C) Line... and Prototypes (ACD&P) Schedule Profile Near Field Infrared Experiment TSP Delivery SV Integration and... 4Q 3Q-4Q Project: 0516 NFIRE MDA Exhibit R-4A (PE 0603895C... global defense against ballistic missiles. Near term funding for the space...



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... Endnotes ix Acronyms Third Generation Infrared Surveillance Program (formerly AIRSS - US... Technology Experiment Program Milstar Military Satellite Communications System (US) MIRACL Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (US) MiTEX Micro-satellite Technology Experiment (US... Debris MPX Micro-satellite Propulsion Experiment (US) MSS Mobile Satellite Service... NEA Near Earth Asteroids NEC Near Earth Comets NEO Near-Earth Object NEOSSat Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (Canada) NFIRE Near-Field Infrared Experiment satellite...-Based Interceptor SBIRS Space Based Infrared System (US) SBL Space Based... have a direct stake in this field. Moreover, the investments being made... service they provide, and the field of view of their ground... are subdivided into Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Near Earth Comets (NECs... with the Space Visible Sensor experiment that was decommissioned in 2008... and are equipped with both infrared and visible sensors that can... was able to develop and field new sensors so quickly and... early warning systems which use infrared satellites to detect ballistic missile... highly elliptical orbits (HEO) with infrared sensors to provide coverage of... Force’s next-generation Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS). The original SBIRS... program called the Third Generation Infrared Surveillance system.91 The second... has been developing its own infrared satellite warning system called SPIRALE... Flight 23, the newest GEO infrared missile warning satellite in the... 2006 as part of a DARPA experiment to test new technologies, including... and promote research in the field of early warning and signal... and Russia in the military field, and about America’s attempts to... Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) experiment,67 whose primary purpose was... the Moon’s surface.69 This experiment was conducted as part of... surface and measuring its magnetic field. 2009 Development Successes and failures... 2009. Herschel is the largest infrared space observatory ever launched95 and... December NASA launched the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), 100 which... categories such as Space-Based Infrared Systems, communications satellites, GPS satellites... Laboratory/Raytheon Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment (ANDE) Castor Sphere Naval Research... Research Laboratory Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment (ANDE) Pollux Sphere Naval Research... system with the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) to provide advanced... $10-billion.17 The Alternative Infrared Space System, intended to act...-on program, the Third Generation Infrared Surveillance (3GIRS).18 The US... program called the Third Generation Infrared Surveillance system, was recently approved... six Yaogan satellites for “scientific experiment, survey of land resources, appraisal... 100 km, it has an infrared imaging sensor and a high-resolution... black-and-white, color, and infrared images intended to support construction... information for commanders in the field via direct in-theatre download... will monitor the Earth with infrared telescopes and alert its operators... of the Earth in several infrared bands since their launch.233... develop within five years an infrared early warning satellite to monitor... have a direct stake in this field. Moreover, the investments being made... difficult to detect with spacebased infrared sensors because of their proximity... involve an “instantaneous, intense energy field that can overload or disrupt... other sensors, such as the infrared Earth sensors that are part... defense purposes. 33 EKVs use infrared sensors to detect ballistic missiles..., China called the event an experiment, not an anti-satellite test... for the megawatt US Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (MIRACL) was... Yun 1C satellite was a scientific experiment and not an antisatellite test... ASAT program.97 The MDA Near-Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE), designed to provide support to... MDA cancelled the kill vehicle experiment after Congress expressed concerns about... a pair of Micro-satellite Technology Experiment (MiTEx) satellites into an unknown... Microsatellite Demonstration Science and Technology Experiment Program (MiDSTEP) sponsored by the... US also performed a Relay Mirror Experiment, which tested ground-based laser... as targets.”14 The US Near-Field Infrared Experiment (NFIRE) is designed to include many..., the US Congress denied the NFIRE system the ability to launch... study for the Microsatellite Propulsion Experiment (MPX), which would include two... systems. The US Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) and Space Tracking...-013A 3/17/2009 GOCE (Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation... 7/15/2009 Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment (ANDE) Castor Sphere Military Scientific... 7/15/2009 Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment (ANDE) Pollux Sphere Military Scientific... 12/14/2009 WISE (Wide Field Infrared Government Survey Explorer) Astrophysics USA... Search for Near-Earth Objects to Smaller Limiting Diameters,” Near-Earth Object.../reducing_the_risk_of_an_accide.shtml. 88 Space Based Infrared System High Program and its...