Спутник технологический. Nodes 2. [Редактировать]

Космические аппараты НАСА Nodes (Network & Operation Demonstration Satellite) созданы с целью осуществления миссии по демонстрации возможности организации сетей передачи данных между аппаратами. Всего в ходе реализации программы планируется осуществить запуск двух 1.5 юнитовых кубсатов каждый из которых весит до 2 кг. и имеет размеры 10х10х17 см. Технологически данные спутники наследуют свое программное обеспечение и начинку от научно-технического задела созданного в рамках проекта EDSN.Таким образом, они являются конструктивно схожими с данными космическими аппаратами. В качестве программного обеспечения на спутниках установлена система Андроид, а управление осуществляется при помощи специально написанных под эту операционную систему программ.
В ходе полета космические аппараты должны будут:

  • Передавать и ретранслировать данные как между собой так и на Землю.
  • Собирать и передавать данные о солнечной радиации на уровне 400 км. над поверхностью Земли.
  • Автоматически определять тот аппарат который находится в зоне радиовидимости.

 

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Тип орбиты - НОО
2Тип оператора(владельца) - государственный
3Страна оператор(владелец) - США
4Страна производитель - США

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2
2Габариты, см10х10х17

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Космодром Мыс Канаверал
2Дата пуска2015-12-07
3Полезная нагрузка 1xFlock
4Полезная нагрузка 1xFlock
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15Полезная нагрузка 1xNodes 2
16Полезная нагрузка 1xNodes 1
17Полезная нагрузка 1xSTMSat 1
18Полезная нагрузка 1xCARDE
19Полезная нагрузка 1xMinXSS 1
20Полезная нагрузка 1xCygnus CRS-4
21Полезная нагрузка 1xSIMPL
22Ракета-носитель 1xАтлас 5 401

Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Nodes 2». [Перейти к поиску]


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... degree setting with 50 overlay nodes in the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Skitter-based... a router-level topology with 3200 nodes and about 20000 links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83... with 3200 nodes and about 20000 links (60 overlay nodes with overlay... entries; (b) analysis based on end-nodes . . . . . . . . 138 7.2 An example of IP... the scenarios with 40 application nodes and 90% remaining connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144... the scenarios with 25 application nodes and two different remaining connectivities... the scenarios with 30 application nodes and 90% remaining connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148...- Chapter 1. Introduction 24 mediate overlay nodes according to routing decisions made... by routing through auxiliary overlay nodes [12]. Thirdly, overlay networks facilitate... underlying network, consisting of substrate nodes (including end hosts and routers..., several underlying nodes are selected to function as overlay nodes and they... of source and destination nodes. Overlay nodes can route customer traffic using... a subnet of nodes selected from the underlying network. Overlay nodes are equipped... performance constraints onto the underlying nodes that possess high quality incident... distributed, dynamic clusters of heterogeneous nodes for applications such as video... network among a group of participating nodes. It boasts a lower reconvergence time... all the substrate nodes are overlay candidates and substrate nodes with a degree... overlay nodes. However, we assume the paths between the overlay nodes are... using additional underlying nodes or selected hosting overlay nodes. However, their solutions... performance since they select potential nodes sequentially and heuristically. The other... Monitoring / Probing Substrate Network (Involving nodes in the  multi‐domain Internet...; (2) all of the OG nodes as volunteered nodes where they can obtain... there are volunteering nodes wishing to become OG nodes. An example of... , 0 ≤ I <| NI |}, randomly map overlay nodes to underlying nodes as current solution. (3) Calculate... Initialization,, N=0 ((Target g number of overlay nodes: ON) Randomly select an eligible... Resilience Service 75 Skitter2_OND, 50 nodes.. 1 R Relative R Resilience e 0.98 0.96 Node... with 3200 nodes and about 20000 links (60 overlay nodes with overlay... an application request, assuming that nodes supporting/accommodating the application are... a subset of substrate candidate nodes. The selected nodes are used to provide... ROMCA overlay {νr }, {λm n } Set of overlay nodes and QoS-compliant overlay links... Figure 5.1, all the overlay nodes are stub nodes. Hence, if their access... paths among the candidate overlay nodes. 5.4 Proposed Heuristic Algorithm Based on... mapped application nodes; (3) have not been chosen to host application nodes before... currently mapped application nodes with the already mapped application nodes. Step 2.6 Compute.... The overlay nodes are randomly attached to distinct substrate nodes in the... heuristic seldom requires additional overlay nodes, it has much higher percentage..., the number of additional overlay nodes decreases. Similarly, when the application... chooses overlay nodes sequentially with a preference for previously chosen overlay nodes. Since... can select a set of overlay nodes with a lower average delay. 5.5.4 Computational... the substrate nodes with 1ms delay (i.e. with 80 overlay candidate nodes). The... connection relationships among a group of nodes, often residing across multiple domains...), may be represented by multiple nodes notated with different identifications. As...-dimensional scaling technique to merge nodes with similar multi-dimensional coordinates... inference algorithms 1 or M source nodes, N destination nodes l-ary tree with depth of... host probing strategically chosen destination nodes. However, if complete topological information...% 0% Percentage 32.1% 138 T‐1 T‐2/T‐4 T‐3 T‐5 Total End Nodes: 201 (b) Figure 7.1: Anonymous router presence... entries; (b) analysis based on end-nodes nodes actually belong to a single router... the intermediate nodes, to vj and return a list of nodes including the... known end nodes and N∗ specifies the number of anonymous nodes this string... a unique ID to AR nodes. Two AR nodes are given the same... evaluation in thethe scenarios application nodes and 90% remaining connectivity 70... NM method mistakenly merges anonymous nodes (i.e. resulting in overlapping values bigger... and 50 overlay nodes. The results with 50 overlay nodes and overlay... without AR anonymous nodes) to all the other chosen nodes; (2) it should... assigns certain number of nodes to be anonymous nodes of T-1 and T-3 as...  Importing Synthetic Topology? Overlay Nodes  Selection Overlay Nodes  Selection Y Candidates  Selection Overlay... Initialization Substrate Network  Importing Overlay Nodes  Selection Interaction 172 Direct Substrate...%: The percentage of nodes that are ARs nodes in the inferred topology... the placement of infrastructure overlay nodes,” IEEE/ACM Transaction on Networking...



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... 9.1 Throttling Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Balancing Workload Across Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Work Pulling Pattern to throttle... of virtual nodes per node for consistent-hashing router virtual-nodes-factor... allowed to automatically mark # unreachable nodes as DOWN after a configured time..., # e.g. front-end and back-end nodes. roles = [] role { # Minimum required number... size. # E.g. to require 2 nodes with role 'frontend' and 3 nodes with role 'backend... Documentation, Release 2.4.5 # Number of member nodes that each member will send... round-robin among the given nodes. nodes = [] } } } } remote { ### General settings # Timeout after... for nodes marked as unreachable by the failure # detector unreachable-nodes-reaper... re-enable communication with # quarantined nodes. Such feature is not supported... # ClusterReceptionist on the servers (cluster nodes) establishing-get-contacts-interval = 3s...-name = "singleton" # Singleton among the nodes tagged with specified role. # If... data associated with # removed cluster nodes. pruning-interval = 30 s # How long...(), "router28") virtual-nodes-factor is the number of virtual nodes per routee... cannot occur while any nodes are unreachable. The nodes need to become... to add more nodes to the cluster. The nodes can join, but.... Seed Nodes The seed nodes are configured contact points for new nodes joining... { hostname = "127.0.0.1" port = 0 } } cluster { seed-nodes = [ "akka.tcp://ClusterSystem@127.0.0.1:2551....ClusterActorRefProvider. The akka.cluster.seed-nodes should normally also be added... (application.conf): akka.cluster.seed-nodes = [ "akka.tcp://ClusterSystem@host1:2552....seed-nodes.0=akka.tcp://ClusterSystem@host1:2552 -Dakka.cluster.seed-nodes.1=akka.tcp://ClusterSystem@host2:2552 The seed nodes can... until the nodes can join. Once more than two seed nodes have.... Unsuccessful attempts to contact seed nodes are automatically retried after the... client. New backend nodes, as well as new frontend nodes, can be... to detect new, potential, frontend nodes, and send them a registration message... on the oldest node. All nodes start ClusterSingletonProxy and the ClusterSingletonManager... instance among all cluster nodes or a group of nodes tagged with a specific... be started on all nodes, or all nodes with specified role, in... singleton to nodes tagged with the "worker" role, but all nodes, independent...-name = "singleton" # Singleton among the nodes tagged with specified role. # If... actors among all cluster nodes or a group of nodes tagged with a specific... be started on all nodes, or all nodes with specified role, in... Distributed Publish Subscribe, i.e. subscribers on nodes with WeaklyUp status will receive... be started on all nodes, or all nodes with specified role, in... # ClusterReceptionist on the servers (cluster nodes) establishing-get-contacts-interval = 3s... be automatically distributed across multiple nodes in the cluster. Each entity... nodes. Less shards than number of nodes will result in that some nodes... member among all cluster nodes or a group of nodes tagged with a specific... Cluster nodes that are using Cluster Sharding. Stop all Cluster nodes before... Metrics Extension 5.7.1 Introduction The member nodes of the cluster can collect... entries are spread to all nodes, or nodes with a certain role, in... coordination. Concurrent updates from different nodes will automatically be resolved by... written to all nodes in the cluster (or all nodes in the... to some nodes, and will eventually be replicated to all nodes with... UpdateTimeout(Set1Key, req) => // write to 3 nodes failed within 1.second You will... merged from all nodes in the cluster (or all nodes in the... GetFailure(Set1Key, req) => // read from 3 nodes failed within 1.second case NotFound... number of nodes in the cluster, or the number of nodes with... 4 nodes and reading from 4 nodes, or writing to 5 nodes and reading from 3 nodes. By... 3 nodes and reads from 3 nodes. In a 6 node cluster it writes to 4 nodes and reads from 4 nodes. Here... written to 3 nodes: n1, n2, n3. Then 2 more nodes are added and a Get request is reading from 4 nodes, which... to some nodes, and may eventually be replicated to all nodes. A deleted... other nodes in the cluster, but if you stop all nodes the... data associated with # removed cluster nodes. pruning-interval = 30 s # How long... to enhance security between remote nodes (client/server): • Untrusted Mode • Security... in Akka 2. 9.2 Balancing Workload Across Nodes Contributed by: Derek Wyatt “Often... is described Balancing Workload across Nodes with Akka 2. 9.3 Work Pulling Pattern... between test nodes) • Node Barrier Coordination: Waiting for other nodes at named... properties: • multinode.max-nodes The maximum number of nodes that a test can... a configuration. MultiNodeSampleConfig. Lets use two nodes "node1 and "node2" and call... "A MultiNodeSample" must { "wait for all nodes to enter a barrier" in { enterBarrier...



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... the computational capability of the nodes. Instead, many research groups started... networks are composed of small nodes, equipped with a wireless communication device... comprised of potentially thousands of nodes, traditional network management practices are... nodes. Thus, smart object architecture must support an increasing number of nodes... of nodes. The memory size and computational complexity of the nodes are... and Lossy Networks (LLN) Nodes are routers Nodes are sensor/actuators and... of nodes Links and nodes are stable Links are highly unstable and nodes die much more often Nodes constraints or link bandwidths are typically non-issues Nodes/Links.... Whereas some nodes may be main-powered, battery-powered nodes must consume... composed of a limited number of nodes for a foreseeable future (e.g., home automation... multicast to a specific multicast group. Nodes participating in the service discovery... encrypts data sent from two nodes, consider nodes A and B who want to... network according to traffic observations. Nodes capable of hosting such applications... and Software interpreted by the nodes. The nodes communicate between each other... nodes. The new nodes automatically join the network and act as relay nodes..., the nodes must have a way to rendezvous so that two nodes who... implicit synchronization mechanism where the nodes synchronize on each data exchange... any explicit time synchronization between nodes. By adding explicit time synchronization... to several other nodes and possibly all other nodes in the network... from the nodes. In many-to-one communication, several nodes send data.... Nodes must be prepared to relay traffic from neighbor nodes to other nodes in the network, because the nodes cannot directly reach all other nodes. In PLC, individual nodes do... other because all nodes reach each other directly, but nodes may need to route data to nodes on other... of two other nodes, but the two other nodes are not in..., power (battery- or main-powered nodes), security level, routing connectivity, criticality... thousand nodes in a single area/level. The number of nodes in large... and Lossy Networks (LLN) Nodes are routers Nodes are sensor/actuators and... of nodes Links and nodes are stable Links are highly unstable and nodes die much more often Nodes constraints or link bandwidths are typically non-issues Nodes/Links... dozen nodes, in many other cases, the number of these nodes may... all the nodes along the paths: a subset of some nodes along the...) IPv6 nodes: FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 Multicast address for all link-local IPv6 nodes: FF02... message (e.g., especially useful for mobile nodes). With periodic timers they are... (solicited message) or the all-nodes multicast address (FF02::1;unsolicited message... the number of nodes is extremely large and the nodes are unattended... discovery adaptation, etc.) where the nodes were exclusively interconnected by IEEE... communication between nodes residing in different IP subnetworks (typically nodes in different... sleeping nodes in the network (a frequent situation with battery-operated nodes), the... nodes.” Several paths have been pruned because they traverse battery-operated nodes... of visited nodes. This is particularly useful when the intermediate nodes cannot... qualities (e.g., reliability, throughput, latency) and nodes with different attributes (e.g., battery-powered... reliability while avoiding battery-operated nodes, whereas DODAG 2 (instance 2) is optimizing....6.7. When two nodes have the same rank, the nodes are said to... nodes (cannot store routing entries) Routing Table DAO states associated with nodes... them (nodes 22 and 23 are siblings). Suppose that both nodes 22... impact on the network and nodes resources. Overreacting would potentially compromise... “hellos” between nodes would drain energy from the nodes as well as... the constrained resources on the nodes (some implementations only require 4–7 bytes... 65,536 nodes. In practice, the number of possible nodes is reduced... the other nodes, can maintain all routing information for all nodes. This... routing request reaches all nodes in the network. Nodes set up a reverse... thousands of nodes, the routing tables in the memory-constrained nodes begin... layer has a connection between two nodes called a binding. A binding is unidirectional... the nodes in the network, distributes address information between the nodes in....2.3.5 Scalability The number of sensor nodes deployed in monitoring environments may... of fixed and mobile nodes. Fixed nodes with higher computational and power... both mobile and fixed nodes where fixed nodes are used to collect....). The computing capabilities of the nodes are very constrained. The microprocessor... started, changes include nodes just dying out and nodes replaced at a very... accomplished in nodes and the communication needs between the sensor nodes. If...



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... gland and adjacent cervical lymph nodes should be performed. Pertinent historical... of sonographically suspicious cervical lymph nodes, features associated with the highest... extrathyroidal extension, metastatic cervical lymph nodes, or distant metastases, micropapillary thyroid... extension or sonographically suspicious lymph nodes may be observed with close... the nodule and cervical lymph nodes, rather than pursuing immediate FNA... outcome, while residual metastatic lymph nodes represent the most common site... especially lateral neck compartments) lymph nodes is recommended for all patients... FNA of sonographically suspicious lymph nodes > 8-10 mm in the smallest... evaluation of suspicious cervical lymph nodes is appropriate in select patients... suggestive of abnormal metastatic lymph nodes include enlargement, loss of the... sensitive for detection of lymph nodes with metastatic thyroid cancer. One... the highest specificity; any lymph nodes with microcalcifications should be considered... Confirmation of malignancy in lymph nodes with a suspicious sonographic appearance is... fluid measurements for suspicious lymph nodes, additional FNA-Tg helped to... incremental benefit for those lymph nodes with highly suspicious US features... central and lateral compartment lymph nodes examined together (77% vs 62... can also detect inflammatory lymph nodes, which reduces the specificity of... clinically apparent metastatic disease to nodes (clinical N1) or distant sites... patients with clinically involved central nodes should accompany total thyroidectomy to... clinically uninvolved central neck lymph nodes (cN0) who have advanced primary... T4), clinically involved lateral neck nodes (cN1b), or if the information... nodes, and that incrementally more metastatic lymph nodes up to six involved nodes..., the demonstration of uninvolved lymph nodes by prophylactic dissection may decrease... be included if the lymph nodes are clinically involved. Thyroid lobectomy... invaded vessels, number of lymph nodes examined and involved with tumor... than 5 metastatic lymph nodes, to 5% if all involved lymph nodes are < 0.2 cm, to 19% if more than 5 lymph nodes are...). Clinical N1 disease, > 5 metastatic lymph nodes, or any metastatic lymph node... the number of involved lymph nodes, minor extrathyroidal extension, it is... three or fewer metastatic lymph nodes with extranodal extension while a recurrence... with 3 or more metastatic lymph nodes with extracapsular extension. It is... N1 with all involved lymph nodes < 3 cm in largest dimension), intrathyroidal... of <6 who had positive lymph nodes, using respective univariate analyses (278..., a further inclusion restriction was <5 positive nodes at time of primary surgery... change management, ultrasonographically suspicious lymph nodes > 8-10 mm (see Recommendation 71... recommendation, Lowquality evidence) C) Suspicious lymph nodes less than 8-10 mm in... be considered as malignant; lymph nodes with a hyperechoic hilum are reassuring... lower uptake in neck lymph nodes, and 3) patients with thyroglobulin antibodies... such as recurrent central neck nodes after primary thyroidectomy. This target... including proximity of given malignant nodes to adjacent vital structures and... and multidisciplinary collaborative discussions, metastatic nodes 212 Thyroid 2015 American Thyroid... lymph nodes between the years 2004-2009 (878). 92 lymph nodes (84... 65 months (879). All lymph nodes were successfully ‘ablated’ in 1-5 treatment... patients with 41 metastatic lymph nodes (880). These investigators treated patients... many patients with small lymph nodes (<5-8 mm). A general consensus from studies... small volume metastatic cervical lymph nodes. From the surgical pathology literature... hand, grossly involved metastatic lymph nodes were at one time minimally... thyroid cancer in cervical lymph nodes. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg...-needle aspirates of metastatic neck nodes in papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin... for detecting lateral metastatic lymph nodes in patients with papillary thyroid... for evaluating metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid cancer... diagnosis of cervical metastatic lymph nodes in papillary thyroid carcinoma: comparison... in patients with positive lymph nodes: an important association that may... FNA isrecommended for cervical lymph nodes that are sonographically suspicious for... Table 8: Ultrasound features of lymph nodes predictive of malignant involvement. (adapted..., paratracheal, and prelaryngeal/Delphian lymph nodes). N1b Metastases to unilateral, bilateral... retropharyngeal or superior mediastinal lymph nodes (Level VII) M0 No distant... N1 with all involved lymph nodes < 3 cm in largest dimension* Intrathyroid... macroscopic or clinically evident lymph nodes or presence of Thyroid 2015... sternocleidomastoid muscle. The level III nodes are bounded superiorly by the... includes the submental and submandibular nodes, above the hyoid bone, and... submandibular gland. Finally, the level V nodes are in the posterior triangle... and paratracheal superior mediastinal lymph nodes above the level of the...



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... a fully connected O(n2 ) network of n nodes. We present the design, implementation... Erlang scales better beyond 80 nodes (1920 cores). Keywords: distributed system... on up to 257 distributed nodes (6168 cores) (Section 6). 3 2. Distributed Erlang... of nodes where nodes N1, N2, N3, N4 are free normal nodes, nodes H5, H6 are free hidden nodes, and nodes S7, S8... nodes. Nodes S7, S8, S9, S10 are in global group G1 and nodes... Connections between Different Types of Nodes in Distributed Erlang 5 2.2. Scalability Limitations... 60 nodes. Fully Connected Network. Maintaining a fully connected network between N nodes requires... to monitor the nodes. Clearly, as the number of nodes grows this... Erlang nodes by reducing the number of connections 7 between the nodes. A discussion... a fully connected graph of Erlang nodes imply a quadratic O(N 2 ) number of active... groups (s groups), where nodes transitively connected with other nodes within their s groups, and non-transitively with other nodes. In SD Erlang nodes with no asserted... start six free normal nodes: A, B, C, D, E, F , then the nodes belong to the notional... G1 that consists of nodes A, B, and C. When nodes A, B, and C become members of the s group they keep connections with nodes... then disconnect the nodes of s group G1 from the nodes of group... that consists of the nodes C, D, and F . The nodes D and F now have non... share information about nodes A and B with nodes D and F . Similarly, when nodes A and F establish... introducing s groups we considered grouping nodes in hierarchical, overapping and partitioned... adding and removing nodes from groups. • Enabling nodes to belong to multiple... there being direct connections between nodes from different levels and subgroups... connections, nodes would communicate with each other via “hash close” nodes, and..., non-transitive connections with other nodes Scalable Distributed Erlang No grouping... s group, nontransitive connections with other nodes Common Overlapping Table 1: Types of... us call them gateway nodes) and super-peers, i.e. nodes that act simultaneously... to grouping Erlang nodes: creating a new s group, removing nodes from an s group, and listing own and known nodes. The... nodes(SGroupName, [Node]) remove nodes(SGroupName, [Node]) s groups() own s groups() own nodes() own nodes(SGroupName) Description Creats new s groups Deletes an s group Adds nodes to an s group Removes nodes from an s group... of nodes the node shares namespaces with Returns a list of nodes from the given s group Table 2: Summary of S group Specific Functions nodes to an s group, listing the nodes of own and known s groups, synchronisation of nodes, and... nodes unregister name(Name) Unregisters a name on the connected free normal nodes... Functions Removing Nodes from an S group. The s group:remove nodes/2 function is used to dynamically remove nodes from an... Own Nodes. The s group:own nodes/0,1 functions are used to list nodes with... node s group:own nodes() function returns a list of nodes from all s groups... connected free normal nodes. Listing 4: List of Own Nodes s_group:own_nodes() -> [Node] s_group:own_nodes(SGroupName) -> [Node] The s group:own nodes(SGroupName) function returns a list of nodes of the given... functions called on s group nodes treat free nodes as if they belong... avoid establishing direct connections between nodes from different s groups a programmer needs... to disconnect the nodes or one of the nodes fails. With {s group... of nodes. Each type of groups is associated with nodes and has... the s group nodes nis are free then the nodes are removed from... Section 3.1.3). InterConnectNodes function interconnects 20 nodes from nds identified by nis... of nodes in such a way that every s group has 10 nodes. Therefore... node and the remaining nodes are workers. All nodes are interconnected. The... and the remaining nodes are submasters and workers. The nodes are grouped... submaster nodes. The s groups reduce the number of connections between nodes, i.e. the... transferring of messages between worker nodes from different s groups. Figures 9(a) and... processes on remote nodes and scalability of a set of nodes in particular... the nodes and a heart-bit signal. As the number of nodes in the system grows nodes likely to maintain... to a subset of nodes rather than to all nodes should significantly improve... implementation. That is nodes have transitive connections with nodes from the same... non-transitive connections with other nodes. Free nodes in SD Erlang have... as the number of nodes grows (beyond 80 nodes or 1920 cores... includes introducing functions to group nodes according 31 to different structures... number of worker nodes to the number of submaster nodes (see for...



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...ficient system for finding helper nodes in a more articulated scenario. Author... allocate more measurements to the nodes which contribute more, mimics a capitalist... Game Theory Relaunched Network component Nodes Available adaptations Performance metrics Game... on the strategies of other nodes within a coalition. Hence, cooperative game... dynamic scenario. Additionally, localizing the nodes can help reduce power consumption... assumes a number of location aware nodes, called anchors. In a typical two... uses distance estimates to anchor nodes as input, and estimates target... all neighboring nodes. The process is repeated until all nodes that can have three or more reference nodes obtain... The number of actively participating nodes should be kept to a minimum... M.A., 2001). In brief, when reference nodes are well separated around the... and for selection of reference nodes. The work in (Ghassemi F. & Krishnamurthy... for measurement allocation among reference nodes localizing the target. The localization... anchor nodes, strategically placed to guarantee coverage to all unknown nodes. Anchors... power consumption at the anchor nodes, while assuring desired localization accuracy... only a subset of available reference nodes does not necessarily degrade the... ranging information from some reference nodes, after they have been identified... for grand coalition, i.e., when all nodes contribute to the tracking process... multiple target localization. Assuming that nodes in sleep mode do not... nodes estimate the distances to their neighbors, and a second phase where nodes... a large number of available anchor nodes. However, transmitting and processing all..., the geometry of selected reference nodes shows to have significant impact... a target has several neighboring anchor nodes in near vicinity, and different... subject to constraints given by nodes’ limited processing capacity. Position estimates... that the distance estimates between nodes are obtained using RSS measurements... energy consumption if all reference nodes were used for localization, the... possible coalition sets containing three nodes. The results are presented in... node has a number of reference nodes in local vicinity, uniformly distributed... how appropriate selection of reference nodes outperforms the random selection, for... 22 Number of available reference nodes Figure 5. Localization accuracy for random....6 we assumed 10 available reference nodes. Besides accuracy, we will assess... network consisting of a great many nodes (or routers) and the communication... [5] considered a network consisting of 4 nodes, 1 origin (0), 2 relay nodes (1,2), and 1 destination (3) (Fig. 1). As... of one origin, one destination, n nodes and links of nondecreasing costs... connected. Thus, the network has 8 nodes, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H. The total flow rate... paradox, k = 8/2 = 4. Figure 2. The network with 8 nodes that shows the worst case... equilibrium. x˜ij = x˜ ji = x˜ ≥ 0. After two nodes are inter-connected as shown... types, the processing capacities of nodes, and the characteristics of job... consider the system consisting of m nodes, 1, 2, . . . , m [26, 53]. Jobs are classi... systems. 5.1. The models with multiple nodes with nonlinear costs Consider the... distributed computer systems consisting of m(≥ 2) nodes. With the 1 (if β i < μ i , workload β i , the... of decision makers at all nodes increases, which looks paradoxical. The..., respectively, the cases of 2 and 4 nodes (m = 2 and m = 4), with the transfer facilities... following. We consider a system with m (≥ 2) nodes (host computers or processors) connected... are equally distributed over all nodes i. The average processing (service) time... a pair of origin and destination nodes, and a local class: i.e., m(m − 1)n lines in... inactive or OFF. Consider two nodes, vi , v j , i �= j, which are close enough... nodes: Definition 1. Consider two nodes vi and v j such that the two nodes... w(vi , v j ) > 0, then w(v j , vi ) > 0 for all nodes vi , v j ∈ V, i �= j. 4.2. The time We consider... are the nodes (servers). Given the decisions of the nodes whether to... for the cooperation of two nodes in the subsequent section. 5.0.1. Case... in improved utility for both nodes 1, 2, compared to the non-cooperative... in improved utility for both nodes 1, 2, compared to the non-cooperative... of two neighbouring nodes. 6. Nash Equilibrium for two neighbouring nodes For ease... is played between two adjacent nodes 1 and 2, where the signal broadcast... Equilibrium for the two nodes. 6.1. Two interacting neighbouring nodes Next, we compare... of both nodes In case 1, we consider that both nodes are ON... two nodes We consider here the case where the two nodes agreed... the two nodes We prove, Theorem 6.1. Assume two interacting nodes 1, 2 with w(1, 2) and... is a Nash Equilibrium for the nodes if both w(1, 2) and w(2, 1) ≥ 0.5. Proof. We... 1 illustrate the graph of connected nodes representing a neighbourhood of access points...(T4 ,4) = 1 Table 1. Mode operations on Nodes 1–4 Next, Table 2 presents the cooperative... now compute the utilities of nodes 1, 2, 3 and 4, starting from node 1. Note...



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... assumption and allow addition of nodes; in particular the incomplete document... at integrating, besides information content, nodes identity, we would opt for...) and last (youngest) children of nodes. A DTD over a set Σ ⊂ Labels of... (1) where β ranges over descriptions of nodes. A node description β of a node whose... wildcards ); (c) precise vertical relationship between nodes (we can use descendant edges... edges); (d) precise horizontal relationship between nodes (using younger-sibling edges instead... with two-sorted structures (over nodes and attribute values), we shall... introduction in our syntax. The 6 nodes are described by: β0 β1 β3 β4 β5 β7 = = = = = = r{root} (i0... of forests, and markings of nodes, and (↓, ↓∗ , )DOM trees refers to... with the notion of root nodes) as follows: (1) If t = β f f ′ , where β = ℓµ (x)[(@ai... the root nodes of f f ′ as the union of the root nodes of... from reℓ(f ′ ) to T and the nodes {ν(y ′ )| y ′ is a root of f ′ } are children... from reℓ(f ′′ ) to T and the nodes {ν(y ′′ )| y ′′ is a root of f ′′ } are descendants... obtained from T by considering all nodes besides the leaves conforms to... of each one of its nodes is polynomially bounded. Horizontal shortcuts... ) → → . . . → lc (xK ) having exactly K wildcard nodes. For each string s = a1 a2... for each s ∈ S, there must exist nodes ij+1 , . . . , ij+|s| among the children... variables of D guarantees that collapsed nodes agree on common attributes, and... nodes x, x1 , . . . , xn in the graph GNS (D). Since the set of nodes... let β1 , . . . βn be the descriptions of nodes of t(D) with variables x1 , . . . xn... β ′ be the node descriptions at nodes x and y respectively. If β and β ′ cannot... incomplete tree, since only sibling nodes x and y of t(D) are collapsed by... from t(D) by identifying the sibling nodes x and y. 2) adomnode (D′ ) = adomnode (t(D′ )) using the... a parent in D′ . Because h only collapses nodes belonging to the same connected... , z ∈ / C, and z is not a sibling of nodes of C in t(D). Therefore h(z) ∈ h(C) would imply... step, respectively] is applicable on nodes x1 , x2 ∈ adomnode (D), with x1... β1 and β2 be the descriptions of nodes of t(D) having node variables x1... step, respectively] is applicable on nodes x1 , x2 ∈ adomnode (D), if both... β1 and β2 be the descriptions of nodes of t(D) having node variables x1... , z∈ / S and z is not a sibling of nodes of S in t(D). hence h(z) ∈ h(S) would imply... h collapses two distinct non-sibling nodes of t(D). Since this is not... h(xi ) = h(x). Hence there cannot exist nodes xi , xj with 1 ≤ i, j ≤ n such that... a preceding sibling then the two nodes must coincide). The chase also... instance if, after collapsing some nodes, a node has two distinct next... markings. Finally, by construction of T , nodes i1 . . . in are children of... of T and all other nodes of t into nodes of T having the same... subformulae of t. Specifically, parse tree nodes of the form f (resp. t) will...) subformula ϕ of t the set of nodes of T where ϕ is satisfied, denoted... syntax: —[[t]]T is the set of nodes s of T such that (T, ν, s) |= t for some... Vattr ); —[[f < ]]T is the set of nodes s of T such that there exists... of nodes of [[ϕ]]T in T . Formally, —[[ϕ]]Tdesc is the set of nodes s of... E ∗ (s, s′ ). —[[ϕ]]Tsib is the set of nodes s of T such that there exists... (ϕi )) of sets of nodes of T , for i ∈ [1, m]. sem returns nodes S(ϕ), Sdesc (ϕ) and Ssib..., respectively, all preceding siblings of nodes of S(ϕ). This can be done... (T, νj , s) |= tj for some valuation νj of nodes of tj , for each j ∈ [1, r]; —otherwise... the @a-attributes of ℓ-children of r-nodes that have a younger sibling with... labeling predicate to wildcard-labeled nodes. Since the domain of labels... the maximal connected component of nodes that contains nc , i.e., Sic is... the maximal connected component of nodes that contains nd , i.e., Sid is... label R; moreover there must exist nodes i1 , . . . iK of T , with i0... j ∈ [1, K] (the witnesses for nodes of tK ). Also, since nodes xj of tK...+1 , . . . Ck partition {xi |i ∈ [n + 1, m]}). We order nodes of C1 , . . . Cl as follows... C¯ = xf c p1 . . . pq xlc of nodes of C. Given that C¯ = xi1 . . . xir... ) → . . . (xK ) → L(xK+1 ) having exactly K wildcard nodes. For each string s = a1 a2... · 71 —for each s ∈ S, there exist nodes ij+1 , . . . , ij+|s| in T such that... of each one of its nodes is polynomially bounded. Horizontal shortcuts... D ⊇ V ). Intuitively, nodes labeled E encode the edges of the graph, while nodes labeled... true, then there exist V -labeled nodes of T , with node descriptions V [vi... construction of T , if two V -labeled nodes of T have a common 4-ancestor, their... the images by h of the nodes of t with descriptions V [v1 ], . . . , V [vn..., and uses the distance of nodes N [@n = vi ] from their C siblings to... Ti = A C[@c = 0] C[@c = 1] C[@c = 2] D . . . D N [@n = vi ] . The number of D nodes separating the node N [@n = vi ] from... = vj ], and 2) there exist two nodes of T with description N [@n = vi ] and... every i ∈ [1, m]. Intuitively, the set of nodes labeled E and V encode respectively the...



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... underlying cluster structure of the nodes; the task is to recover... cluster relation between a pair of nodes is inferred from only their... Montanari, 2013); if K = Ω( n log n), the nodes in the clique can be... n ≥ rK. Definition 1 (Planted Clustering) Suppose n nodes (which are identified with [n]) are... | = rK and |V2 | = n − rK. The nodes in V1 are partitioned ∗ | = K for... clusters), where |Cm r ∗ m=1 Cm = V1 . Nodes in V2 do not belong... clusters and are called isolated nodes. A random graph is generated based... structure: for each pair of nodes and independently of all others... corresponds to a group of disconnected nodes that are assigned with the... 3 A Simple Counting Algorithm 1. (Identify isolated nodes) For each node i, compute its... every pair of non-isolated nodes i, j, compute the number of common... Algorithm 3 correctly finds the isolated nodes with probability at least 1 − 2n... is to find the isolated nodes, the counting algorithm performs nearly... correctly identify all the isolated nodes with probability at least 1/4 if... in Algorithm 3), respectively. There exist nodes whose degrees deviate from their... the isolated nodes and those of the non-isolated nodes. A similar argument... called isolated left (right, resp.) nodes. One can think of A as... between the nL left nodes and nR right nodes, and the goal... 6 A Simple Thresholding Algorithm 1. (Identify isolated nodes) For each left node i ∈ [nL... pair of non-isolated left nodes i, i ∈ [nL ], assign 2 R them to the.... Assign the non-isolated right nodes into clusters in a similar manner... that Algorithm 6 identifies the −1 isolated nodes with probability at least 1 − en... of non-isolated and isolated nodes, respectively. 5.1 Proof of Theorem 2 and... node (K + i) cluster memberships of the nodes K and K + i. Formally, for each i ∈ [M belongs... first cluster consists of the nodes {1, 2, . . . , K − 1, K + i}, the l-th cluster is given... first cluster consists of the nodes {1, 2, . . . , K − 1, K + i}, the node K is an isolated... that there exist two disconnected nodes from two different clusters, and... with at least two disconnected nodes in two different clusters with... first rK/2 nodes {1, . . . , rK/2} form r/2 clusters, and the next rk/2 nodes {rK... node among the first rK/2 nodes. We use a second moment argument... node among the next rK/2 nodes {rK/2 + 1, . . . , rK}, then by symmetry... 1 and 2 are given by the nodes [K] and {K + 1, . . . , 2K}, respectively. For each... event that Sij > (p−q)2 K + q 2 n for all nodes i, j from the same true cluster and Sij < + pairs of nodes (i, j) from two different 3 true clusters... ) and Bin(n − K, q 2 ). Similarly, for two nodes i, j in two different true clusters... in V1+ . Similarly, the isolated nodes V2 are partitioned into two... fails to identify the isolated nodes with probability at least 1/4. For... /2} and for each k = 1, . . . , n1 /4, the nodes 2k − 1 and 2k are in... + (n − 2K)q 2 . On this event the nodes i∗ , j ∗ will be incorrectly assigned to... clusters and swapping two right nodes in two different right clusters... clusters and swapping two left nodes in two different left clusters... Y ∗ . By relabeling the left nodes and right nodes, we can always make... algorithm correctly identifies all isolated nodes. ReR call that di = nj...-isolated left nodes i and di < µKR /2 for all isolated left nodes i. On this event, all isolated left nodes are correctly... shows that all isolated right nodes are correctly identified with probability... the left and right isolated nodes are identified by the algorithm... to the left nodes i and i . If the two left nodes i, i are in... )−1 , Sii > µ 2KR for all left nodes i, i from the same left 2 cluster... Sii < µ 2KR for all left nodes i, i from two different left clusters... isolated nodes and left clusters. The proof for the right nodes is... = j=1 Aij Ai j . For two left nodes i, i from two different clusters, we... clusters, and 2) for any (i, i ), (j, j ) ∈ W , the nodes i, i , j, j are all distinct. Then |W | ≥ rKL..., resp.) clusters associated with Y ∗ . The nodes in VL \ (∪rk=1 Ck∗ ) do... are called isolated left nodes. Isolated right nodes are similarly defined. Fix... = 0, ∀j} and Dr+1 := {j : Yij = 0, ∀i}. 2. The left nodes in VL \ Cr+1 are further... Y are identical. Similarly, the right nodes in VR \ Dr+1 are partitioned... considered as (R) the number of nodes in C1∗ that are misclassified... misclassified isolated left (right, resp.) nodes is also upper bounded 51... misclassified nodes. For each Y with d(Y ) = t, the pair (#misclassified isolated left nodes, #misclassified non-isolated left nodes) can take at... )2 . Given these numbers of misclassified nodes, there are at most nL... the identity of these misclassified nodes. Each misclassified non-isolated left... consider the misclassified non-isolated nodes. The number of misclassified non... of the misclassified non-isolated nodes. Each misclassified non-isolated left... the presence of arbitrary outlier nodes. The Annals of Statistics, 43...



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0.08/5
... distribute metadata to random participating nodes. Likewise, users submit requests containing... to retrieve to random participating nodes. The paper presents an overview... iTrust network as the participating nodes or the membership. An iTrust... an iTrust network, some nodes (the source nodes) produce information, and make that information available to other participating nodes. The source nodes produce metadata that describes... metadata to a subset of participating nodes that are chosen at random.... Other nodes (the requesting nodes) request and retrieve information. Such nodes generate requests... to a subset of the participating nodes that are chosen at random... shown in Figure 2. The participating nodes compare the metadata in the... in an SQLite database. Multiple nodes can be installed on a single... multiple virtual Web sites; multiple nodes on a single Web server have... its information, to randomly selected nodes in the network. A. Membership The... randomly selected nodes in the network. One of the nodes has both... and requests to relatively few nodes suffices to achieve a high probability... some of the randomly chosen nodes are subverted or non-operational... easy for a small group of nodes to subvert the iTrust mechanisms... can be referenced across participating nodes. The file path is the... of the metadata list, random nodes in the membership are contacted... statement. The number of random nodes that are selected for metadata... metadata list file by multiple nodes. If a retrieval occurs, the receiving... may be relayed among multiple nodes in the iTrust network. A query... file; it ensures that queried nodes know which node originally sent... HTTP POST statement to random nodes, and each node (both sender..., it relays the query to nodes randomly selected from the membership... displays all of the source nodes with appropriate resource handles. All... user is informed of which nodes have resources matching the query... query the nodes through Web pages. Query results from multiple nodes are... change the membership, add source nodes, distribute metadata, and perform other... from the list. However, multiple nodes are permitted as long as... setup, restore, or reset iTrust nodes easily. Clearing the membership, deleting... all metadata changes to random nodes is also accomplished with a single... nodes to which the metadata are distributed and the number of nodes... than the number of participating nodes in the membership. The search... that all of the participating nodes have the same membership set... that all of the participating nodes have enough memory to store... n nodes, we distribute the metadata to m nodes and the requests to r nodes. The... the metadata to m nodes and the requests to r nodes in an iTrust network with a membership of n nodes. But now... represents the proportion of the n nodes that are operational. In an... network with a membership of n nodes, where x nodes are operational, the probability p that... n = 72 nodes where x = 100%, 80%, and 60% of the participating nodes are... a function of m = r (the number of nodes to which the metadata and... all the nodes to the membership. Once all the nodes are added to the membership, we supply the number of nodes..., and the proportion of operational nodes, to the simulation program. Next..., the program randomly selects the nodes for metdata distribution and distributes... to those nodes. Next, the program randomly selects the nodes for the... requests. If one or more nodes returns a response, there is a match... 72 nodes where 100%, 80%, and 60% of the participating nodes are...%, and 60% of the participating nodes are operational. The lesson we... where a substantial proportion of the nodes are non-operational. VI. R ELATED... nodes for distribution of metadata and requests in a network with 72 nodes where 100% of the nodes are operational. Figure 8. Match probability vs. number of nodes for distribution of metadata and requests in a network with 72 nodes where 80% of the nodes are operational. Figure 9. Match probability vs. number of nodes for distribution of metadata and requests in a network with 72 nodes where 60% of the nodes are operational. the... approach [1], [8], [10], [14] requires the nodes to be organized in an... requires the subscriber nodes and the publisher nodes to find each other... from previous requests. In Freenet, nodes that successfully respond to requests... easy for a group of untrustworthy nodes to conspire together to gather...-to-peer networks of cooperative nodes, that uses directed routing (instead... and publication messages to the nodes. None of the above unstructured... if some of the participating nodes are subverted or non-operational... iTrust system to thousands of nodes and, then, to extrapolate those... is a network in which individual nodes can detect a potential attack, and...



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... exist on multiscale trees of nodes. Each node represents a place holder... point in a time series. The nodes of a tree form a structure which... in Chapter 2. The collection of nodes at each scale represents some... smoothed estimates of all remaining nodes. Despite the di¤erence of.... The tree is a collection of nodes that index information at a given... by branches to exactly q + 1 nodes. The nodes are indexed by ¿ , which denotes the position on the tree. Nodes... the quadtree contains four descendant nodes leading to a …ner description, and... Tree of Order q=2 For two nodes ¿ 1 and ¿ 2 , there is a distance d(¿ 1 ; ¿ 2 ) which... is a partial ordering of the nodes, ¿ , in terms of their distance... to indicate relationships between the nodes. The single upward branch of... applied recursively. In Figure 2-3, three nodes s; w and v are shown, with a parent... well as the two descendant nodes. The pair w and v are used... indexed to correspond to the nodes of a binary tree, as shown... hat transform of support 2n + 1 nodes. Likewise, one can construct nth... - di¤erence equations linking connected nodes at n + 1 adjacent levels of the... one higher and two adjacent nodes. This raises the question of... adjust the R¡1 values for those nodes accordingly. Sets of measurements with.... Let the collection of all nodes, ¿ on the tree be T . ® refers... the collection of ¿ ® and all nodes that descend from it on... state estimates of the descendant nodes, ±^ x¿ ® , and ±^ x¿ ¯ : X C T R¿µ¡1 C±^ x¿ + a¿ b¿ ±^ x¿ + a¿ c¿ x ^¿ µ²M 1 1 y y 0 0 + p (a0¿ ® b¿ ® ay¡1 x¿ ® ¡ p (a0¿ ¯ b¿ ¯ ay... that feature at all ascendant nodes. We de…ne further subsidiary... measurement data from all child nodes. Since information about the measurements... information at each level to nodes above it. When the multiscale... optimal state estimates at all nodes of the tree. 2.4.12 Further... number of ¹¿ as there are nodes on the tree. rx L(x¤ ; ¹¤ ) = rx... in parallel as nodes ¿ ® and ¿ ¯ become the current nodes down their respective... a feasible solution on the descendant nodes. Suppose we discover that an... 86 solution, then all descendant nodes will be at the corresponding...…ned as the collection of nodes of which ¿ is a descendant, must... is satis…ed at all nodes. Suppose x ^¿¯ has a constraint violation for... we can adjust the parent nodes without a¤ecting the remainder of... step is performed for all nodes on the parent branch. Construction... of nodes lower on the tree. A library of high level nodes could... p equations that set the constrained nodes to their speci…ed bounds... branches of the active constraint nodes provides two equations. The top... the equations for the top nodes simultaneously for x ^top and ±^ xtop... within bounds, compute the descendant nodes scaling functions using the Haar... coe¢cient values for the nodes, using the coe¢cients computed... scaling functions for the descendant nodes using Haar reconstruction. (c) If they... violation ii. Adjust the parent nodes so that the sibling scaling... to zero. (d) Repeat (4) for descendant nodes until the zeroth level is... this basic feasible solution. 6. Identify nodes at which superconstraints can be... the term x ^0 includes a contribution from nodes on the left branch of... original equation for the remaining nodes. a¿ b¿ c¿ d¿ = (1 + A¿ ® ) p p = ( 2B¿ ® )¡T Q¡1 ( 2B¿ ® )¡1 (1 + A¿ ® ) ¿ p p ¡1 = ¡( 2B¿® )¡T Q¡1 ¿ ( 2B¿ ® ) (1 ¡ A¿ ® ) X p = C T R¿µ¡1 ±y¿µ ¡ (1 + A¿ ® )( 2B... simultaneous solution of the top nodes’ scaling function and wavelet coe...;¿ ;±e ; dTv;¿ ;±e ; dTw;¿ ;e ; dTv;¿ ;e for all nodes on the tree, where v and... to calculate) for the top nodes. 3.7.1 Propagation of third order statistics... to calculate) for the top nodes. 144 Propagation of third order... left-most nodes on the tree more than the right nodes, and thus the more right nodes in the... the computation of top level nodes, which rely on the inversion... surrounding points than any other nodes on the tree. Hence, the..., and the localised relationship between nodes and their subtrees. This is....m % Produces a sign matrix - + for left nodes, - for rights % This is used...; A.1.9 subtree.m % subtree(n) % This returns the nodes on the subtree of node...))) % This checks for zeroth level nodes s = [n]; else s = [n]; k = 1; steam = 1; % Escape valve while... we don’t want zeroth level nodes here. end; % if A.2 A.2.1 The unconstrained... right descendant % and the parent nodes pN = [0; 1; pN(:)]; 243 % This section... up, % halving the number of nodes at each level. Nlevel = N; 247... nodes at each level node = [(Nlevel+1):Nlevel*2]; % vector positions of these nodes % Matlab allows us to do the nodes as a batch...+xdim))’ ; dxest(1,:) = xest(2,:); % The child nodes are computed using wavelet reconstruction... = subtree(2,lN,rN); % Identifying all nodes on the subtree % below node... node has lam=0, since % child nodes may have bound violations to... right nodes at this point. Find all of the right nodes %\ that... the siblings of the active nodes. if(counter4(length(counter4))==99999...